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Alma Thomas papers

Creator:
Thomas, Alma  Search this
Names:
Art in Embassies Program (U.S.)  Search this
Martha Jackson Gallery  Search this
Bader, Franz, 1903-1994  Search this
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme, 1896-1986  Search this
Johnson, Nathalie J. Cole  Search this
Sarg, Tony, 1882-1942  Search this
Tarbary, Celine  Search this
Taylor, Joshua Charles, 1917-  Search this
Thomas, J. Maurice (John Maurice), 1900 or 1901-  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Audiocassettes
Video recordings
Photographs
Date:
circa 1894-2001
Summary:
The papers of Washington, D.C. painter and art educator Alma Thomas, date from circa 1894-2001 and measure 5.5 linear feet. The papers document Thomas's work as a teacher, and her development and success as a painter of the Washington Color School, through biographical material, letters, notes and writings, personal business records, exhibition files, printed materials, scrapbooks, photographs, an audio recording, and two video recordings.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of Washington, D.C. painter and art educator Alma Thomas, date from circa 1894-2001 and measure 5.5 linear feet. The papers document Thomas's work as a teacher, and her development and success as a painter of the Washington Color School, through biographical material, letters, notes and writings, personal business records, exhibition files, printed materials, scrapbooks, photographs, an audio recording, and two video recordings.

Biographical material includes identity cards, chronologies, an audio recording including a biographical account, and scattered documentation of Thomas's education and teaching careers with D.C. Public Schools, Howard University, and Thomas Garrett Settlement in Wilmington, Delaware. Also found are records relating to Thomas's participation in a summer marionette class taught by Tony Sarg in 1934, and a tour of European art centers which Thomas took in 1958.

Letters relate primarily to the exhibition of Thomas's work and related events and are from galleries, museums, other art institutions, colleagues, and friends including Franz Bader, Adelyn Breeskin, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Howard University Gallery of Art, Martha Jackson Gallery, Nathalie J. Cole Johnson, Vincent Melzac, Celine Tabary, and Joshua Taylor.

Notes and writings include four notebooks and autobiographical writings by Thomas, a "Birthday Book," and an annotated engagement calendar. J. Maurice Thomas's writings about Alma Thomas, her research for a bibliography on James Weldon Johnson, and writings by others, including Jacob Kainen, about Alma Thomas, are also found here.

Exhibition files contain a wide variety of documentation for many group and solo exhibitions of Thomas's work from the early 1950s through a 1998-2000 traveling retrospective exhibition, including solo exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Corcoran Gallery of Art in 1972. The records include letters from Franz Bader Gallery, David Driskell at Fisk University, and Vincent Melzac. Photographs include Thomas with individuals including William Buckner, Jeff Donaldson, David Driskell, James W. Herring, and Vincent Melzac. Also found is a photograph of the 1951 Little Paris Studio Group picturing Lois Mailou Jones, Celine Tabary, Alma Thomas, and others. Two video recordings are of events related to the 1998-2000 retrospective at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art and the Columbus Museum of Art. Records documenting a 1981-1982 exhibition at the Smithsonian National Museum of American Art, A Life in Art: Alma Thomas, includes the script of a video written by Adolphus Ealey.

Personal business records include price lists, gift and loan receipts, and files concerning the Art in Embassies Program, the Martha Jackson Gallery, a benefit auction for the Corcoran School of Art, and the designation of the Thomas family home in Washington, D.C. as a historic property.

Eleven scrapbooks document Thomas's teaching career through the activities of the art classes she taught at Shaw Junior High School.

Printed materials include announcements and catalogs for exhibitions and other events; clippings which document Thomas's career and subjects of interest to her; Christmas cards featuring block prints designed by Thomas; and other programs and publications featuring Thomas.

Photographs are of Alma Thomas, family, and friends and colleagues including Sam Gilliam, James V. Herring, and Nathalie V. Cole Johnson; art classes taught by Thomas; Thomas's homes in Columbus, Georgia and Washington, D.C.; and exhibitions not documented in Series 4: Exhibition Files, including photographs of Alma Thomas at an opening at Barnett Aden Gallery with Alonzo Aden and others.
Arrangement note:
The papers have been arranged into 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1911-2001 (Box 1; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Letters, circa 1930-2001 (Boxes 1-2; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Notes and Writings, circa 1920s-circa 1998 (Box 2; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1951-2000 (Boxes 2-3, OV 7; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Personal Business Records, circa 1950s-1994 (Box 3; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, circa 1908-2000 (Boxes 3-5, OV 7; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, 1930-1946 (Box 5; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1894-2001 (Boxes 5-6; 0.6 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Washington, D.C. painter and art educator Alma Thomas (1891-1978) was known for her abstract paintings filled with dense patterns of color, and was considered a major artist of the Washington Color School.

