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Mr. Wizard Papers

Donor:
Mr. Wizard Studios (Firm)  Search this
Mr. Wizard Studios (Firm)  Search this
Creator:
Herbert, Don (Donald Jeffry), 1917-2007  Search this
Names:
Mr. Wizard  Search this
Extent:
26 Cubic feet (57 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Television programs
Storyboards
Photographs
Research
Books
Scripts (documents)
Speeches
Contracts
Videocassettes
Dvds
Slides (photographs)
Notes
Awards
Scrapbooks
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1906-2008
bulk 1951-1995
Summary:
The collection documents, through printed materials, photographs, audio and moving image, Don Herbert's career as a science educator under the persona of "Mr. Wizard" from 1951 until the 1990s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the career of science educator Don Herbert, who created and hosted child-oriented television programs on science subjects in which he assumed the persona of Mr. Wizard. In addition to a documentation about his early personal life, the collection also documents his Watch Mr. Wizard television show as well as his other television, radio, and educational activities.

The collection includes correspondence, contracts, writings, publications, newspaper clippings, speeches; awards, photographs; episode files relating to Watch Mr. Wizard and other educational programming, moving image, and audio recordings.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1906-2007

Series 2: Awards, 1948-2000

Series 3: Speeches, 1966-1994

Series 4: Publications/Writings, 1966-2004

Series 5: Newspaper Articles, 1944-2007

Series 6: Educational Programs/Projects, 1951-2008

Subseries 6.1: It's a Curious Thing, 1951, 1954

Subseries 6.2: Watch Mr. Wizard, 1954-1989

Subseries 6.3: General Electric Theater, 1956-1958

Subseries 6.4: Instructor Magazine, 1964-1965

Subseries 6.5: Experiment, 1963-2003

Subseries 6.6: Silence of Science, 1966

Subseries 6.7: CBS National Science Test, 1967

Subseries 6.8: General Electric, 1974-1976

Subseries 6.9: Mr. Wizard Collection...Fun Things, circa 1975

Subseries 6.10: Mr. Wizard Close-up, 1968, 1975

Subseries 6.11: Challenge with Mr. Wizard, 1976

Subseries 6.12: Science Twenty with Mr. Wizard, 1969-1974

Subseries 6.13: How About..., 1977-1989

Subseries 6.14: Mr. Wizard's Whadda Ya Know Show, circa 1981

Subseries 6.15: Correspondent Science News, circa 1987

Subseries 6.16: Just a Minute from Wizard, 1988

Subseries 6.17: Teacher to Teacher, 1993-2004

Subseries 6.18: Mr. Wizard's World, 1971-2004

Subseries 6.19: Mr. Wizard's Studio, 1990-1992

Subseries 6.20: Mr. Wizard Institute, undated

Subseries 6.21: Fan Mail, 1952-2007

Series 7: Photographs, 1951-2001

Series 8: Audio Visual Materials, 1951-2004

Subseries 8.1: Supplemental Documentation, 1972-2004

Subseries 8.2: Moving Image, 1951-2004

Subseries 8.3: Audio, 1966, 1977
Biographical / Historical:
Donald Herbert Kemske (1917-2007) was the creator and host of Watch Mr. Wizard (1951–1965), Mr. Wizard (1971–1972), Mr. Wizard's World (1983–1990), and other educational television programs for children devoted to science and technology. He also produced many short video programs about science and authored several popular books about science for children. So important was Mr. Wizard to scientific education on television that author Marcel LaFollette featured his photo on the cover of her book, Science on American Television: A History, University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Don Herbert was born Donald Herbert Kemske in Waconia, Minnesota on July 10, 1917. He was one of three children (sisters Betty and Dorothy) born to Herbert Kemske and Lydia Kemske (nee Poeppel). He officially changed his name in 1940 to Donald Jeffry Herbert. Herbert graduated from LaCrosse State Normal College in 1940 with a Bachelor of Science degree. In 1942, Herbert volunteered for the U.S. Army Air Corps and in 1943 began training as an aviation cadet and then pilot. During World War II, Herbert served in the 461 Bomb Group and 767 Bomb Squadron in Europe. He was discharged from the military service on July 29, 1945 as a captain and had earned the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal. After the war, Herbert worked at a radio station in Chicago and acted in children's programs, including It's Your Life (1949). During this time Herbert developed the idea of Mr. Wizard. In 1939, Herbert married Maraleita Dutton (1923-1995) and the couple adopted three children: Jeffrey (1954); Jay (1955); and Jill (1960). He later divorced Maraleita Dutton and married Norma Nix Kasell (1918-2010) in 1972.

Premiering on March 3, 1951 on WNBQ, a 14-station network in Chicago, Herbert's Watch Mr. Wizard differed considerably from earlier attempts at scientific education on television. Those shows were either very technical, like the Johns Hopkins Science Review, or used magic tricks and comedy to hold viewers' attention, like ABC's Science Circus and CBS' Mr. I. Magination. From the beginning, Herbert planned a serious, informative show for children, rather than their parents. Even though he had only minimal scientific training in college—he had been an English major at La Crosse State Normal College in Wisconsin—in his persona as Mr. Wizard, Herbert conveyed a sense of authority and expertise.

The show, broadcast live, was carefully scripted, meticulously researched, and smooth-flowing. Each week, Mr. Wizard—described by LaFollette as a "nonthreatening, easygoing, intelligent man with a smiling face" in shirtsleeves and tie (and the occasional lab coat)—carefully guided his youthful assistants through simple experiments. Using ordinary household items such as eggs, balloons, milk bottles, coffee cans, and knitting needles, Herbert explained larger scientific principles like gravity, magnetism, and oxidation. Although seemingly complex, the experiments actually were simple enough to be re-created by his young viewers in the classroom or at home.

Herbert's winning combination of personality, grasp of science, and use of ordinary objects made Mr. Wizard a hit with viewers and made a lasting impression on science education in America. As LaFollette writes, the program "enjoyed consistent praise, awards, and high ratings throughout its history. At its peak, Watch Mr. Wizard drew audiences in the millions, but its impact was far wider. By 1956, it had prompted the establishment of more than five thousand Mr. Wizard science clubs, with an estimated membership greater than one hundred thousand." After over 500 shows over fourteen and a half years, NBC abruptly canceled Watch Mr. Wizard in 1965. The last program under contract with NBC aired on June 27, 1965.

From 1954 to 1962, Herbert, appearing as Mr. Wizard, delivered "Progress Reports" during commercial breaks of the General Electric Theater. As with most commercially-sponsored shows, the progress being reported on was almost exclusively made by General Electric. Following the cancellation of Watch Mr. Wizard, he continued to use his Mr. Wizard persona in science education. In 1965-1966, he produced an eight-film-series, Experiment: The Story of a Scientific Search, which was broadcast on public television, and a series of twenty-minute films, Science Twenty, designed to complement the current science curriculum in the classroom (circa 1970).

