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A. Scott Crossfield Papers

Creator:
Crossfield, A. Scott (Albert Scott), 1921-  Search this
Names:
Eastern Air Lines  Search this
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
20.23 Cubic feet (42 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Date:
1940 - 2004
Summary:
This collection consists of over nine cubic feet of material documenting Scott Crossfield's aviation career, with emphasis on his involvement with the North American X-15. The following types of material are included: correspondence; reel to reel tapes; papers, manuscripts; newspaper and magazine clippings; aviation manuals; photographs; film; and Crossfield's notes and reports.
Scope and Content note:
This collection encompasses the entirety of Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr.'s career as an engineer, test pilot, airline executive, and speaker and advocate for aerospace education. Records in the collection date from Crossfield's time at college in the 1940s through his death in 2006. Crossfield's papers were donated to the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives by the Crossfield family in 2006 and a second batch of material was received in 2008. The collection was received without any apparent organizational scheme, but some items were received in labeled folders and these folder titles were retained when the collection was processed. One group of material was loaned by the family for copying and these items were photocopied and placed within the appropriate folder in the case of documents, or were scanned and entered into the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives image database in the case of photographs.

After his retirement from North American Aviation, Inc., Crossfield gave his papers to a former secretary, Marion Brown, so that she could organize them for his use in future writing projects. In February 1973, a U.S. Navy Vought A-7E Corsair II crashed into the apartment building where Brown lived and all of Crossfield's papers in her possession were destroyed. Due to this incident, the collection has more material from Crossfield's time with Eastern Air Lines and onwards, although the prior years are still well represented through records that were either retained in Crossfield's possession or copies that were gathered after the fact. There is correspondence from Crossfield relating to the crash in Box 11 of the collection.

The archival materials in this collection are organized into four series. The first series is composed of personal materials and includes school records, correspondence, personal photographs, records relating to various organizations in which Crossfield was active, information relating to the publication of Crossfield's autobiography, Always Another Dawn, other writings by Crossfield, financial records, subject files assembled by Crossfield, philatelic materials (Crossfield was an active collector and was a founding member and officer of The Aviation Historical Foundation, a philatelic organization), and news clippings. The material in this series is largely organized chronologically. Personal photographs and subject files are organized by topic first and chronologically within each folder and organizations are arranged alphabetically by name first and also chronologically within the individual folders.

The second series contains items relating to Crossfield's professional life, organized chronologically by place of employment. This series includes materials relating to Crossfield's work at Boeing, the U.S. Navy, the Kirsten Wind Tunnel at the University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), North American Aviation, Inc., Eastern Air Lines, Hawker Siddeley Aviation, Crossfield's work as an Independent Technical Advisor, Crossfield's application for the position of Director of the National Air and Space Museum, Crossfield's time as a member of the United States Organizing Committee, and his work with organizations such as the Scott Crossfield Foundation and The Wright Experience. During the later part of his life, Crossfield toured the country extensively giving speeches, presenting awards, etc. and there is a large amount of material relating to these appearances in this part of the collection. These materials arrived already organized chronologically by individual trip and this organizational scheme was retained. Specifically, the professional life series includes flight reports, manuals, drawings, business correspondence, administrative records, presentations and papers, travel itineraries, notebooks, calendars, speeches delivered by Crossfield, and career related photographs (which are broken out as their own subseries). The professional life series also includes a section of miscellaneous professional items including job seeking correspondence, information on the patent for a power wheel braking or driving unit designed by Crossfield, and a folder of Crossfield's résumés.

The third series consists of audiotapes and is organized first by tape format and then chronologically within each category. Subjects of the audiotapes include speeches, a large number of North American X-15 cockpit recordings and radio communications, tape produced for a television program, and autobiographical notes. A number of the audiotapes include no description. With a total of 65 examples in this series, the most common audiotape format in the collection is, by far, 7 inch reel to reel tapes. Other formats in this series include 5 inch reel to reel tapes, 3.125 by 3.5 inch metal audiotape cartridges, and Dictaphone recording belts. Please note that these audio recordings are unavailable to the researcher at the time of processing due to the format and fragility of the tapes.

The fourth series of this collection is comprised of oversized materials and additional materials including galley proofs, news clippings, drawings, charts, professional records, and photographs. The organization of this series mirrors the folder titles found in the rest of the collection.

The researcher should note that the collection also contains several motion picture films relating to the life and career of Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr. These films are not included in the container list but a NASM Archives staff person can assist you regarding access.
Arrangement:
The A. Scott Crossfield Papers are organized into the following series and subseries:

Series I: Personal Materials

1.1 School Records

1.2 Correspondence

1.3 Personal Photographs

1.4 Organizations

1.5 Information Related to the Publication of Always Another Dawn

1.6 Other Writings by Crossfield

1.7 Financial Records

1.8 Subject Files

1.9 Philatelic Materials

1.10 News Clippings

1.11 Miscellaneous Personal Records

Series II: Professional Life

2.1 Boeing

2.2 U.S. Navy

2.3 Kirsten Wind Tunnel, University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory

2.4 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)

2.5 North American Aviation, Inc.

2.6 Eastern Air Lines

2.7 Hawker Siddeley Aviation

2.8 Independent Technical Advisor

2.9 Application for NASM Director Position

2.10 United States Organizing Committee

2.11 Scott Crossfield Foundation

2.12 The Wright Experience

2.13 Speaking Engagements and Professional Appearances

2.14 Career Related Photographs

2.14 Miscellaneous Professional Records

Series III: Audiotapes

Series IV: Oversized Materials
Biographical/Historical note:
Albert Scott "Scotty" Crossfield, Jr. was born on October 2, 1921, in California. As a young boy, Crossfield was often confined indoors due to health problems related to pneumonia and rheumatic fever. During this time, he dreamed of becoming a pilot and designed and constructed model airplanes. Crossfield took his first airplane ride in 1927, at six years old, in an Alexander Eaglerock A-1 piloted by family friend Charles "Carl" Lienesch. Lienesch also encouraged Crossfield to become an engineer as well as a pilot. Unbeknownst to Crossfield's parents, he began taking flying lessons at the age of 12 at Wilmington Airport under the tutelage of pilot Vaughn McNulty. The family later moved to Washington State and it was there, at the Chehalis Airport, that Crossfield made his first solo flight in a Curtiss Robin. It was not until the summer of 1941, however, that Crossfield officially soloed and earned his pilot's license under the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA), Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPTP).