Thomas was born in Columbus, Georgia, in 1894, and was the eldest of the four daughters of John Harris Thomas and Amelia Cantey Thomas. The family moved to Washington, D.C. in 1906 and Thomas was first introduced to art classes at Armstrong Technical High School. Following her graduation in 1911 she took a course in kindergarten teaching at the Miner Normal School, and subsequently worked as a substitute teacher in the Washington, D.C. public school system until 1914, when she took a teaching position on the Eastern shore of Maryland. From 1916 to 1923 she taught kindergarten at Thomas Garrett Settlement House in Wilmington, Delaware.

Thomas originally enrolled at Howard University in Washington, D.C. as a home economics major in 1921, but after studying under Lois Mailou Jones amd James V. Herring in Herring's newly established art department, she earned a Bachelor's degree in Fine Art in 1924, and became the first person to graduate from the program. Thomas then began her teaching career at Shaw Junior High School in Washington, D.C. that lasted from 1924, until her retirement in 1960. During this time she established community arts programs that would encourage her students to develop an appreciation of fine arts. Activities included marionette programs, distribution of student-designed holiday menu cards for dinners given for soldiers at the Tuskegee Veterans' Hospital, art clubs, lectures, and student exhibitions. In 1943 she became the founding vice president of Barnett Aden Gallery, which was established by James V. Herring and Alonzo Aden and was the first integrated gallery in Washington, D.C.

In 1934 Thomas earned an M.A. degree in Art Education from Columbia University. At American University in Washington, D.C., she studied creative painting under Joe Summerford, Robert Gates, and Jacob Kainen from 1950 to 1960, and began to break away from representational painting and experiment more seriously with Abstract Expressionism. In 1958 she participated in a tour of the art centers of Western Europe under the auspices of the Tyler School of Fine Arts at Temple University in Philadelphia.

Following her retirement from teaching in 1960, Thomas devoted herself full-time to painting, and continued to develop her signature style. She was inspired by nature and the desire to express beauty through composition and color, and refused to be constrained by societal expectations related to her race, gender, and age, achieving her greatest success in the last decade of her life. Her work was exhibited at the Dupont Theatre Art Gallery, Franz Bader Gallery, and the Howard University Gallery of Art, before she was honored in 1972 with exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

Thomas's work has been exhibited at the White House and can be found in the permanent collections of major museums, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the National Museum of Women in the Arts, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Separated Materials note:
In 1979, J. Maurice Thomas loaned papers for microfilming. Most, but not all, of the loaned material was later donated and is described in this finding aid. Loaned materials not donated at a later date are available on reels 1541-1543 and are not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
J. Maurice Thomas, the artist's sister, loaned portions of the collection for microfilming in 1979. Most, but not all of this material was then later donated in several accretions by J. Maurice Thomas, between 1979 and 2004. Charles Thomas Lewis, Thomas' nephew, gave additional papers in 2010.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Educators -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Washington Color School (Group of artists)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Audiocassettes
Video recordings
Photographs
Citation:
Alma Thomas papers, circa 1894-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.thomalma
See more items in:
Alma Thomas papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-thomalma
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Online Media:

Lloyd A. Strickland Collection of 1936 Olympics Souvenir Materials

Creator:
McDermott, Joyce  Search this
Strickland, Lloyd A.  Search this
Names:
Hitler, Adolf, 1889-1945  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Books
Photographs
Collecting cards
Place:
Berlin (Germany)
Germany
Date:
1936
Summary:
Lloyd A. Strickland purchased these souvenir cards while attending the 1936 Olympic games in Berlin, Germany.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 149 photomechanical reproductions of scenes and events from the 1936 Berlin Olympics. The scenes are not only of the competition, but include opening and closing ceremonies, officials, crowd scenes, candid shots of the athletes while not competing, medal ceremonies, scoreboards, artworks, and close-ups of Olympic medals. Adolf Hitler appears in three of the souvenir cards. Athletes are pictured on the cards with printed captions. Some of the athletes pictured include Jesse Owens, and Kitei Son [i.e., Son Gi-jeong of Korea]. *

All but seven of the souvenir cards are 3 x 4-1/ 2", while the remainder are 4-1/ 2 x 6-1/ 2". The souvenir cards are part of a set, as they are numbered on the reverse up to the number 200 (not all numbers are present). The printed inscriptions on the reverse sides indicate that this is a follow-up set to another set from the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch. Each card also has a printed caption on the reverse, in German. Also included are two postcards of hotels: Hotel Bender and Niederbreisig, which have no clear connection to the Berlin Olympics.

The two albums, Die Olympischen Spiele 1936 in Berlin und Garmisch-Partenkirchen document the Olympic games through text and photographs of events and athletes. Both albums are in German.