Herbert's television show was briefly revived in 1971-1972 as Mr. Wizard, in response to protests over the cartoons and commercials that flooded children's Saturday morning prime viewing time, but it did not receive enough network support. Herbert appeared in commercials for several companies during the 1970s and briefly lobbied Congress on behalf of General Electric in 1975. In the early 1970s, Herbert also produced Mr. Wizard Close-Ups, thirty second spots that aired on NBC in the Saturday morning slot. In the late 1970s, he began collaborating with the National Science Foundation to create a series of short news briefs for television called How About…How About was an adult-oriented series of 80-second reports highlighting advances in science and technology. The reports were designed for insertion into existing commercial television programs.

In the early 1980s, Herbert returned to television in Mr. Wizard's World, a faster-paced version of the original show that ran on the Nickelodeon network from 1983-1990. After its cancellation, reruns ran until at least 2000. During this time Herbert made numerous appearances on television news and talk shows, particularly the Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson, where he was a popular guest. In the 1990s, Herbert produced Teacher to Teacher with Mr. Wizard, a video series that debuted on September 27, 1994 on the Nickelodeon cable channel. The innovative educational series provided a candid, close-up and in-depth visit to classrooms of outstanding teachers using hands-on, inquiry-based techniques.

Herbert also published several books, including Mr. Wizard's Science Secrets (1952); Mr. Wizard's Experiments for Young Scientists (1959); Mr. Wizard's 400 Experiments in Science (1968); and Mr. Wizard's Supermarket Science (1980). Additionally, he designed science kits involving chemistry, crystal growing, ecology, and electronics, which were marketed by Owens-Illinois in the 1960s.

Herbert's hands-on techniques in demonstrating scientific concepts to children were the inspiration for numerous educators who followed his lead. As popular TV science educator Bill Nye wrote in a special to the Los Angeles Times, his "techniques and performances helped create the United States' first generation of homegrown rocket scientists just in time to respond to Sputnik. He sent us to the moon. He changed the world."

Don Herbert died in 2007, shortly before his 90th birthday. Soon after, the U.S. House of Representatives marked his passing: "Resolved, that the House of Representatives (1) expresses its appreciation for the profound public service and educational contributions of Don Jeffry Herbert, (2) recognizes the profound public impact of higher educational institutions that train teachers, (3) encourages students to honor the heritage of Don Herbert by exploring our world through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields; and, (4) extends its condolences to the family of Don Herbert and thanks them for their strong familial support of him."

Sources

LaFollette, Marcel. Science on American Television: A History, University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Nye, Bill. "Teaching Science with a Big `Poof!' Los Angeles Times, June 15, 2007.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

UCLA Film and Television Archives

The collection consists of 770 moving image items in several formats: 16mm kinescopes; 1" videotapes; 2" videotapes; ¾" videotapes; and DVDs. The collection documents Don Herbert's career as Mr. Wizard, from the early 1950's to the mid 1990's and includes such programs as Watch Mr. Wizard, Mr. Wizard's World, and How About...
Separated Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

Related materials were donated to the Division of Medicine and Science. See accession 2014.0141.

2014.0141.01, Mr. Wizard's Experiments in Ecology, Series One: Microbes (science kit)

2014.0141.02, Mr. Wizard's Experiments in Crystal Growing (science kit)

2014.0141.03, Mr. Wizard's Experiments in Chemistry (science kit)

2014.0141.04, Fun with the Mr. Wizard Science Set (science kit)

2014.0141.05, Mr. Wizard's Science Secrets (science kit)

2014.0141.06, Mr. Wizard's Experiments for Young Scientists (book)

2014.0141.07, Mr. Wizard's Supermarket Science (book)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mr. Wizard Studios, through Thomas E. Nikosey, President, and Kristen K. Nikosey, Vice President, in 2014.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Reference copies for audio and moving images materials do not exist. Use of these materials requires special arrangement. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.

Social Security numbers are present and have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Television personalities  Search this
Television -- educational shows  Search this
Science -- Study and teaching  Search this
Genre/Form:
Television programs
Storyboards
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 20th century
Research
Books -- 20th century
Scripts (documents)
Speeches
Contracts
Videocassettes
DVDs
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Notes
Awards
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Citation:
Mr. Wizard Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1326
See more items in:
Mr. Wizard Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1326
Online Media:

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
United Negro College Fund, American, founded 1944  Search this
Billy Dee Williams, American, born 1937  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Harold Washington, American, 1922 - 1987  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Church, American, founded 1816  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Arthur Ashe Jr., American, 1943 - 1993  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
People United to Save Humanity, American, founded 1971  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Eubie Blake, American, 1887 - 1983  Search this
Dance Theatre of Harlem, American, founded 1969  Search this
National Coalition of 100 Black Women, American, founded 1981  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 1/2 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Bahamas, Caribbean, North and Central America
Houston, Harris County, Texas, United States, North and Central America
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1983
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Caricature and cartoons  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.17
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd516419a20-d7d3-4570-a5c9-78bd4c89cfee
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.17
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Raymond Loewy papers

Creator:
Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986  Search this
Names:
American Society of Industrial Designers  Search this
Coca-Cola Company  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Exxon Corporation  Search this
Gestetner Duplicating Machine Company  Search this
Hallicrafter  Search this
Hupp Motor Company  Search this
International Business Machines Corporation  Search this
Raymond Loewy Associates  Search this
Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc.  Search this
Sears, Roebuck and Co.  Search this
Shell Oil Company  Search this
Studebaker Corporation  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986  Search this
Snaith, William, 1908-1974  Search this
Extent:
3 Boxes (2 letter sized boxes, 1 legal sized box.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Press releases
Speeches
Photographs
Date:
[mid-1940s-early 1960s]
Summary:
This collection spans the period from the mid-1940s to the early-1960s and consists ofnewspaper and magazine articles by and about Loewy, including the 1949 TIME magazine on which he appeared on the cover. Extensive clippings exist pertaining to his designs for automobiles. Also includes many articles and speeches written by and about William Snaith, a partner in the firm which was renamed Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc. in 1961. A catalog from the exhibition, "Ten Automobiles," which took place at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1953, is included. Other materials include brochures printed and designed by the firm, press releases, a listing of projects, honors, and membership. Some photographs of Loewy and his design team are included. The collection does not contain any original design materials or project files.
Arrangement note:
Unprocessed.
Biographical/Historical note:
Industrial Designer. Born Paris, France, November 8, 1893, Loewy initially studied electrical engineering, and by 1909, he has designed and sold a successful airplane model. He immigrated to the United States in 1919 and became a naturalized citizen in 1938. Loewy began working as a freelance window display designer for Macy's and Saks Fifth Avenue, and as an illustrator for Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and others, from 1919.

