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Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Glassware

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
4.89 Cubic feet (consisting of 10.5 boxes, 2 folders, 5 oversize folders, 2 map case folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Business cards
Publications
Trade catalogs
Advertisements
Sales catalogs
Business letters
Printed materials
Receipts
Printed material
Invoices
Illustrations
Business ephemera
Letterheads
Design patents
Advertising mail
Patents
Print advertising
Catalogs
Sales records
Advertising
Trade cards
Advertising fliers
Periodicals
Catalogues
Manufacturers' catalogs
Advertising cards
Commercial correspondence
Ephemera
Printed ephemera
Manuals
Reports
Commercial catalogs
Trade literature
Sales letters
Legal documents
Correspondence
Mail order catalogs
Date:
1804-1967
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Glassware forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Covers glassware in its many forms and application including in building design and sculpture, both as a structural and an aesthetic component, in lighting, in art as a medium and as a method to protect and display art (picture frames, cases, etcetera.), in industry (insulators, electronics), in transportation (lighthouses, railroad signal glasses, headlamps), and in science with medical and lab supplies and instruments, and equipment such as telescopes. Daily and practical use consumer products feature prominently in the form of household and decorative goods (jarring, canning, dish and serving ware, daily and special use), windows, lamps and lighting, storage of liquids and solids, including detergents, medicine storage, plus beverages and foodstuffs, and cleaning of glass. Colored, ornamental, ground, etched, leaded, stained, and mosaic glasswork related material appears sporadically. China and other ceramic and pottery breakable wear is sometimes categorized along with clear, cut, opaque, and colored glass. Related aspects, such as stoppers, are also included.

Collection materials represent a sampling of businesses and products. The Patent and Design folder has numerous submission summaries, along with schematics, some hand drawn, and a few blueprints, mostly related to bottle design. A limited amount of industry publications and union documents are present, especially for the Glass Workers.
Arrangement:
Glassware is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre

Subject
Partial List of Companies in the Oversize Materials:
Oversize materials include, but are not limited to the following companies:

Averbeck, M.J., New York, NY

Cleveland Glass Works, Cleveland, NY

Cold Spring Distilling Company Cincinatti, OH

Craft House Williamsburg Restoration, Inc. Williamsburg, VA

Cullen & Newman Knoxville, TN

French, Richards, and Company Philadelphia, PA

Glassware: Union Wages and Rules

Jones, Thomas New York, NY

Libby Owens Ford Class Company Manufacturers of Safety Glass Location unknown

Metropolitan Plate Glass Insurance Company New York, NY

Morgantown, WV

New Jersey Plate Glass Insurance Company Newark, NJ

New York Plate Glass Insurance Company New York, NY

Seneca Glass Company

Smalley, A.G. and Company Boston, MA

Woods, Sherwood and Company Lowell, MA
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Glassware is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Glass artists  Search this
Stained glass artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Stained glass artists  Search this
Topic:
Glass manufacture  Search this
Glassware  Search this
Glassware -- Catalogs  Search this
Glass art -- United States -- 20th century  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Mail-order business -- Catalogs  Search this
Retail trade  Search this
Sales promotion  Search this
Trade associations  Search this
advertising -- Business ephemera  Search this
Mosaics  Search this
Etching -- Technique  Search this
Windows  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records
Business cards
Publications -- Business
Trade catalogs
Advertisements
Sales catalogs
Business letters
Printed materials
Receipts
Printed material
Invoices
Illustrations
Business ephemera
Letterheads
Design patents
Advertising mail
Patents
Print advertising
Catalogs
Sales records
Advertising
Trade cards
Advertising fliers
Periodicals
Catalogues
Manufacturers' catalogs
Advertising cards
Commercial correspondence
Ephemera
Printed ephemera
Manuals
Reports
Commercial catalogs
Publications
Trade literature
Sales letters
Legal documents
Correspondence
Mail order catalogs
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Glassware, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Glassware
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Glassware
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-glassware
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Judith Schaechter, 2011 July 19-20

Interviewee:
Schaechter, Judith, 1961-  Search this
Schaechter, Judith, 1961-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Subject:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Stained glass artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Interviews  Search this
Women artists -- Pennsylvania -- Interviews  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15989
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)305478
AAA_collcode_schaec11
Theme:
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_305478
Online Media:

