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MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers

Creator:
La Flesche, Francis, 1857-1932  Search this
Fletcher, Alice C. (Alice Cunningham), 1838-1923  Search this
Correspondent:
La Flesche family  Search this
Aldrich, Charles F.  Search this
Alexander, Hartley B.  Search this
Allen, James T.  Search this
Andrews, Gleorge L.  Search this
Armstrong, S.C.  Search this
Ashley, Robert H.  Search this
Atkins, John D.C.  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Bowditch, Charles P. (Charles Pickering), 1842-1921  Search this
Brinton, Daniel G. (Daniel Garrison), 1837-1899  Search this
Brown, George LeRoy  Search this
Burlin, Natalie Curtis, 1875-1921  Search this
Cadman, Charles Wakefield, 1881-1946  Search this
Copley, John T.  Search this
Dall, William Healey, 1845-1927  Search this
Dawes, E.S.  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Dixon, Roland Burrage, 1875-1934  Search this
Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895  Search this
Dunbar, John Brown, 1841-1914  Search this
Ellinwood, F.F.  Search this
Farabee, William Curtis, 1865-1925  Search this
Farley, Caryl E.  Search this
Farley, Rosalie La Flesche  Search this
Farwell, Arthur  Search this
Fellowes, R.S.  Search this
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Fillmore, John Comfort, 1843-1898  Search this
Fillmore, L.H.  Search this
Fillmore, Thomas Hill  Search this
Freire-Marreco, Barbara W. (Barbara Whitchurch), 1879-1967  Search this
Gay, E. Jane  Search this
Griffith, Elmer C.  Search this
Guthrie, William Norman  Search this
Hale, Horatio, 1817-1896  Search this
Hall, C.C.  Search this
Hall, Charles Lemon, 1847-1940  Search this
Hearst, Phoebe Apperson, 1842-1919  Search this
Heth, H.  Search this
Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946  Search this
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Jackson, Sheldon  Search this
Johnston, Catherine M.  Search this
Kincaid, William  Search this
La Flesche, Joseph  Search this
Lummis, Charles Fletcher, 1859-1928  Search this
MacCurdy, George Grant, 1863-1947  Search this
Mason, Otis T., 1838-1908  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
McBeth, Kate C., 1832-1915  Search this
McBeth, Sue L., -1893  Search this
McCown, S.M.  Search this
McGee, W J, 1853-1912  Search this
McGuire, Joseph D. (Joseph Deakins), 1842-1916  Search this
Mead, Frances K.  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Merrick, Fannie  Search this
Merrick, Jessie  Search this
Moon, Karl  Search this
Moore, Homer  Search this
Morgan, Caroline S.  Search this
Morgan, John T.  Search this
Murie, James R.  Search this
Myers, John L.  Search this
Nuttal, Maria Magdalena  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Petter, W.H.  Search this
Pettigrew, Frederick W., 1850-1901  Search this
Picotte, Susan La Flesche  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Price, Hiram  Search this
Proctor, Edna Dean, 1829-1923  Search this
Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915  Search this
Quinn, Daniel  Search this
Robertson, Alice M.  Search this
Rogers, Emily F.  Search this
Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917  Search this
Seymour, Thomas Day  Search this
Spofford, Ainsworth Rand, 1825-1908  Search this
St. Cyr, Julia  Search this
Starr, Frederick  Search this
Stuart, James  Search this
Talbot, Emily  Search this
Teller, W.J.  Search this
Thaw, William  Search this
Tozzer, Alfred M. (Alfred Marston), 1877-1954  Search this
Wallaschek, Richard  Search this
Westcott, Edith  Search this
Wilkinson, G.W.  Search this
Wilkinson, Hattie M.  Search this
Willoughby, Charles Clark  Search this
Names:
Carr, Lucien, 1829-1915  Search this
Radin, Paul, 1883-1959  Search this
Extent:
19 Linear feet (50 boxes)
Culture:
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Ponca Indians  Search this
Quechua  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Mexicans  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Hitchiti  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Biloxi Indians  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Oto Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Juaneño Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Alaska
Date:
1873-1939
Summary:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.

The papers have been divided into three general categories: the papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, the papers of Francis La Flesche, and the ethnographic research of Fletcher and La Flesche. The first two categories represent personal and professional materials of Fletcher and La Flesche. The third section holds the majority of the ethnographic material in the collection.

Of primary concern are Fletcher and La Flesche's ethnological investigations conducted among the Plains Indians, particularly the Omaha and Osage. Fletcher's Pawnee field research and her allotment work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs among the Omaha, Nez Perce, and Winnebago are represented in the collection. A substantial portion of the ethnographic material reflects Fletcher and La Flesche's studies of Native American music. Much of the correspondence in the papers of Fletcher and La Flesche is rich with information about the situation of Omaha peoples in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Also included in the collection are documents related to Fletcher's work with the Archaeological Institute of America and the School for American Archaeology. Additionally, substantial amounts of Fletcher's early anthropological and historical research are found among her correspondence, lectures, anthropological notes, and early field diaries. La Flesche's literary efforts are also generously represented.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into the following 3 series: 1) Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers, 1873-1925; 2) Francis La Flesche papers, 1881-1930; 3) Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, 1877-1939.

Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers is divided into the following 10 subseries: 1.1) Incoming correspondence, 1874-1923 (bulk 1882-1923); 1.2) Outgoing correspondence, 1873-1921; 1.3) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1925; 1.4) Correspondence between Fletcher and La Flesche, 1895-1922; 1.5) Publications, 1882-1920; 1.6) Organizational records, 1904-1921; 1.7) General anthropological notes, undated; 1.8) Lectures, circa 1878-1910; 1.9) Diaries, 1881-1922; 1.10) Biography and memorabilia, 1878-1925.

Series 2: Francis La Flesche papers is divided into the following 6 subseries: 2.11) General correspondence, 1890-1929; 2.12) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1930; 2.13) Publications, 1900-1927; 2.14) Literary efforts, undated; 2.15) Personal diaries, 1883-1924; 2.16) Biography and memorabilia, 1886-1930.

Series 3: Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche is divided into the following 12 subseries: 3.17) Alaska, 1886-1887; 3.18) Earth lodges, 1882, 1898-1899; 3.19) Music, 1888-1918; 3.20) Nez Perce, 1889-1909; 3.21) Omaha, 1882-1922; 3.22) Osage, 1896-1939; 3.23) Pawnee, 1897-1910; 3.24) Pipes, undated; 3.25) Sioux, 1877-1896; 3.26) Other tribes, 1882-1922; 3.27) Publications collected, 1884-1905, undated; 3.28) Photographs, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923) was an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Francis La Flesche (1856-1923) was an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Chronology of the Life of Alice Cunningham Fletcher

1838 March 15 -- Born in Havana, Cuba

1873-1876 -- Secretary, American Association for Advancement of Women

1879 -- Informal student of anthropology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1881 -- Field trip to Omaha and Rosebud Agencies

1882 -- Assistant in ethnology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1882 -- Helped secure land in severalty to Omaha Indians

1882-1883 -- Begins collaboration with Francis La Flesche on the Peabody Museum's collection of Omaha and Sioux artifacts

1883-1884 -- Special Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Omaha Agency

1886 -- Bureau of Education investigation of Alaskan native education

1887-1888 -- Special Disbursing Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Winnebago Agency

1889-1892 -- Special Agent for allotment, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Nez Perce Agency

1890-1899 -- President, Women's Anthropological Society of America

1891-1923 -- Mary Copley Thaw Fellow, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1892-1893 -- Department of Interior consultant, World's Columbian Exposition

1896 -- Vice-President, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1897 -- Collaborator, Bureau of American Ethnology

1899-1916 -- Editorial board, American Anthropologist

1900 -- Published Indian Story and Song from North America

1901-1902 -- Advisory committee, Anthropology Department, University of California at Berkeley

