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William C. Sturtevant papers

Topic:
Handbook of North American Indians
Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Names:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
Six Nations  Search this
Extent:
220 Linear feet (The total extent of the collection is 191.41 linear feet (consisting of 473 document boxes and 2 record boxes) plus 254 sound recordings, 94 computer disks, 42 card file boxes, 85 oversize folders, 9 rolled items, 18 binder boxes, and 3 oversize boxes. Of the total extent, 4.79 linear feet (14 boxes) are restricted.)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Realia
Research
Notes
Office files
Theses
Slides (photographs)
Sound recordings
Exhibition catalogs
Field notes
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Microfilms
Newsletters
Manuscripts
Memorandums
Articles
Card files
Books
Artifacts
Negatives
Date:
1952-2007
Summary:
This collection contains the professional papers of William Curtis Sturtevant and documents his activities as Curator of North American Ethnology at the National Museum of Natural History, his work as the editor-in-chief of the Handbook of North American Indians, his research among the Seminole and Iroquois people, and other professional activities. The collection is comprised of books, sound recordings, research and field notes, realia, artifacts, clippings, microfilm, negatives, slides, photographs, manuscripts, correspondence, memorandums, card files, exhibition catalogs, articles, and bibliographies.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the professional papers of William Curtis Sturtevant and documents his activities as Curator of North American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, his work as the editor-in-chief of the Handbook of North American Indians, his research among the Seminole and Iroquois people, and his involvement in various professional activities. The collection is comprised of research and field notes, sound recordings, realia, clippings, negatives, slides, prints, published and unpublished writings, correspondence, memorandums, conference papers and meeting notes, card files, exhibition catalogs, articles, bibliographies, student files such as class notes and papers from Sturtevant's years as an anthropology student, teaching materials including lecture notes and exams, daily planners, passports, military records, artwork including prints and lithographs, maps, and computer files.

The materials in this collection document Sturtevant's career as a preeminent North American ethnologist, museum curator, university professor, his role as General Editor of the Handbook of North American Indians, and his contributions to the field of Anthropology. From his early work with the Seminole Indians of Florida to his forays into Burma, and his decades-long study of how Native Americans have been depicted in artistic and popular culture, Sturtevant's diverse intellectual interests are represented in his research files. A copious note taker, Sturtevant captured his observations and opinions of everything from meetings with colleagues to museum exhibits. Sturtevant's commitment to the anthropological profession can be found in the notes and programs of the many conferences, symposiums, and lecture series he attended and at which he presented. He also held numerous leadership positions in various professional associations and sat on the board of directors/trustees for several cultural organizations including Survival International and the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation. Sturtevant was respected for his vast knowledge of indigenous peoples and he received a voluminous amount of correspondence from colleagues who often included copies of their papers and grant proposals. He kept many of these works, which, it appears he used as reference material. Sturtevant's own work is reflected in his writings; he published over 200 scholarly papers, articles, and books.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized in 14 series: 1. Correspondence, 1951-2008; 2. Research Files, 1851, 1860s, 1880s, 1890, 1939-2006; 3. Writings, 1952-2006; 4. Professional Activities, 1952-2006; 5. Smithsonian, 1954-2008; 6. Handbook of North American Indians, 1971-2007; 7. Biographical Files, 1933-2007; 8. Student Files, 1944-1985; 9. Subject Files, 1902-2002; 10. Photographs, 1927-2004; 11. Artwork, 1699-1998; 12. Maps, 1949-1975; 13. Sound Recordings, 1950-2000; 14. Computer Files, 1987-2006.
Biographical/Historical note:
William C. Sturtevant (1926-2007), preeminent North American ethnologist, museum curator, and university professor, was best known for his contributions to Seminole ethnology, as curator of North American Ethnology in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, and for his work as the general editor of the Handbook of North American Indians.

Sturtevant's passion for studying Native peoples began at a young age. In third grade "after a class on American Indians, he asked his father what kind of people study Indians, and his father replied, 'Anthropologists.' Sturtevant decided then that he would make anthropology his career" (Merrill 11). After graduating with honors from the University of California at Berkeley in 1949, Sturtevant went on to Yale University to complete his graduate work in anthropology. When it came time to decide on what area of North America he should focus his research, one of his faculty members at Yale, Irving Rouse, "suggested he consider the Seminoles of south Florida. By the end of his first fieldwork season, Sturtevant was convinced that the dearth of ethnographic information about these Seminoles and their status as one of the least acculturated of all North American Indian societies justified ethnographic research among them and offered the possibility of making an important contribution to North American ethnology" (Merrill 13). Sturtevant spent the summers of 1950 and 1951 conducting preliminary fieldwork among the Mikasuki-speaking Seminole and in 1952 he took up temporary residence at Big Cypress Reservation to undertake research for his dissertation, "The Mikasuki Seminole: Medical Beliefs and Practices." This work focused on Seminole medicine, but also included Sturtevant's analysis of Seminole worldview, religion, history, inter-ethnic relations, material culture, economy, kinship, language, and social organization.

In 1954, while he was finishing his dissertation, Sturtevant made the transition from student of anthropology to professional anthropologist. He was hired as an instructor in Yale's Anthropology Department and began his career in museum work as an assistant curator of anthropology at the Yale Peabody Museum. After receiving his PhD from Yale in 1955, Sturtevant moved on to the Smithsonian Institution, where he accepted a position as a research anthropologist at the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE). This position afforded Sturtevant the chance to continue to explore his many research interests in ways that a full time professorship or museum curatorship could not. Over the next ten years he studied the Catawba in South Carolina; the Seneca and Cayuga nations of the Iroquois League in New York, Oklahoma, and Ontario; continued his work with the Seminole; visited European museums to examine early ethnographic examples and possible European prototypes of eastern North American Indian material culture; and spent a year in Burma. In 1963, Sturtevant and his wife, Theda Maw, the daughter of a prominent Burmese family, took their three young children to Burma so that they could visit with Maw's family. Sturtevant took this as an opportunity to branch out from his Native American research and spent the year visiting neighborhoods in Rangoon and villages in the surrounding countryside, examining archival materials, studying the Burmese language, learning about Burmese clothing and other aspects of the culture, and taking photographs. He also collected 386 items of clothing and other objects for the Smithsonian.