Crossfield enrolled in the University of Washington in 1940 and worked at the Boeing plant in Seattle, beginning in the fall of 1941, while still pursuing his studies. Crossfield's first assignment at Boeing was as an assembly page clerk. He was later promoted to the position of production expediter and shop salvage engineer. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Crossfield enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corps and continued to work at Boeing while he waited for an opening in a cadet class. In February 1942, tired of waiting on the Air Corps and eager to get into combat, Crossfield enlisted in the U.S. Navy instead where he joined the cadet class of May 7, 1942. Crossfield first trained in Seattle, Washington, and later was sent to the Naval Air Training Center in Corpus Christi, Texas, where he earned his Naval Aviator's wings in 1942. During his time in the Navy, Crossfield never fulfilled his ambition to see combat because he was selected instead to remain at Corpus Christi as a flight and gunnery instructor. Crossfield eventually was sent to Hawaii to prepare and train for an invasion of Japan but the war ended before this became necessary. During his time in the U.S. Navy, Crossfield flew the Grumman F6F Hellcat, Vought F4U Corsair, and the North American SNJ Texan, among other aircraft. After he separated from active duty with the Service, Crossfield remained active in the Naval Reserves and was part of an aerobatic team at Sand Point Naval Air Station that flew Goodyear FG-1D Corsairs.

Crossfield returned to his studies at the University of Washington in 1946 and was employed doing tests at the Kirsten Wind Tunnel at the University's Aeronautical Laboratory. Crossfield earned his Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering in 1949 and his master's degree in aeronautical science in 1950. After obtaining his degrees, Crossfield joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) as a research pilot. During his time with NACA, Crossfield flew many aircraft including the Convair XF-92A, Bell X-1, Northrop X-4 Bantam, Douglas D-558-1 Skystreak, Bell X-5, Republic F-84F Thunderstreak, Convair F-102 Delta Dagger, North American F-86 Sabre, and the North American F-100A Super Sabre. Crossfield made history in the Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket on November 20, 1953, as the first pilot to exceed Mach 2 (twice the speed of sound).

In 1955, Crossfield left NACA and joined North American Aviation, Inc. to work on the X-15 program where he would not only serve as the X-15 Project Pilot but also as a Design Specialist, a role in which he was an integral part of the design of both the aircraft and the pressure suit developed by the David Clark Company for the X-15 program. The suit served as a prototype for the spacesuits later worn by astronauts. Crossfield helped to develop the X-15's cockpit, control, and engine systems; structural design; propulsion system; engineered its escape system; and contributed to its handling quality requirements. He also developed the ground control test methodology that would later become standard on the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space programs. Crossfield piloted the North American X-15 on its first captive flight in March 1959, first glide flight in June 1959, and the first powered flight in September 1959, as well as numerous other test flights, before the X-15 was delivered to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in February 1960. Crossfield also served as Chief Engineering Test Pilot at North American from 1955-1961 before moving to the Space and Information Systems Division first as the Director of Systems Test (1961) then as the Division Director of Test and Quality Assurance (1961-1966) where he was responsible for quality control in all North American projects including the Hounddog Missile (AGM-28, GAM-77), Paragliders for the Gemini program, Apollo Command and Service Module, and the Saturn V launch vehicles, second stage. Crossfield's final position with North American was as the Technical Director, Research, Engineering and Test from 1966-1967.

Crossfield joined Eastern Air Lines in Miami, Florida, as Division Vice President, Flight, Research, and Development, Flight Operations in 1967, a position he held until 1971 when he moved to Washington, DC, to serve as Staff Vice President, Transportation Systems Development (1971-1973). From 1974 to 1975, Crossfield served as Senior Vice President at Hawker Siddeley Aviation's U.S. subsidiary branch, an office he helped to establish. After leaving Hawker Siddeley, Crossfield served for many years as an independent technical advisor to the U.S. Congress. Crossfield also served on the United States Organizing Committee to plan the Air and Space Bicentennial. In the later part of his life, Crossfield traveled extensively to give talks, attend events, and make various professional appearances and it was on a return flight home from one such trip in 2006 that Crossfield was killed when the plane he was piloting was caught in a thunderstorm.

Crossfield was active in various organizations including the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautic Association (NAA), and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots (SETP), a group in which he was a founding member. Crossfield also created the Scott Crossfield Foundation to support aerospace education. Crossfield was the recipient of numerous awards and honors including the Sperry (Lawrence B.) Memorial Award (1954) and Chanute (Octave) Award (AIAA, 1958), Kincheloe Award (SETP, 1960), Harmon Trophy (1960), Collier (Robert J.) Trophy (1961), NASA Distinguished Service Medal (1993), and the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Trophy for Lifetime Achievement (2000).

Crossfield published his autobiography, Always Another Dawn, in 1960 with Clay Blair, Jr. and is the author of numerous other publications, articles, and technical papers.
Provenance:
Alice Crossfield, Gift, 2006
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
North American X-15  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Manuscripts
Citation:
A. Scott Crossfield Papers, Accession number 2006-0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
A. Scott Crossfield Papers, Acc. 2006-0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2006.0041
See more items in:
A. Scott Crossfield Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28d41031c-4569-4e2e-b114-8a32f81be51e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2006-0041
Online Media:

"Structural design of Engineering Division TP-1 fuselage;." Source: B.C. Boulton. Airplane section. McCook Field.

Collection Creator:
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio)  Search this
Container:
Box D609, Folder D52.1 Engineering Division (Eng. Div.) / 41
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Mar 1, 1922.
Scope and Contents:
Airplanes - Engineering Division TP 1 - Fuselage
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
See more items in:
Wright Field Technical Documents Library
Wright Field Technical Documents Library / D52.1 - Airplanes (arranged alphabetically) / E / Engineering Division (Eng. Div.)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2218920b1-424b-4df9-a75d-2fb0c6ab06b6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0428-ref2696

"Structural Design of the TP-1 Fuselage." Source: Air Service Engineering Div., McCook Field.