1903 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington

1904 -- Published The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony with James Murie

1904 -- Member, ethnology section, Louisiana Purchase Exposition

1905 -- President, American Folk-lore Society

1908-1913 -- Chair, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology

1911 -- Honorary Vice-President, Section H, British Association for Advancement of Science

1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Francis La Flesche

1913 -- Chair Emeritus, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology

1915 -- Published Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs Arranged from American Indian Ceremonials and Sports

1923 April 6 -- Died in Washington, D.C.

Chronology of the Life of Francis La Flesche

1857 December 25 -- Born on Omaha Reservation near Macy, Nebraska

1879 -- Lecture tour, Ponca chief Standing Bear

1881 -- Interpreter, Senate Committee on Indian Affairs

1881-1910 -- Clerk, Bureau of Indian Affairs

1891 -- Informally adopted as Fletcher's son

1892 -- LL.B., National University Law School

1893 -- LL.M., National University Law School

1900 -- Published The Middle Five: Indian Boys at School

1906-1908 -- Marriage to Rosa Bourassa

1910-1929 -- Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology

1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Alice Fletcher

1921 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part One

1922 -- Member, National Academy of Sciences

1922-1923 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington

1925 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Two

1926 -- Honorary Doctor of Letters, University of Nebraska

1928 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Three

1932 -- Published Dictionary of the Osage Language

1932 September 5 -- Died in Thurston County, Nebraska

1939 -- Posthumous publication of War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians
Related Materials:
Additional material related to the professional work of Fletcher and La Flesche in the National Anthropological Archives may be found among the correspondence of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) and the records of the Anthropological Society of Washington.

Sound recordings made by Fletcher and La Flesche can be found at the Library of Congress. The National Archives Records Administration hold the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), including those relating to allotments in severalty for the Nez Perce by Alice Fletcher. The Nebraska Historical Society has diaries, letters and clippings regarding the La Flesche family, including correspondence of Francis La Flesche and Fletcher. The Radcliffe College Archives holds a manuscript account of Alice Fletcher's four summers with the Nez Perce (1889-1892). Correspondence between Fletcher and F. W. Putnam is also located at the Peabody Museum Archives of Harvard University.
Separated Materials:
Ethnographic photographs from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in Photo Lot 24.

Glass plate negatives from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in the BAE glass negatives collection (Negative Numbers 4439-4515).
Provenance:
The papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche have been received from an undocumented number of sources. Portions of Fletcher's ethnographic papers were donated to the archives by Mrs. G. David Pearlman in memory of her husband in 1959.
Restrictions:
The Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers are open for research.

Access to the Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pipes -- American Indian  Search this
Earth houses  Search this
Music -- American Indian  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4558
See more items in:
MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4558
Online Media:

MS 2016-a Daniel Little Chief drawings of Cheyenne ceremonial customs and implements, with explanations by Albert Gatschet

Creator:
Little Chief, Daniel, d. 1906.  Search this
Annotator:
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (disbound volume (65 pages) of 29 drawings and 34 pages of typescript.)
Culture:
Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Date:
1891 February
Scope and Contents:
29 drawings and 34 pages of typed explanatory text, formerly bound together, now disbound, plus an identifying title page handwritten by Albert Gatschet and one drawing on ruled paper. The explanatory text was transcribed from Gatschet's notebook, No. 2016-b, with corrections by Gatschet. T.p. inscribed: "Crayon Pictures of Cheyenne Ceremonial Customs and Implements. Drawn by Wuxpais or Daniel Littlechief, son of the present headchief of the Cheyenne Indians of South Dakota, at the Pine Ridge Agency. Explained by notes obtained from the same Indian by Albert S. Gatschet." The last drawing in the volume is signed "T.D. Little Chief," but cannot be identified as a drawing by Daniel Little Chief. Subjects include ceremonial items, name glyphs, painted tipis, and illustrations of Cheyenne customs. A nearly identical set of drawings by Daniel Little Chief is located at the Newberry Library in Chicago. Information provided by Candace Greene.
Biographical / Historical:
Daniel Little Chief, a.k.a. Wuxpais (?-1906), was a Northern Cheyenne warrior whose band of Cheyenne were sent south to the Cheyenne-Arapaho Reservation in Indian Territory after their surrender, traveling there between 1878-1879. In 1881 this band moved north to the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. In 1891 Daniel Littlechief inherited the role of head chief from his father and remained in South Dakota until his death in 1906. For more information see "American Indian Painters: A Biographical Dictionary" by Jeanne Snodgrass 1968, New York: Museum of the American Indian.
Albert S. Gatschet (1832-1907) was educated in his native Switzerland and in Germany (University of Bern [Ph.D., 1892]); University of Berlin. Early in his career, he pursued antiquarian research in European museums and wrote scientific articles. Among his interests was the etymology of Swiss place names. After coming to the United States in 1869, he worked on the American Indian vocabularies collected by Oscar Loew, of the United States Geological Survey West of the 100th Meridian (Wheeler Survey). Eventually John Wesley Powell employed him as an ethnologist with the United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Regions. When it was founded in 1879, he joined the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology and continued there until he retired in 1905. For the Powell Survey, Gatschet researched the ethnography of the Klamath in Oregon and the Modoc in Oklahoma. He also collected Native American material objects and investigated special problems for Powell's classification of the American Indian languages north of Mexico, working on languages of the Southeast, including groups forcibly settled in the southern Plains. He not only visited well known tribes but also searched out small groups, including the Biloxi and Tunica. He also worked with the Natchez, Tonkawa, Chitimacha, and Atakapa in the United States and Comecrudo and several other small groups in northern Mexico. Through library research, he studied the Timucua, Karankara, and the Beothuk. During the later part of his career, Gatschet was assigned comparative work on all the Algonquian languages. Although the project was never completed, he collected much about many of the languages, especially Peoria, Miami, and Shawnee. In addition, he worked with members of diverse tribes of the eastern United States. For more information, see NAA finding aid located at http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/guide/_g1.htm#jrg575
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2016-a
Varying Form of Title:
Crayon pictures of Cheyenne ceremonial customs and implements / drawn by Wuxpais or Daniel Littlechief ... ; explained by notes from the same Indian by Albert S. Gatschet
Place:
United States South Dakota Pine Ridge Agency.
United States South Dakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Album Information:
MS 2016a 001
Topic:
Habitations -- Cheyenne  Search this
Sweatbaths -- Cheyenne  Search this
Music -- Cheyenne  Search this
Married people's tipi -- Cheyenne  Search this
Weapons -- Cheyenne  Search this
Pipe -- Cheyenne  Search this
Amulets and fetishes -- Cheyenne  Search this
Medicine -- Cheyenne  Search this
Mortuary customs -- Cheyenne  Search this
Names, Personal -- Cheyenne  Search this
Medicine tent -- Cheyenne  Search this
Sun Dance -- Cheyenne  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 2016-a, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2016A
See more items in:
MS 2016-a Daniel Little Chief drawings of Cheyenne ceremonial customs and implements, with explanations by Albert Gatschet
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2016a
Online Media:

MS 1999-24 Oglala Sioux census

Creator:
United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Pine Ridge Agency  Search this
Brennan, John R. (John Richard), 1848-1919  Search this
Extent:
36 Leaves (15 x 9 inches)
Culture:
Oglala Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Leaves
Census records
Place:
Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota
Date:
1904
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of a census of the Oglala Sioux at the Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota, taken on June 30, 1904 by Indian agent Major John R. Brennan. The census consists of 938 handwritten entries on 36 leaves.
Biographical / Historical:
The Pine Ridge Reservation was originally part of the Great Sioux Reservation established by the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, which encompassed approximately 60 million acres of parts of South Dakota, Nebraska and Wyoming. In 1876, the U.S. government violated the treaty of 1868 by opening up 7.7 million acres of the Black Hills to homesteaders and private interests. In 1889 the government divided the remaining area of Great Sioux Reservation into seven separate reservations, including the Pine Ridge Reservation. Major John R. Brennan (d. 1919) was superintendent of Pine Ridge from 1900 to 1917.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1999-24
Topic:
Sioux  Search this
Genre/Form:
Census records
Citation:
Manuscript 1999-24, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.MS1999-24
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1999-24
Online Media:

