Occultations visible in the United States during the year 1850 computed by John Downes, at the expense of the fund appropriated by Congress for the establishment of a Nautical almanac, and published by the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79053968 http://viaf.org/viaf/159805885 Search this
Downes, John 1799-1882 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n88223892 http://viaf.org/viaf/68031136 Search this
Correspondents: Clarence B. Moore, J.F. Arthur, Frederic Ward Putnam, Howard Clarke, Anita Earl, Cyrus Thomas, Francis E. Vaughan, Frederic Landsberg, Charles C. Willoughby, H. Stadthagen, T. Mitchell Prudden, James M. Goulding, J.E. Linde, Franz Boas, Matilda Garretson Rea, Frank Leib, John H. Cobbs, John Winser, Thomas Dozier, Marie Leib, James E. Mullen, J. Walter Fewkes, Charles Lummis.
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: email@example.com).
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Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
United States National Museum. Division of Vertebrate Paleontology Search this
9.25 cu. ft. (18 document boxes) (1 half document box)
These records document the history of the Division of Vertebrate Paleontology, 1889-1957, and to a greater extent, document the professional and administrative activities
of Charles W. Gilmore when he was a staff member with the Division (1905-1945). Materials include daybooks and journals kept by Gilmore, containing the daily work activities
of himself and other staff members in the Division, 1905-1931; incoming and outgoing correspondence most of which, from 1905-1945, was written or received by Gilmore; examination
and reports of specimens and outgoing correspondence; and article drafts, notes, speeches, and radio talks, mostly written by Gilmore.
The Division of Vertebrate Paleontology maintains fossil collections, the earliest of which were gathered during the United States Exploring Expedition in the 1830's
and forwarded to the National Institute. From 1846 to 1858, these collections were transferred to the Smithsonian. Unfortunately, most of the specimens have subsequently been
discarded presumably because they lacked data pertaining to origin and locality.
Joseph Leidy of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia was commissioned in 1850 by the Smithsonian as a collaborator to study the fossil collections housed in
the Institution and those to be collected in the field. Leidy's studies continued into the late 1860's and were published in part in the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge.
Leidy's study of fossils included those gathered during the General Land Office surveys (1849-1858), Pacific Railroad Survey (1854-1855), and by the United States Geological
Survey under the direction of F.V. Hayden (1856-1872).
In 1867, Edward Drinker Cope began his collaboration with the Smithsonian, and his studies on fossils collected at the Smithsonian were published both in the Smithsonian
Contributions to Knowledge and the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.
From the organizational beginning of the United States National Museum until 1887, the custody of vertebrate fossils was placed under the Department of Comparative Anatomy.
Osteologists from the Department carried out the preparation and exhibition of the collection.
Vertebrate fossils emerged as an administrative organization in 1881, when Othniel Charles Marsh, in charge of vertebrate paleontology at the United States Geological Survey,
was appointed honorary curator of the Department of Vertebrate Fossils. The Department came under the supervision of the Division of Zoology. Since then, the Department of
Vertebrate Fossils has undergone numerous transformations both in name and administration.
The Department became a section under the Department of Paleontology in 1894 and when the USNM was reorganized in 1897, Vertebrate Fossils remained a section under the
newly created Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology.
When Marsh died in 1898, Frederic Augustus Lucas, an osteologist, was made acting assistant curator of the Section. Lucas had been an assistant curator of the Section intermittently
since 1891, and had been made curator of Comparative Anatomy in 1894. Lucas became acting curator of Fossils in 1903 only to resign from the USNM in 1904. Fossils disappeared
as an administrative unit from 1905 to 1908. However, it remained a viable and functioning unit without a name as Charles W. Gilmore (1904) and James W. Gidley (1905) were
appointed preparators to the section. George P. Merrill, head curator of the Department of Geology, administered the collection.
When the Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology was reorganized in 1908, with each of its sections becoming a division, Fossils reemerged as the Division of Vertebrate
Paleontology. Gidley became custodian of the mammalian collection and Gilmore custodian of the reptilian collection.