* Note: When Korea was occupied by Japan (1910-1945), Son Gi-jeong competed for the Japanese in the 1936 summer Olympics, but was forced to use the Japanese name "Kitei Son," and this incorrect name was the one printed on the card.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into two series.

Series 1, Olympics Souvenir Cards, 1936

Series 2, Olympics Souvenir Albums, 1936
Biographical / Historical:
In 1931 the city of Berlin was awarded the summer Olympic games for 1936. The 1936 games (the 11 th Olympiad) featured athletes from 49 countries and some 4,000 athletes participated in 148 events. The games were memorable for many reasons, including the beginning of the tradition of the torch relay, advances in media coverage, and the introduction of canoeing and basketball as Olympic sports. But in particular, they are remembered for the politically charged atmosphere in which they took place, with World War II in Europe just three years away. With Adolf Hitler's election in 1933 and the Nazi Party's rise to power, the games were seen by those in power in Germany as a means to advance the Party's ideologies. As events unfolded and information spread about the persecution of Jews and others by the Nazis, there were more and more demands upon the International Olympic Committee to remove the games from Germany. These efforts did not succeed, and the German government went on to spend huge amounts of money to make the games successful. The Reich Sports Field, a new sports complex built for the summer games, was draped in Nazi regalia for the games. The success of a number of black athletes, notably American track and field star Jesse Owens, was a blow to the notions of "Aryan supremacy" touted by Hitler and the Nazis. The games proceeded to their conclusion without incident. The souvenir cards in this collection provide a cross-section of images of the games of the 11 th Olympiad.

Mr. Strickland had the souvenir cards in his possession for over 60 years.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives Center, by Lloyd A. Strickland in 2000.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Track and field  Search this
Olympics  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Sports cards  Search this
Sports -- Collectibles  Search this
Genre/Form:
Books -- 1930-1940
Photographs -- Reproductions -- 1930-1940
Collecting cards
Citation:
Lloyd A. Strickland Collection of 1936 Olympics Souvenir Cards, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0743
See more items in:
Lloyd A. Strickland Collection of 1936 Olympics Souvenir Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0743
Online Media:

Basket with cover

Culture/People:
Wabanaki  Search this
Previous owner:
Aurelius Piper, Paugussett (Paugusset), 1916-2008  Search this
Karen Coody Cooper, Cherokee Nation  Search this
James R. Roaix (Jim Roaix), Mohawk/Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Donor:
Karen Coody Cooper, Cherokee Nation  Search this
James R. Roaix (Jim Roaix), Mohawk/Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Object Name:
Basket with cover
Media/Materials:
Ash splints, sweetgrass, dye/dyes
Techniques:
Dyed, wicker-plaited
Dimensions:
6 x 12 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Trumbull; Fairfield County; Connecticut; USA
Date created:
1930-1940
Catalog Number:
26/3830
Barcode:
263830.000
See related items:
Wabanaki
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6357d189e-13f1-4039-882d-ccfc4c91f63b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_279981
Online Media:

World's Fair Souvenir Book / A Century of Progress, Chicago [book]

Creator:
Century of Progress International Exposition (1933-1934 : Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 7-1/4" x 10".)
Container:
Box 14, Folder 8
Culture:
Mayas  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Souvenirs
Photographs
Expositions
Books
Place:
Mexico
Uxmal Site (Mexico)
Date:
1934
Scope and Contents:
"Mayan Temple" page from spiral-bound book, the "World's Fair Souvenir Book, A Century of Progress, Chicago, 1934".
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001229.tif (AC Scan No.: Mayan Temple)
Exhibitions Note:
Displayed in Archives Center exhibition, "Americans Experience Mexico," Sept. 1-Nov. 30, 2010; Craig Orr, curator.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Gloves required with unprotected photographs.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions -- 1930-1940 -- Chicago (Ill.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Souvenirs -- 1930-1940
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Reproductions
Expositions
Books -- 1930-1940
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / CHICAGO / Souvenir books with general images of the fair
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref576
Online Media:

[Women athletes running in the Olympics in Berlin : black and white photoprint]

Collection Creator:
McDermott, Joyce  Search this
Strickland, Lloyd A.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3" x 5".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1936
Scope and Contents:
Photographer unidentified.
Local Numbers:
04074308.tif (AC Scan)
General:
In Box 1, Folder 3.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Olympics -- Berlin (Germany) -- 1936  Search this
Women track and field athletes -- 1936  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940
Collection Citation:
Lloyd A. Strickland Collection of 1936 Olympics Souvenir Cards, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Lloyd A. Strickland Collection of 1936 Olympics Souvenir Materials
Lloyd A. Strickland Collection of 1936 Olympics Souvenir Materials / Series 2: Olympics Souvenir Albums / 142 photographs, 3 x 4-1/2", depicting events from the 1936 Olympics
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0743-ref532

Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the World's Fair

Collector:
Orth, Edward J.  Search this
Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
130 Cubic feet (417 boxes, 23 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Souvenirs
Photographs
Pamphlets
Guidebooks
Date:
1835-1992
Summary:
Collection documents the 1939 New York World's Fair in Flushing Meadows, New York. Also includes materials on other world's fairs, the Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO), New York City tourism and Disney.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains the archival materials collected by Edward Orth including postcards, newspaper clippings, exhibitor's literature, photographs, scrapbooks, tickets, pamphlets, brochures, magazines, books, and motion picture film.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Edward J. Orth Personal Papers, 1939-1989

Subseries 1.1: Correspondence, 1939-1989

Subseries 1.2: Other Materials, 1915-1989

Series 2, Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization Records, 1942-1990

Subseries 2.1, Organizational History, 1960-1988

Subseries 2.2: Correspondence, 1942-1990

Subseries 2.3: Classified Ads, 1956-1988

Subseries 2.4: Financial Records, 1976-1989

Subseries 2.5: Newsletters, 1969-1988

Subseries 2.6: Membership applications, renewal notices and cancellations, 1977-1987

Series 3, New York World's Fair, Inc. Records, 1900-1988

Subseries 3.1: Administrative Files, 1900-1971

Subseries 3.2: Amusement Zone, 1937-1940

Subseries 3.3: Communications and Business Systems Zone, 1939-1965

Subseries 3.4: Community Interest Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.5: Food Zone, 1939-1975

Subseries 3.6: Government Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.7: Production and Distribution Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.8: Transportation Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.9: Ephemera, 1939-1988

Series 4, Photographic Materials, 1876-1969

Subseries 4.1: General

Subseries 4.2: Amusement Zone

Subseries 4.3: Business Systems Zone

Subseries 4.4: Communications Zone

Subseries 4.5: Community Interest Zone

Subseries 4.6: Food Zone

Subseries 4.7: Government Zone

Subseries 4.8: Production and Distribution Zone

Subseries 4.9: Transportation Zone

Subseries 4.20: Miscellaneous

Subseries 4.21: Oversize

Subseries 4.22: Color Slides

Subseries 4.23: Color Transparencies

Series 5, Scrapbooks, 1938-1981

Series 6, Postcards, 1906-1985

Series 7: Publications Related to World's Fairs, 1922-1989

Subseries 7.1: Magazines, 1922-1988

Subseries 7.2: Newspaper Articles, 1935-1989

Subseries 7.3: Other Publications, 1939-1973

Subseries 7.4: Other Subjects, 1962-1989

Series 8: Materials Relating to Other Fairs, 1951-1988

Subseries 8.1: Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations/Crystal Palace Exhibition

Subseries 8.2: New York Crystal Palace Exhibition

Subseries 8.3: Centennial Exposition

Subseries 8.4: World's Columbian Exposition

Subseries 8.5: Exposition Internationale D'Anvers (Antwerp, Belgium)

Subseries 8.6: Tennessee Centennial and International Exposition

Subseries 8.7: Trans-Mississippi Exposition

Subseries 8.8: South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition/Pan-American Exposition

Subseries 8.9: Louisiana Purchase Exposition

Subseries 8.10: Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition

Subseries 8.11: Alaska, Yukon, Pacific Exposition

Subseries 8.12: Panama-California Exposition

Subseries 8.13: Bronx International Exposition of Science, Arts and Industries

Subseries 8.14: Sesquicentennial Exposition

Subseries 8.15: Barcelona International Exposition Subseries 8.16: L'Exposition Coloniale, Paris

Subseries 8.17: Olympics

Subseries 8.18: Century of Progress

Subseries 8.19: California Pacific International Exposition (San Diego)/Brussels International Exposition

Subseries 8.20: Great Lakes Exposition/Texas Centennial Central Exposition

Subseries 8.21: Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne

Subseries 8.22: Golden Gate International Exposition

Subseries 8.23: Festival of Britain

Subseries 8.24: Milan Fair

Subseries 8.25: Exposition Universelle et venti Internationale de Bruxelles

Subseries 8.26: Moscow

Subseries 8.27: Century 21 Exhibition

Subseries 8.28: Expo 67

Subseries 8.29: Long Beach, California (cancelled)

Subseries 8.30: HemisFair 68

Subseries 8.31: Expo 70

Subseries 8.32: Expo 74

Subseries 8.33: Expo 75

Subseries 8.34: American Revolution Bicentennial, 1776-1976

Subseries 8.35: Queens Bicentennial Festival

Subseries 8.36: Expo 81, (cancelled)

