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Solomon Adler Papers

Creator:
Adler, Solomon, 1901-1989  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet (5 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Printed material
Sketches
Photographs
Notes
Legal records
Drawings
Correspondence
Date:
1916-1980
bulk 1950-1966
Summary:
The papers document independent inventor Solomon Adler's work with sewing machine technology through correspondence, photographs, notes, drawings, sketches, patents, litigation records, and printed materials. The collection provides insight into both an independent inventor's process of invention and Japanese work culture during the post-World War II period.
Scope and Contents:
The papers include correspondence, photographs, notes, drawings, sketches, patents, litigation records, and printed materials, primarily documenting Adler's work with sewing machine technology. The papers provide insight into an independent inventor's process of invention and Japanese work culture during the post-World War II period.

Series 1, Personal Materials, 1920s-1950s and undated consists primarily of high school chemistry and biology notes, business cards, photographs, speeches, and writings of Sol Adler. The photographs contain one black-and-white portrait of Adler, November 1958, and two negatives of him from the nineteen teens; and one scanned copy of a photograph, circa the 1920s of Sol Adler with his children, R. Michael and Diane Zoe Adler. There is a small booklet, Agreement between Manufacturers Machine and Tool Co., Inc., and Amalgamated Machine and Instrument Local No. 475 from 1941. Adler worked for Manufacturers Machine and Tool Co., Inc.

Series 2, Inventions, is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Other, 1919-1980 and undated, and Subseries 2, Sewing Machines, 1938-1962 and undated. Arranged chronologically, both subseries highlight Adler's inventive work. While the primary focus of Adler's invention work was on sewing machines, his interests were broad.

Subseries 2.1, Other Inventions, 1919-1980 and undated, contains documentation in the form of drawings and sketches, photographs, correspondence, and patents. Overall, the documentation is uneven. The inventions include a dividing head (a specialized tool that allows a workpiece to be easily and precisely rotated to preset angles or circular divisions); decorative window treatment; telescoping umbrella; can opener; question/answer machine; correlating device; radio station recording device; receptacle tap; fountain pen; television projection device; combined ash tray and cigarette holder; automatic machine gun; juice blender; thermonuclear idea; apparatus for producing pile fabric; an extensible, retractable and concealable table; and textile machinery.

Only some of Adler's inventions were patented. However, many of his ideas were well documented through drawings or descriptive text. In some instances prototypes were built.

The question and answer machine, 1939, was approximately three feet by four feet and was powered by a battery, the device was intended for educational use by children and adults. It used interchangeable answer cards on a broad range of subjects and informed the user of a correct and wrong answer by lights and a buzzer.

The correlating device, 1942, was designed for automobile use, and it combined driving directions and maps on a roll of paper data mounted on the dashboard. Although patented (US Patent 2,282,843), the device was never manufactured.

The radio station recording device, 1939, was a device to maintain a record of radio stations tuned on a radio receiver during a twenty-four hour period using recording disks.

The receptacle tap (Siphon-It), 1939, was patented (US Patent 2,184,263). The Siphon-It was designed to fit any size bottle, can, or the like containing fluids without removing the bottle cap. The "tap" punctured the bottle cap and was then turned like a screw several times. It allowed the contents under pressure to not lose carbonation and be poured easily.

The combined ash tray and cigarette holder and lighter, 1951, was Adler's only design patent (US Patent Des. 163,984). Purely ornamental, the tray would light and hold a cigarette.

The automatic machine gun, 1952, was conceived of by Adler and his son R. Michael Adler. The drawings and accompanying narrative text detail a method for cooling the gun through the use of an automatically operated gas turbine centrifugal air compressor and a gun of simple design with few parts and capable of an extremely high rate of fire. Adler submitted his drawings and text to the United States Army Ordance Department at the Pentagon, but it was not manufactured.

Adler's thermonuclear fusion proposal, a technical paper written in 1960, was never realized. The paper, titled "Attempt to Utilize the Concentrated Magnetic Field Around a Pinched Plasma Column as the Focal Point for Particle Acceleration," details through text and schematics Adler's ideas about a thermonuclear reactor. Additionally, there is correspondence, journal articles, newspaper articles, and a notebook with notes from other publications and some loose drawings related to thermonuclear issues.

An apparatus for producing pile fabric (US Patent 3,309,252), was patented in 1967. The intention of the apparatus was to create a method for producing carpets and rugs in a fast, practical, and inexpensive way.

Adler's work with non-woven textiles and fabrics (see US Patent 3,250,655) is well documented through correspondence, drawings, notes, fabric samples, and photographs. Adler founded the Adler Process Corporation in the 1960s as a research and development organization specializing in the development of products for domestic and industrial uses. The corporation also built machinery for the commercial production of the products which included pile fabric (such as carpeting), non-woven fabrics, and leather-like material. A prospectus details the "Adler Process."