Nacoista drawing of man and woman playing shinny ball game

Creator:
Nacoista  Search this
Collector:
Daniel, Z. T.  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite and watercolor on cardboard, 10 x 12 cm.)
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1881-1891?
Scope and Contents:
Inscribed on verso "A man and a young lady play with ball, Na-co-is-ta, Pine Ridge, Daniel"
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Z.T. Daniel was a career physician in the Indian Service. At the time of this donation he was the agency physician at Pine Ridge Reservation. He also served at the Cheyenne River Reservation and the Blackfoot Reservation, and made many donations to the Smithsonian over a period of years, most accompanied with detailed information regarding the origins of the objects. His name is frequently misspelled in museum records as Daniels.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 166,931

NAA INV 08511700

OPPS NEG 80-20920
Local Note:
Originally cataloged as Dakota based on location of collector. Changed to Cheyenne by C. Greene 2004 based on recognition of name as Cheyenne.
Place:
United States Dakota Territory Pine Ridge Agency.
United States South Dakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Album Information:
MS 166931
Topic:
Games -- Cheyenne  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 166,931, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS166931
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms166931
Online Media:

James Henri Howard Papers

Correspondent:
Woolworth, Alan R.  Search this
Weslager, C.A.  Search this
Witthoft, John, 1921-1993  Search this
Swauger, James Lee  Search this
Turnbull, Colin  Search this
Horn, Frances L.  Search this
Garcia, Louis  Search this
Fogelson, Raymond D.  Search this
Hodge, William  Search this
Hayink, J.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Ervin, Sam J. Jr  Search this
Feraca, Stephen E., 1934-  Search this
Feest, Christian F.  Search this
Cree, Charlie  Search this
Davis, Edward Mott  Search this
De Busk, Charles R.  Search this
Iadarola, Angelo  Search this
Brasser, Ted J.  Search this
Bunge, Gene  Search this
Cavendish, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
DeMallie, Raymond  Search this
Blake, Leonard W.  Search this
Dean, Nora Thompson  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Smith, John L.  Search this
Swanton, John Robert  Search this
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Peterson, John H.  Search this
Paredes, J. Anthony  Search this
Schleisser, Karl H.  Search this
Reed, Nelson A.  Search this
Medford, Claude W.  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Opler, Morris Edward  Search this
Nettl, Bruno, 1930-  Search this
Kraft, Herbert C.  Search this
Johnson, Michael G.  Search this
Lindsey-Levine, Victoria  Search this
Kurath, Gertrude  Search this
Adams, Richard N. (Richard Newbold), 1924-  Search this
Allen, James H.  Search this
Barksdale, Mary Lee  Search this
Battise, Jack  Search this
Creator:
Howard, James H., 1925-1982 (James Henri)  Search this
Names:
Lone Star Steel Company  Search this
Extent:
10.25 Linear feet
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Choctaw Indians  Search this
Yanktonai Indians  Search this
Seneca Indians  Search this
Yuchee  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Potawatomi Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Ponca Indians  Search this
Micmac Indians  Search this
Kickapoo Indians  Search this
Sauk and Fox Nation  Search this
Menominee Indians  Search this
Delaware Indians  Search this
Oto Indians  Search this
Tonkawa Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Oklahoma -- Archeology
Date:
1824-1992
bulk 1950-1982
Summary:
To a considerable degree, the James H. Howard papers consist of manuscript copies of articles, book, speeches, and reviews that document his professional work in anthropology, ethnology, ethnohistory, archeology, linguistics, musicology, and folklore between 1950 and 1982. Among these are a few unpublished items. Notes are relatively scant, there being somewhat appreciable materials for the Chippewa, Choctaw, Creek, Dakota, Omaha, Ponca, Seminole, and Shawnee. The chief field materials represented in the collection are sound recordings and photographs, but many of the latter are yet to be unidentified. A series of color photographs of Indian artifacts in folders are mostly identified and represent the extensive American Indian Cultural collection of costumes and artifacts that Howard acquired and created. Other documents include copies of papers and other research materials of colleagues. There is very little original material related to archeological work in the collection and that which is present concerns contract work for the Lone State Steel Company.
Scope and Contents:
The James Henri Howard papers document his research and professional activities from 1949-1982 and primarily deal with his work as an anthropologist, archeologist, and ethnologist, studying Native American languages & cultures. The collection consists of Series 1 correspondence; Series 2 writings and research, which consists of subject files (language and culture research materials), manuscripts, research proposals, Indian claim case materials, Howard's publications, publications of others, and bibliographical materials; Series 3 sound recordings of Native American music and dance; Series 4 photographs; and Series 5 drawings and artwork.

Howard was also a linguist, musicologist, and folklorist, as well as an informed and able practitioner in the fields of dance and handicrafts. His notable books include Choctaw Music and Dance; Oklahoma Seminoles: Medicines, Magic, and Religion; and Shawnee! The Ceremonialism of a Native American Tribe and its Cultural Backround.

Some materials are oversize, specifcially these three Winter Count items: 1. a Dakota Winter Count made of cloth in 1953 at the request of James H. Howard, 2. a drawing of British Museum Winter Count on 4 sheets of paper, and 3. Photographs of a Winter Count.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 5 series: Series 1. Correspondence, 1960-1982, undated; Series 2. Writings and Research, 1824-1992; Series 3. Sound Recordings, 1960-1979; Series 4. Photographs, 1879-1985; Series 5. Drawings and Artwork, 1928-1982.
Chronology:
1925 -- James Henri Howard was born on September 10 in Redfield, South Dakota.

1949 -- Received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Nebraska.

1950 -- Received his Master of Arts from the University of Nebraska and began a prolific record of publishing.

1950-1953 -- Began his first professional employment as an archaeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum in Bismarck.

1955-1957 -- Was a museum lecturer at the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum.

1957 -- James H. Howard received his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan. Joined the staff of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys in the summer.

1957-1963 -- Taught anthropology at the University of North Dakota.

1962 -- Chief archeologist at the Fortress of Louisberg Archeological Project in Nova Scotia.

1963-1968 -- Taught anthropology at the University of South Dakota; State Archeologist of South Dakota; Director of the W. H. Over Dakota Museum.

1963-1966 -- Director of the Institute of Indian Studies, University of South Dakota.

1968-1982 -- Associate professor of anthropology at Oklahoma State University at Stillwater (became a full professor in 1971).

1979 -- Consulted for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.

1982 -- Died October 1 after a brief illness.
Biographical/Historical note:
James H. Howard was trained in anthropology at the University of Nebraska (B.A., 1949; M.A., 1950) and the University of Michigan (Ph.D., 1957). In 1950-1953, he served as archeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum; and, in 1955-1957, he was on the staff of the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum. During the summer of 1957, he joined the staff of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys. Between 1957 and 1963, he taught anthropology at the Universtity of North Dakota. Between 1963 and 1968, he served in several capacities with the University of South Dakota including assistant and associate professor, director of the Institute of Indian Studies (1963-1966), and Director of the W.H. Over Museum (1963-1968). In 1968, he joined the Department of Sociology at Oklahoma State University, where he achieved the rank of professor in 1970. In 1979, he was a consultant for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.