Subseries 8.37: Portopia 81

Subseries 8.38: 1982 World's Fair

Subseries 8.39: Louisiana World Exposition

Subseries 8.40: Olympic Games

Subseries 8.41: Expo 85

Subseries 8.42: Queens Festival

Subseries 8.43: Expo 86

Subseries 8.44: World Expo 88

Subseries 8.45: Expo 92

Subseries 8.46: Expo 2000

Subseries 8.47: Combined Fairs

Subseries 8.48: General information about world's fairs

Series 9: Ephemera, 1934-1987

Subseries 9.1: New York (arranged first by subject and then general materials)

Subseries 9.2: Other States and Countries (alphabetical by location)

Subseries 9.3: Disney and Wizard of OZ Materials (chronological order)

Series 10: Audio Visual Materials, 1939, 1964-1965

Subseries 10.1: Moving Images, 1939; 1964-1965

Subseries 10.2: Sound Recordings

Series 11: Oversize, 1835-1992
Biographical / Historical:
Edward J. Orth grew up relishing history, particularly the history of the New York World's Fair. His experience of visiting the fair as a twelve year old boy led to a life long passion of collecting. At the time of his death, he had amassed a collection that filled two houses in California. The collection not only included materials of the 1939 New York World's Fair but also documented events before and after the fair. He also collected materials from a number of other fairs. Edward Orth was also instrumental in creating an organization for people who wanted to collect information and trade artifacts and relating to world's fairs materials.

Mr. Orth was born April 19, 1927 to Andrew Joseph Orth and Florence Minnie Gordon Orth in New York. The family would later include another son George, some six or seven years younger than Edward. In the 1930's, the Orth family lived in a number of locations in New York including Ridgewood, Brooklyn, Glendale, and Queens. In 1935, the family eventually moved to St. Albans, Queens, New York where Orth lived seven miles from Flushing Meadow Park, future site of the New York World's fair.

The year 1939 was a particularly painful one for the family due to a number of deaths. Edward Orth's paternal grandmother died on April 22nd. His grandfather, Michael Orth, also passed away in April. Three months later his grandmother Gordon died on July 22th. The severe losses to the Orth-Gordon families limited many social activities; however, the family did drive by the grounds of the future site of the world's fair. For the first time Edward Orth glimpsed the Trylon and Perisphere. Later, Orth would remark that the sight appeared to be magic.

In the summer of 1939, Edward Orth went to the fair with his class at Public School 136. The next summer Edward and his father walked over to an elementary school in Hollis, Queens, New York and purchased a 10 admission ticket for elementary school students. Edward Orth saved every souvenir and every bit of information he could find about the fair. He filled scrapbooks with photographs from newspapers and the 1939 Curt Teich and Manhattan PC Company postcards that were on sale at the corner candy store. When his family moved from an apartment to a house he acquired an old world's fair bench which he kept in the backyard.

In 1941, Orth attended Newton High School in Elmhurst, and Queens, New York. The high school offered a special college preparatory technical course which involved heavy emphasis on mathematics, science, mechanical drawing and workshop courses. Such educational pursues coupled with the motion picture films which he saw at the fair, including Thomas Edison's "The City of Light", Ford Motor Company's "Road of Tomorrow", "Democracy" and General Motors' "Futurama" inspired Orth's interest in architecture and landscaping. This inspiration formed the basis of his decision to become a city planner for California.

By 1943, Orth began to explore used magazine and book stores in New York City to continue his collecting of world's fairs materials. Two days after graduation in 1945 he was enlisted in the army. Upon his discharge he resumed buying and trading worlds' fairs' postcards. From 1948-1953, Orth continued his education at the University of California and the University of Connecticut where he studied architecture and landscape design. Between these years he posted advertisements in various postcard collector clubs publications in his continued pursue of world's fairs materials. In March 1953, Mr. Orth moved to Los Angeles, California. It was during his time in Los Angeles that he really began to make contact with other World's fairs buffs and formed lasting friendships based on this common interest. By 1967, Orth and a number of his closest friends including Peter Warner, Oscar Hengstler, David Oats, Larry Zim, and Ernest Weidhaas conceived the idea of a world's fair collector's society. By the summer of 1968 this group had formally created the Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO).