Method and apparatus for production of pile carpeting and the like (US Patent 3,424,632, 3,592,374, and 3,655,490)

Subseries 2.2, Sewing machines, 1938-1962 and undated, consists primarily of documentation about the development of the Pacesetter sewing machine and its predecessors through correspondence, drawings and sketches, photographs, guide manuals, and promotional materials. Adler constructed skeletal aluminum models to better understand the functions and internal mechanisms of sewing machines. Between 1940 and 1948, he designed and constructed a sewing machine prototype, which he called his "Parent Machine." The Parent Machine would become known as the Pacesetter. Seven patents were awarded for the novel mechanisms contained within this prototype (US Patent 2,561,643), the most notable being for a compact sewing machine that could expand to a full-sized machine. Additional sewing machine inventions include the needleless sewing machine; a zig-zag sewing machine, and an attachment for a zig-zag sewing machine (US Patent 3,016,030).

While working as an engineer for the Brother International Corporation in Japan in the early 1950s, Adler developed the Pacesetter sewing machine. This portable machine was designed to meet the rapidly growing popularity of multiple decorative and embroidery patterns. A selector dial, which Adler called the "Wishing Dial," controlled sixteen internal cams, multiple cam selectors and followers to automatically sew thirty different basic decorative stitch patterns. Since the Pacesetter could sew both zigzag and straight stitches, varying the width and length of the basic patterns made it possible to create thousands of decorative variations. Adler introduced the Pacesetter sewing machine at the Independent Sewing Machine Dealers Show in New York, July 18, 1955.

Series 3: Brother International Corporation, 1954-1959 and undated

Started in 1908 by Kanekichi Yasui, the Yasui Sewing Machine Company manufactured and repaired sewing machines. The company was later renamed Yasui Brother Sewing Machine Company by Masayoshi Yasui, the eldest of Kanekichi's ten children, who inherited the company. The new name reflected the involvement and spirit of cooperation of other "brothers" in the Yasui family.

In 1934, the Yasui brothers liquidated the Yasui Brother Sewing Machine Company and created the Nippon Sewing Machine Company in Nagoya, Japan. Nippon emerged in response to a Japanese sewing machine market dominated by imported products, and it began mass producing industrial sewing machines. In 1941, Brother Sales, Ltd. was established as a sales outlet for the Japanese market, and in 1954 Brother International Corporation (BIC) was created as an exporting company with offices established in New York City. The company actively promoted exporting in advance of other Japanese companies.

Adler joined BIC in 1954 as a consultant for their product design and development work. This work was previously done in-house by design and engineering staff, so Adler, an American, was charting new territory. The materials in this series consist of corporate histories, and annual report, correspondence, product literature, conference materials, and notebooks maintained by Adler. The latter constitutes the bulk of the material along with the correspondence.

The "conference" materials document a meeting Adler attended, presumably in Japan in 1957. The file contains detailed notes about product marketing and production factors. A flow chart for "product coordinating factors" outlines the motivations, idea sources, management control, and execution of an idea generally.

The correspondence, 1954-1958, consists of letters and inter-company communications (memorandum), patents and drawings between Sol Adler, Max Hugel and the legal firm of, Kane, Dalsmier and Kane of New York. The correspondence relates almost exclusively to patenting matters, especially by Adler and legal matters involving Singer Sewing Manufacturing Company alleging that Brother International infringed on certain Singer-owned patents.

The notebooks of Solomon Adler, approximately 1951-1958, consists primarily of materials documenting Adler's work in Japan on sewing machines. The materials were assembled by Adler and titled "notebook." Some of the materials are three hole punched (indicating they may have been in a three-ring notebook) and are both handwritten and typescript. Also included are chronologies of his work; translations of Japanese words into English; drawings in pencil on tracing paper; sketches in pencil on scrap paper and letterhead; detailed notes about mechanisms and methods of sewing machine operation; business cards; comparative data for sewing machines; and correspondence.

Of note is the "digest" or chronology of events from 1958 to 1959 maintained by Adler to detail the alleged patent infringement of BIC on Singer Sewing machine patents. The digest also notes the value, author of a document, to whom it was sent, date, and a brief description. Adler created a ranking system for his digest, assigning different values, very important, urgent, important, and general. He also compiled a chart of competitor sewing machines by brand name. Many of the Japanese documents--patents and drawings--bear Adler's "chop" or rubber stamp with Japanese characters for his surname.

