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Ivory Soap Advertising Collection

Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Extent:
10 Cubic feet (30 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Photomechanical reproductions
Date:
1883-1998
Summary:
Print advertisements covering almost the entire history of Ivory Soap, including advertisements designed by artists including Jesse Wilcox Smith, Elizabeth Shippen Green, and J. C. Leyendecker.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of print advertising and publications covering almost the entire history of Ivory Soap. Researchers may use this collection to examine the evolution of advertising strategies and techniques from the very early days of mass-produced brand-name consumer products to the present. From the beginning, Ivory advertisements proclaimed the product's "99 and 44/100%" purity, its ability to float, and its versatility. The collection, however, is much more than a glimpse into advertising history. It is an extremely rich resource for a wide range of cultural studies. Ivory advertising was primarily aimed at women, and it contains many images of women, babies, and young children. The depictions reflect contemporary attitudes toward class structure, race, immigrants and residents of other countries, cleanliness, and domestic relationships. The advertisements often play upon the guilt of women, suggesting that their main concerns should be their husbands, children, and dishpan hands. Many advertisements associate cleanliness with social and religious propriety, physical fitness, and athleticism. There also are many images of men and women performing every-day tasks in gender-defined situations.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements, 1883-1998, undated

Series 2: Publications, 1883-1969, undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1837, candle maker William Procter and soap maker James Gamble formed a partnership in Cincinnati, Ohio, to sell their products. The new company prospered, and by 1859 Procter & Gamble sales reached one million dollars. Contracts with the United States Army during the Civil War to supply soap and candles increased Procter & Gamble's customer base and reputation. In 1879, James Norris Gamble, son of the founder, developed an inexpensive pure white soap. A factory worker who forgot to shut off the soap-making machine when he left for lunch inadvertently improved the product. When he returned, the soap mixture was frothy due to the air that had been whipped into it, and the resulting soap cakes floated in water. There was immediate demand for the "floating soap." After considering many names for the new product, Harley Procter, son of the founder, finally named the soap "Ivory" after Psalms 45:8: "All thy garments smell of myrrh and aloes and cassia, out of the ivory palaces whereby they have made thee glad." Chemical analyses of the soap in 1882 revealed that 56/100 of the ingredients were not pure soap. Harley Procter subtracted that amount from one hundred and the slogan "99 and 44/100% pure" was born. The first ads appeared in 1882 in The Independent, a weekly newspaper.

Innovations in production, distribution, and market research contributed to Procter & Gamble's success. Procter & Gamble also developed other products such as Ivory Flakes, Chipso (the first dishwasher soap), and Crisco. By 1945, Procter & Gamble had become a nearly $350 million company. The company also was an innovator in advertising, developing creative print advertisements aimed at different target groups, sponsoring radio shows and comic strips, and airing its first television commercial (for Ivory Soap) during the first televised major league baseball game. Procter & Gamble is now a global company, selling more than 250 products, including Ivory Soap, to five billion customers in 130 countries.
Related Materials:
Several collections in the Archives Center have materials relating to Ivory Soap. The J. Walter Wilkinson Papers contain art he created for Ivory Soap advertisements. The Ivory Soap 1940 Essay Contest Collection consists of documents relating to the contest and its winner, Helen Nixon. The Procter & Gamble Product Packaging Collection, 1940s-1970s, includes Ivory brand products. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana's "Soap" subject category contains documents relating to Procter & Gamble and other manufacturers. About twenty-five per cent of the advertisements in this collection are reproduced in the Archives Center's digital image library.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts donated to the Division of Medicine and Science.
Provenance:
Procter & Gamble donated this collection to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution on October 24, 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising  Search this
Soap  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Photomechanical reproductions
Advertisements -- 19th century
Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0791
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88550648b-e85c-4b62-9ccb-f8e6872e4a86
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0791
Online Media:

Jessie Willcox Smith papers, 1901-1931

Creator:
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Citation:
Jessie Willcox Smith papers, 1901-1931. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Women illustrators  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9723
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212007
AAA_collcode_smitjess
Theme:
Women
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212007

Have You a Red Cross Service Flag?

Issuing body:
American Red Cross  Search this
Artist:
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Creator:
American Red Cross  Search this
Collection Creator:
Princeton University  Search this
Extent:
1 Poster (1/2 size; Multi-color, 70.5 x 53.5 cm)
Container:
Map-folder 22
Type:
Archival materials
Posters
Place:
United States
Date:
1918
Image:
Main Image: Boy Placing Red Cross Flag in Window
Local numbers:
Princeton Poster# 192
General:
Issued by: American Red Cross

Artist(s): Jessie Willcox Smith
Printing Info:
Printer: Edwards & Deutsch Litho. Co., Chicago
Related Materials:
Duplicates: 192, 2467

Condition differs: Yes
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status of items varies. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Relief and volunteer organizations  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- War work  Search this
Christmas decorations  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- Posters -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters
Posters -- World War, 1914-1918 -- United States
Collection Citation:
Princeton University Posters Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Princeton University Poster Collection
Princeton University Poster Collection / Series 2: World War One / United States
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep857d9ce5e-0804-4b5e-9298-923697b93ede
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0433-ref7632

Have You a Red Cross Service Flag?