Howard's abiding interest were the people of North America, whom he studied both as an ethnologist and archeologist. Between 1949 and 1982, he worked with the Ponca, Omaha, Yankton and Yaktonai Dakota, Yamasee, Plains Ojibwa (or Bungi), Delaware, Seneca-Cayuga, Prairie Potatwatomi of Kansas, Mississipi and Oklahoma Choctaw, Oklahoma Seminole, and Pawnee. His interest in these people varied from group to group. With some he carried out general culture studies; with other, special studies of such phenomena as ceremonies, art, dance, and music. For some, he was interest in environmental adaptation and land use, the latter particularly for the Pawnee, Yankton Dakota, Plains Ojibwa, Turtle Mountain Chippewa, and Ponca, for which he served as consultant and expert witness in suits brought before the United Stated Indian Claims Commisssion. A long-time museum man, Howard was also interested in items of Indian dress, articles associated with ceremonies, and other artifacts. He was "a thoroughgoing participant-observer and was a member of the Ponca Hethuska Society, a sharer in ceremonial activities of many Plains tribes, and a first-rate 'powwow man'." (American Anthropologist 1986, 88:692).

As an archeologist, Howard worked at Like-a-Fishhook Village in North Dakota, Spawn Mound and other sites in South Dakota, Gavin Point in Nebraska and South Dakota, Weston and Hogshooter sites in Oklahoma, and the Fortess of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia. He also conducted surveys for the Lone Star Steel Company in Haskall, Latimer, Le Flore and Pittsburg counties in Oklahoma.
Related Materials:
Howard's American Indian Cultural Collection of Costumes and Artifacts, that he acquired and created during his lifetime, is currently located at the Milwaukee Public Museum. In Boxes 19-21 of the James Henri Howard Papers, there are photographs with accompanying captions and descriptions in binders of his American Indian Cultural Collection of Costumes and Artifacts that his widow, Elfriede Heinze Howard, created in order to sell the collection to a museum.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by James Henri Howard's wife, Elfriede Heinz Howard, in 1988-1990, 1992, & 1994.
Restrictions:
The James Henri Howard papers are open for research. Access to the James Henri Howard papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ethnology -- United States  Search this
Ethnomusicology  Search this
Folklore -- American Indian  Search this
Powwows  Search this
Citation:
James Henri Howard Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1994-30
See more items in:
James Henri Howard Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1994-30
Online Media:

[Trade catalogs from K. O. Lee Co.]

Company Name:
K. O. Lee Co.  Search this
Notes content:
Universal tool grinders, surface grinders, hydraulic grinder, hand grinder, drill chucks, reamers, expanding mandrels, wheel dressers, arc welders, valve refacers, bench center and surface plates, valve seat insert ring, portable tools, industrial tools and equipment, and automotive maintenance equipment. "Knock-Out" universal tool grinders, universal carbide tool grinder, drill chucks, and expanding mandrels...this comprises the uncataloged portion.
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
5 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Aberdeen, South Dakota, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Industrial equipment or mechanical machinery (including supplies and components)  Search this
Machine tools and metalworking equipment  Search this
Topic:
Industrial equipment  Search this
Machine-tools  Search this
Machinery  Search this
Metal-working machinery  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_26252
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_26252

25c Honeybee coil single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 2281
Medium:
paper; ink (multicolored); adhesive
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
United States of America
Date:
September 2, 1988
Topic:
Insects  Search this
Plants  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
1993.2070.102
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm807e544c6-52fa-445a-91b4-44f010c4d4b8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_1993.2070.102

Crow Creek, S.D., (painting)

Painter:
Borglum, Solon Hannibal 1868-1922  Search this
Medium:
Conte crayon and pencil
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Smithsonian American Art Museum 8th & G Streets, N.W Washington District of Columbia 20560 Accession Number: 1971.446.176
Date:
1899
Topic:
Landscape--South Dakota--Crow Creek  Search this
Control number:
IAP 08585658
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_476081

Crow Creek, S.D., (painting)

Painter:
Borglum, Solon Hannibal 1868-1922  Search this
Medium:
Conte crayon and pencil
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Smithsonian American Art Museum 8th & G Streets, N.W Washington District of Columbia 20560 Accession Number: 1971.446.181
Date:
1899
Topic:
Landscape--South Dakota--Crow Creek  Search this
Control number:
IAP 08585660
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_476083

William Duncan Strong papers

Creator:
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Names:
Columbia University  Search this
Institute of Andean Research Viru Valley Project  Search this
Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition  Search this
Extent:
64.88 Linear feet (87 boxes; 16 map folders; and 14 boxes of nitrate negatives, which are not included in the linear feet extent measurement)
Culture:
Eskimos  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Naskapi Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
North Dakota -- Archeology
South Dakota -- Archeology
Great Plains
Honduras -- Archeology
Labrador (N.L.)
Nebraska -- Archeology
Columbia River Valley
Date:
1902-1965
bulk 1927-1955
Summary:
William Duncan Strong's early interest was in zoology, but, while an undergraduate at the University of California, he was brought into anthropology under the influence of Alfred Louis Kroeber. He conducted archaeological and ethnological field research in several areas of the New World and was the first professionally trained archaeologist to focus on the Great Plains, where he applied the so-called direct historical method, working from known history in interpreting archaeological sites. Strong's papers include correspondence, field notes, diaries, newspaper clippings, teaching notes and student papers, manuscripts of his writings, writings by other authors, papers from the various organizations in which he served, maps, and a considerable number of photographs from his field work. The materials date from 1902 to 1965, with most of the materials being from 1927 to 1955.
Scope and Contents:
Strong's papers include correspondence, field notes, diaries, newspaper clippings, teaching notes and student papers, manuscripts of his writings, writings by other authors, papers from the various organizations in which he served, maps, and a considerable number of photographs from his field work. The materials date from 1902 to 1965, with most of the materials being from 1927 to 1955.

Strong's papers reflect his professional life, but there is little personal material. Except for the Rawson-MacMillan Labrador Expedition, there is little information from Strong's years at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Other than information on field work expenses, there is little light shed on Strong's personal financial situation. There is no personal correspondence with either of his wives and little correspondence with family members, except for his brother, Ronald. Some correspondence from the late 1930s to the early 1940s is not present and its whereabouts is not known. Of special interest is a collection of drawings by Naskapi Indian children collected while Strong was on the Labrador expedition in 1928. Strong collected obituaries, vitae, news articles, and writings on and by other anthropologists. He was an inveterate doodler, and his fascinating creations appear throughout the papers.

Strong also collected materials from other researchers, including Loren Eiseley's 1931 field notes from the Morrill Expedition, Maurice Kirby's 1932 notes on the Signal Butte excavations, notes and drawings from the 1936 Honduras expedition by Alfred V. Kidder II, and the field notebooks kept by Clifford Evans for the 1946 Virú Valley expedition in Peru. Contributed photographs from field expeditions are from A.T. Hill, Waldo Wedel, and John Champe.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 12 series: (1) Miscellaneous personal papers, 1914-1963; (2) Correspondence, 1922-1965; (3) Materials relating to field work, 1921-1963; (4) Miscellaneous research notes, 1917-1960, most undated; (5) Maps and charts, 1902-1949; (6) Drawings by Naskapi Indians and Eskimos, 1910, 1928; (7) Manuscripts of writings, 1922-1962, undated; (8) Writings by other authors, 1902-1961; (9) Papers relating to organizations, 1926-1961; (10) Teaching materials and course work, 1909, 1928-1961; (11) Miscellany, 1902-1961, most undated; (12) Photographs, 1913-1950.
Biographical Note:
William Duncan Strong (1899-1962) was a major figure in American anthropology. His accomplishments were as a field worker in archaeology and ethnology, archaeological theorist, writer, and teacher. He was, furthermore, a leader in anthropological organizations. In 1954, his position in the field was recognized by the award of the Viking Fund Medal for his contributions to archaeology.

William Duncan Strong's early interest was in zoology, but, while an undergraduate at the University of California, he was brought into anthropology under the influence of Alfred Louis Kroeber. He conducted archaeological and ethnological field research in several areas of the New World, including Labrador, southern California, Honduras, and Peru. Strong was the first professionally trained archaeologist to focus on the Great Plains, and it was there that he applied the so-called direct historical method, working from known history in interpreting archaeological sites. His work in all these areas are represented by notebooks, diaries, specimen catalogues, maps, and photographs.