When Sturtevant returned from Burma, he found the BAE had been dissolved. In 1965, he was transferred from the now-defunct BAE to the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), where he became curator of North American Ethnology, a position he held for the next forty-two years. During his tenure at NMNH Sturtevant oversaw all the North American ethnology collections, planned exhibitions, served on committees, and sponsored interns and fellows. One of Sturtevant's primary duties at NMNH was serving as the General Editor of the Handbook of North American Indians, "a major multi-volume reference work summarizing anthropological, linguistic, and historical knowledge about native peoples north of Mexico" (Jackson). Each volume was designed to represent a geographic or topical area of Americanist study. As General Editor, Sturtevant selected volume editors, chapter authors, oversaw office staff, and proofread manuscripts over the course of production.

Besides focusing on the Handbook, much of Sturtevant's time was taken up by responsibilities he held outside the Institution. Sturtevant was extremely involved in professional anthropological associations and held many leadership positions. Fresh out of graduate school, he began a three-year term on the Board of Governors of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1957. He later became a member of the executive committee of the Florida Anthropological Society, served as book-review editor and associate editor of the American Anthropologist from 1962-1968, was a member of the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Anthropological Research in Museums and was both vice president and president of the committee once it became the Council for Museum Anthropology, was on the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Archives, served three terms on the Board of Trustees of the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation from 1976-1982 and was appointed to a fourth term between 1984 and 1986, and sat on the Board of Directors of Survival International from 1982-1988. He was President of the American Society for Ethnohistory, the American Ethnological Society, the American Anthropological Association, and the Anthropological Society of Washington. Sturtevant also taught classes at Johns Hopkins University as an adjunct professor in the Department of Anthropology, served as a consultant on exhibits at other museums, and reviewed manuscripts for scholarly publications.

Sturtevant remained active in the profession throughout his later years. After divorcing Theda Maw in 1986, he married Sally McLendon, a fellow anthropologist, in 1990 and they undertook several research projects together. Sturtevant was recognized for his dedication and contributions to the field of anthropology in 1996 when he was awarded an honorary doctorate in humane letters by Brown University, and in 2002 when his colleagues published a festschrift in his honor, Anthropology, History, and American Indians: Essays in Honor of William Curtis Sturtevant.

Sturtevant died on March 2, 2007 at the Collingswood Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Rockville, MD after suffering from emphysema.

Sources Consulted

Estrada, Louie. 2007. William C. Sturtevant; Expert on Indians. Washington Post, March 17. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/16/AR2007031602273.html, accessed August 31, 2012.

Jackson, Jason Baird. 2007. William C. Sturtevant (1926-2007). http://museumanthropology.blogspot.com/2007/03/william-c-sturtevant-1926-2007.html, accessed August 31, 2012.

Merrill, William L. 2002. William Curtis Sturtevant, Anthropologist. In Anthropology, History, and American Indians: Essays in Honor of William Curtis Sturtevant. William L. Merrill and Ives Goddard, eds. Pp. 11-36. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

1926 -- Born July 26 in Morristown, NJ

1944 -- Entered the University of California at Berkeley as a second-semester freshman

1944 -- Attended summer school at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico in Mexico City where he took courses on Mexican archaeology and South American ethnology

1945 -- Drafted into the United States Navy

1946 -- Received an honorable discharge from the Navy with the rank of pharmacist's mate third class and returned to UC Berkeley

1947 -- Attended the University of New Mexico's summer field school in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

1949 -- January: Received his Bachelor's degree with honors in anthropology from UC Berkeley

1949 -- Began graduate studies at Yale University

1950-1951 -- Spent the summers of 1950 and 1951 in Florida conducting fieldwork among the Mikasuki-speaking Seminole

1951 -- Conducted his first research study of the Iroquois, a classification of Seneca musical instruments, their construction and use, with Harold Conklin

1952 -- May: Moved to Big Cypress Reservation in Florida to conduct research for his dissertation. He focused on Seminole medicine, but also collected physical anthropological data such as blood-type frequencies, handedness, and color blindness

1952 -- July 26: Married Theda Maw

1954 -- Hired by Yale University as an instructor in the Department of Anthropology and as an assistant curator of anthropology in the Yale Peabody Museum

1955 -- Received PhD in anthropology from Yale University

1956 -- Joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) as a research anthropologist

1957 -- Began a three-year term on the Board of Governors of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1957 -- Traveled to Rock Hill, South Carolina to collect linguistic data from Sam Blue, the last member of the Catawba tribe to have maintained some proficiency in the Catawba language. While there, he made a small collection of Catawba pottery for the United States National Museum

1957-1958 -- Spent seven weeks continuing his research among the New York Seneca

1959 -- Returned to Florida to study Seminole ethnobotany. He also collected ethnographic materials, especially objects made for the tourist market, which he deposited in the United States National Museum

1959-1960 -- Member of the executive committee of the Florida Anthropological Society

1960 -- July and August: Visited 17 European museums to examine early ethnographic examples and possible European prototypes of eastern North American Indian material culture

1961-1962 -- Spent the summers of these years conducting ethnographic fieldwork among the Seneca-Cayuga in Oklahoma

1962 -- October: Visited the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario, Canada to conduct fieldwork among the Seneca and Cayuga there

1962-1968 -- Book-review editor and associate editor of the American Anthropologist

1963 -- October: Spent the year in Burma; visited neighborhoods in Rangoon and villages in the surrounding countryside, examined photographs in several archives, studied the Burmese language, and read extensively about the country's history and culture. Assembled notes on Burmese clothing and other aspects of the culture, took hundreds of photographs, and made a collection of 386 items of clothing and other objects for the Smithsonian

1964 -- Visited Inle Lake in the Southern Shan States southeast of Mandalay, where he examined local approaches to artificial island agriculture

1964-1981 -- Became a member of the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Anthropological Research in Museums, which became the Council for Museum Anthropology in 1974. Sturtevant was the Council's first vice president, serving two terms between 1974 and 1978, and was its president from 1978 to 1981

1965 -- Became curator of North American Ethnology in the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History after the dissolution of the BAE

1965-1966 -- President of the American Society for Ethnohistory

1966 -- Named the editor of the Handbook of North American Indians

1967-1968 -- Fulbright scholar and lecturer at Oxford University's Institute of Social Anthropology

1969 -- Began serving on the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Archives

1974-1989 -- Adjunct Professor in the Department of Anthropology at Johns Hopkins University