He designed the trademark for Neiman-Marcus in 1923. Loewy is identified as one of the founding fathers of industrial design. In 1929, he started Raymond Loewy Associates in New York, and by 1947, he appeared on the cover of TIME magazine. Loewy's designs always stressed the importance of the clean, functional, dynamic design of products. His schooling in electrical engineering translated into his designs for automobiles, trains, airplanes, ships, and spacecraft for NASA. He also designed interiors for many hotels, offices, and supermarkets. He is best known for his designs for the 1947 Studebaker Starlight Coupe; the 1953 Starliner Coupe; the 1961 Avanti; the 1947 line of Hallicrafter radio recievers; the 1929 Gestetner duplicating machine; the 1934 Sears Coldspot refrigerator; and the S-I steam locomotive for the Pennsylvania Railroad.

He also designed logos for Exxon and Shell oil companies, and bottles and refrigerated vending machines for Coca Cola. He became President of the American Society of Industrial Designers in 1946. Loewy established Compagnie de l'Esthetique Industrielle in Paris in 1952. His work has been featured in many exhibitions, including: "An Exhibition for Modern Living", Detroit Institute of Arts, 1949; "The Designs of Raymond Loewy", Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1975; and "The Machine Age in America", Brooklyn Museum, 1986, among others. He authored, "The Locomotive: Its Esthetics", 1937; "Never Leave Well Enough Alone", 1951; and "Industrial Design", 1979. In 1961, Loewy went into semi-retirement, became partners with William Snaith, and renamed the company Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc. Loewy died in Monte Carlo, July 14, 1986.
Location of Other Archival Materials Note:
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. The Raymond Loewy Collection. Drawings, blueprints, sketches, phtographs, slides, and audio and video recordings, covering the period from 1929-1988.
Canadian Center for Architecture, Special Collections. Vertical file docmenting Loewy's work.
Provenance:
The materials in this collection were donated to Cooper-Hewitt by Betty Reese, Loewy's publicist.
Restrictions:
Unprocessed; access is limited. Permission of Library Director required for use.
Occupation:
Industrial designers  Search this
Interior designers  Search this
Packaging designers  Search this
Topic:
Radio -- Receivers and reception -- Design and construction  Search this
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Corporate image -- Design  Search this
Logos (Symbols) -- Design  Search this
Interior decoration -- United States  Search this
Automobiles -- Design and construction  Search this
Design, Industrial -- United States  Search this
Supermarkets -- Design  Search this
Coldspot refrigerator  Search this
Transportation -- Design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Press releases
Speeches
Photographs
Identifier:
SIL-CH.XXXX-0001
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sil-ch-xxxx-0001

Organizational Records

Collection Creator:
Ryan, Paul, 1943-  Search this
Extent:
1.2 Linear feet (Boxes 10-11, 20, OV 21)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1968-1996
Scope and Contents:
Organizational records include writings, correspondence, printed material, financial records, grant proposals, and other records concerning various organizations, collectives, and companies in which Ryan participated, mostly having to do with environmental advocacy, video production, or a combination of the two. Organizations with substantial records in this series include the Earth Environmental Group, the Earthscore Foundation, Environment '89 (and '90, '91, and '92), the Gaia Institute, Raindance Corporation, Responsive Environments Corporation, and Space Videoarts.

Documentation of the organization the Earthscore Foundation includes financial records, by-laws, writings, grant proposals, and printed material. Writings outline Ryan's Earthscore Notational System, among other projects. Grant proposals also contain significant description of the organization's projects. Gaia Institute records include mainly writings and notes, including a proposal for a conference series, "Professionals for the Earth."

Raindance Corporation records include a partial transcript of a 1970 interview with Ryan, excerpts of which appeared in the 2nd issue of Radical Software magazine, an essay about the video "Supermarket," flyers, lists of Raindance video productions, and exhibition announcements from a 1991 retrospective at the Whitney museum. A single contact sheet is unlabeled but contains photographs of Ryan, Buckminster Fuller, and possibly David Cort and Ira Schneider.

Responsive Environments Corporation records contain notes and writings produced by Ryan on potential commercial and educational uses for video, written in 1968 and 1969. Space Videoarts records include correspondence, financial records, grant proposals for start up funding, and a proposal for an ecological cable channel written by Ryan which is an early iteration of his work on what he later called eco-channel design.
Arrangement:
Series is arranged alphabetically by organization name. Additional Raindance Corporation is filed in series 7, Printed Materials. Additional material related to Earthscore and other environmental organizations is found in series 3, Writings, and series 5, Project files.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers and archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Paul Ryan papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Paul Ryan papers, 1931-2009. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.ryanpaul, Series 4
See more items in:
Paul Ryan papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-ryanpaul-ref9

Liggett & Myers Creative Promotion Aids

Collection Manufacturer:
Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company.  Search this
Collection Collector:
Rangeloff, Evan  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1960s
Scope and Contents:
...a complete year-round promotion program designed to create sales advantages for [retailers]! CPA features supermarket-proved themes for the following special sales events and holidays...
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Probable copyright and trademark restrictions.
Collection Citation:
Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials
Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials / Series 3: Sales Training Literature
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0716-ref558

Anton Refregier papers

Creator:
Refregier, Anton, 1905-  Search this
Names:
ACA Galleries  Search this
Bard College -- Faculty  Search this
Gosudarstvennyĭ Ėrmitazh (Russia)  Search this
National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Woodstock Artists Association (Woodstock, N.Y.)  Search this
World Peace Council  Search this
De Diego, Julio, 1900-  Search this
Dreyfuss, Henry, 1904-  Search this
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Fast, Howard, 1914-  Search this
Geddes, Norman Bel, 1893-1958  Search this
Greenwood, Marion, 1909-1970  Search this
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, 1889-1953  Search this
Morley, Eugene, 1909-1953  Search this
O'Higgins, Pablo, 1904-  Search this
Packard, Emmy Lou, 1914-1998  Search this
Randall, Byron, 1918-1999  Search this
Refregier, Lila  Search this
Siqueiros, David Alfaro  Search this
Yavno, Max  Search this
Extent:
35.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Travel diaries
Greeting cards
Interviews
Cartoons (working drawings)
Scrapbooks
Transcripts
Photographs
Diaries
Sketches
Place:
Chile
Soviet Union
Guatemala
Mexico
Date:
circa 1900-circa 1990
Summary:
The papers of Woodstock area painter, muralist, and designer, Anton Refregier (1905-1979) date from circa 1900 to circa 1990 and measure 35.9 linear feet. The collection records Refregier's early commercial work and murals for the Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) and documents his career through to the 1970s with records of commissions for many public and private buildings, exhibitions in the United States and abroad, teaching positions, essays and publications, and extensive travel, particularly to the Soviet Union and Mexico. The collection contains scattered biographical material, personal and business correspondence, notes and writings, 15 diaries and journals, mural and tapestry files, exhibition files, personal business records, printed material, 10 scrapbooks, artwork including sketches and cartoons for murals, and photographs of Refregier, his friends, family and travels.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Woodstock area painter, muralist, and designer, Anton Refregier (1905-1979) date from circa 1900 to circa 1990 and measure 35.9 linear feet. The collection records Refregier's early commercial work and murals for the Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) and documents his career through to the 1970s with records of commissions for many public and private buildings, exhibitions in the United States and abroad, teaching positions, essays and publications, and extensive travel, particularly to the Soviet Union and Mexico. The collection contains scattered biographical material, personal and business correspondence, notes and writings, diaries and journals, mural and tapestry files, exhibition files, personal business records, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork including sketches and cartoons for murals, and photographs of Refregier, his friends, family and travels.