Henry Lee Willet papers and business records, 1885-1985

Creator:
Willet, Henry Lee, 1899-1983  Search this
Willet Stained Glass and Decorating Company  Search this
Willet, Henry Lee, 1899-1983  Search this
Subject:
Willet, Anne Lee  Search this
Willet, William  Search this
Topic:
Stained glass industry -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Glass painting and staining -- United States  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Craft  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7152
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209286
AAA_collcode_willhenr
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Craft
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209286

Lawrence Bradford Saint papers, 1907-1940

Creator:
Saint, Lawrence B., 1885-1961  Search this
Saint, Lawrence B., 1885-1961  Search this
Topic:
Glass painting and staining -- United States  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Theme:
Art Materials, Techniques, and Studio Art Education  Search this
Craft  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10602
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214078
AAA_collcode_sainlawr
Theme:
Art Materials, Techniques, and Studio Art Education
Craft
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214078

Judith Schaechter papers, 1961-2019

Creator:
Schaechter, Judith, 1961-  Search this
Schaechter, Judith, 1961-  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)21738
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)399079
AAA_collcode_schajudi
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_399079

Violet Oakley papers, 1841-1981

Creator:
Oakley, Violet, 1874-1961  Search this
Oakley, Violet, 1874-1961  Search this
Subject:
Pennsylvania State Capitol (Harrisburg, Pa.)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Diaries
Glass plate negatives
Renderings
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Visitors' books
Sketches
Topic:
Women artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Artists' materials  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- United States  Search this
Painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9580
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211781
AAA_collcode_oaklviol
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211781
Online Media:

Violet Oakley autograph and photograph, 1902

Creator:
Oakley, Violet, 1874-1961  Search this
Oakley, Violet, 1874-1961  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Women painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Audio - Visual  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10321
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213523
AAA_collcode_oaklviap
Theme:
Women
Audio - Visual
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213523

Oral history interview with Judith Schaechter

Interviewee:
Schaechter, Judith, 1961-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Extent:
148 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2011 July 19-20
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Judith Schaechter conducted 2011 July 19-20, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Schaechter's home and studio, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Biographical / Historical:
Judith Schaechter (1961- ) is glass artist in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Mija Riedel (1958- ) is a curator and writer of San Francisco, California.
General:
Originally recorded as 6 sound files. Duration is 5 hr., 22 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Stained glass artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Interviews  Search this
Women artists -- Pennsylvania -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.schaec11
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-schaec11

Judith Schaechter papers

Creator:
Schaechter, Judith, 1961-  Search this
Extent:
15.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1961-2019
Scope and Contents:
The papers of craft artist Judith Schaechter measure 15.9 linear feet and date from 1961-2019. Included are biographical material; correspondence; writings; project files; artists' files; photographs and albums of Schaechter, friends, family, exhibitions and source material; printed material; artwork including sketches, sketchbooks and designs. Also included are two t-shirts, CDs and fabric that Schaechter created designs for. A portion of the material is in electronic format.
Biographical / Historical:
Judith Schaechter (1961- ) is a craft artist and sculptor known for her work in stained-glass, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 2019 by Judith Schaechter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of born digital records with no duplicate copy requires advance notice.
ACCESS RESTRICTED; use requires written permission.
Occupation:
Stained glass artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Sculptors -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.schajudi
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-schajudi

Henry Lee Willet papers and business records

Creator:
Willet, Henry Lee, 1899-1983  Search this
Willet Stained Glass and Decorating Company  Search this
Names:
Willet, Anne Lee, 1867-1943  Search this
Willet, William, 1868-1921  Search this
Extent:
9.4 Linear feet ((on 11 microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1885-1985
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material; photographs; correspondence; printed material; writings; financial material and scrapbooks.
Biographical / Historical:
Stained glass artist, lecturer; Philadelphia, Penn.
Provenance:
Material on reel P5 lent for microfilming, 1954, by the Free Library of Philadelphia. Material on reels 3786-3795 donated, 1984, by E. Crosby Willet as part of AAA's Philadelphia Arts Documentation Project.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm.
Occupation:
Stained glass artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Topic:
Stained glass industry -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Glass painting and staining -- United States  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.willhenr
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-willhenr