The Litigation Materials, 1952-1961 and undated, consists of documents (numbered exhibits) assembled by Adler for use in litigation against Brother International Corporation (BIC). The exhibits were used as documentary evidence in court, and the materials are primarily typescript notes and correspondence, newspaper clippings, articles, technical drawings by Adler, patents, photographs and some product literature detailing aspects of the BIC sewing machines.

In 1958, Singer Sewing Machine Company filed a lawsuit against Nippon Sewing Machine Company for patent infringement by BIC's Pacesetter and Select-O-Matic sewing machines. Adler, on behalf of Nippon, conducted extensive patent research into the allegations, working with BIC attorneys in New York as well as creating new sewing machine designs to overcome Singer's claims. In 1959, Singer filed another lawsuit alleging that Nippon was violating United States customs laws by shipping automatic zigzag sewing machines to the United States, which were alleged to infringe on Singer patents. Correspondence related to this patent infringement can be found in Series 3: Brother International Corporation.

Adler returned to the United States in April of 1959 as the representative for Nippon and the Japanese sewing machine industry to help prepare the case and act as a consultant. BIC and Singer representatives appeared before the United States Tariff Commission (USTC). Adler officially testified on behalf of BIC, explaining the three angle cam structure difference between the Singer #401 sewing machine and imported Japanese sewing machines. Adler's testimony was successful, and with patent problems resolved, Adler resigned from BIC in July of 1959 and commenced a long negotiation with the company for financial compensation for his invention work.

Series 5, Publications, 1953-1967, consists of select issues of theNew Japan Sewing Machine News, which followed developments in the Japanese sewing machine industry and other publications featuring articles and brief pieces about sewing machines in general.

References

(http://welcome.brother.com/hk-en/about-us/history.html last accessed on March 24, 2011)
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: Personal Materials, 1920-1950s and undated

Series 2: Inventions, 1938-1980

Subseries 1: Other, 1938-1980

Subseries 2: Sewing, 1938-1962 and undated

Series 3: Brother International Corporation, 1952-1961

Series 4: Publications, 1953-1967
Biographical / Historical:
Solomon "Sol" Adler is probably best known for his sewing machine inventions, but his portfolio of work also includes ideas and patents for a fountain pen, a window treatment, a receptacle tap, a telescoping umbrella, an ashtray, a retractable table, and jewelry designs. Adler wrote fiction as well (mostly short stories) that reflected his experiences during the early 1900s in New York City. He filled pages with themes on social protest, radicalism, mobs, unions, poverty, and sweatshop operators. In 1958 Adler wrote about theories of nuclear physics, noting, "Indeed a very bold attempt and definitely a long way from sewing machines." Adler's flow of ideas was constant, and he sought to express them constantly.

Sol Adler was born on July 8, 1901, [Russian?] on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, one of Isaac and Mindel Adler's five children. Isaac was a tailor, so sewing machines were part of Sol's life from the beginning. As a young man, Adler apprenticed in machine shops, honing his skills until he became an expert machinist and toolmaker; these skills eventually allowed him to build the machines he visualized. Adler's design drawings show his precision as a draftsman and engineer (he attended the City College of New York) and provide good insight into the drawing abilities that he later used in preparing patent drawings. Adler also enjoyed metalworking. His home workshop boasted a geared lathe, tilling head machine, drill press, bench grinder, and an assorted hand tools.

Adler's work on sewing machines began in the late 1930s with tinkering with his sister-in-law Bess's treadle-operated Singer machine. Bess wanted a lightweight, motorized sewing machine that had enough space between the frame and the needle for large projects such as quilts. Using his own basement machine shop, Adler began building simple frameworks for sewing machines to understand better the relationships between the parts and their functions. Adler's first sewing machine (which he dubbed the "parent machine") earned U.S. Patent 2,561,643, issued in 1951. The machine was a full-size home machine, with a concealed motor and power cord that could also expand into a commercial-size machine. Six subsequent patents for subassemblies were derived from the "parent machine" over the next several years.

During the Second World War, Adler worked for Manufacturing Methods Technology (MM&T) as a development engineer and experimental machine shop supervisor.

Analyzing the evolving U.S. domestic sewing machine market gave Adler ideas for further inventions, refining the machines and adding new features. Unfortunately, success was elusive; his machine with zigzag and straight-stitch capability was rejected by several U.S. and European sewing machine manufacturers. But in 1954, Adler met Max Hugel, president of the Asiatic Commerce Corporation of New York, later known as Brother International Corporation (BIC), a subsidiary of the Nippon Company. Nippon wanted to solve certain design and operational problems it was having in developing a zigzag sewing machine for sale in the United States. Adler joined BIC, moved to Japan, and succeeded in helping correct the design issues. Adler named the machine the "Select-O-Matic" because by turning a few knobs, an operator could select one of the six patterns that the machine produced.