1976-1982 -- Served three terms on the Board of Trustees of the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation and was appointed to a fourth term between 1984 and 1986

1977 -- President of the American Ethnological Society

1980-1981 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1981 -- Spent part of the spring semester at the University of California Berkeley as a Regents Lecturer

1982-1988 -- Board of Directors of Survival International

1986 -- Divorced Theda Maw

1986-1987 -- Smithsonian Fellow at Oxford University's Worcester College

1990 -- Married Sally McLendon

1992 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1996 -- Awarded an honorary doctorate in humane letters at Brown University

2007 -- Died March 2 in Rockville, MD
Related Materials:
Other materials relating to William C. Sturtevant at the National Anthropological Archives are included in the following collections:

Manuscript 4504

Manuscript 4595

Manuscript 4806

Manuscript 4821

Manuscript 4972

Manuscript 7045

Photo Lot 59

Photo Lot 79-51

Photo Lot 80-3

Photo Lot 81R

Photo Lot 86-68 (6)

Photo Lot 86-68 (7)

American Society for Ethnohistory records

Committee on Anthropological Research in Museum Records

Handbook of North American Indians records

Records of the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History

Gordon Davis Gibson Papers, Sound Recordings

SPC Se Powhatan Confederacy Mattapony BAE No # 01790700

DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04913800

DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04913900

DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04914000

Negative MNH 1530

Negative MNH 1530 B

Sturtevant is listed as a correspondent in the following NAA collections:

Administrative file, 1949-1965, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology

John Lawrence Angel Papers

James Henri Howard Papers

Donald Jayne Lehmer Papers

John Victor Murra Papers

Records of the Society for American Archaeology

Albert Clanton Spaulding Papers

Waldo Rudolph Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel Papers

Copies of sound recordings made by William C. Sturtevant can be found at The California Language Archive at UC Berkeley in two collections, The William Sturtevant collection of Creek/Seminole sound recordings, which includes 31 minutes of Northern Muskogean linguistic field recordings from 1951, and The William Sturtevant collection of Mikasuki sound recordings, which includes 33 minutes of Mikasuki linguistic field recordings from 1951. Two sound tape reels of Seminole music Sturtevant recorded in Florida in 1951 can be found at Wesleyan University's World Music Archives. Folk songs on these recordings include "Scalping Sickness," "Bear Sickness with blowing," "Bear sickness without blowing," "Lullaby," "Feather Dance," "Snake Dance," and "Crazy Dance." Performers include Josie Billie, Lee Cypress, Harvey Jumper, Boy Jim, Charlie (Johnny?) Cypress, Little Tiger Tail, Billy Ossiola, and Charlie Billy Boy.
Separated Materials:
One video tape, "Seminole History and Tradition", was transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives. Series 2.2, Tukabahchee Plate: Glass negative of spectrogram from FBI (Box 135), removed for storage with other glass plate negatives.
Provenance:
These papers were transferred to the National Anthropological Archives by the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History.
Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Botany  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
History  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Realia
Research
Notes
Office files
Theses
Slides (photographs)
Sound recordings
Exhibition catalogs
Field notes
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Microfilms
Newsletters
Manuscripts
Memorandums
Articles
Card files
Books
Artifacts
Negatives
Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2008-24
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2008-24
Online Media:

MS 2193 List of "Saponi Names"

Creator:
Mooney, James, 1861-1921  Search this
Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895  Search this
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Addressee:
Henshaw, Henry W. (Henry Wetherbee), 1850-1930  Search this
Extent:
4 Pages
Culture:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Saponi Indians  Search this
Tutelo Indians  Search this
Biloxi Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
List compiled by Mooney. Includes letter from Dorsey to H.W. Henshaw, giving comparative information from other Siouan languages. October 14, 1890. Typescript and autograph letter signed. 2 pages. Also note from Gatschet to Mooney giving some Biloxi, Catawba and Tutelo comparisons. No date. Autograph letter. 1 page.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2193
Local Note:
autograph document
Topic:
Names -- Souan -- Eastern  Search this
Catawba Indians  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 2193, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2193
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2193

MS 4126 Probable Identity of the Croatan Indians

Creator:
Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958  Search this
Harper, Roland M. (Roland McMillan), 1878-1966  Search this
Extent:
5 Pages
Culture:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1933
Scope and Contents:
Notes and correspondence presumably assembled in connection with the preparation of this paper. [Washington, D. C. 1933.] Miscellaneous document. 34 pages. Notes include: Correspondence, 1908, 1909, 1933, 1934, 6 pages; rough notes from North Carolina Colonial Records and other sources, concerning tribal locations, family names, etc., 16 pages; reprint of Roland M. Harper, "The Most Prolific People in the United States," Eugenical News, 23:2, 1938, 2 pages; typescript of Swanton's mimeo. article (same text), 10 pages.
Biographical / Historical:
Swanton concludes that the Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina who have been called Croatan and Cherokee are descended from certain Siouan tribes.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4126
Local Note:
mimeograph document
Topic:
Siouan -- Eastern  Search this
Names, tribal -- Location  Search this
Siouan -- Eastern  Search this
Names, Personal  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4126, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4126
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4126

MS 4014 Letter to J. N. B. Hewitt

Creator:
Thomas, Cyrus, 1825-1910  Search this
Addressee:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Names:
Mooney, James, 1861-1921  Search this
Extent:
5 Pages
Culture:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Encloses criticisms of James C. Mooney's "Siouan Tribes of the East," Bureau of American Ethnology-Bulletin 22, 1894. Autograph letter signed. 1 page. Autograph document. 4 pages.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4014
Local Note:
autograph letter signed
autograph document
Topic:
Sioux  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4014, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4014
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4014