Collection Creator:
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio)  Search this
Container:
Box D610, Folder D52.1 Engineering Division (Eng. Div.) / 139
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
May 1, 1922.
Scope and Contents:
Airplanes - Engineering Div. - TP-1
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
See more items in:
Wright Field Technical Documents Library
Wright Field Technical Documents Library / D52.1 - Airplanes (arranged alphabetically) / E / Engineering Division (Eng. Div.)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2d643ddc4-bd9d-4f50-9216-d4fc5d254895
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0428-ref2731

"Structural Design of the TP-1 Stabilizer and Fin." Source: Air Service Engineering Div., McCook Field.

Collection Creator:
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio)  Search this
Container:
Box D610, Folder D52.1 Engineering Division (Eng. Div.) / 140
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Aug. 31, 1922.
Scope and Contents:
Airplanes - Engineering Div. - TP-1
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
See more items in:
Wright Field Technical Documents Library
Wright Field Technical Documents Library / D52.1 - Airplanes (arranged alphabetically) / E / Engineering Division (Eng. Div.)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2acf0132c-5dff-4a1d-ba91-a41beb984c7d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0428-ref2732

"Structural Design of the TP-1 Tail Skid." Source: Air Service Engineering Div., McCook Field.

Collection Creator:
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio)  Search this
Container:
Box D610, Folder D52.1 Engineering Division (Eng. Div.) / 141
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
April 1 1922
Scope and Contents:
Airplanes - Engineering Div. - TP-1
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
See more items in:
Wright Field Technical Documents Library
Wright Field Technical Documents Library / D52.1 - Airplanes (arranged alphabetically) / E / Engineering Division (Eng. Div.)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg28db93b87-e863-4e6c-b632-415d958b9a07
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0428-ref2733

"Structural Design of the TP-1 [wing]." Source: Air Service Engineering Div., McCook Field.

Collection Creator:
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio)  Search this
Container:
Box D610, Folder D52.1 Engineering Division (Eng. Div.) / 142
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
May 15, 1922
Scope and Contents:
Airplanes - Engineering Div. - TP-1
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
See more items in:
Wright Field Technical Documents Library
Wright Field Technical Documents Library / D52.1 - Airplanes (arranged alphabetically) / E / Engineering Division (Eng. Div.)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg262ea3a5d-261d-4634-bd0a-d3c4b2b4aa18
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0428-ref2734

"Structural Design of the TP-1 Chassis." Source: Air Service Engineering Div., McCook Field.

Collection Creator:
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio)  Search this
Container:
Box D610, Folder D52.1 Engineering Division (Eng. Div.) / 143
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
May 15, 1922.
Scope and Contents:
Airplanes - Engineering Div. - TP-1
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
See more items in:
Wright Field Technical Documents Library
Wright Field Technical Documents Library / D52.1 - Airplanes (arranged alphabetically) / E / Engineering Division (Eng. Div.)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2087b5795-9ff1-4be3-8da1-baf96d59817f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0428-ref2735

"Structural Design of the TP-1 Surface Controls." Source: Air Service Engineering Div., McCook Field.

Collection Creator:
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio)  Search this
Container:
Box D610, Folder D52.1 Engineering Division (Eng. Div.) / 144
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
May 23, 1922.
Scope and Contents:
Airplanes - Engineering Div. - TP-1
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
See more items in:
Wright Field Technical Documents Library
Wright Field Technical Documents Library / D52.1 - Airplanes (arranged alphabetically) / E / Engineering Division (Eng. Div.)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2202af2ae-78e5-4d6c-9d50-b1a744a97cbc
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0428-ref2736

Structural Design of Manufactured Objects

Collection Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Container:
Box 113, Folder 21-22
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Landor Design Collection, circa 1862-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Landor Design Collection / Series 3: Photographic Materials / 3.1: Photographic Prints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep894790518-0f3a-41f1-96b5-91cfbfbc2e95
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0500-ref1554

The Simmons Company Records

Creator:
Simmons Company  Search this
Extent:
9 Film reels
88 Cubic feet (172 boxes, 16 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Advertisements
Business records
Videotapes
Date:
1892-2000
Scope and Contents:
Series 1 includes: news articles about the company and the Simmons family; photographs of the machinery, factories, factory workers, products and showrooms; annual reports; various corporate periodicals; audit reports; patents; and materials relating to sleep research conducted by Simmons. Series 2 includes product catalogues, scrapbooks of advertisements, advertising artwork and mechanicals, sales kits, point of purchase items, marketing plans and surveys, sales training videos and filmstrips, and commercials. Of special note are the materials on Simmons involvement in the New York World's Fair in 1964-65 and the XIII Winter Olympic Games in 1980. Most newsprint in this collection has been photocopied onto acid-free bond paper and the originals destroyed. Unless otherwise noted, the materials appear in date order within each subseries or sub-subseries. Physically, the materials are arranged by type and size.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into two series.

Series 1: Corporate Materials, 1892-2000

Series 2: Marketing, 1896-1990s
Biographical / Historical:
This subject category- engineering consists of documents related to the field of engineering, both as a scientific discipline and as a business. Most of the material in the collection was produced by engineers, engineering firms, or firms using engineers in the course of other activities. The span dates for the collection are 1848-1963; the bulk dates are circa 1870-circa 1930. Most of the firms and individuals represented in the collection were located in eastern states like New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts, though there are some items from other states and foreign countries.