Biographical material contains legal records such as Refregier's will and marriage and death records, passports, resume material and 2 interview transcripts.

Correspondence, both chronological and alphabetical, constitutes almost a third of the collection and documents all aspects of Refregier's career including his work for the WPA, private commissions, representation by ACA Galleries, his involvement with groups such as the Woodstock Artists Association and his teaching work for institutions such as Bard College. Also documented are his involvement with local political groups and international organizations such as the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship and the World Peace Council, and travels including visits to the Soviet Union. Notable correspondents include Henry Dreyfuss, Philip Evergood, Rockwell Kent, Emmy-Lou Packard, and Byron Randall. Correspondence also includes family letters written primarily by Refregier to Lila Refregier, in addition to greeting cards received by the Refregier family, many of which contain original arwork.

Writings are primarily by Refregier and include drafts of many essays and autobiographical writings, in addition to copies of published works including Natural Figure Drawing, An Artists Journey and Sketches of the Soviet Union.

The collection contains diaries and journals from 12 years in various formats including published and handmade day planners and typed and handwritten journal entries. They include sketches and primarily record travel and daily activities including specific projects such as the New York World's Fair mural (1938-1939).

Mural and Tapestry files document individual commissions bid on and/or completed by Refregier. The creation of the Rincon Annex Post Office mural and subsequent controversies over its subject matter are well-documented here, as are many of Refregier's commissions for banks, hospitals, hotels, shopping centers, and schools.

Exhibition files document at least 15 of Refregier's exhibitions, including his first one-man show at ACA Galleries (1942) and his exhibition of paintings at the Hermitage Museum (1967) in what was then Leningrad.

Personal business records contain addresses of contacts. Scattered records referencing market values for Refregier's work can be found throughout the series in records such as bills and receipts, financial notes and tax records.

Printed material provides extensive coverage of Refregier's entire career through announcements, invitations, catalogs, and news clippings. His interests in art, literature, music, theater and politics are also well-represented in these files.

The collection contains 10 scrapbooks, mostly in fragmented condition, which contain a mixture of photographs, sketches and other artwork, notes and fragments of writings, and printed material. The scrapbooks document a variety of subjects including Refregier's family life, travels to Guatemala and the Soviet Union, and the artist at work.

Artwork consists primarily of artwork by Refregier in the form of mural design sketches and cartoons in various media, including pencil, ink and pastel, in addition to 21 sketchbooks, many of which also contain journal entries and notes. Also found here are prints and reproductions of Refregier's "Peace card" block engravings for every year from 1950-1973, with the exception of 1970.

Photographs document all phases of Refregier's career and include family photographs dating from circa 1900, photos of Refregier in the studio including work for the WPA, Refregier and other artists and individuals at events and parties from the 1940s-1970s, travel snapshots probably taken in Chile, Guatemala, Mexico, and the Soviet Union, and photographs of artwork and installations. Individuals pictured include Julio de Diego, Marion Greenwood, Rockwell Kent, Pablo O'Higgins and David Siqueiros; also, a series of press photographs by Albert A. Freeman pictures Refregier with Howard Fast, Norman Bel Geddes, Marion Greenwood, John Kingsbury, Yasuo Kuniyoshi and Harry Stockwell. One photograph by Eliot Elisofon, 2 by Eugene Morley and 4 by Max Yavno can also be found here.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1925-1980 (Box 1; 0.25 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1912-circa 1990s (Boxes 1-11, 36, OVs 38, 45; 10.2 linear ft.)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1930s-circa 1970s (Boxes 11-14, OV 45; 3.3 linear ft.)

Series 4: Diaries and Journals, 1923-1979 (Box 15; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 5: Mural and Tapestry Files, circa 1930s-circa 1970s (Boxes 15-18, 36, OVs 38, 45, 46, RD 42; 3.65 linear ft.)

Series 6: Exhibition Files, 1942-1981 (Boxes 18-19; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 7: Personal Business Records, 1920s-1980s (Boxes 19-20; 1.8 linear ft.)

Series 8: Printed Material, circa 1920s-1980s (Boxes 21-28, 36; 7.4 linear ft.)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1930s-1960s (Boxes 28, 37, BV 47; 1.1 linear ft.)

Series 10: Artwork, circa 1930s-circa 1970s (Boxes 28-30, 36, OVs 40, 41, RDs 42-44; 3.5 linear ft.)

Series 11: Photographic Material, ca. 1900-1980s (Boxes 31-35, 39; 4.5 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Russian-born Woodstock painter Anton Refregier (1905-1979) immigrated to the United States in 1920. Refregier was well-known for his sometimes controversial social realist murals for the WPA.

After an apprenticeship to the sculptor, Vasilief, in Paris, Anton Refregier attended the Rhode Island School of Design from 1920-1925 and studied with Hans Hofmann in Germany in 1927. He had his first one-man show at ACA Galleries in New York City in 1942 and settled in Woodstock, New York, with his wife, Lila, and three children Anton, Jr., Brigit and Aleksandre, where he became a prominent member of the artist community.

Refregier completed several social realist murals for the federal Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) program, including one at the New York Worlds Fair in 1939 and the controversial Rincon Annex Post Office mural in San Francisco begun in 1941. He also completed interior design installations for businesses such as the nightclub, Cafe Society Uptown, and the restaurant, The Cookery, in New York City. In addition to being an easel and mural painter Refregier worked in tapestry, mosaic, ceramic, and collage, and completed many commissions for hotels, banks, hospitals, restaurants, synagogues, supermarkets and deparment stores throughout the country.

Refregier taught at various institutions including Stanford University, the University of Arkansas, and Bard College and his publications inlcude Natural Figure Drawing (1948), An Artist's Journey (1965), and Sketches of the Soviet Union (1978). He traveled regularly to the Soviet Union to explore and exchange ideas about art and culture and as a representative of the World Peace Council.