Guide to the Beatrice Medicine papers

Creator:
Medicine, Beatrice  Search this
Extent:
28 Linear feet (65 document boxes, 1 box of oversize materials, 1 box of ephemera, 1 shoebox of index cards, 1 map drawer)
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Native American  Search this
American Indian -- Education  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe of North & South Dakota
Date:
1914, 1932-1949, 1952-2003 (bulk dates, 1945-2003).
Summary:
The Beatrice Medicine papers, 1913-2003 (bulk 1945-2003), document the professional life of Dr. Beatrice "Bea" Medicine (1923-2005), a member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, anthropologist, scholar, educator, and Native rights activist. The collection also contains material collected by or given to Medicine to further her research and activism interests. Medicine, whose Lakota name was Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman," focused her research on a variety of topics affecting the Native American community: 1) mental health, 2) women's issues, 3) bilingual education, 4) alcohol and drug use, 5) ethno-methodologies and research needs of Native Americans, and 6) Children and identity issues. The collection represents Medicine's work as an educator for universities and colleges in the United States and in Canada, for which she taught Native American Studies courses. Additionally, because of the large amount of research material and Medicine's correspondence with elected U.S. officials and Native American leaders, and records from Medicine's involvement in Native American organizations, the collection serves to represent issues affecting Native Americans during the second half of the 20th century, and reflects what Native American leaders and organizations did to navigate and mitigate those issues. Collection materials include correspondence; committee, conference, and teaching material; ephemera; manuscripts and poetry; maps; notes; periodicals; photographs; training material; and transcripts.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Beatrice Medicine reflect Medicine's interests as an academic and an activist, and contain correspondence, committee, conference, and teaching material, ephemera, manuscripts and poetry, maps, notes, periodicals, photographs, and training material (see series scope notes for further details on contents). The majority of the material is printed matter that Medicine collected, with less of her own work included. Taken together, the collection reflects issues affecting Native Americans during the second half of the 20th century, as well as the network of Native American leaders and organizations that navigated these issues. Student papers, letters of recommendation, evaluations, and documents containing personally identifiable information are restricted.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 24 series:

Series 1: Native American Culture and History, 1954-1962, 1967-1975, 1978-1989, 1991-1997, 1999-2002

Series 2: Appropriations, Economics, and Labor, 1955, circa 1970-1980, 1988, 1993, circa 1995-2000

Series 3: Archaeology, 1935-1950, 1952-1973, 1987-1995

Series 4: Native American Artists, Authors, Crafts, Film, and Poets, 1951-1969, 1972-2002

Series 5: Census, Demographic, and Poll Data, 1974, 1984-1986

Series 6: Civil Rights, 1972, 1980, 1983-1997

Series 7: Committee Material: Correspondence, Meeting Minutes, and Memos, 1985-1995

Series 8: Conference Material, 1955-1962, 1965, 1968-1974, 1976-2002

Series 9: Correspondence, 1952, 1959, 1962, 1966-2000

Series 10: Education: Native American Institutions and Teaching Material, 1948-2002

Series 11: Ephemera: Campaign, Pow-Wow, and Other Event Buttons, and Calendars, 1973, 1976, circa 1980-2000

Series 12: Health: Alcohol and Drug Addiction and Recovery, Disabilities, Healthcare, Mental Health, Nutrition, and Wellness, 1955, 1965, 1969-1999, 2004

Series 13: Historic Preservation, 1942, 1956, 1960-1969, 1979, circa 1985-1998

Series 14: Invitations, 1966-1979, 1982, 1991-2002

Series 15: Linguistics: Native American Languages, 1961, 1963, 1975, 1978-1981, 1987-1995

Series 16: Manuscripts, 1964-2003

Series 17: Maps, 1982-1991

Series 18: Museum Material: Native American Museums, Exhibit Preparation, and the National Museum of the American Indian, 1949, 1962, circa 1976-1998

Series 19: Oversized Material, 1962, circa 1965-1996, 1999

Series 20: Published material: Journals, Magazines, Monographs, and Newsletters, 1914, 1932, 1944, 1946-1947, 1952-2003

Series 21: Reports, 1947-1949, 1956-1998

Series 22: Training Material, 1968, 1988-2000

Series 23: Women and Gender, 1962, 1965, circa 1970-1997

Series 24: Restricted Material, 1972, 1978, 1987-1999
Biographical / Historical:
A member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, Beatrice "Bea" Medicine—also known by her Lakota name Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman"—was born on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Wakpala, South Dakota on August 1, 1923.

As a young adult, she studied at the South Dakota State University on the Laverne Noyes Scholarship, where she attained her B.A. in Anthropology in 1945. Between 1945 and 1951, Medicine worked a variety of teaching positions, including for three American Indian institutions (see Chronology for Medicine's complete work history). In 1951, Medicine went back to school and worked as a research assistant until she earned her master's degree in Sociology and Anthropology from Michigan State University in 1954. For the remainder of her life, Medicine served as faculty, visiting professor, and scholar-in-residence at thirty-one universities and colleges in the United States and Canada, teaching cultural and educational anthropology courses, as well as Native American Studies. As an educator, Medicine carried out her research on a variety of issues affecting Native American and First Nation communities, including: 1) mental health issues, 2) women's issues—professionalization, sterilization, socialization, and aging, 3) bilingual education, 4) alcohol and drug use and abuse, 5) ethno-methodologies and research needs, and 6) socialization of children and identity needs. Medicine's research in American Indian women's and children's issues, as well as her research in gender identity among the LGBT community was among the first to document the narratives of the members of these groups.

In 1974, Medicine testified alongside her cousin, Vine Deloria, Jr., as an expert witness in the Wounded Knee trial (United States v. Banks and Means). Following this, Medicine returned to school to pursue her Ph.D. in Cultural Anthropology, which she completed in 1983 at the University of Wisconsin. With her experience as a researcher, educator, activist, and Lakota woman, medicine sought to create more opportunities for multicultural and bilingual education for minority students, especially those of Native American descent. Such education, she believed, provided students a means to preserve and legitimize their own cultural identity, debase negative stereotyes, and be recognized as individuals who are capable of academic and economic achievement.

Medicine was an active member of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) and pursued her educational agenda further through the establishment of the Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions (CAPMI) (1987-1995), which brought anthropologists out of retirement to teach at minority institutions. (See Chronology for a complete list of organizations and committees in which Medicine was involved.) The program was short-lived but provided a space for minority students to confront a field that historically misrepresented them, reclaim their narratives and languages, and instigate positive change as potential future anthropologists.

Medicine officially retired on August 1, 1989, but continued to be active in AAA and was honored many times for her contributions to the field of anthropology. Some of her recognitions include the Distinguished Service Award from AAA (1991) and the Bronislaw Malinowski Award from the Society for Applied Anthropology (1996). One of Medicine's highest honors, however, was serving as the Sacred Pipe Woman at the 1977 Sun Dance. Medicine continued her research into retirement, and went on to publish her first book in 2001, Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings. Medicine died in Bismarck, North Dakota on December 19, 2005. Medicine's final work, Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux was published posthumously in 2006. In honor of her life's work and dedication to education, the Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA) created the Bea Medicine Award, a scholarship travel grant for students to attend the Annual Meeting of the SfAA.