Adler stayed with BIC until 1959, and worked on a variety of sewing machines, including an automatic zigzag machine and the versatile "Pacesetter," which was unveiled in the United States to great acclaim at the Sewing Machine Show in New York City on July 18, 1955 (a version of the Pacesetter is still sold by Brother). Additionally, he worked on a line of industrial and domestic sewing machines, home washing machines, home knitting machines, and other small appliances. Adler earned several Japanese patents for his work.

Among Adler's writings is a pronouncement of his passion for invention: "When an idea is conceived by an inventor, it never leaves him in peace, it possesses him day and night until it is expressed, after which he enjoys a sense of relief and accomplishment."

Adler married Fay (neé Kagan) in 1928. They had two children, Ralph Michael Adler and Diane Zoe Adler. Adler died on May 31, 1989 at the age of 88.

Issued United States Patents:

Receptacle tap (2,184,263)

Correlating device (2,284,843)

Sewing machine (2,561,643)

Sewing machine feed (2,473,934)

Bobbin winder for sewing machine (2,455,638)

Extension leaf for sewing machines (2,464,838)

Sewing machine feed (2,473,934)

Threading device (2,516,171)

Sewing machine pressure bar (2,554,970)

Sewing machine needle bar operating mechanism (2,554,971)

Sewing machine (2,561,643)

Sewing machine (2,709,978)

Attachment for zigzag sewing machines (3,016,030)

Sewing machine (3,053,207) assigned to Nippon Sewing Machine Manufacturing Company

Sewing machine (3,055,325) assigned to Nippon Sewing Machine Manufacturing Company

Method and apparatus for making non-woven fabric (3,236,711)assigned to Adler Process Corporation

Method for producing non-woven fabric (3,250,655)

Method and apparatus for producing pile fabric (3,309,252) assigned to Adler Process Corporation

Method and apparatus for production of pile fabric and the like (3,424,632) assigned to Adler Process Corporation

Combined ashtray, cigarette holder and lighter (Des. 163,984)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Home and Community Life (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) holds artifacts related to this collection, including several sewing machine prototypes, the Siphon-It and the combination ashtray, lighter and cigarette holder. See Accession numbers: 2009.0118 and 2009.0114.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by R. Michael Adler and Diane Zoe Adler, September, 2009. Additonal materials were donated by R. Michael Adler in 2012.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sewing machines  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Printed material
Sketches
Photographs -- 20th century
Notes
Legal records
Drawings -- 20th century
Correspondence
Citation:
Solomon Adler Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1157
See more items in:
Solomon Adler Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1157
Online Media:

Diana Davies photographs

Photographer:
Davies, Diana, 1938-  Search this
Gahr, David  Search this
Performer:
Bread and Puppet Theater  Search this
Everly Brothers  Search this
New Lost City Ramblers  Search this
Pentangle (Musical group)  Search this
The Pennywhistlers (Musical group)  Search this
The Young Tradition (Musical group)  Search this
Andersen, Eric  Search this
Bikel, Theodore  Search this
Brand, Oscar  Search this
Cameron, John A.  Search this
Chandler, Len  Search this
Collier, Jimmy  Search this
Collins, Judy, 1939-  Search this
Fuller, Jesse  Search this
Gerrard, Alice, 1934-  Search this
Guthrie, Arlo  Search this
Hartford, John  Search this
Hjorth, Ole  Search this
Joplin, Janis  Search this
Kennedy, Norman, 1934-  Search this
Kershaw, Doug  Search this
Killen, Louis  Search this
Kirkpatrick, Frederick Douglass  Search this
Koerner, John  Search this
McGhee, Brownie, 1915-1996  Search this
Mitchell, Joni  Search this
Monroe, Bill, 1911-1996  Search this
Ochs, Phil  Search this
Perkins, Carl  Search this
Proffitt, Frank, Jr., 1946-2005  Search this
Rachell, Yank  Search this
Raim, Ethel  Search this
Ramsey, Frederic, 1915-1995  Search this
Reagon, Bernice Johnson, 1942-  Search this
Rinzler, Ralph  Search this
Sainte-Marie, Buffy  Search this
Seeger, Mike, 1933-2009  Search this
Stabi, Björn  Search this
Sykes, Roosevelt, 1906-1983  Search this
Taylor, James  Search this
Traum, Artie  Search this
Traum, Happy  Search this
Waters, Muddy, 1915-1983  Search this
Watson, Doc  Search this
Watson, Merle  Search this
White, Elaine, (Vocalist)  Search this
Wiseman, Mac  Search this
Names:
Newport Folk Festival  Search this
Philadelphia Folk Festival  Search this
Asch, Moses  Search this
Chandler, Nancy  Search this
Dunson, Josh, 1941-  Search this
King, Coretta Scott, 1927-2006  Search this
Silber, Irwin, 1925-2010  Search this
Young, Izzy, 1928-  Search this
Musician:
Bosco, John  Search this
Extent:
3.83 Cubic feet (8 binders containing contact sheets, slides, and prints; 7 boxes (8.5"x10.75"x2.5") of 35 mm negatives; 2 binders of 35 mm and 120 format negatives; and 1 box of 11 oversize prints.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Contact sheets
Slides (photographs)
Black-and-white negatives
Photographic prints
Place:
New York (N.Y.)
Saint Simons Island (Ga. : Island)
Date:
1963-2009
Summary:
The Diana Davies photographs consist of images taken by Diana Davies at various stages of her career. Locations include the Festival of American Folklife, the Newport Folk Festival, the Philadelphia Folk Festival, the Poor People's Campaign, various peace and protest marches and outdoor performances, New York City, and the Georgia Sea Islands. The collection includes contact sheets, negatives, photographic prints, and slides. Original photographs, negatives, and color slides taken by Diana Davies. Materials date from 1963-2009. Bulk dates: Newport Folk Festival, 1963-1969, 1987, 1992; Philadelphia Folk Festival, 1967-1968, 1987.
Scope and Contents:
The Diana Davies photographs, 1963-2009, consist of black and white negatives, contact sheets and prints, as well as color slides and negatives. The bulk of materials depict major festivals and protest movements (including the Poor People's March of 1968) documented by Diana Davies (located in Series 1: Newport Folk Festival, Series 2: Philadelphia Folk Festival, Series 6: Festival of American Folklife, and Series 11: Social Justice). Also well-represented are non-festival performances (in locations such as clubs, concert halls, and homes), recording sessions, and other music-related images, mainly of notable figures in the American folk music revival (located in Series 3: Broadside Magazine, Series 4: Sing Out! Magazine Concerts, Series 5: Miscellaneous Concerts and People, Series 7: Recording Sessions, Series 8: Instruction Book Shots, and Series 9: Jazz, Blues, and Salsa Musicians). Series 10: Georgia Sea Islands consists of photographs depicting the culture, environment, and daily life of these coastal islands in 1966. Series 12: New York City Scenes contains photographs taken on the street depicting everyday life in NYC in the 1960s and 1970s. The collection also contains related papers in Series 13: Miscellaneous Papers and Correspondence.
Arrangement note:
Each item in the Diana Davies Photographs has been assigned an accession number, and like materials have been put together such as the Newport Folk Festival photographs, in a chronological sequence as much as possible. Materials in the three more recent donation batches (1998, 2004, and 2006) were numbered and integrated into the collection. In some series, the accession numbers are in numerical order, and in others, the numbers are random because like items with different number sequences were pulled together in a series for subject coherence. The best way to find occurrences of a particular subject is to use the ctrl+F function. Please consult the archivists if you have any questions about the collection contents.

Contact sheets, slides, and prints arranged in 8 binders; negatives and oversize prints are stored separately.

Arranged in 14 series:

Series 1: Newport Folk Festival

Series 2: Philadelphia Folk Festival

Series 3: Broadside Magazine

Series 4: -- Sing Out! -- Magazine Concerts

Series 5: Miscellaneous Concerts and People

Series 6: Festival of American Folklife

Series 7: Recording Sessions

Series 8: Instruction Book Shots

Series 9: Jazz, Blues, and Salsa Musicians

Series 10: Georgia Sea Islands

Series 11: Social Justice

Series 12: New York City Scenes

Series 13: Miscellaneous Papers and Correspondence

Series 14: Oversize Materials
Biographical/Historical note:
Diana Davies is a well-known photographer of folk performers and festivals. Davies photographed the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in its earlier years. Born in 1938, Davies grew up in Maine, the Catskills, New York City, and Boston. Her grandparents were local union organizers and Debs socialists; one grandfather was a gandy dancer with the railroad, and her grandmother was a textile worker in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania. Davies finds that her family background was later expressed in her own activist efforts.

Davies left high school at 16, and worked sweeping out coffeehouses, which gave her the opportunity to listen to music while she worked. She became interested in theater and music. In Greenwich Village, she began doing some sound technician work, and then got interested in photography. She taught herself how to develop and print photographs in a darkroom, and began photographing in theaters, shooting from behind the scenes. Her theater photos are at Smith College in Northampton, where she presently lives. In the early 1960s, she began working with the editors of Broadside Magazine, Sis Cunningham and Gordon Friesen. She developed an interest in human rights work, which grew from her contact with Sis and Gordon, and also her own family background. She also worked as a photographer in a wide range of settings, including night clubs, weddings, and doing portrait photography. This led her to work for major national and international media including the New York Times, covering such events as the war in Biafra, and traveling to Mexico, Cuba, and Portugal on assignment.