Issuing body:
American Red Cross  Search this
Artist:
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Creator:
American Red Cross  Search this
Collection Creator:
Princeton University  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (1/2 size; Multi-color, 71 x 53.5 cm)
Container:
Map-folder 315
Type:
Archival materials
Posters
Place:
United States
Date:
1918
Image:
Main Image: Little boy putting Red Cross Service Flag in window under a Christmas wreath
Local numbers:
Princeton Poster# 2467
General:
Issued by: American Red Cross

Artist(s): essie Wilcox Smith
Printing Info:
Printer: Edwards & Deutsch Litho. Co., Chicago
Related Materials:
Duplicates: 192, 2467

Condition differs: Yes
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status of items varies. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Relief and volunteer organizations  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- War work  Search this
Christmas decorations  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- Posters -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- World War, 1914-1918 -- United States
Collection Citation:
Princeton University Posters Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Princeton University Poster Collection
Princeton University Poster Collection / Series 2: World War One / United States
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81724c364-6f9f-4a3a-9f4b-d9c86a94c664
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0433-ref7633

Between the Dark and the Daylight [photomechanical print]

Artist:
Smith, Jessie Willcox 1863-1935  Search this
Physical description:
1 photomechanical print color
Type:
Photomechanical prints
Date:
Copyrighted 1916
Topic:
Figure group--Family--Father & Child  Search this
Architecture interior--Domestic--Living Room  Search this
Architecture--Detail--Fireplace  Search this
Allegory--Time--Evening  Search this
Image number:
LOC LC001949
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Library of Congress Copyright Deposit Collection
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_141854

Madonna [photomechanical print]

Artist:
Smith, Jessie Willcox 1863-1935  Search this
Photographic firm:
Cosmopolitan Print Department  Search this
Physical description:
1 photomechanical print color
Type:
Photomechanical prints
Date:
Copyrighted 1917
Topic:
Religion--New Testament--Christ  Search this
Religion--New Testament--Mary  Search this
Image number:
LOC LC001950
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Library of Congress Copyright Deposit Collection
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_141856

Mother and Child [photomechanical print]

Artist:
Smith, Jessie Willcox 1863-1935  Search this
Publisher:
M. Rusling Wood  Search this
Physical description:
1 photomechanical print color
Type:
Photomechanical prints
Date:
Copyrighted 1916
Topic:
Figure group--Family--Mother & Child  Search this
Image number:
LOC LC001951
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Library of Congress Copyright Deposit Collection
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_141858

Motherhood [photomechanical print]

Artist:
Smith, Jessie Willcox 1863-1935  Search this
Photographic firm:
Curtis & Cameron  Search this
Physical description:
1 photomechanical print black and white
Type:
Photomechanical prints
Date:
Copyrighted 1904, 1906
Topic:
Allegory--Life--Motherhood  Search this
Figure group--Family--Mother & Child  Search this
Image number:
LOC LC001952
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Library of Congress Copyright Deposit Collection
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_141862

Twilight Madonna [photomechanical print]

Title:
Now I Lay Me Down To Sleep [photomechanical print]
Artist:
Smith, Jessie Willcox 1863-1935  Search this
Photographic firm:
Curtis & Cameron  Search this
Physical description:
1 photomechanical print black and white
Type:
Photomechanical prints
Date:
Copyrighted 1914
Topic:
Allegory--Religion--Madonna  Search this
Figure group--Family--Mother & Child  Search this
Recreation--Church--Prayer  Search this
Image number:
LOC LC001953
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Library of Congress Copyright Deposit Collection
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_141865

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1-2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1883
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep869ee8ab3-7f15-409c-a5e1-abcb22a031b2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref531

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1884
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8557a83f4-158e-435f-ad11-8407238c1bca
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref532

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1885
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83ba679e2-5671-444d-8e24-5beb3a6e27fe
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref533

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 9-10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1887
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep809f3908e-52ba-47ae-b9ae-862db3d1d11c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref535

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1889
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d5e26e69-de86-4b02-9e47-4d16cb7f0ced
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref537

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 13-14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1890
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8bcdce22c-e58e-4fef-8beb-bfc9e6f0ef2e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref538

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 1-2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1891
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c0d368cd-032b-44d7-8c8a-af95957f4642
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref539

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1892
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86203dc3f-2da6-45c4-b058-a0fb1b0b0bfe
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref540

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1893
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89ceabdf1-5f29-4973-9ae1-ea10842865f9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref541

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1894
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8cd178845-08ce-426d-90bd-dc557d4d458d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref542

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 6-7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1895
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8934bbab2-353e-403d-9659-8d767e62c413
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref544

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