Strong spent the majority of his professional life affiliated with various universities and taught many anthropologists who became influential in their own right. His students included Loren Eiseley, Waldo R. Wedel, Joseph Jablow, Oscar Lewis, John Landgraf, Dorothy Keur, David Stout, Charles Wagley, Eleanor Leacock, John Champe, Albert C. Spaulding, Victor Barnouw, John M. Corbett, Walter Fairservis, and Richard B. Woodbury. Strong preserved the student papers by some of these anthropologists as well as their correspondence with him.

Strong influenced American anthropology by his service in professional societies. He served as president of the American Ethnological Society, the Institute of Andean Research, and the Society for American Archaeology. He was the director of the Ethnogeographic Board (his journal from his tenure as director is in the papers) and chairman of the Committee on Basic Needs of American Archaeology. In this latter capacity, Strong was involved in establishing a program to salvage archaeological sites before they were destroyed by public works. Strong served as the anthropological consultant to the Bureau of Indian Affairs during Franklin Roosevelt's administration and advised on new directions to be taken in Indian Service policy.

Strong died suddenly on January 29, 1962.

Chronology

1899 -- Born January 30 in Portland, Oregon

1917 April-1919 January -- In the United States Navy aboard the U.S.S. South Dakota on convoy duty in the Atlantic Ocean

1922 -- Collected faunal specimens in the Canadian Rockies, Skeena River district, for the University of California Museum of Vertebrate Zoology

1923 -- A.B., University of California Studied Max Uhle's Peruvian archaeological collection Collected faunal specimens, Columbia River, Washington

Winter, 1923-1924 -- Archaeological investigations in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California under the direction of Edwin Winslow Gifford

1924-1925 -- Expedition to study Shoshonean tribes (the Serrano, Cahuilla, Cupeño, and Luiseño) of Southern California (Riverside and San Diego counties) under Alfred Louis Kroeber Archaeological surveys and excavations of three months each in the middle Columbia River Valley in Oregon and Washington

1925 -- Archaeological expedition and collection of faunal specimens in the San Pedro Martir Mountains, Baja California under W. Egbert Schenk

1925-1926 -- Research Assistant, Department of Anthropology, University of California

1926 -- PhD, Anthropology, University of California

1926 July-1929 August -- Assistant Curator of North American Ethnology and Archaeology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

1927 -- An Analysis of Southwestern Society (doctoral dissertation)

1927 June-1928 September -- Anthropologist on the Rawson-MacMillan September, 1928 Subarctic Expedition of the Field Museum Studied Naskapi and Eskimos in Labrador and on Baffin Island

1929 -- Married Jean Stevens

1929 August-1931 July -- Professor of Anthropology, University of Nebraska

1929 -- Published The Aboriginal Society of Southern California

1929-1931 -- Director, Archaeological Survey of Nebraska, University of Nebraska

1930 June 11-September 6 -- Excavated at Rock Bluff cemetery site

1931 -- Helped organize the First Plains Conference (held August 31-September 2)

1931-1932 -- Morrill Expedition, central and western Nebraska and North and South Dakota: ethnological investigations of Arikaras at Nishu, North Dakota; excavation at Signal Butte, Nebraska; and excavation at Leavenworth and Rygh village sites in South Dakota

1931 July-1937 August -- Senior Anthropologist, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution

1932 -- Archaeological survey of northeastern Honduras along the Mosquito Coast and the Patuca River, archaeological work on the Bay Islands, and ethnological investigation of Sumu Indians

1933-1934 -- Two Civilian Works Administration archaeological expeditions (five months each) in California in southern San Joaquin Valley, Kern County, at Tulamniu (a Yokuts village) and eastern Chumash area

1934-1937 -- Trustee, Laboratory of Anthropology, Sante Fe

1935 -- Anthropological consultant to the Bureau of Indian Affairs Assistant editor, American Antiquity Published Archeological Investigations in the Bay islands, Spanish Honduras and An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology

1935-1937 -- Member, Committee on State Archeological Surveys, National Research Council

1936 -- Smithsonian Institution-Harvard expedition to northwestern Honduras to the valleys of the Chamelecon and the Ulua Rivers, Naco and other sites

1937-1962 -- Professor, later Chairman, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1937-1938 -- Vice-President, American Anthropological Association

1938 -- Fort Abraham Lincoln (Slant Mandan village) site and Sheyenne-Cheyenne village site excavations in North Dakota

1939 -- Chairman, National Research Council's Committee on Basic Needs in American Archaeology Excavated at Arzberger site in South Dakota and the area between the Chamberlain and Cheyenne Rivers

1940 -- Member, National Research Council's Committee on War Services of Anthropology Expeditions to western Florida and southwestern United States, especially New Mexico Peruvian archaeological survey

1941 -- Chairman, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1941-1942 -- President, American Ethnological Society Peruvian excavations at Pachacamac in the Chancay Valley and the Ancon-Supe excavations

1942? -- Peruvian excavations in the Naxca and Ica Valleys

1942-1944 -- Director, Ethnogeographic Board

1943 -- Published Cross Sections of New World Prehistory Appointed to Loubat Professorship at Columbia University

1945 -- Married Helen Richardson

1946 -- Peruvian excavations, Virú Valley Project National Research Council liaison member of the Committee for the Recovery of Archaeological Remains President, Institute of Andean Research

1948-1949 -- Chairman, Anthropology Section of New York Academy of Sciences

1949 July-August -- Peru-Mexico trip

1950 -- Talking Crow site expedition Excavated at Signal Butte

1952-1953 -- Peruvian expeditions, Nazca and Ica Valleys

1954 -- Awarded the Viking Fund Medal Trip to western United States

1955-1956 -- President, Society for American Archaeology

1962 -- Died January 29

Selected Bibliography

1929 -- Strong, William Duncan. Aboriginal Society of Southern California. Vol. 26, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1929.

1935 -- Strong, William Duncan. Archeological Investigations in the Bay islands, Spanish Honduras. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1935. Strong, William Duncan. An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology. Vol. 93, no. 10, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1935.

1938 -- Strong, William Duncan, Alfred Kidder, II, and A.J. Drexel Pail, Jr. Preliminary Report on the Smithsonian Institution-Harvard University Archeological Expedition to Northwestern Honduras, 1936. Vol. 97, no. 1, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1938.

1943 -- Strong, William Duncan. Cross Sections of New World Prehistory: a Brief Report on the Work of the Institute of Andean Research, 1941-1942. Vol. 104, no. 2, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1943. Strong, William Duncan. Archeological Studies in Peru, 1941-1942. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

1948 -- "The Archeology of Honduras." In The Circum-Caribbean Tribes Vol. 4, Handbook of South American Indians, edited by Julian H. Steward, 71-120. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin No. 143. Washington: U.S. Government Print Office, 1948.

1952 -- Strong, William Duncan, and Clifford Evans. Cultural Stratigraphy in the Virú Valley, Northern Peru. New York: Columbia University Press, 1952.