Engineers & Engineering Firms material is comprised of materials from firms engaged in various activities in the engineering field, including machine and structural design; drafting; surveying; tool and machine repair and maintenance; consulting and inspection; and the manufacture of machine parts and factory equipment. The series consists of business cards; brochures, catalogs, and pamphlets; invoices and business correspondence; and handbills and other types of advertising matter. Bulk dates for this series are 1870-1930. Most firms in this series were based in the cities of the industrial North, especially Philadelphia, Boston, New York, and Chicago. A few items are from companies headquartered in other states and foreign countries. The material is arranged alphabetically by firm name. An article in the Simmons in-house publication The Owl states Zalmon G. Simmons "was not the inventor or first manufacturer of bed springs. His contribution was in lowering the price so that everyone could afford them. He took a hand-made item that sold for around $5 wholesale, and developed machinery which would enable its sale for as little as 80 cents."[1]

Simmons was born in Montgomery County, New York, in 1828. He moved to Kenosha, Wisconsin, at the age of fifteen with $3.00 in "tangible cash assets."[2] Upon finishing school, Simmons became a teacher and worked as a clerk in a general store; eighteen months later he bought the business.[3] Simmons was an enterprising individual and eventually became the President of the Rock Island Railway Company, the Northwest Telegraphy Company (which was bought by Western Union), and the First National Bank of Kenosha. In addition, Simmons served as mayor of Kenosha.

On April 16, 1871, Simmons purchased a cheese box factory, which also made wooden telegraph insulators for his telegraph company. As payment for a debt at his store, Simmons accepted a patent for a handmade, woven-wire bedspring.[4] Thus the Simmons legacy of mattress making was born. The company incorporated in 1884 as the Northwestern Wire Mattress Company.[5] The name was changed to the Simmons Manufacturing Company in 1889. "By 1891 the company was the largest of its kind in the world."[6]

When Zalmon Simmons died in 1910, his son, Zalmon Simmons, Jr., assumed power and continued expanding the company. "By 1919 the company had plants from coast to coast plus sixty-four warehouses and the beginnings of an export business."[7] Zalmon Simmons, Jr. became Chairman in 1932 and his son, Grant G. Simmons, became President of the company.

Since it appeared on the market, the Simmons name has become synonymous with its bestselling product, the Beautyrest mattress. Simmons introduced the Beautyrest in 1925 for the price of $39.50, about three to four times what the consumer was paying for a wire mattress at the time. Immediately the company began advertising using an innovative testimonial campaign featuring "celebrities" like Henry Ford, George Bernard Shaw, and Thomas Edison. By 1929 Beautyrest mattress sales had reached $9 million.[8] Grant G. Simmons wrote, "The consumer demand for Beautyrest stimulated by our national advertising literally forced hundreds of retailers who then had no interest in doing business with Simmons to carry our products."[9]

Card tables and folding chairs were added to the Simmons line in 1926. In 1940, the Hide-A-Bed sofa (which grew out of the studio couch of the 1930s) was born. Fold-out springs and mattresses were engineered to create the pull-out bed.[10] The Hide-A-Bed became one of the company's most famous products manufactured through the 1980s.[11] During WWII the company shifted its production to wartime needs, manufacturing 2,700 different items.[12] Almost immediately after the end of the War, Simmons resumed production; and in 1947 it introduced the Babybeauty mattress. Other Simmons mattress models have included, most notably, the Deepsleep and Maxipedic.

Throughout the years the Simmons Company has had many innovators and inventors make improvements to its mattresses and manufacturing machinery. John Marshall's pocketed-coil spring and John Gail's improvements and modifications to the manufacturing equipment are many of the most significant contributions. Together, Marshall's coil and Gail's pocketing machine made the Beautyrest mattress a reality.

The Sleep Research Foundation, established in1946 with a grant from the Simmons Company, "instituted a vast research program into the scientific aspects of sleep...dedicated to an objective study of sleep from a physiological and medical point of view."[13] The Sleep Research Center and its findings were a common feature in Simmons advertising.

Simmons has continued to use advertising as a way to make its brand known to consumers. Celebrity endorsements and "glamour girls in expensive lingerie" have been a mainstay in Beautyrest advertising.[14] Newspaper advertisements featuring so-called sale prices also have fueled demand for the products.

Company headquarters moved to New York City in 1923 and then to Atlanta, Georgia in 1975, where the company still resides. In 1979, Gulf & Western acquired the company, shifting control to outside the family for the first time. Wickes Corporation purchased Simmons from Gulf & Western in 1985. In 1991, Merrill Lynch Capital Partners, Inc. acquired a majority interest in the company. Today, Simmons has 17% of the bedding market share, second only to Sealy with 22%.[15]

[1]. "Zalmon G. Simmons." The Owl, December 1952, p. 10-11. Box 1, Folder 4.

[2]. "Kenosha Bank Celebrates 90 Years; Zalmon Simmons Is Remembered." Kenosha Evening News, 17 May 1941, n.p. Box 1, Folder 3.

[3]. Ibid. n.p.

[4]. "History of Simmons Company." Report to Stockholders for 1946: Diamond Anniversary, 1871-1946, p. 4. Box 1, Folder 3.

[5]. "Brief History of Simmons Company." ca. 1941. Box 1, Folder 2.

[6]. "History of Simmons Company." Report to Stockholders for 1946: Diamond Anniversary, 1871-1946, p. 5. Box 1, Folder 3.

[7]. "Simmons: The Bedtime Story That Became a Legend." Advertising News From Newsweek, 1969, p. 3. Box 1, Folder 5.

[8]. Simmons, Grant, Jr. "Simmons Company, 1870-1963." p. 7-8. Box 1, Folder 5.

[9]. Ibid. p. 11.

[10]. "Simmons: The Bedtime Story That Became a Legend." Advertising News From Newsweek, 1969, p. 3. Box 1, Folder 5.

[11]. In 1990, the Simmons Company sold the division that made Hide-A-Beds and recliners and licensed the use of the name to a manufacturer.

[12]. "Chronology of Simmons Company." ca. 1955. Box 1, Folder 4. Rise." The Christian Science Monitor, 28 June 1957. Box 1, Folder 4. & "Simmons History." ca. 1955. p. 3. Box 1, Folder 4.

[14]. Simmons, Grant, Jr. "Simmons Company, 1870-1963." p. 9. Box 1, Folder 5.