Violet Oakley papers

Creator:
Oakley, Violet, 1874-1961  Search this
Names:
Pennsylvania State Capitol (Harrisburg, Pa.)  Search this
Extent:
56.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Diaries
Glass plate negatives
Renderings
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Visitors' books
Sketches
Date:
1841-1981
Summary:
The papers of painter, stained glass artist, and muralist Violet Oakley measure 56.4 linear feet and date from 1841-1981. Found within the papers are biographical materials; personal and business correspondence; writings, including essays, lectures, and project drafts; diaries and journals; financial material; artwork; printed material, including scrapbooks; and photographs, 3 albums, 322 glass plate negatives, and 1600 film negatives of Oakley, her family and friends, and her work.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter, stained glass artist, and muralist Violet Oakley measure 56.4 linear feet and date from 1841-1981. Found within the papers are biographical materials; personal and business correspondence; writings, including essays, lectures, and project drafts; diaries and journals; financial material; artwork; printed material, including scrapbooks; and photographs, 3 albums, 322 glass plate negatives, and 1600 film negatives of Oakley, her family and friends, and her work.

Biographical materials include certificates, family records, curriculum vitae, and identification cards, and studio guest books. About one-half of the collection is comprised of correspondence with family, friends, and business associates. Writings include Oakley's notes, essays and lectures, and writings related to 16 of her major artworks and publications, including her work on the Pennsylvania Capitol murals in Harrisburg. Diaries and journals include Oakley's travel notes and research on planned artworks.

Financial materials include a catalog of artworks and price lists, accounting records, and art supply receipts. Artwork includes early childhood juvenilia, a sketchbook, sketches of travel and friends, architectural renderings, and artwork by others. Printed materials include books, clippings, exhibition catalogs, programs, and reproductions of artwork by Oakley and others. Photographic materials include photographs, albums, and negatives depicting Oakley, her friends and family, her studio at Cogslea, and reproductions of artwork.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series. A comprehensive index of individidual correspondents for the chronological correspondence is found in the first folder of the chronological correspondence in box 5, folder 41. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers, but listed where they fall intellectually within the collection.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1841-1970 (2.8 linear feet; Boxes 1-3, OV 69, OV 71)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1857-1979 (26.7 linear feet; Boxes 3-30)

Series 3: Notes and Writings, 1899-1976 (10.6 linear feet; Boxes 30-38, 58-64, OV 66, OV 70)

Series 4: Diaries and Journals, 1891-1958 (0.9 linear feet, Boxes 38-39)

Series 5: Financial Material, 1874-1977 (3.1 linear feet; Boxes 39-42)

Series 6: Artwork, 1883-1955 (0.7 linear feet; Boxes 43-43, 64, OV 67, OV 71)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1866-1981 (7.3 linear feet, Boxes 43-50, 65, OV 67)

Series 8: Photographs, 1890-1980 (5.3 linear feet; Boxes 50-57, 65, OV 68)
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, muralist, and stained glass designer Violet Oakley (1874-1961) lived and worked in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and was known for her Renaissance-revival style of art and the series of murals she completed for the Pennsylvania State Capitol.

Born in Bergen Heights, New Jersey, to a family of artists, both of Violet Oakley's grandfathers were painters and members of the National Academy. In 1892, she began her art studies at the Art Students' League and traveled abroad a year later to study in Paris at the Academie Montparnasse, and in England with Charles Lazar. Upon her return to the states in 1896, she continued her studies at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and at Drexel Institute with Howard Pyle.

For fourteen years, Oakley shared her early studios at Red Rose Inn and Cogslea Estate with fellow artists and illustrators Elizabeth Shippen Green and Jessie Willcox Smith. These two studio homes were managed by their friend Henrietta Cozens in a cooperative arrangement which allowed all three artists to focus on their work as commercial artists. Early in her career, Oakley designed covers for magazines such as Collier's Weekly and Century Magazine, and also found work as a stained glass designer for the Church Glass and Decorating Company of New York. In 1900, she received her first major commission to design and execute two large murals and six stained glass pieces for the All Angels' Church in New York City.

In 1902 Oakley was approached by architect Joseph Huston to design 13 murals for the Governor's reception room in the new Pennsylvania State Capitol in Harrisburg. She eventually completed two additional mural commissions for the Capitol's Senate (1911-1920) and Supreme Court (1917-1927) chambers. Her studies of William Penn in connection with her murals for the State Capitol inspired Oakley to work for international peace and eventually led to the publication of a portrait folio depicting League of Nations delegates (1932). Other significant works include murals, panels, and stained glass commissions completed for the Vassar College Alumni house, Charlton Yarnall house (Philadelphia), and Cuyuhoga County courthouse.