Edward Orth was always concerned about the welfare of his collection and did not want the materials to be broken into parts and sold. Instead he wanted it to go to a museum. Mr. Orth stipulated in his will that the collection would be given to the Smithsonian Institution upon his death. In 19??, Jon Zackman, former Smithsonian employee, conducted two interviews on micro cassettes. One interview was conducted with George Orth, brother of the collector. The other interview is with Peter Warner, another world's fairs collector. Orth and Warner had corresponded extensively and had traded objects. Mr. Orth primarily covered the west coast area while Peter Warner was his east coast counterpart.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Larry Zim Collection (AC0519)

Materials at Other Organizations

New York Public Library

The New York World's Fair 1939 and 1940 Incorporated Records, 1935-1945, MssCol 2233
Separated Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

Artifacts from the collection include several thousand souvenirs and examples of memorabilia commemorating the fair to include buttons and badges, ceramics, glassware, clothing, costume jewelry, coins and medals, commemorative spoons and flatware, toys and games, and philatelic material which are all part of the Division of Home and Community Life's holdings.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use when original materials are available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Souvenirs -- 1930-1940
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Pamphlets -- 1930-1940
Guidebooks -- 1930-1940
Citation:
Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0560
See more items in:
Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the World's Fair
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0560
Online Media:

Leon Weinraub Chicago World's Fair Scrapbook

Collector:
Weinraub, Leon  Search this
Names:
Century of Progress International Exposition (1933-1934 : Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Postcards
Menus
Scrapbooks
Place:
Chicago (Ill.)
Date:
1933
Summary:
One scrapbook, assembled by Leon Weinraub, documenting the 1933 Chicago World's Fair. The scrapbook contains postcards, photographs, menus, and other ephemera from the Fair.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a souvenir scrapbook printed by the organizers of the 1933 Chicago World's Fair. Contents from the Fair include: Postcards, admission pass (signed by Jean Harlowe), photos, autographs, correspondence, menus, caricatures, and other ephemera. Leon Weinraub included additional material from 1924 and 1934-1937 (not inclusive). These items are an address book, photos, correspondence and newspaper clippings. Materials consist of approximately 1 cubic foot.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Leon Weinraub was born in 1910. He was a member of the Evening Sun Newsboy's Band in Baltimore Maryland. In 1933 he was in Chicago attending the University of Chicago art school. He was also an employee at the Antiseptic Super Bandage exhibit at the World's Fair. After the fair ended, he worked for the Typewriter Specialists and changed his name to Leon Traub.
Provenance:
Leon Weinraub's daughter, Ms. Gail Leon of Bethesda, Maryland, donated this scrapbook in 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions -- 1930-1940 -- Chicago (Ill.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Postcards -- 1930-1940
Menus
Scrapbooks -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Leon Weinraub 1933 Chicago World's Fair Scrapbook, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0746
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0746

Program for Cafe Zanzibar

Printed by:
Unidentified  Search this
Distributed by:
Cafe Zanzibar, American, 1943 - 1948  Search this
Subject of:
Joe Howard, American, 1867 - 1961  Search this
Pee Wee Marquette, American, 1914 - 1992  Search this
Louis Armstrong, American, 1901 - 1971  Search this
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, American, 1878 - 1949  Search this
Maurice Rocco, American, 1915 - 1976  Search this
Velma Middleton, American, 1917 - 1961  Search this
Peters Sisters, American  Search this
Nicholas Brothers, American  Search this
The Delta Rhythm Boys, American, 1934 - 1987  Search this
The Zanzibeauts, American, 1943 - 1948  Search this
Claude Hopkins Orchestra, American, 1930 - 1940  Search this
Louis Armstrong and his Orchestra, American, 1928 - 1947  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D (Closed): 7 3/16 × 4 15/16 × 1/16 in. (18.3 × 12.6 × 0.1 cm)
H x W x D (Open): 7 3/16 × 9 15/16 × 1/16 in. (18.3 × 25.3 × 0.1 cm)
Type:
souvenir programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1945
Topic:
African American  Search this
Dance  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Nightlife  Search this
Photography  Search this
Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2013.46.25.68
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
The Laura Cathrell Show-Down Magazine Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e03185e1-6e36-4c49-8ab5-e84a5aa9f593
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.46.25.68
Online Media:

Program for Cafe Zanzibar

Printed by:
Unidentified  Search this
Distributed by:
Cafe Zanzibar, American, 1943 - 1948  Search this
Subject of:
Joe Howard, American, 1867 - 1961  Search this
Pee Wee Marquette, American, 1914 - 1992  Search this
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, American, 1878 - 1949  Search this
The Delta Rhythm Boys, American, 1934 - 1987  Search this
Otto Eason, American  Search this
Velma Middleton, American, 1917 - 1961  Search this
Louis Armstrong, American, 1901 - 1971  Search this
Maurice Rocco, American, 1915 - 1976  Search this
Peters Sisters, American  Search this
The Zanzibeauts, American, 1943 - 1948  Search this
Nicholas Brothers, American  Search this
Louis Armstrong and his Orchestra, American, 1928 - 1947  Search this
Claude Hopkins Orchestra, American, 1930 - 1940  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D (Closed): 7 1/4 × 5 1/16 × 1/16 in. (18.4 × 12.8 × 0.1 cm)
H x W x D (Open): 7 1/4 × 10 1/16 (18.4 × 25.6 × 0.1 cm)
Type:
souvenir programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1945
Topic:
African American  Search this
Dance  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Jazz (Music)  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Nightlife  Search this
Photography  Search this
Theatre  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2013.46.25.69
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
The Laura Cathrell Show-Down Magazine Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd54609042e-b229-45a7-ab0c-b21724922181
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.46.25.69
Online Media:

Levey, Samuel; Adamowicz Brothers (Benjamin and Joseph); Events, Transatlantic Flights

Collection Creator:
Arnold, Rudy, 1902-1966  Search this
Container:
Box 39, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
circa 1935
Scope and Contents:
Samuel Levey (left) being shown trophies and souvenirs by Joseph (center) and Benjamin Adamowicz (right); the Adamowicz Brothers received these items after their New York to Poland transatlantic flight; circa 1935.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Rudy Arnold Photo Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0356, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0356, Item XRA-8463
See more items in:
Rudy Arnold Photo Collection
Rudy Arnold Photo Collection / Series 3: Glass Plate Negatives / Biographical, I-R / Biographical, L
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0356-ref1465

Lawrence Welk: 2 real photo postcards (signed); 1 publicity leaflet, signed; and 1 souvenir photo album from Lawrence Welk Country Club Village, ca. 1980.

Collection Creator:
Bukowski, Henry S., 1922-  Search this
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 69
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Most of the photographs presumably are under copyright, but they were made and widely distributed for free publication.
Collection Citation:
Henry S. Bukowski Big Band Collection, ca. 1930s-1940s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Henry S. Bukowski Big Band Collection, [primarily photoprints]
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0678-ref641

Airline Ephemera Collection [Pullman]

Creator:
Pullman, Henry W.  Search this
Names:
Pullman, Henry W.  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet ((1 slim legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1928-1956
bulk [ca. 1930s-1940s]
Summary:
This collection consists of the following ephemeral items documenting Pullman's travels: photographs and postcards, including three images of Wolfgang von Gronau's Dornier Wal; certificates - one "Jupiter Rex," for crossing the equator and one "Clipper Club," for flying around the world; and a red 10x13" scrapbook containing baggage labels, postcards, menus, guest lists, hotel and travel literature, decals, and tickets and napkins which were souvenirs from events and places he visited during his travels. A technical manual for Air-Ground Communication, December 2, 1941, was also donated as was a souvenir edition of "Plane News: Air Service Paper of the A.E.F.", January 25, 1919; a roster and photograph of the Ordnance Detachment, A.F. in G., Metternich, Germany, distributed on the occasion of a Thanksgiving Dinner, November 25, 1925; five July, 1938 images relating to Pan Am Philippine Clipper trip number 222; four World War I era images and one portrait of a young pilot in parachute harness.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following ephemeral items documenting Pullman's travels: photographs and postcards, including three images of Wolfgang von Gronau's Dornier Wal; certificates - one "Jupiter Rex," for crossing the equator and one "Clipper Club," for flying around the world; and a red 10x13" scrapbook containing baggage labels, postcards, menus, guest lists, hotel and travel literature, decals, and tickets and napkins which were souvenirs from events and places he visited during his travels. A technical manual for Air-Ground Communication, December 2, 1941, was also donated as was a souvenir edition of "Plane News: Air Service Paper of the A.E.F.", January 25, 1919; a roster and photograph of the Ordnance Detachment, A.F. in G., Metternich, Germany, distributed on the occasion of a Thanksgiving Dinner, November 25, 1925; five July, 1938 images relating to Pan Am Philippine Clipper trip number 222; four World War I era images and one portrait of a young pilot in parachute harness.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Airline Ephemera Collection [Pullman]-- is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Henry W. Pullman's job as the export manager for a major oil tool company required him to travel extensively from the late 1920s to the 1950s. Pullman used the following airlines in his travels: Trans World Airlines (TWA); Pan American Airways; Royal Dutch Air Lines (KLM); Royal Netherlands Indies Airways; and American Airlines.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Henry Pullman, gift, 1993, NASM.1993.0018
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Dornier Do J Wal (Whale)(Do 16)  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Airline Ephemera Collection [Pullman], Acc. NASM.1993.0018, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0018
See more items in:
Airline Ephemera Collection [Pullman]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0018
Online Media:

Souvenir Tickets for Flight with Jack Bishop [Numbers 951-1000]

Collection Creator:
Bishop, John Wallis (Jack)  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1935
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
John Wallis Bishop Collection, Acc. NASM.1988.0086, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
John Wallis Bishop Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1988-0086-ref518