Chronology: Beatrice Medicine

1923 August 1 -- Beatrice Medicine (also known by her Lakota name, Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman") is born on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Wakpala, South Dakota.

1941-1945 -- Receives scholarship: Laverne Noyes Scholarship, South Dakota State University

1945 -- Receives Bachelor of Arts, Anthropology, South Dakota State University.

1945-1946 -- Teacher, Home Economics, Haskell Indian Institute (B.I.A.)

1947-1948 -- Health Education Lecturer, Michigan Tuberculosis Association

1948-1949 -- Teacher, Santo Domingo Pueblo, United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, New Mexico

1949-1950 -- Teacher, Navajo Adult Beginner's Program, Albuquerque Indian School

1950-1951 -- Teacher, Home Economics, Flandreau Indian School

1950-1954 -- Fellowship: Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Fellowships

1951-1954 -- Research Assistant, Sociology and Anthropology, Michigan State University

1953-1954 -- Fellowship: John Hay Whitney Foundation Fellowship

1954 -- Receives Master of Arts, Sociology and Anthropology, Michigan State University. Fellowship: American Council of Learned Societies Fellowship

1954- -- Charter Member, American Indian Women's Service League

1955-1958 -- Teaching and Research Assistant, University of Washington

1956 -- Honor: Outstanding Alumna, South Dakota State University

1960 -- Mentioned as "Who's Who Among American Indians"

circa 1960 -- Alpha Kappa Delta, Sociology Hononary Phi Upsilon Omicron, Home Economic Honorary

1960-1963 -- Lecturer, Anthropology, University of British Columbia

1960-1964 -- Board of Directors, Native Urban Indian Centers in Vancouver, British Columbia and Calgary, Alberta

1963-1964 -- Lecturer/Sociology and Teacher/Counselor, Mount Royal College, Indian Affairs Branch Receives grant: American Council of Learned Societies Research Grant

1965 -- Lecturer, Social Science, Michigan State University

1966 -- Psychiatric Social Worker, Provincial Guidance Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

1966-1967 -- Receives grant: Career Development Grant, National Institute of Mental Health

1966- -- Member, National Congress of American Indians (Education Issues)

1967 -- Receives grant: Ethnological Research Grant, National Museum of Canada

1967-1968 -- Lecturer, Sociology and Anthropology, University of Montana

1968 -- Teacher, "Cultural Enrichment Program," Standing Rock Indian Reservation, South Dakota Cited in "The Role of Racial Minorities in the United States," Seattle, Washington

1968 March -- Speaker: "The Pow-Wow as a Social Factor in the Northern Plains Ceremonialism," Montana Academy of Sciences

1968 May -- Speaker: "Patterns and Periphery of Plains Indian Pow-Wows," Central States Anthropological Society

1968 June -- Speaker: "Magic Among the Stoney Indians," Canadian Sociology and Anthropological Association, Calgary, Alberta

1968 August -- Speaker: "Magic Among the Stoney Indians," International Congress of Americanists, Stuttgart, German Speaker: "The Dynamics of a Dakota Indian Giveaway," International Congress of Americanists, Stuttgart, German

1968-1969 -- Director, American Indian Research, Oral History Project and Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of South Dakota

1968-1970 -- Consultant, Text Book Evaluation Committee, American Indians United

1969 -- Assistant Professor, Teacher Corps, University of Nebraska

1969 September -- Speaker: "The Red Man Yesterday," Governor's Interstate Indian Council, Wichita, Kansas

1969 December -- Speaker: "The Native American in Modern Society," Northwestern State College

1969-1970 -- Assistant Professor, San Francisco State University Speaker: "The Indian in Institutions of Higher Learning," Annual Conference, National Indian Education Association

1969-1975 -- Member, Editorial Board, American Indian Historical Society

1970 -- Mentioned for second time as "Who's Who Among American Indians" Steering Committee Member, Indian Ecumenical Convocation of North America Member, Planning Committee Indian Alcoholism and Drug Use

1970 August -- Speaker: "The Role of the White Indian Expert," 2nd Annual Conference, National Indian Education Association

1970 October -- Speaker: "The Ethnographic Study of Indian Women," Annual Convention, American Ethnohistorical Soceity

1970 November -- Speaker: "The Anthropologists as the Indian's Image Maker," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association Speaker: "The Anthropologist and Ethnic Studies Programs," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1970-1971 -- Associate Professor, Anthropology, San Francisco State University Member, Mayor's Committee on the Status of Women, San Francisco, California

1971 -- Member, Native American Scholars Board, Steering and Selection, American Indian Historical Society

1971 May -- Speaker: "Ethnic Studies and Native Americans," National Education Association

1971-1973 -- Pre-Doctoral Lecturer, Anthropology, University of Washington Consultant, American Indian Heritage Program

1972 -- Honored in "Potlatch" ceremony by Makah Tribal people at the National Indian Education Conference for contributions to Indian education Receives grant: American Council of Learned Societies Travel Grant, Americanist Annual Meeting, Rome, Italy Curriculum Advisor, Lakota Higher Education Center, Prine Ridge, South Dakota

1972 March -- Speaker: "Warrior Women Societies," Northwest Anthropological Conference

1972 April -- Chairperson and Speaker: "Racism and Ethnic Relations," Society for Applied Anthropology

1972 June -- Chairperson, Native American Studies Symposium, International Congress of Americanists, Mexico

1972 August -- Speaker: "Warrior Women of the Plains," International Congress of Americanists, Rome, Italy

1972 November -- Speaker: "Native Americans in the Modern World," Southwest Minnesota State College

1973 -- Expert Witness, Yvonne Wanro Trial, Spokane, Washington Member, Organization of American States, First Congress of Indigenous Women, Chiapas, Mexico Speaker: "Self-Direction in Sioux Education," American Anthropological Association Speaker: "North American Native Women: The Aspirations and Their Associations," presented as a Delegate to the Inter-American Commission on Indigenous Women, Chiapas, Mexico

1973-1974 -- Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Native American Studies Program, Dartmouth College

1973-1976 -- Member, Committee on Minorities in Anthropology, American Anthropological Association

1973- -- Consultant, Human Services Department, Sinte Gleska Community College

1974 -- Expert Witness, Wounded Knee Trial, Lincoln, Nebraska Speaker: "Indian Women's Roles: Traditional and Contemporary," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1974-1975 -- Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Colorado College

1975-1976 -- Visiting Associate Professor, Anthropology, Stanford University

1975-1977 -- Member, Steering Committee, Council of Anthropology and Education, American Anthropological Association

1976 -- Visiting Professor, Educational Anthropology, University of New Brunswick Expert Witness, Topsky Eagle Feathers Trial, Pocatello, Idaho Panelist, White House Conference on Ethnic Studies, Washington, D.C.