For a complete bibliography of Strong's works, see Solecki, Ralph, and Charles Wagley. "William Duncan Strong, 1899-1962," American Anthropologist 65, no. 5 (October 1963): 1102-1111. https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1525/aa.1963.65.5.02a00080
Related Materials:
Additional materials in the National Anthropological Archives relating to William Duncan Strong can be found in the records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Handbook of South American Indians, Institute of Social Anthropology, River Basin Surveys, the Society for American Archaeology, and Tulamniu Project (1933-1934); the papers of Ralph Leon Beals, John Peabody Harrington, Frederick Johnson, Frank Maryl Setzler, Ruth Schlossberg Landes, Albert Clanton Spaulding (including information on the Arzberger site), and Waldo Rudolph and Mildred Mott Wedel; Photographic Lot 14, Bureau of American Ethnology Subject and Geographic File; Photographic Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology-United States National Museum Photographs of American Indians; Photographic Lot 77-80, Portraits of Smithsonian Anthropologists; Photographic Lot 92-35, Ralph S. Solecki Photographs of Anthropologists; Numbered Collections, MS 4821 (records of the Anthropological Society of Washington), MS 4261 (photographs made on a site survey in the Santa Barbara Mountains, California, 1934), MS 4302 (journal covering the 1936 expedition to Honduras), MS 4846 (correspondence between BAE authors and the BAE editor's office), and MS 7200 (original field catalog of Honduran artifacts, 1936); and in the non-archival reference file. There are also materials in the Smithsonian Institution Archives in record units 87 (Ethnogeographic Board), 9528 (Henry Bascom Collins interviews), and 1050102 (papers of T. Wayland Vaughan). In the Human Studies Film Archives there is material on Strong in the video dialogues of Charles Wagley, 1983.
Provenance:
The Strong papers were donated to the archives by Strong's widow, Mrs. Helen Richardson Strong. Most of the arrangements were handled by Ralph S. Solecki, then of Columbia University. He sent the papers to the archives between 1974 and 1979, and there have been small accretions since that time. These accretions came through Richard G. Forbis, Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary; Mildred Mott Wedel and Waldo R. Wedel, Department of Anthropology; and Nan A. Rothschild, Department of Anthropology, Barnard College. Mrs. Strong donated the rights in the unpublished material in the collection to the Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution.
Restrictions:
The William Duncan Strong papers are open for research.

Access to the William Duncan Strong papers requires and appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Peru  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Citation:
William Duncan Strong papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-28
See more items in:
William Duncan Strong papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-28
Online Media:

L. T. Butterfield photograph of Plenty Horses' Trial Group No. 1

Creator:
Butterfield, L. T.  Search this
Names:
Plenty Horses, d. 1933  Search this
Extent:
2 Copy negatives (35 mm)
1 Copy print
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Copy prints
Date:
circa 1891
Scope and Contents note:
Portrait of people involved in Plenty Horses' Trial, including Plenty Horses, Living Bear, Bear-That-Lays-Down, He Dog, Broken Arm, White Moon, Rock Road, Pete Richard, Phillip H. Wells, William Rowland Thompson, Cris Mathison, F. C. Fry, Captain J. G. Ballance, W. B. Sterling, George P. Nock, and D. E. Powers.
Biographical/Historical note:
Plenty Horses was tried at Fort Meade in South Dakota for the killing of Army Lieutenant Edward W. Casey during the Wounded Knee Massacre. The central argument of Plenty Horses' lawyers George Nock and David Powers was that a state of war existed between the United States and the Lakota Nation; as such, the belligerents could kill each other without threat of criminal penalty. The court found that a state of war did exist and released Plenty Horses, thereby exonerating the soldiers of the Seventh Cavalry involved in the Massacre.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 165
Location of Other Archival Materials:
An additional Butterfield photograph held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 24.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Trials  Search this
Wounded Knee Massacre, S.D., 1890  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 165, L. T. Butterfield photograph of Plenty Horses' Trial Group No. 1, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.165
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-165

Septima V. Koehler collection

Creator:
Koehler, Septima, 1848-1918  Search this
Names:
St. Elizabeth's School (Wakpala, S.D.)  Search this
Deloria, Philip Joseph  Search this
Hare, William Hobart, 1838-1909  Search this
Extent:
39 Photographic prints
0.4 Linear feet (1 Document Box)
Culture:
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota [Rosebud Sioux]  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Letters (correspondence)
Place:
Rosebud Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Standing Rock Indian Reservation (N.D. and S.D.)
South Dakota
Date:
1890-1905
Summary:
The Septima Koehler collection includes photographic prints, correspondence and student papers that document Septima's work as a mission teacher for the Episcopal Church in South Dakota from around 1895 to 1905. Koehler taught Sicangu Lakota students at St. Mary's Mission School on the Rosebud Reservation and Hunkpapa Lakota students at St. Elizatbeth's Mission School on the Standing Rock Reservation.
Scope and Contents:
The Septima Koehler collection includes photographic prints, letters, essays and student papers that document Septima's work as a mission teacher for the Episcopal Church in South Dakota from around 1895 to 1905. The collection has been divided into two series, Series 1: St. Mary's Mission School, circa 1895 and Series 2: St. Elizabeth's Mission School, circa 1899-1905. Series 1 includes photographic prints shot at St. Mary's Mission School on the Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota. Septima Koehler taught there in the early to mid-1890s but it is unclear when the photographs were taken since the photographer is unknown. The majority of the photographs in the collection were shot at St. Elizabeth's Mission School in Wakpala on the Standing Rock Reservation, South Dakota which are a part of Series 2. These were taken between 1899 and 1902 and several include shots of Septima Koehler herself which suggest they were shot by someone who knew her. There are also a number of portraits of Lakota students who attended the school, some identified with names on the backs of the photographs, including members of the Deloria family among others. There is also a group portrait from the 1903 teacher institute held at Standing Rock organized by A.O. Wright, Supervisor of Indian Schools. In addition to the photographs, there are essays and lesson plans written by Koehler, a letter from Septima Koehler to her sister Aurora from 1902 describing the start of the school year and student papers and work sheets produced by the Native American students (mostly Hunkpapa Lakota) attending the school as well as a student roll book. There are also name and receipt books from Koehler's work with the "Babies' Branch", a missionary outfit that raised money specifically for children.

The majority of the photographic prints in this collection are silver gelatin and most of the St. Elizabeth's photographs are both circular and matted. The prints have catalog numbers P19485-P19523.
Arrangement:
Arranged in two series; Series 1: St. Mary's Mission School, circa 1895 and Series 2: St. Elizabeth's Mission School, circa 1899-1905.
Biographical / Historical:
Septima Koehler (1848-1918) was one of seven children born to Herman and Aurore Koehler in Indiana. Both Septima and her sister Aurora worked as schoolteachers in southeasters Indiana from 1867 to about 1890 when the sisters began their mission work for the Episcopal Church. Around 1895 Septima was appointed by Bishop William Hobart Hare to teach at St. Mary's Mission School on the Rosebud Reservation while Aurora took a job as a librarian in Aberdeen, South Dakota. Only a few years later, around 1899, she was appointed to St. Elizabeth's mission school on the Standing Rock reservation where she taught under Principal Mary E. Francis. In addition to her teaching duties, Koehler also lectured on the importance of health and hygiene at reservation boarding schools, participating in the 1903 Standing Rock Institute organizing by A.O. Wright, supervisor of Indian Schools for the department of the Interior.

Between 1906 and 1908, the Koehler sisters moved to Nashville Tennessee to work within the African American community and from 1908-1909 they worked in a mill in LaGrange, Georgia. Septima died in Hagerstown, Maryland in 1918 from pneumonia.
Related Materials:
The Hutchings-Koehler Family Papers, 1699–1916, can be found in the Manuscript and Visual Collections Department William Henry Smith Memorial Library Indiana Historical Society. This includes correspondence and notebooks from Septima Koehler during this same time period in South Dakota.
Separated Materials:
Archaeological and ethnographic plains materials collected by Septima Koehler and inherited by her great-niece Elizabeth Kelemen can be found in the NMAI ethnographic collections. They have catalog numbers 23/8260 – 23/8319. There are also 14 sketches from St. Mary's Mission students with catalog numbers 25/1093 – 25/1101.
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1970 by Pal and Elizabeth Zulauf Kelemen. Elizabeth Kelemen was the great-niece of Septima Koehler.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Women in the Episcopal Church  Search this
Education -- Mission School  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Notebooks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Septima Koehler Collection (NMAI.AC.319), Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.319
See more items in:
Septima V. Koehler collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-319
Online Media:

John M. Kauffmann photographs of Dewey Beard

Photographer:
Kauffmann, John M.  Search this
Names:
Beard, Dewey  Search this
Case, Leland D. (Leland Davidson), 1900-1986  Search this
Extent:
52 Photographs
Culture:
Minneconjou Lakota (Minniconjou Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Black Hills (South Dakota)
Date:
1955
Summary:
This collection contains 54 photographs that were shot by amateur photographer John M. Kauffmann in 1955. The photographs depict Dewey Beard (also known as Iron Hail and Wasu Maza) and the Black Hills in South Dakota.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 54 photographs (53 negatives and 1 gelatin silver print) that were shot by amateur photographer John M. Kauffmann in 1955 in South Dakota. Kauffmann accompanied his photographer friend Bates Littlehales, who was on assignment to illustrate a National Geographic article authored by Leland Case about the Black Hills of South Dakota. Littlehales invited Kauffmann to join him on his assignment, so that Kauffmann could practice his photography.