In June 1911, Vertebrate Paleontology became a section under the Division of Paleontology; during the following month, Gidley and Gilmore became assistant curators of fossil
mammals and fossil reptiles, respectively. Gilmore became associate curator of the Section in 1917-1918, and in May 1923 became curator of Vertebrate Paleontology.
Vertebrate Paleontology again became a Division in June of 1924, when the Division of Paleontology was renamed the Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology.
James W. Gidley died on September 26, 1931. The vacancy was filled when Charles L. Gazin was appointed assistant curator to the Division on March 1, 1932. Gazin became
associate curator on March 1, 1942, and subsequently became curator of the Division on January 1, 1946, upon the death of Gilmore, September 27, 1945.
Other staff members appointed to the Division include David H. Dunkle, who was appointed associate curator in 1946-1947. Dunkle retired in March of 1968. Peter P. Vaughn,
appointed associate curator in July, 1957, resigned in January of 1959. Nicholas Hotton III was appointed associate curator in June of 1959 and became curator of the Division
in 1968-1969. Clayton E. Ray was appointed associate curator in 1963, and when Gazin became senior paleontologist in 1968 in order to devote full time to scientific studies,
Ray became curator and supervisor of the Division.
On October 15, 1963, the Department of Geology was disbanded with its administrative function divided into two departments, Mineral Science and Paleobiology. The Division
of Vertebrate Paleontology came under the supervision of the latter.
Most of the papers within these records pertain to the professional and administrative activities of Charles W. Gilmore while he was a staff member of the Division (1905-1945).
Gilmore, who was selected in 1932 by J. McKeen Cattell, editor of Science, as one of the twenty-five leading geologists in the United States, was born in Pavilion, New York,
in 1874. He began his interest in fossils and museum work at an early age, after visiting Ward's Natural Science Establishment. Gilmore attended the University of Wyoming
where he studied and collected fossil specimens, and from 1901-1904, he was a collector in the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology at the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh.
From 1904 until his death in 1945, Gilmore was a staff member of the United States National Museum. He participated in sixteen expeditions and because of his work, the results
of the most important excavations and studies at the Dinosaur National Monument have been analyzed and recorded. Among the numerous scientific societies to which he belonged,
Gilmore was president and member of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, the Paleontology Society of Washington and the Geological Society of America.
This accession consists of various drawings, published plates, and clippings. Subjects depicted include the sculptures of Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa and the carvings
and designs of the Haida Indians, as well as images of fishes, mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, and mollusks. Some of these images were done as part of the United Pacific
Railroad Expeditions and Surveys, while others were included in the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge series or were drawn by Augustus A. Gould, conchologist, and Theodore
D. A. Cockerell, entomologist. Additionally there are clippings of a Washington Post article on the Thomas G. Hodgkins bequest to the Smithsonian Institution.
A photograph of a lithograph depicting American Indians and the Hopewell geometric eathworks in Marietta. The lithograph, which is entitled "Ancient Works, Marietta, Ohio," was based on a painting by Charles Sullivan.
Sarony & Major was a New York City lithography business that was started in 1843 by Napoleon Sarony and James Major. In 1845, Henry B. Major took James Major's place, though the firm continued under the same name until 1853. It later became Sarony & Company (1853-1857) and Sarony, Major & Knapp (1857-1867). Sarony left the partnership and opened his own photography studio in 1867.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 87-2C, OPPS NEG OHIO 5
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Correspondence from Sarony & Major lithographers held in the National Anthropological Archives in the William Wadden Turner papers.
Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collections, undated
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo lot 87-2C, Sarony & Major lithograph of Hopewell earthworks, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Random records of a lifetime, 1846-1931 [actually 1932] volume VIII, Cuba with Powell; Jamaica with Langley; Mexico with Gilbert and Dutton; California with McGee; physical anthropology, Hrdlicka, current work 1900