1977 -- Expert Witness, Greybull Grandchildren Custody Case, Portland, Oregon American Indian representative to the World Conference on Indigenous People, Geneva, Switzerland Honor: Outstanding Alumna, South Dakota State University

1977 August 18 -- Medicine serves as Sacred Pipe Woman at the Sun Dance, Green Grass, South Dakota

1977-1980 -- Education Consultant, National Congress of American Indians, Washington, D.C.

1978 -- Cited in the Directory of Significant 20th Century American Minority Women, Gaylord Professional Publications Biographical Sketch in "Moving Forward" of the Bookmark Reading Program, Third Edition

1978 August -- Speaker: "Issues in the Professionalization of Native American Women," Annual Meeting, American Psychological Association

1978-1982 -- Advanced Opportunity Fellow, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

1979 -- Visiting Professor, Department of Education Policy Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison

1979 August -- Honorary Doctorate of Human Letters, Northern Michigan University Speaker: "The Dakota Indian Memorial Feast: Reservation and Urban Manifestations," International Congress of Americanists, Lima, Peru

1980 -- Member, Nominations Committee, American Anthropological Association Biographical Sketch in "Native American Indian Personalities, Historical and Contemporary," Dansville, New York: The Instructor Publications, Inc.

1981 -- Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Washington-Seattle Speaker: "Linguistically Marginated: The Transformation of Dominated Speech Varieties," American Anthropological Association

1982 -- School of Social and Behavioral Science Academic Planning, California State University Speaker: "Policy Decisions: Federal Regulations and American Indian Identity Issues," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1982-1983 -- Anthropology Department Curriculum Committee, California State University

1982-1985 -- Associate Professor of Anthropology, Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Program in American Indian Studies, California State University Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Program in American Studies Program, California State University

1982- -- President, Assembly of California Indian Women

1983 -- Receives Ph.D., Cultural Anthropology, University of Wisconsin Expert Witness, Fortunate Eagle Trial, Reno, Nevada Award: Outstanding Woman of Color, National Institute of Women of Color, Washingtonton, D.C. (for anthropological contributions) Award: Outstanding Minority Researcher, American Educational Research Association Publishes book with Patricia Albers: The Hidden Half: Indian Women of the Northern Plains Honor: Significant Academic Book (The Hidden Half), Choice, Association of Colleges and Research Libraries, American Library Association

1983-1984 -- Student Affirmative Action Coordinating Council, California State University

1983-1986 -- Member, Executive Board, Southwest Anthropological Association Member, Governing Board, Common Cause

1984 -- Member, Advisory Board of National Research for Handicapped Native Americans, North Arizona University Scholarly Publications Award Selection Committee, California State University Award: Faculty Award for Meritorious Service, California State University Speaker: Field Work Methods: "Ties That Bond," Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association Speaker: "Career Patterns of American Indian Women," Council of Education and Anthropology, Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1984 November -- Faculty Award for Meritorious Service, California State University

1984-1985 -- Participant, Chancellor's Office Grant to "Cross-Cultural Perspectives in the Social Sciences," California State University

1985 November -- Speaker: Conference on "The Native American: His Arts, His Culture, and His History," West Virginia State College

1985-1986 -- Board of Directors, Naechi Institute on Alcohol and Drug Education

1985-1988 -- Professor, Department of Anthropology and Director, Native Centre, University of Calgary

1985-1989 -- Member, Malinowski Awards Committee, Society for Applied Anthropology

1987 -- Honor: Outstanding Minority Professorship Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks Visiting Professor, University of Michigan

1987-1995 -- Member, Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions, American Anthropological Association

1988 August 1 -- Medicine officially retires.

1989 -- Volunteer (Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions, American Anthropological Association), Standing Rock College Honor (twice): Outstanding Minority Professorship Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks Visiting Professor, Wayne State University.

1990 -- Honor: "Outstanding Contributions for the promotion of sex equity in Education," Illinois State Board of Education Honor: Outstanding Lakota Woman, Standing Rock College

1991 -- Honor: Distinguished Service Award, American Anthropological Association. Medicine was the first American Indian to receive this award.

1991 -- Visiting Professor, Saskatchewan Indian Federal College Visiting Professor, Colorado College Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Humboldt State University

1992 -- Visiting Distinguished Professor, Women's Studies, University of Toronto

1993 -- Visiting Professor, Rural Sociology, South Dakota State University Award: Distinguished Native American Alumna Award, South Dakota State University

1993-1994 December -- Research Co-ordinator, Women's Perspectives, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

1994- -- Adjunct Professor, University of Alberta

1995 -- Scholar in Residence, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul Visiting Scholar, Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia Award: Ohana Award, Multi-Cultural Counseling Excellence, American Association of Counselors

1996 -- Award: Bronislaw Malinowski Award, Society for Applied Anthropology. Buckman Professor, Department of Human Ecology, University of Minnesota

circa 1997- -- Associate Professor of Anthropology Emeritus, Department of Anthropology, California State University

2001 -- Publishes book: Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings.

2005 -- Award: George and Louise Spindler Award, Council on Anthropology and Education, American Anthropological Association.

2005 December 19 -- Medicine dies during emergency surgery in Bismarck, North Dakota.

2006 -- Book: Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux is published posthumously.