The collection contains two series. Series 1 contains photos that depict the interview with Dewey Beard (also known as Iron Hail and Wasu Maza) that was conducted by Leland Case on June 18, 1955 at the Alex Johnson Hotel, Rapid City, South Dakota. At the time of the interview, Dewey Beard was the last Sioux survivor of the Battle of Big Horn. Series 2 contains photographs shot around the Black Hills of South Dakota and includes depictions of Leland Case, possibly Bates Littlehales, and other unidentified people on horseback; exploring landscapes and caves; and looking at tree rings.

Kauffmann used a Rolleiflex medium format camera to photograph the images in this collection. Leland Bates' National Geographic article was published in the October 1956, vol. CX, no. 4 issue.
Arrangement:
Negatives arranged in a box and photograph arranged in a folder.
Biographical / Historical:
John M. Kauffmann grew up in Washington, DC and graduated from Princeton University. He worked for the National Park Service for many years serving in Washington, DC and Alaska. His work led to the conservation of 100 million acres through the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. He also played a vital role in the creation of the Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve. He passed away on November 16, 2014 at the age of 91.

Dewey Beard, also known as Wasu Maza or Iron Hail, was a member of the Minneconjou Lakota (Minniconjou Sioux) tribe and was the last known survivor of the Battle of Little Bighorn. He was also present during the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890, where many of his family members were killed and he was wounded. Born in 1858, Wasu Maza changed his name to Dewey Beard when he converted to Roman Catholicism. For 15 years, he also was a member of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. He died in November 1955 at age 96.
Related Materials:
The Library of Congress has the recorded interview with Dewey Beardthat took place on 18, 1955 at the Alex Johnson Hotel, Rapid City, South Dakota.
Provenance:
Gift of John M. Kauffmann, 1999.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); John M. Kauffmann photographs of Dewey Beard, image #, NMAI.AC.225; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.225
See more items in:
John M. Kauffmann photographs of Dewey Beard
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-225
Online Media:

Horace G. Jennerson collection

Photographer:
Jennerson, Horace G.  Search this
Bratley, J. H. (Jesse H.)  Search this
Names:
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot
28 Glass plate negatives
30 Photographic prints
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota [Pine Ridge]  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass plate negatives
Photographic prints
Place:
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Rosebud Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Date:
bulk circa 1887-1902
circa 1887-1940
Summary:
This collection contains photographs was shot circa 1887-1899 by Jesse Hasting Bratley and Horace G. Jennerson while they served as teachers on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 28 glass plate negatives and 30 photographic prints that were mostly shot by Jesse Hasting Bratley and Horace G. Jennerson circa 1887-1905, while they were teachers on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations respectively. The photographs include depictions of the Corn Creek Day School on Rosebud Reservation and No. 20 Day School on the Pine Ridge Reservation; portraits of individuals and families; interior views of an Omaha earth lodge and exterior views of encampments; activities such as branding calves, a 4th of July celebration, and an Episcopalian Convocation; and landscapes of the Badlands in South Dakota. One photograph in the collection possibly depicts Horace G. Jennerson circa 1938-1940.

Photographs of note include 2 glass plate negatives depicting Chief Red Cloud.

Some photographs in this collection are restricted because they depict culturally sensitive scenes such as sweat house/lodges and burial grounds.

Jennerson collected Bratley's photographs at some unknown point in time and Jennerson's wife Mary captioned many of the original plates and prints. In some instances, the original photographer is unclear.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into 5 series: Series 1: Portraits, Series 2: Students and schools, Series 3: Activities, Series 4: Buildings and structures, and Series 5: Landscapes.

The photographs are physically arranged in original catalog number order within folders. The glass plate negatives are arranged in boxes according to image size and then by catalog number order.
Biographical / Historical:
Born in Kansas in 1863, Horace G. Jennerson served as a teacher at the No. 20 Day School on the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota from circa 1896-1905. He married Mary R. Jennerson in Saline, Kansas in 1889. Their children included M. Leah Jennerson and Horace L. Jennerson. He also served as a financial clerk for the Indian Service in Ponca, Oklahoma circa 1905-1913. He died in Seattle, Washington in 1940.

Jesse Bratley was born in Brown Town, Wisconsin in 1867. He served as teacher at the Lower Cut Meat Creek Indian Day School on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota from circa 1893-1899. In addition to regular classes, he also taught the children farming, carpentry, and blacksmithing. He later served as a teacher at the Cantonment Boarding School in Oklahoma, circa 1899-1900; Havasupai at Cataract, Arizona, circa 1902-1903; Hopi Day School in Arizona, circa 1902-1903, and Seminole, Florida, 1910. He passed away in Florida in 1948.
Separated Materials:
Horace L. Jennerson also donated objects to the Museum of the American Indian and are cataloged under numbers 243761-243811.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Museum of the American Indian by Horace L. Jennerson (son of Horace G. Jennerson) in 1970.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Horace G. Jennerson collection, catalog #; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.224
See more items in:
Horace G. Jennerson collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-224
Online Media:

John H. Waugh and Walking Soldier (Sicangu Lakota [Rosebud Sioux])

Collection Creator:
Waugh, John Harold, Jr., 1878-1956  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass plate negative
Container:
Box 27 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Sicangu Lakota [Rosebud Sioux]  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota [Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1892
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of John H. Waugh (seated), Indian agent, and Walking Soldier (Sicangu Lakota [Rosebud Sioux]) on the Spirit Lake Reservation (Devils Lake Reservation). Walking Soldier was a member of the Indian police force on the Rosebud reservation in South Dakota.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

One of the photographs is restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); J. Harold Waugh photographs from the Spirit Lake Reservation (Devil's Lake Reservation) image #, NMAI.AC.143; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.143, Item N20155
See more items in:
J. Harold Waugh photographs from the Spirit Lake Reservation (Devils Lake Reservation)
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-143-ref6