Anton Refregier died in Moscow in October 1979 while visiting the Soviet Union. His work can be found in many museums including the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the Metropolitan Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Art, and the Whitney Museum of American Art.
Related Material:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are an oral history interview with Anton Refregier, 1964, Nov. 5 by Joseph Trovato; and Papers regarding Anton Refregier mural controversy, 1953.
Provenance:
Donated 1983 by Lila Refregier, widow of Anton Refregier, and in 1992 by Brigit R. Sutton, Refregier's daughter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Anton Refregier papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. They may be used for research, study and scholarship. Authorization to quote or reproduce for purposes of publication must be obtained from: Brigit R. Sutton, Box 344D, Woodstock, New York, 12498.
Topic:
Tapestry  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Political clubs  Search this
Muralists -- New York -- Woodstock  Search this
Art -- Commissioning  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- Woodstock  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- Archival resources -- 20th century  Search this
Designers -- New York (State)  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Travel diaries
Greeting cards
Interviews
Cartoons (working drawings)
Scrapbooks
Transcripts
Photographs
Diaries
Sketches
Citation:
Anton Refregier papers, circa 1900-circa 1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.refranto
See more items in:
Anton Refregier papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-refranto

Playbill for Blue

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Created by:
Roundabout Theatre Company, American, founded 1965  Search this
Subject of:
Phylicia Rashad, American, born 1948  Search this
Hill Harper, American, born 1966  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 x 5 5/8 in. (22.9 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Date:
2001
Topic:
African American  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Musical Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.12
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5ce246f67-5381-4d2e-ab8b-5621c3eb5171
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.12
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Playbill for A Flea in Her Ear

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Roundabout Theatre Company, American, founded 1965  Search this
Subject of:
Mark Linn-Baker, American, born 1954  Search this
Michael Countryman, American, born 1955  Search this
Wally Dunn, American, born 1960  Search this
George Hall  Search this
James Lally, American, born 1956  Search this
Bruce MacVittie  Search this
Mark Douglas Brown McKinney, Canadian, born 1959  Search this
Angie Phillips  Search this
Alice Playten, American, 1947 - 2011  Search this
Shaun Powell  Search this
Kali Rocha, American, born 1971  Search this
Camilla Sanes  Search this
Richard Shull, 1929 - 1999  Search this
Virginia Louise Smith  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 1/2 x 5 1/4 in. (21.6 x 13.3 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1998
Topic:
African American  Search this
Comedy (Theatre)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.31
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5a80b5997-1734-48b6-b08b-0c161e000fe2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.31
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Playbill for Guys and Dolls

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Broadway Theatre, American, founded 1924  Search this
Subject of:
Norma Donaldson, American, 1928 - 1994  Search this
Robert Guillaume, American, born 1927  Search this
Ernestine Jackson, American  Search this
Jimmy Randolph  Search this
Edye Byrde, American, 1929 - 1999  Search this
Clark Morgan, American, 1920 - 1996  Search this
Christophe Pierre  Search this
Emmett "Babe" Wallace, American, 1909 - 2006  Search this
Ken Page, American, born 1954  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 x 5 5/8 in. (22.9 x 14.3 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1977
Topic:
African American  Search this
Actors  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Musical Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.38
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5d6e9033a-9b65-43c0-b18e-71b65302bd03
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.38
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Online Media:

Playbill for All Over Town

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Booth Theatre, American, founded 1913  Search this
Subject of:
Cleavon Little, American, 1939 - 1992  Search this
George S Irving, American, born 1922  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 1/4 x 5 7/8 in. (23.5 x 14.9 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
March 1975
Topic:
African American  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Comedy (Theatre)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.4
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd567bd6669-f171-424c-8cd6-e11d275f2fdb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.4
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Online Media:

Proposals, "Rezoning New York City"

Collection Creator:
Wheatland, Richard, II, 1923-2009  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1959
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
New York Airways Collection, Acc. NASM.1992.0052, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New York Airways Collection
New York Airways Collection / Series 1: 1992 Acquisition
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0052-ref578
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N. Joseph Woodland Papers

Creator:
Woodland, N. Joseph, 1921-2012  Search this
Names:
International Business Machines Corporation  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (11 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Transcripts
Technical drawings
Notebooks
Correspondence
Examinations (documents)
Notes
Patents
Date:
1943-2012
Summary:
The collection documents the career of N. Joseph Woodland, who, along with Bernard Silver, invented and developed the bar code.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the career of N. Joseph Woodland, who, along with Bernard Silver, invented and developed the bar code. The collection includes papers relating to Woodland's early life and education, such as exams and transcripts; papers relating to his work with IBM, including correspondence, notes and notebooks, and technical drawings; patents; photographs; awards and honors; articles.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1943-2012

Series 2: International Business machines Corporation (IBM), 1951-2006

Series 3: Node Code, 1986-2003

Series 4: Consulting, 1987-2000

Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, 1990-2011
Biographical / Historical:
Norman Joseph Woodland (1921-2012) was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Woodland also served during World War II in the Army as a technical assistant for the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. He earned a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Drexel University (1947) and a Masters in Mechanical Engineering from Syracuse University (1956). He joined the Drexel University faculty as a lecturer in mechanical engineering in 1947.

In 1948, Woodland became aware of the need for supermarket inventory control through automated checkout. He conceived of the idea of using printed parallel stripes of varying widths to encode prices of items in 1949. Woodland, together with Bernard Silver (1921-1963), an electrical engineer, and fellow Drexel University faculty lecturer, defined a system to exploit the bar code invention to automatically capture item prices as well as inventory data. Woodland and Silver were issued US patent 2,612,994 for a classifying apparatus and method on October 7, 1952. Woodland and Silver sold their patent for $15,000 to Philco in 1961.

Woodland joined IBM in 1951 as a mechanical designer and later worked as a senior planner in artificial intelligence in general and expert systems. While at IBM, Woodland identified and applied existing and emerging technologies to enhance planned IBM products and systems. He worked in store systems marketing, long-range market planning, product planning, and artificial intelligence development. In 1983, he received an IBM technical sabbatical to work on expert systems and robotics at Carnegie Mellon University and to study these systems in use in Japan. A significant portion of Woodland's career focused on the bar code in general and supermarket automated check-out processes. His work laid the foundation for the creation of the universal product code (UPC symbol), for which ), for which he was an integral part of the IBM team's winning design, in his role as the person responsible for IBM's UPC symbol proposal to the grocery industry's symbol selection committee.

In 1992, Woodland won the National Medal of Technology for his invention and contribution to the commercialization of bar code technology, which improved productivity in every industrial sector and gave rise to the bar code industry. Woodland holds six patents.

Woodland married Jacqueline Woodland (née Blumberg) in 1951 and they had two daughters, Betsy Karpenkopf and Susan Woodland.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2017 by Susan Woodland, the daughter of N. Joseph Woodland.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bar coding  Search this
Numerical control  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Transcripts -- 20th century
Technical drawings -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Examinations (documents) -- 20th century
Notes -- 20th century
Patents -- 20th century
Citation:
N. Joseph Woodland Papers, 1943-2012, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1433
See more items in:
N. Joseph Woodland Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1433
Online Media:

Carvel Ice Cream Records

Creator:
Carvel, Tom (Thomas Andreas Carvelas), 1906-  Search this
Carvel Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
9 Cubic feet (24 boxes, 1 oversized folder)
12 cassette tapes
63 Video recordings
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cassette tapes
Video recordings
Blueprints
Interviews
Audiotapes
Patents
Date:
1934-1989
Scope and Contents:
The records provide rich research material on many stories, including: American invention, enterprise, and entrepreneurship; the origins and growth of franchising; popular food and culture; the development of roadside architecture; radio and television advertising; product marketing and promotion; regional studies; and gender issues such as beauty pageants and the role of women in the labor force.
Arrangement:
Divided into 14 series.