Davies' folk photographs represent about one-quarter of her body of work; her other major photographic work includes the Civil Rights Movement, the Peace Movement, and theater. Davies began photographing at the Newport Folk Festival in 1964, which she covered for a number of years. She knew Ralph Rinzler, and found him a vibrant, alive person excited by all aspects of culture. He introduced her to Bessie Jones from the Georgia Sea Islands, and in 1966 she made a photographic journey to the islands. Her work from this trip is included in the collection. Davies has also been a musician. She became involved with the punk rock movement of the 1970s, and felt that there was a connection between the hard-hitting songs from the punk world and the songs being published in Broadside Magazine. In 1975, she became part of a folk/punk women's band in Boston, and later moved to Western Massachusetts. In addition to being a photographer and musician, Davies is also a writer. She wrote a play entitled "The Witch Papers" in 1980, which was produced in Boston and other locations. The play was a vehicle for her human rights activism, comparing the technology of inquisition with labor sweatshops. In 1998, her play "The War Machine" was produced in Amherst, Mass. She lives in Northampton, and enjoys and participates in street performance, which she describes as the "most essentially communicative stuff you can come up with."
General note:
All contact sheets from the collection are digitized and accessible through this finding aid. Series-level slideshows accessible through this finding aid represent a small sampling from the collection.
Provenance:
The Smithsonian Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections acquired portions of the Diana Davies Photograph Collection in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when Ms. Davies photographed for the Festival of American Folklife. More materials came to the Archives circa 1989 or 1990. Archivist Stephanie Smith visited her in 1998 and 2004, and brought back additional materials which Ms. Davies wanted to donate to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. These two more recent donations of additional photographs (contact sheets, prints, and slides) consisted of documentation of the Newport Folk Festival, the Philadelphia Folk Festival, the Poor People's March on Washington, the Civil Rights Movement, the Georgia Sea Islands, and miscellaneous personalities of the American folk revival. In a letter dated 12 March 2002, Ms. Davies gave full discretion to the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage to grant permission for both internal and external use of her photographs, with the provison that her work be credited in any use.
Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.

Permission for the duplication or publication of items in the Diana Davies Photograph Collection must be obtained from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections.
Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Please contact the archives staff for further information.
Topic:
Peace movements  Search this
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Washington, D.C., 1963  Search this
Civil rights -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Contact sheets
Slides (photographs)
Black-and-white negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Diana Davies photographs, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.DAVIE
See more items in:
Diana Davies photographs
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-cfch-davie
Online Media:

United Garment Workers of America Notebook

Advertiser:
United Garment Workers of America  Search this
Maker:
Bastian Brothers Company  Search this
United Garment Workers of America  Search this
Physical Description:
cellulose nitrate (overall material)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 2 1/2 in x 5 in; 6.35 cm x 12.7 cm
Object Name:
Notebook with Celluloid Cover
Place made:
United States: New York, Rochester
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1908
Subject:
Science  Search this
Related Publication:
Sewer, Andy; Allison, David; Liebhold, Peter; Davis, Nancy; Franz, Kathleen G.. American Enterprise: A History of Business in America
Credit Line:
Dadie and Norman B. Perlov
ID Number:
2006.0098.1351
Catalog number:
2006.0098.1351
Accession number:
2006.0098
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Work
American Enterprise
Exhibition:
American Enterprise
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-002e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1344821
Online Media:

Sweatshop (mural study, Department of Justice Building, Washington, DC)

Artist:
George Biddle, born Philadelphia, PA 1885-died Croton-on-Hudson, NY 1973  Search this
Medium:
tempera on board
Dimensions:
39 x 30 1/2 in. (99.1 x 77.5 cm.)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1935-1936
Topic:
Figure group  Search this
Allegory\other\survival  Search this
Allegory\civic\injustice  Search this
Occupation\industry\textiles  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Transfer from the General Services Administration
Object number:
1974.28.372
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Painting and Sculpture
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7305026f4-1fa7-4465-8192-f10a29c24991
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1974.28.372