Reverend James O. Arthur photograph collection

Creator:
Arthur, James (James Osborne)  Search this
Names:
Reformed Church of America (New York)  Search this
Arthur, James (James Osborne)  Search this
Extent:
699 Nitrate negatives (3 1/4 x 5 1/2 or smaller)
0.25 Linear feet (envelopes)
2 Gelatin silver prints
Culture:
Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache (New Mexico)  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Mescalero Apache  Search this
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Nitrate negatives
Gelatin silver prints
Place:
Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico -- Missions
Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico
Date:
1913-1928
bulk 1914-1919
Summary:
This collection of photographs, shot by Reverend James O. Arthur while serving as a missionary for the Reformed Church of America, documents the activities on the Winnebago Reservation in Nebraska in 1913 as well as Mescalero and Chiricahua Reservation in White Tail, New Mexico from 1914-1919. Additional images depict vacations and travels throughout the United States by the Arthur family and friends between the years 1913-1928.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 701 photographs shot by Reverend James O. Arthur while serving as a missionary for the Reformed Church of America and documents the activities on the Winnebago Reservation in Nebraska in 1913, and on the Mescalero Apache and Chiricahua Apache Reservation in White Tail, New Mexico from 1914-1919. The photographs depict informal portraits of Winnebago, Mescalero Apache, Chiricahua Apache, and Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache people; Reverend James O. Arthur, his family, and friends on the reservations and their travels throughout the United States between the years 1913 to 1928; groups such as Indian school children, quilt sewing circles, and Indian police and fire brigade; activities such as church life, fairs, picnics, sports, hunting, horticulture, agriculture, and building construction; and animals such as cattle, deer, turkeys, and wolves. Notable images include those of an elderly Chief Naiche (Chiricahua Apache), Jasper Kanseah [nephew of Goyathlay (Geronimo)], and Eugene Chihuahua (son of Chihuahua).The majority of the images were photographed by Rev. James O. Arthur himself, except for the few images in which he appears. This collection also contains Reverend Arthur's negative envelopes which include his typed notes about the photographs such as dates, subject matter, and his ratings of the photographs. Arthur used a Vest Pocket Kodak camera from circa 1913-1914 and a 3A Folding Kodak camera from circa 1914-1928.

The titles of the photographs were assigned by the photographer.
Arrangement note:
The collection is intellectually arranged in 15 series by location and then chronologically.

The nitrate negatives were originally physically organized by Reverend James O. Arthur in two sets of envelopes first by image size and then by chronology. Upon donation, NMAI image numbers where assigned to the nitrate negatives and then physically stored according to this number in four boxes; Box 1 (N53103-N53272), Box 2 (N53273-N53460), Box 3 (N53461-N53663), Box 4 (N53664-N53801). The 2 prints are stored in Photo Folder 1. Box 5 contains the envelopes in series 5. In 2008 the nitrate negatives were moved to an offsite storage facility.
Biographical/Historical note:
Reverend James Osborne Arthur (1887-1971) and his wife Katherine Arthur (1883-1960) were missionaries for the Reformed Church of America, working on the Nebraska Winnebago Reservation from 1912 to 1914 and among the Chiricahua and Mescalero Apaches in the Whitetail section of the Mescalero Apache Reservation in New Mexico from June 1914 to 1919.

Arthur was born in South Dakota in 1887 to Frank G. Arthur (1861-1948) and Jean O. Schuler (Scouller; 1863-1914), but spent his early life in Iowa. James had 5 siblings Margaret W. Arthur (b. 1889), F. Gale Arthur (1892-1952), Dorothy M. Arthur (b.1894), Jeanie (Jeanne) Arthur (1896-1961), and Jessie M. Arthur (1899-1992).

On June 26, 1911, James Arthur married Katherine Magdeline Gottberg Rhoades (1883-1960). The Arthurs had five children who are documented in this collection: Margaret Jean (1913-2010), James, Jr. (1915-2002), John Paul (1917-1987), Robert Lee (1919-2000) and Kathryn (1923-). Reverend Arthur died in August 1971 in Lomita, California.
Related Materials:
The following book documents the Arthurs' work and life on the Mescalero Apache Reservation: Herbert, D. and R. K. Herbert. Yah Et-Te: A Struggling Missionary's Record of Work Among Geronimo's People on the Mescalero Apache Reservation in 1914-1919. Philadelphia: Xlibris Corporation, 2000.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to NMAI in 2007 in memory of Reverend James O. Arthur and Katherine Arthur by Barbara Jane Arthur Jacobs (the Arthurs' granddaughter) and family.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Missions -- Nebraska  Search this
Missionaries -- New Mexico  Search this
Missionaries -- Nebraska  Search this
Missions -- New Mexico  Search this
Winnebago Indians -- Missions  Search this
Chiricahua Indians -- Missions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Nitrate negatives -- 1900-1960
Gelatin silver prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reverend James O. Arthur photograph collection; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.057
See more items in:
Reverend James O. Arthur photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-057
Online Media:

Matilda Sprinkel glass plate negatives of the Rosebud Reservation

Photographer:
Sprinkel, Matilda Inez Murphy  Search this
Names:
Bear Heels, Chief  Search this
Big Face  Search this
Charging Elk  Search this
Red Fish, Chief  Search this
Sprinkel, Margaret Paulina  Search this
Extent:
11 Glass plate negatives (4x5 in.)
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Glass negatives
Place:
Rosebud Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Date:
1904-1910
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 11 glass plate negatives photographed by Matilda Inez Murphy Sprinkel, circa 1904-1910. Sprinkel and her husband Frederick Kemper Sprinkel were trading post operators and possibly Indian Agents on the Rosebud Reservation when she shot these photographs. It is possible that some of the photographs may have been shot by Frederick as well.

The bulk of the photographs are portraits of individuals probably from the Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux) community and include 2 photos of Chief Red Fish; an outdoor photo of Charging Elk and Broken Legs, with one of them wearing an Indian police badge; a photo of Big Face holding a rifle; 2 photos of Chief Bear Heels; an outdoor portrait possibly of Bear Heels' wife; and 2 unidentified Lakota women. There are also 2 baby photos of the Sprinkels' first child Margaret Paulina Sprinkel (1908-2006).

The backgrounds on several of the glass plate negatives have been masked out with red paint either by Matilda Sprinkel, or perhaps by her daughter Margaret who worked as a photograph retoucher. Notes such as names and locations were also etched in the emulsion on several glass plates presumably by Matilda.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection are organized in 1 box.
Biographical / Historical:
Matilda Inez Murphy Sprinkel was born in Ligonier, PA in 1880. She married Frederick Kemper Sprinkel (1877-1936) on September 26, 1906. The couple operated a trading post on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and were possibly Indian Agents as well. They had several children including Margaret Paulina Sprinkel (1908-2006), Frederick Kemper Sprinkel, Jr. (1910-1998), and Rose Hume Sprinkel Rosse (1914-1992). Matilda Inez died in Richmond, VA in 1966.
Provenance:
Donated by Murphy Sprinkel and Mary Jane Stout, 2016.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- South Dakota  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Matilda Sprinkel glass plate negatives of the Rosebud Reservation, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.083
See more items in:
Matilda Sprinkel glass plate negatives of the Rosebud Reservation
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-083
Online Media:

Chief Bear Heels

Collection Photographer:
Sprinkel, Matilda Inez Murphy  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass plate negative
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1904-1910
Scope and Contents:
Glass plate negative depicting an indoor portrait of Chief Bear Heels [Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)]. The photograph has been masked, creating a highlighted outline around around the sitter. This photograph was shot on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota, circa 1904-1910.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Matilda Sprinkel glass plate negatives of the Rosebud Reservation, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Matilda Sprinkel glass plate negatives of the Rosebud Reservation
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-083-ref509

Chief Bear Heels

Collection Photographer:
Sprinkel, Matilda Inez Murphy  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass plate negative
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1904-1910
Scope and Contents:
Glass plate negative depicting an outdoor portrait of Chief Bear Heels [Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)]. Chief Bear Heels is wearing traditional clothing including a feather headdress. This photograph was shot on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota, circa 1904-1910.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Matilda Sprinkel glass plate negatives of the Rosebud Reservation, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Matilda Sprinkel glass plate negatives of the Rosebud Reservation
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-083-ref510

Possibly Chief Bear Heels' wife

Collection Photographer:
Sprinkel, Matilda Inez Murphy  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass plate negative
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1904-1910
Scope and Contents:
Glass plate negative depicting a woman, possibly Chief Bear Heels' wife [Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)]. She is standing outside a building, wearing an elk tooth dress and a feather headdress. This photograph was shot on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota, circa 1904-1910.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Matilda Sprinkel glass plate negatives of the Rosebud Reservation, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Matilda Sprinkel glass plate negatives of the Rosebud Reservation
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-083-ref511

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