Series 1: Tom Carvel Personal Information, 1917-1986

Series 2: Financial Information, 1969-1985 Series 3: Educational Information for Franchise Owners, 1954-1984 Series 4: Employee Magazines, 1956-1989 Series 5: Publicity Materials, 1950-1985 Series 6: Advertising Campaign Materials, 1957-1989 Series 7: Promotional Items, 1951-1986 Series 8: Store and Equipment Records, 1945-1973 Series 9: Vending Vehicles, 1958-1961 Series 10: Store Address Information, 1980s Series 11: Photographs, 1936-1985 Series 12: Dugan's Bakery and Hubie Burger Records, 1950s-1960s Series 13: Non-Carvel Franchise Information, 1950-1988 Series 14: Audiovisual Materials, 1972-1995
Biographical / Historical:
The Carvel Corporation is an American success story. Through hard work and timely luck, its founder and president, Tom Carvel, turned an ice cream trailer with a flat tire into an international chain of ice cream supermarkets with over 800 outlets in 17 states and six countries.

Thomas Andreas Carvelas was born July 14, 1906, in Athanassos, Greece. He was one of seven children of Andreas and Christina Karvelas. The family emigrated from Greece to Danbury, Connecticut, in 1910, and finally settled in New York City in 1920. His father was a chemist and wine specialist who helped support his family during prohibition by restoring fermented wine for Greek restaurant owners.

Tom's father sparked Tom's interest in how things worked. Tom tried his hand as a salesman of radios and automobiles, a test driver for Studebaker, and an auto mechanic. At the age of twenty-six, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis, and his doctors advised him to move out of the city. Consequently, he borrowed $1,000 from relatives and built a frozen custard trailer. His first break came on Memorial Day, 1934, when he borrowed $20 from Agnes Stewart (his future wife), bought a trailer load of custard, and set out to sell it to vacationers in Westchester County, New York. Tom Carvel suffered a minor setback when his trailer had a flat tire in Hartsdale, New York. But luck was on his side: there was a pottery shop across the street and Pop Quinlan, the potter, allowed him to use his electricity so the custard would not melt.

Tom Carvel kept his trailer on the pottery shop's lot and in his first year grossed $3,500. The following year, realizing that a permanent location could be profitable, he leased the shop for $100. In 1937, he borrowed more money and converted the trailer into a frozen custard stand, complete with a second-hand freezer which enabled him to make his own custard. By 1939, he was grossing $6,000 a year and was well on his way toward becoming the "Ice Cream King of the East."

In the early 1940s Agnes, his wife, operated the Hartsdale store while Carvel traveled the carnival circuits selling his frozen custard from a mobile vending vehicle. Next, he managed the ice cream cone stands at the post exchange at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

Tom Carvel soon developed his own freezer model, known as a batch freezer, (the first of his sixteen U.S. Patent Registrations). In 1947, he sold 71 freezers at $2,900 each under the trade name "Custard King." When some owners defaulted on their payments Carvel discovered that many of the freezer owners were careless in their selection of locations, disregarded cleanliness, and worked sporadically, while others were selling additional, non-ice cream food items. Determined to make the venture succeed, he decided to oversee the operations of the freezer owners directly. He claimed to have developed the franchise concept in 1949 as a result of this strategy.

Franchise business opportunities allow investors to enter retailing without prior business experience and to own their own business. In the case of the Carvel Corporation, potential franchise owners bought equipment and supplies from the Corporation and used the Carvel name. In return, Carvel helped them select a location, taught them how to run an ice cream business, and organized resources for advertising and promotions. Franchise owners were taught the retail ice cream business at the Carvel College, an 18-day series of courses for potential store owners. There they learned about public relations, mechanics of the ice cream machines, local advertising, and making and freezing all kinds of ice cream cakes. They also received The Shopper's Road, an in-house magazine advising them on topics ranging from travel tips, to cooking, to marketing their products to the community.

From the beginning, the Carvel Dairy Freeze Chain stressed cleanliness, hard work, and a quality, all-natural product. Tom Carvel aimed to create a family-type environment for his franchise owners. He wanted people who would work hard and were eager to learn about the retail ice cream business in order to make their individual rags to riches stories come true. A unique and important element to the Carvel story was Tom Carvel's personal involvement --from an early date--in creating commercials for the stores. His was one of the first instances in which a Chief Executive Officer of a major corporation was featured in his company's commercials. In 1955, Carvel began making his own radio commercials. As the story goes, one day while driving in New York City he heard a commercial for a new Carvel store, but the announcer did not state its exact location. Convinced he could do a better job, he drove to the radio station and re-did the commercial himself. After this incident he started doing his own commercials on a full-time basis. Tom Carvel created a distinct style with his garbled delivery and "say it once" philosophy, with the idea that you have to grab people's attention and then let the product speak for itself. Carvel eventually set up an in-house production studio and advertising agency at the Carvel Inn, where most of his television and radio commercials were made.

The use of premiums was an essential marketing component for Carvel. In 1936, he introduced the "Buy One Get One Free" offer. He also used comic books, ice cream eating contests, and a beauty pageant for young girls, called the "Little Miss Half Pint Contest," to attract children. The Carvel Corporation also participated as a corporate sponsor for events like Walt Disney's "Great Ice Odyssey," "Carvel Night at the Rodeo," and numerous promotional tie-ins with the New York Yankees baseball team. Of all the sales promotions, it was the specialty products which brought the greatest notoriety to the Carvel name. From the "Flying Saucer" ice cream sandwich and the "Papapalooza" to the holiday and character ice cream cakes, customers could always count on a quality product. There were ice cream cakes for every holiday, including a "Flower Basket" for Mother's Day, "Fudgie the Whale" for Father's Day, "Tom the Turkey" for Thanksgiving, and a "Snow Man" for Christmas. Eventually, a customer could special order an ice cream cake for any occasion, using a toll-free phone number.

The Carvel Corporation enjoyed continued success and consistent expansion marked by Tom Carvel's innovative concepts in marketing. For example, in 1956, the Hartsdale location was converted into the first ice cream supermarket. Each store remained a full-service ice cream parlor, but now had the added convenience of self-serve freezers where customers could select ice cream specialty products such as Flying Saucers, Carvelogs, Brown Bonnets, and ice cream cakes.

In 1962, the Corporation experienced a crisis. Many franchise owners had begun buying cheaper ingredients and the chain was reduced to 175 stores. This potentially meant financial catastrophe for Tom Carvel and the company because it derived its profits from selling equipment and special mixes to store owners. Carvel insisted the franchise owners had obligations to the company and its customers to provide a uniform, quality product. Furthermore, the franchise owners had agreed to purchase raw ingredients from Carvel. When the Corporation tried to enforce this agreement, the Federal Trade Commission charged Carvel with allegations of coercion and restraint of trade. In 1964, after presenting his side before the full Federal Trade Commission and the Supreme Court, he won his case.