[15]. Encyclopedia of Consumer Brands,1994 ed. S.v. "Simmons Beautyrest" and "Sealy."
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, ca. 1724-1977 (Beds and Bedding) (AC0060) Ivory Soap Advertising Collection (AC0791)

Breck Girl Collection, 1936-1995 (AC0651) Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, 1939-1940 (AC0560)

Larry Zim World's Fair Collection (AC0519) Louis S. Nixdorff 1928 Olypic Games Collection, 1926-1978 (AC0443) Lloyd A. Strickland Collection of 1936 Olympics Photographs, 1936 (AC0743)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by the Simmons Company through Mr. Charlie Eitel, Chairman and CEO, and Mr. Donald Hoffman, Senior Vice President of Marketing, to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, in June 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bedding industry  Search this
Sleep  Search this
Mattresses  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Business records -- 20th century
Videotapes
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0731
See more items in:
The Simmons Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep857f3bf87-e407-401e-ba50-3410cb6e8a37
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0731
Online Media:

Water-soluble polymers synthesis, solution properties, and applications : developed from a symposium sponsored by the Division of Polymer Chemistry, Inc., at the 198th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1989 Shalaby W. Shalaby, editor ; Charles L. McCormick, editor ; George B. Butler, editor

Author:
Shalaby, Shalaby W  Search this
McCormick, Charles L. 1946-  Search this
Butler, George B (George Bergen) 1916-2007  Search this
American Chemical Society Division of Polymer Chemistry  Search this
American Chemical Society Meeting (198th : 1989 : Miami Beach, Fla.)  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 523 pages illustrations 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Congrès
Conference papers and proceedings
Date:
1991
Topic:
Water-soluble polymers  Search this
Polymères hydrosolubles--Congrès  Search this
Polymères hydrosolubles  Search this
Water-soluble--Congresses  Search this
Water-soluble polymers--Congresses  Search this
Call number:
QD382.W3A43 1989X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_439888

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
WLIB, American, founded 1941  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Vulcan Society, American, founded 1940  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Urban Coalition, American, founded 1967  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Vernon Jordan, American, born 1935  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association, Inc., American, founded 1924  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Connectional Lay Council, American, founded 1948  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Morehouse Alumni Association, American, founded 1900  Search this
Morris Brown College, American, founded 1881  Search this
Dr. Ralph Bunche, American, 1903 - 1971  Search this
Lionel Hampton, American, 1908 - 2002  Search this
National Urban League Guild, American, founded 1946  Search this
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), International, founded 1844  Search this
Alliance for Women in Media, American, founded 1951  Search this
Eleanor Holmes Norton, American, born 1937  Search this
Vernon Jordan, American, born 1935  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 1/2 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1981
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.15
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5af48a13c-8c71-4105-9526-479c0bc3bb3e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.15
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Engineers and Engineering Firms

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1848-1964, undated
Scope and Contents:
This subseries is comprised of materials from firms engaged in various activities in the engineering field, including machine and structural design; drafting; surveying; tool and machine repair and maintenance; consulting and inspection; and the manufacture of machine parts and factory equipment. The series consists of business cards; brochures, catalogs, and pamphlets; invoices and business correspondence; and handbills and other types of advertising matter. Bulk dates for this series are 1870-1930. Most firms in this series were based in the cities of the industrial North, especially Philadelphia, Boston, New York, and Chicago. A few items are from companies headquartered in other states and foreign countries. The material is arranged alphabetically by firm name.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Engineering, Subseries 1
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering / Business Records, Marketing Material, and Other
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8fe0856f9-3dc3-4648-98ba-92a418c60971
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-engineering-ref530

Oversize Miscellaneous

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Oversize 60, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1868-1929
Scope and Contents:
Oversize material includes advertisements, structure designs, and business records.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel / Subject
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8313a827f-aaf5-4cac-ab56-0af88fa6e81c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-steel-ref12

Lockwood-Greene Records

Creator:
Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated  Search this
Lockwood-Greene Company  Search this
Whitman, David  Search this
Greene, Stephen  Search this
Lockwood, Amos  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (233 boxes, 850 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs
Trade literature
Date:
1784-2004, undated
bulk 1915-1930
Summary:
The engineering firm that became Lockwood Greene was founded by David Whitman, a mill engineer, in 1832. Amos D. Lockwood, a consultant, succeeded Whitman and entered a partnership with Stephen Greene in 1882. The firm specialized in industrial engineering and construction; they designed and built a wide variety of structures and work environments worldwide over the next century. Lockwood Greene was acquired by CH2M HILL in December, 2003. Before its acquisition by CH2MHILL it was reportedly the oldest industrial engineering, construction, and professional services firm in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Lockwood Greene records are a comprehensive range of documents related to the appraisal, building, construction, design, evaluation, and engineering of facilities for a variety of clients. The material covers the entire period of industrialization of the United States, and, provides a thorough record of the textile industry, both in New England and the South. Some of the textile mills are documented with unusual completeness, showing water and steam power layouts, factory village plans, and landscaping schedules. A broad range of other building typologies is also covered, including projects with public or retail functions, such as early automobile showrooms, hospitals, apartments and private dwellings, churches, and schools.

In-depth study of the company's earliest history is hampered by a scarcity of records, many of which were lost in the great fire that destroyed Boston's city center in 1872. Nevertheless, graphic and textual evidence does exist within the collection that illuminates these early projects, in addition to the fabric of surviving buildings. The Lockwood Greene records document several commissions that the firm would return to again and again over the course of many decades as clients requested plant additions, upgrades to mechanical and operating systems, and other substantive changes. Researchers are encouraged to examine the blueprints, elevations, and plans for these later additions in order to find illustrations of the firm's earlier interventions at the site. In addition to drawings, other visual evidence for nineteenth-century projects can be found in the company's extensive photo files, which often document structures for which drawings do not exist.

The Lockwood Greene records contain an abundance of graphic and textual evidence for structures designed after 1910 until the 1930s. After this period, visual documentation becomes much more limited. This is partially due to the evolution of drafting tools and information management technologies within the architecture and engineering profession. Lockwood Greene was an early adopter of technological innovations in rendering and data capture, beginning with the introduction of aperture cards and microfilm and extending to the adoption of computer-aided design (CAD) programs. These more modern formats were not part of the acquisition, and, at the time of writing, still reside with the company.