2008 -- The Society for Applied Anthropology creates the Bea Medicine Award.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Beatrice Medicine between 1997 and 2003, and by Ted Garner in 2006.
Restrictions:
Materials relating to student grades, letters of recommendation, and evaluations have been restricted.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Alcohol  Search this
Gender imagery  Search this
Discrimination  Search this
Linguistics -- Research -- United States  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Lakota Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Beatrice Medicine papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.1997-05
See more items in:
Guide to the Beatrice Medicine papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1997-05

Notes on Siouan migrations

Collection Creator:
Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Item 20
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
This seems to be the document cited as Bureau of American Ethnology manuscript number 3804 in Carl Miller, "Revaluation of the Eastern Siouan Problem with Particular Emphasis on the Virginia Branches..." Bureau of American Ethnology-AP Number 52, Bureau of American Ethnology-Bulletin 164, Washington, D. C., 1957.
Collection Restrictions:
The James O. Dorsey Papers are open for research. Access to the James O. Dorsey Papers requires an appointment
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 4800 James O. Dorsey papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 4800 James O. Dorsey papers
MS 4800 James O. Dorsey papers / Series 1: Siouan-Catawban / 1.1: General Siouan
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4800-ref29

Map of Nebraska

Collection Creator:
Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895  Search this
Extent:
Cut in two pieces.
Container:
Map-folder 189
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Map has stream names in the Eastern section given in Dhegiha.
Collection Restrictions:
The James O. Dorsey Papers are open for research. Access to the James O. Dorsey Papers requires an appointment
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 4800 James O. Dorsey papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 4800 James O. Dorsey papers
MS 4800 James O. Dorsey papers / Series 1: Siouan-Catawban / 1.3: Dhegiha
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4800-ref980

Comparative Siouan vocabulary

Collection Creator:
Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895  Search this
Extent:
2 Folders
Container:
Box 4, Item 84
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes most Siouan languages, exclusive of Eastern and Ohio Valley Siouan.
Collection Restrictions:
The James O. Dorsey Papers are open for research. Access to the James O. Dorsey Papers requires an appointment
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 4800 James O. Dorsey papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 4800 James O. Dorsey papers
MS 4800 James O. Dorsey papers / Series 1: Siouan-Catawban / 1.1: General Siouan
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4800-ref99

Blair Rudes papers

Extent:
13 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1974-2008
bulk 1974-2008
Summary:
Blair Arnold Rudes was a linguist who specialized in Native American languages. The Blair Rudes papers document his research and professional activities from 1974-2008 and primarily deal with dictionaries and other linguistic materials he created and studied, as well as the culture and history of various Native American groups around the Eastern United States and the rest of North America. His involvement in language education, federal recognition of tribes, and the use of authentic Native American dialog in film are also represented. The collection consists of research files, linguistic research and data, correspondence, papers and other writings written by Rudes and his colleagues, movie scripts and related materials, and audio/visual recordings.
Scope and Contents:
The Blair Rudes papers 1967-2008, document his research and processional activities from his time in graduate school at the University of Buffalo in the 1970s through the end of his career at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte. Materials primarily deal with linguistic and historical research on Native American languages, particularly those in eastern North America. There is also a significant amount of material related to the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe and their petition to the federal government for recognition, and Rudes's work as a consultant on language education projects. The collection consists of research files, linguistic research and data, correspondence, papers and other writings written by Rudes and his colleagues, official documents for the Golden Hill Paugussett federal recognition case, movie scripts and related materials, and audio/visual recordings.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 7 series: Series 1. Biographical, 1999-2007; Series 2. Correspondence, 1975-2007; Series 3. Linguistic Research and Data, 1969-2008, undated; Series 4. Writings, 1967-2007, undated; Series 5. Dialog Translation, 2003-2008; Series 6. Grants, Contracts, and Foundations, 1997-2007; Series 7. Golden Hill Paugussett Federal Recognition, 1994-2003.
Biographical / Historical:
Blair Arnold Rudes was a linguist specializing in Native American languages, particularly those originating in eastern North America. Aside from working in academia for many years, Rudes also used his linguistic skills as a language education expert and consultant and was involved in projects related to film dialog translation, federal recognition of Native American tribes, and education for migrant and Native American students in the United States. He was best known in the Native American community for his extensive work documenting endangered indigenous languages (such as Tuscarora) as well as reconstructing Native languages that were dormant or lost to history and assimilation (such as costal Algonquian and Catawba). At the time of his death in 2008, he was an Associate Professor of English at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte.

Rudes was born in Gloversville, NY on May 18, 1951. He attended the State University of New York at Buffalo where he studied linguistics at the undergraduate and graduate level. As a masters student in the mid-1970s, he was exposed to the Seneca language through his landlady who was also a graduate student studying the language. As Rudes learned more about Seneca, he quickly became interested in it and the rest of the Iroquoian languages, particularly Tuscarora. Before long Rudes was visiting the Tuscarora Reservation near Buffalo and learning the language from fluent speakers. He was awarded his Doctorate in linguistics in 1976. After graduating, he briefly spent time as a Fulbright scholar in Romania and as a lecturer at the University of Maryland, College Park before being hired as a consultant for Development Associates, Inc.

For almost twenty years, Rudes worked on various language-related projects for Development Associates and as an independent contractor. Most of these projects studied academic programs and performance of minority, migrant, and Native American students with special language issues. Rudes was also hired as a researcher and consultant by the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe between 1994 and 2003 to assist in their petition for federal recognition. In 1999, Rudes returned to academia and was hired as an Assistant Professor of English in the Applied Linguistics Program at U.N.C. Charlotte. That same year he published his seminal Tuscarora-English/English Tuscarora Dictionary.

Aside from his academic duties, Rudes continued to work independently as a language consultant and was hired in 2004 to reconstruct the Virginia Algonquian language for the New Line film The New World (2005). Rudes also assisted in coaching actors in speaking the language, which had been dormant since the early 18th century. In order to finish translating dialog into Virginia Algonquian on time, Rudes was reported to have shut himself into his Williamsburg hotel room for nearly a month, working feverishly until his task was completed. Rudes was also hired as a Mayan dialog coach for the Paramount Pictures film The Ruins (2008).

Throughout his career, Rudes was active in the Foundation for Endangered Languages, the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas, the annual Algonquian Conference, and the American Society for Ethnohistory. He presented and published regularly about his work with Native American languages, especially Virginia and Carolina Algonquian, Catawba, Mohawk, and Tuscarora. Rudes died of a heart attack on March 16 in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Sources consulted:

Whitford, Sara. "The Algonquian Language Reborn: An Interview with Blair Rudes." Coastal Carolina Indian Center, 2011. Accessed April 12, 2016. http://www.coastalcarolinaindians.com/the-algonquian-language-reborn-an-interview-with-blair-rudes/

Whitford, Sara. "Obituary: Blair A. Rudes, PhD – Linguistics Advisor to CCIC." Coastal Carolina Indian Center, 2011. Accessed April 12, 2016. http://www.coastalcarolinaindians.com/obituary-blair-a-rudes-phd-linguistics-advisor-to-ccic/

Chronology

1951 -- Born on May 18 in Gloversville, New York.