In 1967, Carvel purchased the Westchester Town House Motel, in Yonkers, New York, and changed the name to the Carvel Inn. It was both a full-service motel and the Executive Offices of the Carvel Corporation. It was here that store owners gathered for the annual educational seminars which reinforced the ideas taught by the Carvel College.

In the 1950s Tom Carvel had also developed the franchise concept for a hamburger chain called Hubie Burger. It served hamburgers, french fries, chicken, and waffles. It is ironic that Carvel began the Hubie Burger chain because at a dairy convention in 1956, Ray Kroc asked him if he was interested in setting up the McDonald's chain. It is said that at this time Carvel felt ice cream and hamburgers did not compliment each other and declined the offer. However, Carvel claimed to have given McDonald's permission to use the basic text of his franchise contract and his building design as models. Later, Carvel acquired Dugan's Bakery. However, neither Dugan's nor Hubie Burger was very successful.

Through his strong work ethic, creativity, and perseverance, Tom Carvel built up his ice cream chain and turned his dreams into reality. His achievements were recognized in 1957 when he was awarded the Horatio Alger Award. Carvel credited his success to his father and his wife, Agnes. His father sparked his interest in chemistry and engineering and his wife worked in the first Carvel store, which allowed him time to develop the Carvel Corporation Franchise System. In 1989, he sold the Carvel Corporation to an international investment company, Investcorp, for more than 80 million dollars. Tom Carvel died in 1990. The Carvel name lives on through the Carvel Ice Cream Bakery Company, operated by Investcorp.
Related Materials:
The Archives Center holds many collections related to ice cream and the food industry including:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Diary (AC0060)

Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection (see waffle cone machine) (AC0078)

Famous Amos Collection (AC0112)

Sam DeVincent Collection of Ilustrated American Sheet Music (see Ice Cream) (AC0300)

Good Humor Collection (AC0451)

Eskimo Pie Collection (AC0553)

Krispy Kreme Donut Corporation Records (AC0594)
Provenance:
These records were generously donated to the Archives Center by Mrs. Agnes Carvel, in May 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction of some materials restricted due to copyright or trademark.

Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ice cream industry  Search this
Franchises (Retail trade)  Search this
Carnivals  Search this
Restaurants  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Vending machines (food)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Interviews -- 1950-2000
Audiotapes
Patents -- 20th century
Citation:
Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0488
See more items in:
Carvel Ice Cream Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0488
Online Media:

Woman's Building records

Creator:
Woman's Building (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
Names:
Feminist Studio Workshop  Search this
Women's Graphic Center (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
Chicago, Judy, 1939-  Search this
Raven, Arlene  Search this
de Bretteville, Sheila Levant  Search this
Extent:
33.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides
Artists' books
Date:
1970-1992
Summary:
The records of the Woman's Building feminist arts organization in Los Angeles measure 33.5 linear feet and date from 1970-1992. Originally founded by artist Judy Chicago, graphic designer Sheila Levant de Bretteville, and art historian Arlene Raven in 1973, the Woman's Building served as an education center and public gallery space for women artists in southern California. The records document both the educational and exhibition activities and consist of administrative records, financial and legal records, publications, curriculum files, exhibition files, grant funding records and artist's works of arts and prints. A significant portion of the collection documents the Women's Graphic Center, a typesetting, design, and printing service operated by The Woman's Building.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the Woman's Building measure 33.5 linear feet and date from 1970 to 1992. The organization played a key role as an alternative space for women artists energized by the feminist movement in the 1970s. The records document the ways in which feminist theory shaped the Building's founding core mission and goals. During its eighteen year history, the Building served as an education center and a public gallery space for women artists in Los Angeles and southern California; the records reflect both functions of the Building's activities.

The Administrative Files series documents the daily operations of the Building, with particular emphasis on management policies, budget planning, history, cooperative relationships with outside art organizations and galleries, special building-wide programs, and relocation planning. Included in this series are the complete minutes from most Building committees from 1974 through closing, including the Board of Directors and the Advisory Council. The General Publicity and Outreach series is particularly complete, containing publicity notices from most events, exhibits, and programs held at the Woman's Building, including brochures, announcements, programs, invitations, press releases, newspaper clippings, and magazine articles.

The Woman's Building's educational programs centered on courses offered by the Feminist Studio Workshop and the Extension Program. While the Workshop provided a two-year program for women interested in fully developing their artistic talent, the Extension Program offered a broad range of classes, specifically oriented to working women interested in art and art vocations. The records fully document both programs, focusing on the course development and descriptions, teacher contracts, class evaluations, budget planning, and scholarship programs. Although the Archives does not have the entire slide library, there are files concerning the establishment and administration of the library, as well as a few folders of slides.

The Gallery Programs series houses the records of the visual, performing, literary and video arts events held at the Woman's Building. Administrative files detail the daily operation of the gallery spaces. The files in the remaining subseries are primarily arranged by event and contain proposals, announcements, publicity, and artist biographies.

The Women's Graphic Center became a profit-making arm of the Woman's Building in 1981 but the typesetting and design equipment had been used by staff and students since 1975. The records in this series focus on the work produced at the Center, including general projects and artist designs and art prints. Many of the design and printing examples were produced for Woman's Building events and programs.

The Artist's Works of Art series includes artist books, resumes, correspondence, postcards, and samples of art in the form of sketches, drawings, and prints. There is also material related to Woman's Building projects. Especially noteworthy is the "What is Feminist Art?" project where artists gave their responses in various formats and mediums from text to pieces of artwork.

The Printed Materials series contains feminist and art publications not produced by or for the Woman's Building.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 7 series.

Series 1: Administrative Files, circa 1970-1991 (Box 1-9, 32; 9 linear feet)

Series 2: Educational Programs, 1971-1991 (Box 10-14; 4.9 linear feet)

Series 3: Gallery Programs, 1973-1991 (Box 14-20, OV 54; 5.7 linear feet)

Series 4: Women's Graphic Center, circa 1976-1989 (Box 20-23, 32, OV 33-50; 5.6 linear feet)

Series 5: Artists' Works of Art, circa 1972-1990 (Box 24-25, OV 51-53; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 6: Grants, 1974-1992 (Box 25-30; 5.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material (Not Woman's Building), 1970-1983 (Box 30-31; 1.3 linear feet)
Historical Note:
In 1973, artist Judy Chicago, graphic designer Sheila Levant de Bretteville, and art historian Arlene Raven founded the Feminist Studio Workshop (FSW), one of the first independent schools for women artists. The founders established the workshop as a non-profit alternative education center committed to developing art based on women's experiences. The FSW focused not only on the development of art skills, but also on the development of women's experiences and the incorporation of those experiences into their artwork. Central to this vision was the idea that art should not be separated from other activities related to the developing women's movement. In November of 1973 the founders rented workshop space in a vacated building in downtown Los Angeles and called it The Woman's Building, taking the name from the structure created for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The FSW shared space with other organizations and enterprises including several performance groups, Womanspace Gallery, Sisterhood Bookstore, the National Organization of Women, and the Women's Liberation Union.