Basket

Culture/People:
Hopi [Second Mesa]  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Geneva Honani, Hopi [Second Mesa]  Search this
Previous owner:
Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Department of the Interior (IACB), 1935-  Search this
Object Name:
Basket
Media/Materials:
Yucca fiber, galleta grass, dye/dyes
Techniques:
Coiled, dyed
Dimensions:
21.2 x 29.8 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Arizona; USA (inferred)
Date created:
1930-1940
Catalog Number:
26/1891
Barcode:
261891.000
See related items:
Hopi [Second Mesa]
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6aced95cc-3ae6-4169-9a4c-2da8414dfe2e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_277998

Basket with cover

Culture/People:
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)  Search this
Previous owner:
Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Department of the Interior (IACB), 1935-  Search this
IACB source:
Mary Gahagan Eastlake, Non-Indian, 1898-1979  Search this
Object Name:
Basket with cover
Media/Materials:
Baleen, ivory, ink
Techniques:
Coiled, carved, painted
Dimensions:
6.3 x 8.4 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Alaska; USA
Date created:
1930-1940
Catalog Number:
26/186
Barcode:
260186.000
See related items:
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws69e6a5c79-0417-4d2f-8538-c73677091a6f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_276279

Ashtray

Culture/People:
Pamunkey  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Mary Alberta Page Bradby (Mary Page Bradby/Mary A. Bradby/MAB), Pamunkey, 1903-1986  Search this
Seller:
Chief William P. Miles (Bill Miles/Swiftwater), Pamunkey  Search this
Previous owner:
Chief William P. Miles (Bill Miles/Swiftwater), Pamunkey  Search this
Object Name:
Ashtray
Media/Materials:
Pottery, paint
Techniques:
Modeled, painted
Dimensions:
16 x 12.5 x 2.5 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Pamunkey Reservation; King William County; Virginia; USA
Date created:
1930-1940
Catalog Number:
26/32
Barcode:
260032.000
See related items:
Pamunkey
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6b0cced41-1d81-430c-a5c1-d1f77004344e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_276124
Online Media:

Rug

Culture/People:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Previous owner:
Priscilla M. King (Pam M. King/Priscilla Martin King), Non-Indian, 1926-2002  Search this
Donor:
Priscilla M. King (Pam M. King/Priscilla Martin King), Non-Indian, 1926-2002  Search this
Object Name:
Rug
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn
Techniques:
Woven
Dimensions:
255 x 163 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Two Grey Hills, Navajo Reservation; San Juan County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1930-1940
Catalog Number:
25/4663
Barcode:
254663.000
See related items:
Diné (Navajo)
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6fc58d1dd-eff9-4d67-8de4-c0f9251b3f55
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_270223
Online Media:

Tomahawk/Hatchet head

Culture/People:
Pamunkey  Search this
Seller:
Chief William P. Miles (Bill Miles/Swiftwater), Pamunkey  Search this
Previous owner:
Chief William P. Miles (Bill Miles/Swiftwater), Pamunkey  Search this
Object Name:
Tomahawk/Hatchet head
Media/Materials:
Pottery
Techniques:
Modeled
Dimensions:
10.5 x 7 x 1.5 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Pamunkey Reservation; King William County; Virginia; USA
Date created:
1930-1940
Catalog Number:
26/37
Barcode:
260037.000
See related items:
Pamunkey
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws64225fa3d-efb1-4d24-a5f0-9c96a7625f64
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_276129
Online Media:

Cutout figure

Culture/People:
Otomí [San Pablito]  Search this
Collector:
Donald B. Cordry (Donald Bush Cordry), Non-Indian, 1907-1978  Search this
Previous owner:
Donald B. Cordry (Donald Bush Cordry), Non-Indian, 1907-1978  Search this
Object Name:
Cutout figure
Media/Materials:
Amate (mulberry bark) paper
Techniques:
Cut
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
San Pablito; Pahuatlán Municipality; Puebla State; Mexico
Date created:
1930-1940
Catalog Number:
20/6297
Barcode:
206297.000
See related items:
Otomí [San Pablito]
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6f656fca0-035f-43ff-876a-c4606dc491bd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_220018
Online Media:

Basket

Culture/People:
Washoe (Washo)  Search this
Previous owner:
Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Department of the Interior (IACB), 1935-  Search this
Object Name:
Basket
Media/Materials:
Willow, bracken fern root, redbud
Techniques:
Coiled
Dimensions:
8.4 x 16.9 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
California or Nevada; USA (inferred)
Date created:
1930-1940
Catalog Number:
26/1906
Barcode:
261906.000
See related items:
Washoe (Washo)
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws61b62bc19-8684-496b-aac1-3a8e383f3bf7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278013

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