While working as an established artist, Oakley also taught courses at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, arranged a yearly lecture series, and published folios and other writings on topics ranging from art history to Christian Science under the Coslea Studios imprint. Her later studio, Lower Cogslea, was shared by artist and lifelong companion Edith Emerson, who after Oakley's death in 1961, established a memorial foundation in her name.

Oakley was the first woman elected to the National Society of Mural Painters, was a recipient of the Gold Medal of Honor of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and was the first woman to receive the Gold Medal of Honor from the Architectural League of New York. Her writings include The Holy Experiment: A Message to the World from Pennsylvania (1922) and Law Triumphant: The Opening of the Book of Law (1933).
Related Materials:
Also found among the holdings of the Archives of American Art are the Violet Oakley Memorial Foundation records and the Violet Oakley autograph and photograph. The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts holds the Violet Oakley Foundation Art Collection, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art holds the Violet Oakley Collection.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reels 1204, P12, 1187-1188, 1272, and 1194-1195).

Reel 1204 consists of two scrapbooks (circa 1896-1952) containing clippings from magazines of illustrations by Violet Oakley and her sister, Hester, and of Violet's murals for the State Capitol at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Reel P12 is of a scrapbook (1898-1936) containing a photograph of Oakely at her easel, clippings, and letters. Reels 1187-1188 consist of five scrapbooks (1920-1962) containing letters, clippings, exhibition announcements, catalogs, and awards. One of the scrapbooks is devoted to "The Holy Experiment", a limited edition publication by Oakley which commemorating William Penn, and which includes reproductions of Oakley's capitol murals in Harrisburg.

Reel 1272 contains two albums (circa 1900-1949) containing photos of Oakley working on murals in her studio, as well as her works of art, including stained glass windows at the Church of All Angels, New York; murals at the Harrisburg State Capitol; preliminary drawings and site photographs of "Dante's Window"; the lunettes and window for the Yarnall House; murals and preliminary drawings for the Cuyahoga Court House; the mural and dedication ceremonies for the Vassar Alumnae House; and photos and printed material on "Divine Presence--Christ at Geneva," "The Life of Moses," "Great Women of the Bible," and triptychs for the Army and Navy.

Reels 1194-1195 cobsist of photograph albums (circa 1870-1960) containing photographs of the Oakley and Swain families, of Violet Oakley, Edith Emerson, Jessie Willcox Smith, Elizabeth Shippen Green, friends, her home, Oakley's "Red Rose" studio in Villanova, Pennsylvania, her "Cogslea" studio in Philadelphia, and of her works of art, mainly portraits of her friends and of delegates to the League of Nations.

Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Violet Oakley first loaned the Archives of American Art materials for microfilming in 1959. Edith Emerson, Oakley's longtime friend and companion, donated and lent papers for microfilming in 1977 and 1984. The Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, who had received the papers from Emerson's estate, donated two feet of materials in 1988.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' research center in Washington, D.C.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Stained glass artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Muralists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Topic:
Women artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Artists' materials  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- United States  Search this
Painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Diaries
Glass plate negatives
Renderings
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Visitors' books
Sketches
Citation:
Violet Oakley papers, 1941-1981. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.oaklviol
See more items in:
Violet Oakley papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-oaklviol
Online Media:

William Reith Stained Glass Studios records

Creator:
William Reith Stained Glass Studios  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet ((on partial microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
[ca. 1885]
Scope and Contents:
Water color sketches; printed material collected for research purposes including prints of floors, paintings, and sculptures; and a lease for property.
Biographical / Historical:
Philadelphia, Pa. The studios are listed in Philadelphia Business Directories ca. 1875-1892.
Provenance:
Microfilmed in 1987 as part of AAA's Philadelphia Arts Documentation Project.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Stained glass artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Topic:
Glass painting and staining -- United States  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.willreit
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-willreit