1973 -- Awarded Bachelors of Art in linguistics from the University of Buffalo.

1974 -- Awarded Masters of Art in linguisitcs from the University of Buffalo.

1976 -- Awarded Ph.D in linguistics from the University of Buffalo.

1976-1978 -- Awarded Fulbright Scholarship to teach linguistics at the University of Bucharest in Romania.

1980-1981 -- Hired as a lecturer at the University of Maryland, College Park.

1981-1999 -- Worked for Development Associates, Inc. as an educational consultant.

1994-2003 -- Hired by the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe to assist in their petition for recognition from the federal government.

1999 -- Hired as an Assistant Professor in the Applied Linguistics Program in the Department of English at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte.

2004-2005 -- Worked as a Virginia Algonquian translator and dialog coach for The New World.

2005 -- Promoted to Associate Professor at U.N.C. Charlotte.

2006 -- Recognized by the Tuscarora Nation for contributions to preserving the Tuscarora language.

2007 -- Worked as a Mayan dialog coach for The Ruins. Recognized by the South Carolina General Assembly in a resolution for work done for the South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs.

2008 -- Awarded the University at Buffalo's Distinguished Alumni Award. Died on March 16 in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Separated Materials:
Two VHS recordings were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archive (accession number 2016-009).
Provenance:
Materials were held at the U.N.C. Charlotte Department of English after Rudes's death until 2008, when his brother Bryan Rudes donated them to the National Anthropological Archives (accession 2009-16).

In 2015, Rudes's former graduate student Craig Kopris donated an appendix draft from his dissertation (A Grammar and Dictionary of Wyandot, 2001) that contained comments and annotations from Rudes. This file is located in sub-series 4.4: Writings by Others.
Restrictions:
The Blair Rudes papers are open for research.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Blair Rudes Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2009-16
See more items in:
Blair Rudes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2009-16

Snowshoes 2

Donor Name:
U.S. Department Of War  Search this
Culture:
Indian (?)  Search this
Object Type:
Snowshoe
Place:
Woodlands (Northeast) (not certain) / Plains (not certain), United States (not certain) / Canada (not certain), North America
Accession Date:
31 Dec 1867
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
67A00050
USNM Number:
E2730-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3c1129cf5-b3a7-4a46-8c39-aa4ba5a02eaa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8379296
Online Media:

Pipe

Donor Name:
United States Exploring Expedition  Search this
Length - Object:
12.2 cm
Height - Object:
6.7 cm
Culture:
Chippewa (?)  Search this
Sioux (?)  Search this
Object Type:
Pipe
Place:
United States / Canada, North America
Accession Date:
1858
Collection Date:
1838 to 1842
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
66A00050
USNM Number:
E2594-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/362b01047-92f1-4166-ad2f-e8728e5caabf
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8376685
Online Media:

Snow Shoes, Pr

Donor Name:
U.S. Department Of War  Search this
Culture:
Siouan  Search this
Object Type:
Snowshoe
Place:
Rocky Mountains, Eastern, United States, North America
Accession Date:
31 Jul 1903
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
041356
USNM Number:
E222243-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3cc61fd2a-60dd-4e15-85d6-6425f22dcfd5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365083

Revaluation of the Eastern Siouan problem, with particular emphasis on the Virginia branches - the Occaneechi, the Saponi, and the Tutelo

Author:
Miller, Carl F.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1957
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_89892

Histories of maize : multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize / edited by, John E. Staller, Robert H. Tykot, Bruce F. Benz

Author:
Staller, John E.  Search this
Tykot, Robert H.  Search this
Benz, Bruce F.  Search this
Physical description:
xxv, 678 pages, 16 unnumbered leaves of plates : illustrations, maps ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
America
Date:
2016
Topic:
Corn--History  Search this
Corn--Economic aspects  Search this
Corn--Social aspects  Search this
Agriculture, Prehistoric  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1112726

John Peabody Harrington papers: Plains, 1916-1951

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody 1884-1961  Search this
Physical description:
12.5 linear feet (34 boxes)
Culture:
Indians of North America Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Field notes
Dictionaries
Manuscripts
Date:
1916
1916-1951
Topic:
Language and languages--Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Local number:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions on access
Contact the repository for terms of use
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers 1907-1959 (some earlier)
John Peabody Harrington papers: Plains, 1916-1951
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_363285

Ethnology of the southeastern Indians : a source book / edited with an introduction by Charles M. Hudson

Author:
Hudson, Charles M  Search this
Physical description:
1 volume (various pagings) : illustrations ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Southern States
Date:
1985
Call number:
E78.S65E87 1985X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_261358

Notes on Siouan migrations

Creator:
Dorsey, James Owen 1848-1895  Search this
Physical description:
6 pages
Culture:
Siouan Indians  Search this
Indians of North America Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Topic:
Siouan Indians  Search this
Migration  Search this
Local number:
NAA MS 4800: (3.0) [20]
See more items in:
James O. Dorsey Papers
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_85488

Comparative Siouan vocabulary

Creator:
Dorsey, James Owen 1848-1895  Search this
Physical description:
ca. 500 slips
Culture:
Siouan Indians  Search this
Indians of North America Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Topic:
Language and languages--Documentation  Search this
Local number:
NAA MS 4800: (3.0) [84]
See more items in:
James O. Dorsey Papers
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_85552
Online Media:

Note on Eastern Siouans

Creator:
Dorsey, James Owen 1848-1895  Search this
Physical description:
1 slip
Culture:
Siouan Eastern  Search this
Indians of North America Great Plains  Search this
Siouan Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Local number:
NAA MS 4800: (3.8) [362]
See more items in:
James O. Dorsey Papers
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_85826

Making dictionaries : preserving indigenous languages of the Americas / edited by William Frawley, Kenneth C. Hill, Pamela Munro

Author:
Frawley, William 1953-  Search this
Hill, Kenneth C  Search this
Munro, Pamela  Search this
Physical description:
vi, 449 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Dictionaries
Date:
2002
C2002
Topic:
Languages  Search this
Languages--Lexicography  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_703455

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