The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of interest to historians of architecture and engineering, as well as those that study the history of business and labor relations. It provides extensive textual and documentary evidence on the evolution and growth of American engineering and the increasing professionalization of the discipline through specialization during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rich holdings of architectural drawings, photographs, and specifications provide unparalleled resources that trace the evolution of industrial buildings and their typologies; experimentation with building materials and systems, particularly with regards to fireproofing; and the history of textile manufacture in the United States. In addition, there is also rich visual and documentary evidence of the changing relationships between corporations and their employees through photographs, plans, and designs for company towns and mill villages, as well as through corporate records that illustrate the work culture of Lockwood Greene itself. The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of special interest to historic preservationists as the awareness of the significance of industrial and vernacular buildings continues to grow, and detailed design drawings and other visual material will be of especial value for restoration, rehabilitation, and adaptive-reuse projects.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Project Drawings, Renderings, and Plans, 1784-1969, undated

Series 2, Photographs and Slides, 1881-2001, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photo Albums, 1906-1934

Subseries 2.2: Photographic Files, 1881-1956

Subseries 2.3: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1948-1974

Subseries 2.4: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1919-1999

Subseries 2.5: Project Negatives and Transparencies, 1956-1970

Subseries 2.6: Project Slides and Transparencies, 1985-2001

Subseries 2.7: Project Slides and Transparencies, Culls, 1974-2001

Subseries 2.8: Project Slides and Transparencies, Corporate Photography, 1976-1998

Subseries 2.9: Photograph Album Covers, 1920, undated

Series 3: Job Files, 1872-1957, undated

Subseries 3.1, Specifications, 1913-1942, undated

Subseries 3.2: List of Drawings, 1872-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3: Project Files, 1919-1969, undated

Subseries 3.4: Reports, 1913-1969

Subseries 3.5: Job Cost Records, 1913-1957, undated

Series 4, Corporate Records and History, 1881-2004, undated

Subseries 4.1: Meeting Minutes, 1913-1995

Subseries 4.2: Corporate Files, 1891-2004, undated

Subseries 4.3: Historical Research and Reference Files and Photographs, 1881-1983, undated

Subseries 4.4: Corporate Publications, 1917-2001, undated

Series 5, Non-Lockwood Greene Publications, 1910-1984, undated

Series 6, Audio-Visual, 1964
Biographical / Historical:
Lockwood Greene, one of the nation's oldest engineering firms, traces it roots to 1832, when Rhode Island native David Whitman began a machinery repair service. Riding the wave of the early industrial revolution in textile manufacturing, Whitman added mill design services to his repertoire, which formed the backbone of a flourishing consulting business for the rest of the century. Whitman was one of the first itinerant mill engineers or "doctors" that traveled throughout New England advising various industrialists on the placement, design, and construction of their factories and the layout of the complicated system of machinery and shafting that they contained. His largest commission was the design of the Bates Manufacturing Company complex in Lewiston, Maine, which was incorporated in 1850 and soon became one of the largest textile producers in New England.

Upon Whitman's death in 1858, his unfinished work was assumed by Amos D. Lockwood, a prominent mill agent and astute businessman who had built a name for himself in Connecticut and Rhode Island. The successful completion of the projects at Lewiston brought enough additional demand for Lockwood's services to prompt him to relocate to Boston, where he formally opened an independent consulting office with partner John W. Danielson in 1871. For the next ten years, A.D. Lockwood & Company was involved in a least eight major mill design projects, half of which were for new construction. One of these projects, the design and construction of the Piedmont Manufacturing Company in Greenville (now Piedmont), South Carolina was especially significant and is considered to be a prototype for the Southern textile industry.

In 1882, Lockwood established a new business, Lockwood, Greene and Company, with Stephen Greene, a professionally-trained civil engineer who had joined the firm in 1879. As the firm grew, it expanded its scope as consultants supplying all of the necessary architectural and engineering services a prospective owner needed to initiate, equip, and run a complete plant. Acting as the owners' representative, the company supervised construction and installation but did not directly act as builders or contractors. Lockwood

Greene's objective expertise was legendary and made it a leader in this emergent field. As Samuel B. Lincoln explains in his history of the company:

"The new firm's knowledge and experience in the textile industry enabled it to analyze samples of cloth and, from such samples, to provide everything necessary for a completed plant to make such goods in any desired quantity. It did not at any time act as selling agents for machinery or equipment, neither did it accept commissions or rebates from suppliers: by this policy it maintained a position as impartial and independent engineer." (pages 105-107)

Greene became president of the company upon Lockwood's death in 1884. Under his leadership, the company expanded into additional industries and designed an array of other industrial building types that would prefigure the diversity of later work. In 1893, the company revolutionized American industry by designing and constructing the first factory whose operating power was provided entirely over electric wires from a remote power plant, rather than relying upon a water source or a stockpiled fuel supply. The Columbia Mills project created a great deal of publicity for the firm and was a signal to other manufacturers that there were viable alternatives to the use of steam power.

As changing economic conditions led Lockwood Greene to move away from its traditional reliance upon the textile manufacturing industry, it was very successful at soliciting projects for a wide variety of structures, from newspaper plants and automotive factories to convention halls and schools. After 1900, Lockwood Greene expanded its operations and opened branch offices in other cities, including Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Detroit, Atlanta, and Charlotte. In 1915, Edwin F. Greene, president and son of Stephen Greene, reorganized the firm as Lockwood, Greene & Company, Incorporated This new entity served as the parent company and controlled three subsidiaries: one to own and operate cotton mills that Greene had acquired; one to manage other companies' textile mills; and one to provide engineering services.

Lockwood Greene expanded its operations tremendously as the textile industry boomed under wartime demand and in the years following. The severe textile depression from 1923 to 1928 caused the collapse of this structure, however, as Lockwood Greene continued to suffer deep losses in the textile mills that it owned. The parent company was dissolved in 1928 and the engineering subsidiary, which had remained profitable, was salvaged as Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated.