Lawrence Bradford Saint papers

Creator:
Saint, Lawrence B., 1885-1961  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (microfilm reel)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1907-1940
Scope and Contents:
Clippings and articles about Saint, glass making from expert French glass makers, a glass making machine and his technique and formulas for making stained glass; technical writings by Saint; and drawings and photographs.
Biographical / Historical:
Stained glass artist, etcher and writer; Huntington Valley, PA. Director of the stained glass department at the Washington Cathedral, Washington, D.C.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming, 1954, by the Free Library of Philadelphia.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Stained glass artists -- Pennsylvania -- Huntington Valley  Search this
Topic:
Glass painting and staining -- United States  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.sainlawr
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sainlawr

Washington National Cathedral Stained Glass Formulae Collection

Creator:
Saint, Lawrence B., 1885-1961  Search this
Washington Cathedral  Search this
Extent:
9.3 Cubic feet (29 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Formulae, chemical
Glass samples
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1926-1936
Summary:
This collection consists of chemical formulae developed by Lawrence Saint for use in his stained glass work at the Washington National Cathedral. There are supporting samples, records, and notes.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 976 formulae developed by Lawrence Saint for making stained glass. A shoe box contains 3" x 5" index cards of the formulae. Included are duplicate formulae and some miscellaneous notes. There are also over eight hundred samples of glass for various formulae. Some of the formulae were missing when the collection was donated to the National Museum of American History. These are noted in the container list.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into three series.

Series 1, Formulae, 1927-1933

Series 2, Notes and Records, 1926-1936

Series 3, Glass Samples, 1927-1933
Biographical / Historical:
Lawrence B. Saint was born in Pittsburgh in 1885. The work he did with stained glass, especially filming (the process of making a work of stained glass, old or new, look as if it is from the Middle Ages), influenced glassmakers everywhere. At thirteen, Saint was employed in Goeddel's wallpaper store. While at Goeddel's, Saint made sketches which impressed J. Horace Ruby, a former Goeddel's employee. Saint then began working under Ruby at Ruby Brothers Stained Glass Company. Saint's chores in the studio were to grind paint, trace patterns, sweep the floors, and build fires in the pot-bellied stove. Saint worked in this studio for four years. He saved enough money to put himself through the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia.

After art school, Saint was employed by the H. F. Petgen Company of Pittsburgh to design a large rose window for the Roman Catholic Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in East Liberty, Pennsylvania. It was a mosaic of color with symbols of the four evangelists of Christ. During his last year in art school, Saint met his future wife, Katherine Wright. Their honeymoon in Europe provided Saint time to study and copy medieval stained glass. Saint made at least three visits to Europe and collected sample glass from Chartres and other cathedrals. When Saint returned to the United States he designed and painted windows for eleven years under the direction of Raymond Pitcairn, promoter of medieval arts at Bryn Athyn Cathedral in Pennsylvania. During this period, Saint started to portray figures from life to record the faces of his generation. Between visits to Europe, Saint completed six windows in eleven years. Three were figure windows, three were two small roses, and one was a grisaille window. Grisaille is a style of monochromatic painting in shades of gray, used especially for the representation of relief sculpture, or to simulate one. After his work at Bryn Athyn, Saint worked out of his own stained glass studio.

He then went to work for the Washington National Cathedral as head of its stained glass studio. He designed and executed fourteen windows for the Cathedral: the North Rose Window, nine choir aisle windows, and four others in the north transept aisles. Saint experimented with recapturing the reds, blues, and other vibrant colors achieved by medieval glass makers using formulae based on spectroscopic analyses of scraps of 13th century glass. While working for the Cathedral, a fire broke out in Saint's studio. Many windows and materials were destroyed including a window depicting Moses. Saint's most famous work for the Cathedral was the North Rose Window entitled, "The Last Judgment." This window cost $22,687 and took twelve men to create. Saint made his own glass and applied his own process for filming it. Upon completion, Saint's work was displayed at the Free Library of Philadelphia in 1957 and in other cities. Saint said, 'I trust that my material, made public, will lead others to improve on my work...".
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History) by the Washington National Cathedral, through Richard T. Feller in 1977.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Occupation:
Stained glass artists  Search this
Topic:
Glass, Colored  Search this
Glass painting and staining -- United States  Search this
Glass manufacture  Search this
Genre/Form:
Formulae, chemical
Glass samples
Citation:
Washington National Cathedral Stained Glass Formulae Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0090
See more items in:
Washington National Cathedral Stained Glass Formulae Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0090

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