Sweatshop

Artist:
William Gropper, born New York City 1897-died Manhasset, NY 1977  Search this
Publisher:
Contemporary Print Group  Search this
Printer:
George C. Miller, born New York City 1894-died Burlington, VT 1965  Search this
Medium:
lithograph on paper
Dimensions:
sheet: 11 3/8 x 16 1/8 in. (28.9 x 40.9 cm)
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Date:
1934
Topic:
Figure group  Search this
Occupation\craft\textile worker  Search this
State of being\evil\cruelty  Search this
Architecture Interior\industry\factory  Search this
Object\other\sewing tool  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase
Copyright:
© 1934, William Gropper
Object number:
1976.97
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk70108d7ac-53f6-40c1-b0ad-f2d2b660c01e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1976.97

Emma Goldman

Artist:
Margrethe Mather, 1886 - 1952  Search this
Sitter:
Emma Goldman, 27 Jun 1869 - 14 May 1940  Search this
Medium:
Platinum print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 11 x 7.6cm (4 5/16 x 3")
Mount: 25 x 18.4cm (9 13/16 x 7 1/4")
Mat: 45.7 x 35.6cm (18 x 14")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1915
Topic:
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses  Search this
Emma Goldman: Female  Search this
Emma Goldman: Education\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
Emma Goldman: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Social Reformer  Search this
Emma Goldman: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Feminist  Search this
Emma Goldman: Literature\Editor\Journal  Search this
Emma Goldman: Communications\Publicist  Search this
Emma Goldman: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Anarchist  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2008.84
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4b3497ccc-eb7f-4403-9561-2e4000a0867e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2008.84

Eleanor Roosevelt

Artist:
Clara Sipprell, 31 Oct 1885 - 27 Dec 1975  Search this
Sitter:
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, 11 Oct 1884 - 7 Nov 1962  Search this
Medium:
Gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
Image: 24.8 × 20 cm (9 3/4 × 7 7/8")
Sheet: 25.5 × 20.3 cm (10 1/16 × 8")
Mat: 55.9 × 40.7 cm (22 × 16")
Type:
Photograph
Place:
United States\New York\Kings\New York
Date:
1949
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Necklace\Pearl  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Ring  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Watch\Wrist watch  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Female  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Literature\Writer  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Education\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Activist  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Politics and Government\First Lady\First Lady of US  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Humanitarian  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; bequest of Phyllis Fenner
Object number:
NPG.82.158
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm46e99f7db-cfd9-4c70-87db-dcecc0576328
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.82.158

Frances Perkins

Artist:
William Sharp, 1900 - 1961  Search this
Sitter:
Frances Perkins, 10 Apr 1880 - 14 May 1965  Search this
Medium:
Ink and pencil on paper
Dimensions:
Sheet: 40.6 × 26 cm (16 × 10 1/4")
Mat: 71.1 × 55.9 cm (28 × 22")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
c. 1935
Topic:
Costume\Jewelry\Necklace  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses\Pince-nez  Search this
Frances Perkins: Female  Search this
Frances Perkins: Literature\Writer  Search this
Frances Perkins: Education\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
Frances Perkins: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Social Reformer  Search this
Frances Perkins: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of Labor  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.87.232
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4923ff18c-4c99-4ab8-a10e-223dd3b8844b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.87.232

Eleanor Roosevelt

Artist:
Lotte Johanna Alexandra Jacobi, 17 Aug 1896 - 6 May 1990  Search this
Sitter:
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, 11 Oct 1884 - 7 Nov 1962  Search this
Medium:
Gevalux print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 14.6 × 11.3 cm (5 3/4 × 4 7/16")
Mount: 17.6 × 12.6 cm (6 15/16 × 4 15/16")
Mat: 45.7 x 35.6 cm (18 x 14")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1944
Topic:
Costume\Jewelry\Necklace\Pearl  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Female  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Literature\Writer  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Education\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Activist  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Politics and Government\First Lady\First Lady of US  Search this
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Humanitarian  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.85.81
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© The Lotte Jacobi Collection, The University of New Hampshire.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm43bb091d7-03e7-410f-bb35-b037fcc6af36
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.85.81

101 Dalmatians Haitian Pajamas

Maker:
Disney  Search this
Physical Description:
fabric (overall material)
cotton (overall material)
red (shirt color)
red (pant color)
polyester (overall material)
acrylic (overall material)
white (shirt color)
Measurements:
shirt: 20 in x 20 in x 3/4 in; 50.8 cm x 50.8 cm x 1.905 cm
pants: 31 1/2 in x 15 in x 3/4 in; 80.01 cm x 38.1 cm x 1.905 cm
Object Name:
pajamas
Place made:
Haiti
Related Publication:
Sewer, Andy; Allison, David; Liebhold, Peter; Davis, Nancy; Franz, Kathleen G.. American Enterprise: A History of Business in America
Credit Line:
Gift of National Labor Committee
ID Number:
2013.0150.01
Catalog number:
2013.0150.01
2013.0150.01a
2013.0150.01b
Accession number:
2013.0150
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Production and Manufacturing
Industry & Manufacturing
Work
American Enterprise
Sweatshops
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-2553-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1330028
Online Media:

Sweatshops Are Yucky Button

Maker:
National Labor Committee  Search this
Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
red; black (overall color)
Measurements:
overall: 1/4 in x 2 1/4 in; x .635 cm x 5.715 cm
Object Name:
promotional button
Date made:
1970 - 1999
ID Number:
2013.0038.58
Catalog number:
2013.0038.58
Accession number:
2013.0038
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Production and Manufacturing
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-d948-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1445565
Online Media:

Rally Against Sweatshops!

Referenced:
Harvard University  Search this
Physical Description:
black; orange (overall color)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 11 in x 8 1/2 in; 27.94 cm x 21.59 cm
Object Name:
Poster
Date made:
1998
ID Number:
2003.0112.04
Accession number:
2003.0112
Catalog number:
2003.0112.04
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Labor History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-69d7-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1197533

No Harvard Sweatshops!

Referenced:
Harvard University  Search this
Physical Description:
black; pink (overall color)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 11 in x 8 1/2 in; 27.94 cm x 21.59 cm
Object Name:
Poster
Date made:
1998
ID Number:
2003.0112.05
Accession number:
2003.0112
Catalog number:
2003.0112.05
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Labor History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-69d8-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1197538

How can we make sure Harvard apparel is not made in sweatshops?

Referenced:
Harvard University  Search this
Physical Description:
red; black (overall color)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8 1/2 in x 11 in; 21.59 cm x 27.94 cm
Object Name:
Poster
Date made:
1998
ID Number:
2003.0112.08
Accession number:
2003.0112
Catalog number:
2003.0112.08
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Labor History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-6bb2-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1197541

Your job or your Life

Maker:
National Mobilization Against Sweatshops  Search this
Physical Description:
blue; white (overall color)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8 3/4 in x 7 in; 22.225 cm x 17.78 cm
Object Name:
Brochure
Date made:
1997
Subject:
Sweatshop  Search this
ID Number:
2002.0359.04
Accession number:
2002.0359
Catalog number:
2002.0359.04
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Labor History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-4edb-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1192675

End child Labor and Sweat Shop Abuse

Maker:
National Labor Committee  Search this
Physical Description:
black; red; white (overall color)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8 1/2 in x 3 1/2 in; 21.59 cm x 8.89 cm
Object Name:
Brochure
Date made:
10-04-97
Subject:
Sweatshop  Search this
ID Number:
2002.0359.05
Accession number:
2002.0359
Catalog number:
2002.0359.05
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Labor History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-57e1-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1192715

The Kathie Lee Club

Depicted:
Gifford, Kathie Lee  Search this
Maker:
National Mobilization Against Sweatshops  Search this
Physical Description:
white; black (overall color)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8 1/2 in x 3 3/4 in; 21.59 cm x 9.525 cm
Object Name:
Brochure
Date made:
10-97
Subject:
Sweatshop  Search this
ID Number:
2002.0359.06
Accession number:
2002.0359
Catalog number:
2002.0359.06
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Labor History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-58d4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1192721

Welcome to the U.S.A. The United Sweatshops of America

Maker:
National Mobilization Against Sweatshops  Search this
Physical Description:
black; white (overall color)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8 1/2 in x 3 3/4 in; 21.59 cm x 9.525 cm
Object Name:
Brochure
Date made:
1997
ID Number:
2002.0359.07
Accession number:
2002.0359
Catalog number:
2002.0359.07
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Labor History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-5b8b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1192727

The Kathie Lee Club Nomination Form

Sponsor:
Gifford, Kathie Lee  Search this
Maker:
Kathie Lee Club Nominations Committee  Search this
Physical Description:
black; white (overall color)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 11 in x 8 1/2 in; 27.94 cm x 21.59 cm
Object Name:
Form, Membership
Date made:
1997
Subject:
Sweatshops  Search this
ID Number:
2002.0359.08
Accession number:
2002.0359
Catalog number:
2002.0359.08
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Labor History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-48d2-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1193159

National Mobilization Against Sweatshops

Maker:
National Mobilization Against Sweatshops  Search this
Physical Description:
black; white (overall color)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8 1/2 in x 11 in; 21.59 cm x 27.94 cm
Object Name:
Membership Statement
Date made:
1997
Subject:
Sweatshops  Search this
ID Number:
2002.0359.09
Accession number:
2002.0359
Catalog number:
2002.0359.09
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, Labor History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-4b3b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1193223

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