After a rocky start with the onset of the Depression, the company began to prosper during the Second World War and its growth continued steadily throughout the next several decades. In the late 1960s, as a result of declining business, the company's headquarters was transferred from Boston to Spartanburg, South Carolina. In 1981, Phillipp Holtzman USA, a subsidiary of Phillipp Holtzman AG of Frankfurt, Germany, acquired a majority interest in Lockwood Greene. In 2003, CH2M Hill, a global provider of engineering, construction, and operations services based in Denver, Colorado, acquired the company.

From its beginnings under David Whitman, Lockwood Greene has become one of the most diversified engineering firms in the United States. The firm is best known as a designer of industrial and institutional buildings, but the company has become a leader in many additional areas in recent years. Lockwood Greene dominates the market in the design and production of the germ- and dust-free "clean room" facilities required by the pharmaceutical industry and micro-electronics manufacturers. The company has also developed expertise in designing integrated security and networking systems for industrial plants, international port facilities, and military installations worldwide.

Banham, Raynor. A Concrete Atlantis: U.S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture, 1900-1925. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.

Biggs, Lindy. The Rational Factory: Architecture, Technology, and Work in America's Age of Mass Production. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Bradley, Betsy Hunter. The Works: The Industrial Architecture of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Greene, Benjamin Allen. Stephen Greene: Memories of His Life, with Addresses, Resolutions and Other Tributes of Affection. Chicago, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company, 1903.

Heiser, William J. Lockwood Greene, 1958-1968, Another Period in the History of an Engineering Business. Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated, 1970.

Lincoln, Samuel B. Lockwood Greene: The History of an Engineering Business, 1832-1958. Brattleboro, Vermont: The Stephen Greene Press, 1960.

Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated The Lockwood Greene Story: One-Hundred-Fifty Years of Engineering Progress. Spartanburg, South Carolina: Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated; undated.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Instituion Libraries

"[Trade catalogs from Lockwood, Greene & Co.]", Trade Literature at the American History Museum Books, Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Lockwood Greene, Spartanburg, South Carolina, 1997 (original drawings). An addendum to the collection was donated by CH2M HILL in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. One film is tored at an off-site facility and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Architects  Search this
Architecture, Commercial  Search this
Architecture, Domestic  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Construction industry  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Textile mills  Search this
Mills  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Industrial buildings -- Design and construction  Search this
Industrial buildings  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Factories -- Power supply  Search this
Factories -- Design and construction  Search this
Factories  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Commercial buildings  Search this
Electric power production  Search this
Genre/Form:
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 21st century
Photographs -- 20th century
Trade literature
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Lockwood Greene Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1113
See more items in:
Lockwood-Greene Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85090342a-0c7e-4667-8b37-fa0e8309b5ac
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1113
Online Media:

Three generations of Frost architecture in the New York area : photo album, 1985

Creator:
Frost, Frederick G., 1907-1991  Search this
Subject:
Frost, A. Corwin  Search this
Frost, Frederick G.  Search this
Frederick G. Frost, Jr. and Associates  Search this
Frederick G. Frost, Architects  Search this
Frost Associates  Search this
Citation:
Three generations of Frost architecture in the New York area : photo album, 1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Architecture -- New York Metropolitan Area  Search this
Theme:
Architecture & Design  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8205
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210376
AAA_collcode_frosfred
Theme:
Architecture & Design
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210376

Hilaire Hiler papers, 1925-1966

Creator:
Hiler, Hilaire, 1898-1966  Search this
Subject:
Birren, Faber  Search this
Boldt, O'Brien  Search this
Boyle, Kay  Search this
Connelly, Marc  Search this
Crosby, Caresse  Search this
Cunard, Nancy  Search this
Cunningham, Ben  Search this
Ferren, John  Search this
Flax, Jerome  Search this
Herz, Jay H.  Search this
Hirschfeld, Al  Search this
Holty, Carl  Search this
Inverarity, Robert Bruce  Search this
Kepes, Gyorgy  Search this
Kuh, Katharine  Search this
Lavell, Charles  Search this
Lebrun, Rico  Search this
Léger, Fernand  Search this
Levi, Albert William  Search this
Mathews, Paul  Search this
Miller, Henry  Search this
Moran, Jim  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Ray, Man  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad  Search this
Schapiro, Meyer  Search this
Schnakenberg, H. E. (Henry Ernest)  Search this
Snow, C. P. (Charles Percy)  Search this
Varèse, Edgard  Search this
Wells, H. G. (Herbert George)  Search this
Williams, William Carlos  Search this
Wittenborn, George  Search this
Hiler, Hilaire  Search this
America's Artists in Particular  Search this
Foundation for Integrated Education  Search this
Type:
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Hilaire Hiler papers, 1925-1966. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Research and writing about art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9015
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211204
AAA_collcode_hilehila
Theme:
Diaries
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Research and writing about art
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211204

Nicholas C. Mandragos Papers

Creator:
Mandragos, Nicholas C., 1896- (engineer)  Search this
Mandragos, Frieda  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Engineering  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (10 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Instructional materials
Lecture notes
Date:
1905-1964, undated
Summary:
The papers of immigrant engineer Nicholas C. Mandragos.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists almost entirely of notes Mandragos used as the basis for lectures to his engineering classes. They cover various problem areas: stress analysis of structures, strength of materials, hydraulics and other technical aspects of structural design. There are also a few notes Mandragos made as a student in the 1920s and 1930s. The notes are carefully hand printed with detailed technical drawings, sometimes in photocopy. They are arranged alphabetically by subject, usually with dates.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Nicholas C, Mandragos was born on the Greek island of Symi in 1896, was educated at the Salvago Professional School in Alexandria, Egypt, at New York University and at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. He received a bachelor of science degree in engineering at the latter institution plus 21 points of graduate studies. After being employed as a structural engineer by New York Central RR, 1926 1937, Mandragos was employed in research during World War II at the War and Navy Depts. He also lectured on photoelasticity at George Washington University 1943 1949 and was an associate professor there 1947 1949; later he was a consulting engineer.
Separated Materials:
Instruments and models are housed in the the Division of Work and Industry.
Provenance:
This material was donated to NMAH, together with several instruments and models relating to materials testing, in October 1992 by Mr. Mandragos' widow, Frieda Mandragos.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hydraulic engineering -- 1920-1960  Search this
Concrete -- 1920-1960  Search this
Strength of materials -- 1920-1960  Search this
Tolerance (Engineering) -- 1920-1960  Search this
Engineers -- 1920-1960  Search this
Engineering -- Study and teaching -- 1920-1960  Search this
Structural engineering -- 1920-1960  Search this
Genre/Form:
Instructional materials
Lecture notes
Citation:
Nicholas C. Mandragos Papers, 1927-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Frieda Mandragos.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0484
See more items in:
Nicholas C. Mandragos Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8fc18fd5e-0a03-421f-ac93-ea933d86f5d2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0484