When the building they were renting was sold in 1975, the FSW and a few other tenants moved to a three-story brick structure, originally designed to be the administrative offices of the Standard Oil Company in the 1920s. In the 1940s, it had been converted into a warehouse and consisted of three floors of open space, conducive to publically available extension classes and exhibitions offered by the Woman's Building staff and students. By 1977, the majority of the outside tenants had left the Woman's Building, primarily because they were unable to sustain business in the new location. The new building was more expensive to maintain and the FSW staff decided to hire an administrator and to create a board structure to assume the financial, legal, and administrative responsibility for the Building. The funds to operate came from FSW tuition, memberships, fund-raising events, and grant monies.

In 1981, the Feminist Studio Workshop closed, as the demand for alternative education diminished. The education programs of the Building were restructured to better accommodate the needs of working women. The Woman's Building also began to generate its own artistic programming with outside artists, including visual arts exhibits, performance art, readings, and video productions. That same year, the Woman's Building founded the Women's Graphic Center Typesetting and Design, a profit-making enterprises designed to strengthen its financial base. Income generated from the phototypesetting, design, production, and printing services was used to support the educational and art making activities of the Building.

When the graphics business closed in 1988, the Woman's Building suffered a financial crisis from which it never fully recovered. The Building closed its gallery and performance space in 1991.
Related Material:
Among the other resources relating to the Woman's Building in the Archives of American Art is an oral history with Suzanne Lacy on March 16, 1990, March 24, 1990, and September 24, 1990. While not credited as a founding member, Lacy was among the first group of staff of the Woman's Building which she discusses in her interview.

The Getty Research Institute also holds a large collection on the Woman's Building which includes a wide range of material relating to its exhibitions, activities, and projects.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art donated 5 boxes of video tape from the collection to the Long Beach Museum of Art, Video Annex in 1994. According to documentation, this was the desire of Sandra Golvin and the Board of Directors of the Woman's Building.
Provenance:
The Woman's Building records were donated to the Archives of American Art in 1991 by Sandra Golvin, President of the Board of Directors. An small addition of a set of "Cross Pollination" posters was donated in 2019 by by ONE Archives at University of Southern California Libraries via Loni Shibuyama, Archives Librarian.
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Women artists -- California  Search this
Feminism and art  Search this
Arts organizations -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Function:
Nonprofit organizations -- California -- Los Angeles
Genre/Form:
Slides
Artists' books
Citation:
Woman's Building records, 1970-1992. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.womabuil
See more items in:
Woman's Building records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-womabuil
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Online Media:

Episode 286

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0507-0286
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Date:
1956 April 7
Scope and Contents:
Nevada A hydroplane, the "Bluebird", designed to ride over water. Las Vegas, NV.

Ohio Airflow by doors of Kroger supermarket counteracts weather outside. Saves on heating and air-conditioning bills. St. Louis Air Curtain Co.

Pennsylvania Producing seamless metal pipes. Barium Steel Corp., Phoenixville, PA.

Georgia When city faced an uncertain future, it organized campaign to remove uncertainties by building new schools, playgrounds, and homes. City planning. Georgia Power, Co., Manchester, GA.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Reference copies must be used. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref546

Face Value

Collection Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Extent:
1 motion picture film (709 feet, 16mm color composite optical track print)
Container:
Item AC0500-OF0024
Item RV Tape 4
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Date:
circa 1968
Scope and Contents:
Production Company: Communications Film Sponsor: Falstaff Content Description: Animation interspersed with live action film about the importance of packaging. Shows the process Landor Associates used to develop a new design for Falstaff beer. The history of Falstaff is traced. There are scenes in supermarkets, of product testing, Walter Landor talking about the design process and using a woman's face to illustrate his point, the various size bottles and an outdoor home pool.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.,Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Collection Citation:
Landor Design Collection, ca. 1930-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Landor Design Collection / Series 24: Audiovisual / 24.1: Motion Picture Films / 24.1.3: Promotional Films Acquired by Landor Associates
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0500-ref100

The Tender Trip

Collection Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Extent:
1 motion picture film (427 feet, 16mm color composite optical track print)
Container:
Item AC0500-OF0028
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Date:
circa 1970
Scope and Contents:
Production Company: Communication Films Sponsor: Bud Antle Content Description: Film describes the care and packaging of produce by the Bud Company. Scenes of supermarkets, field workers, transportation and the manufacturing of polystyrene containers.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.,Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Collection Citation:
Landor Design Collection, ca. 1930-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Landor Design Collection / Series 24: Audiovisual / 24.1: Motion Picture Films / 24.1.3: Promotional Films Acquired by Landor Associates
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0500-ref108

The March of 7Up

Collection Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Extent:
1 motion picture film (551 feet, 16mm color composite optical track print)
Container:
Item AC0500-OF0034
Item RV Tape 24
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Date:
circa 1977
Scope and Contents:
Production Company: The FilmMakers of Minneapolis, MN Content Description: Film traces the history of 7Up from the 1920s through the 1960s. Scenes include WWI soldiers, the Depression, dancing, 7Up billboards, drugstore lunch counters, WWII factories and soldiers, rationing, youth in the 1950s, supermarkets in the 1960s and the new marketing beginning in 1968 of "the uncola."
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.,Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Collection Citation:
Landor Design Collection, ca. 1930-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Landor Design Collection / Series 24: Audiovisual / 24.1: Motion Picture Films / 24.1.3: Promotional Films Acquired by Landor Associates
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0500-ref116

Television Commercial - Kaiser

Collection Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Extent:
1 motion picture film (354 feet, 16mm black and white composite optical track print)
Container:
Item RV Tape 25
Item AC0500-OF0034
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Date:
circa 1964
Scope and Contents:
Production Company: Communications Film Sponsor: Kaiser Content Description: Compilation reel of ten commercials. The advertising agency was Peterson Co. The commercials are for a new aluminum foil packaging called Rol-a pak. Scenes include how the new package works and of supermarkets.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.,Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Collection Citation:
Landor Design Collection, ca. 1930-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Landor Design Collection / Series 24: Audiovisual / 24.1: Motion Picture Films / 24.1.4: Television Commercials, Advertising and Public Service Announcements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0500-ref121

The Dick Stewart Show

Collection Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Extent:
1 motion picture film (1054 feet, 16mm black and white composite optical track print)
Container:
Item AC0500-OF0003
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Date:
circa 1964
Scope and Contents:
Production Company: ABC Television Content Description: Two segments of the Dick Stewart Show. Both shows have Dick Stewart interviewing Walter Landor and employees, Hugh Schwartz, Don Short, Alex Telis and Francis Mair, about Landor Associates' ferry boat headquarters in San Francisco Bay. In the first segment they visit the supermarket research laboratory and in the other they visit the packaging museum, both of which are housed on board the ferry. Walter Landor also gives the history of how and why the ferry was chosen.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.,Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Collection Citation:
Landor Design Collection, ca. 1930-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Landor Design Collection / Series 24: Audiovisual / 24.1: Motion Picture Films / 24.1.1: Landor Associates
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0500-ref50

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