Audio Log Sheets

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Collection Rights:
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Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2017 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2017 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2017 Smithsonian Folklife Festival / Series 4: On The Move / 4.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5e871ee6c-988a-4aec-97fe-ac1f8a7dced6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-2017-ref1019
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Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records

Creator:
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Co.  Search this
Names:
Atlantic City Railroad  Search this
Mine Hill & Schuylkill Haven Railroad  Search this
Reading Belt Railroad  Search this
Bines, William H.  Search this
Boggs, George B.  Search this
Buckholz, Charles W.  Search this
Byers, Charles E.  Search this
Chamberlain, E.C.  Search this
Davis, N.M.  Search this
Gowen, Franklin B.  Search this
Jamison, Robert  Search this
Keim, George DeB  Search this
Lorenz, William  Search this
Manning, Charles P.  Search this
Nichols, Henry K.  Search this
Rice, George  Search this
Richardson, F.E.  Search this
Royers, John H.  Search this
Steele, J. Dutton  Search this
Thompson, J.W.  Search this
Whitney, E.S.  Search this
Wilson, H.T.  Search this
Wootten, John E.  Search this
Yarington, T.O.  Search this
Zacharias, H.C.  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Transportation  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Engineering and Industry  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (78 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Right of way deeds
Reports
Letterpress copybooks
Mechanical drawings
Estimates
Financial statements
Circular letters
Bills
Accident reports
Correspondence
Place:
Lackawanna County (Pa.)
Luzerne County (Pa.)
Cressona (Pa.)
Harrisburg (Pa.)
Norristown (Pa.)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
New Jersey
Sumerton (Pa.)
Cheltenham (Pa.)
Sunbury (Pa.)
Reading (Pa.)
Trenton (N.J.)
Schuylkill County (Pa.)
Pennsylvania
Date:
1860-1936
Summary:
Collection of engineering reports and correspondence from the Engineering Department of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company. The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was most used for the transportation of anthracite coal within Pennsylvania from 1833 through the early 1970s.
Scope and Contents:
Primarily outgoing correspondence from the Engineering Department of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Company, the remainder being engineering reports and other miscellaneous papers.

Series 1: Letterpress Copybooks consists of 219 volumes from various engineers, each with own index (1865-1892): were generated by Chief Engineer, Assistant Chief Engineer, various resident engineers, other lower-level engineers, and the Chief Road-Master. Bulk of copybooks created by William H. Bines and Henry K. Nichols during long careers with the Philadelphia & Reading. Other volumes contain letters and reports by Charles W. Buckholz, Charles E. Byers, William Lorenz, and others. Correspondence covers all aspects of the engineering operations of the railroad, much of it at highest levels, being addressed to the Presidents of the Reading. Also includes one letterbook from John E. Wooten (1865), Superintendent.

Series 2: Reports of Chief Engineer to Auditor, 1908-1910; structural design calculation notebooks, 1901-1935; right of way deeds, 1903; and tracings of assorted machine parts.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Letterpress Copybooks, 1866-1870

Series 2: Chief Engineer Standard Plans, 1904-1942 Series 3: Construction Reports, 1901-1913

Series 4: Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) Valuation of Railroads, 1913-1922

Series 5: Reports and Miscellaneous Papers, 1860-1936
Biographical / Historical:
This railroad was chartered in 1833 to provide low-cost transportation from the Schuylkill and Mahanoy anthracite coal fields in eastern Pennsylvania to Philadelphia. Main line from Philadelphia to Pottsville opened 1842. Reading expanded by acquiring other railroads, and by 1869 had monopoly of coal traffic from Schuylkill anthracite region.

Expansion accelerated when Franklin B. Gowen became president (1869) and attempted to dominate entire anthracite trade. Purchased Schuylkill Canal (1870) to eliminate competition for coal trade; then organized the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company in 1871 to purchase and operate coal mines; secured over 40 percent of U.S. anthracite reserves, but debt incurred led railroad to bankruptcy and receivership (1880). Gowen's reckless style drove the Reading into second receivership (1886), and he was forced to resign.

Gowen's Successor, Archibald A. McLeod, tried to increase company control over anthracite trade (1892-1893), then control of several New England railroads. The Reading went bankrupt again and McLeod was ousted. In a reorganization (1896), the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad and the Coal & Iron Company became properties of the Reading Company, a holding company. Later additions to system were infrequent and largely confined to short branches and improvements inalignment. Due to anti-trust proceedings, company divested mining subsidiary (1923) and merged wholly owned railroad companies into an operating company. Acquired Lehigh & Susquehanna Railroad 1963, went bankrupt in early 1970s, and conveyed portions of its lines to Conrail (1976). The reorganized Reading Company retains real estate and other non-rail holdings.
Related Materials:
Hagley Museum & Library, Manuscripts & Archives Department, P.O. Box 3630, Wilmington, Delaware 19807.
Provenance:
Collection donated by the Reading Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 1960s.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroad accidents  Search this
Railroad engineering  Search this
Railroads -- New Jersey  Search this
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Coal mines and mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Coal -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Railroad companies -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Railroad engineers  Search this
Coal -- Transportation  Search this
Anthracite coal industry  Search this
Railroads -- Surveying  Search this
Railroad tracks  Search this
Railroads -- Maintenance and repair  Search this
Railroads -- Signalling  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Railroads -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Right of way deeds
Reports
Letterpress copybooks
Mechanical drawings
Estimates
Financial statements
Circular letters
Bills
Accident reports
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0208
See more items in:
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e44f13bf-04bf-4b9e-a922-1f180aa7a596
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0208

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