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John C. Casey letter books

Creator:
Casey, John C.  Search this
Names:
United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Seminole Indian Agency  Search this
Bowlegs, Billy, 1808?-1863 or 1864  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letter books
Date:
1848-1856
Summary:
The collection of John C. Casey journals includes three original letter books from Captain John Casey's time in Monterrey, Mexico during the Mexican-American War from 1847-1848 and as an emigration agent at the Seminole Agency in Florida from 1848 to 1856. This covers a period of time that includes the beginning of the third Seminole War. Additionally, one of the letter books also contains a journal of Casey's operations in the Indian Department in Florida from his arrival in August of 1848 until October of 1849.
Scope and Contents:
The collection of John C. Casey journals includes three original letter books from Captain John Casey's time in Monterrey, Mexico during the Mexican-American War from 1847-1848 and as an emigration agent at the Seminole Agency in Florida from 1848 to 1856. This covers a period of time that includes the beginning of the third Seminole War. Additionally, one of the letter books also contains a journal of Casey's operations in the Indian Department in Florida from his arrival in August of 1848 until October of 1849.
Biographical / Historical:
John Charles Casey was born in England in 1809 but emigrated to the United States as a child and settled with his parents in Paterson, New Jersey. In 1925, Casey enrolled at the Military Academy and following graduation he was commissioned as Brevet Second Lieutenant in the Second Regiment of Artillery in Fort Pike, Louisiana. This fort later served as a staging area for the forced migration of Native Americans by way of the Mississippi and Arkansas River to Indian Territory. In 1831 Casey served as assistant professor of chemistry and geology at the Military Academy but was called back to Fort Pike in 1833. In 1835 the Second Artillery was sent to Tampa Bay, Florida due to increasing hostility with the Seminole community. That same year Casey was promoted to First Lieutenant and took part in several skirmishes and minor actions. He also took several trips into the new Indian Territory after being appointed Acting Agent for transferring Seminoles out of Florida. From 1839 to 1841 Casey served as Purchasing Commissary in New York City and in 1842 he was promoted to Captain, 2nd Artillery. In May 1844, Captain Casey was transferred to the 3rd Infantry. During the war with Mexico Casey was ordered to serve as Chief Commissariat of the Army commanded by Major General Zachary Taylor. At the end of the Mexican War, at his own request due to poor health, he was ordered to Fort Brooke in Tampa Bay. There, he had charge of all Commissary duties for the extensive area of southwest Florida.

In 1849 Casey became Commissioner for the Removal of the Seminole Indians from Florida. Casey was considered qualified partly due to his knowledge of the area as well as his friendly relations with Chief Billy Bowlegs. By 1852 the Bureau of Indian Affairs had been transferred from the War Department to the Interior Department and it was concluded that a new special agent be sent to replace Casey. Casey was reappointed Commissioner in 1854 and returned to Fort Brooke despite his failing health. In May of 1854, Jefferson Davis, the Secretary of War, ordered Captain Casey to suspend talks and trade with the Seminole in the belief that only coercive measures would be successful in inducing the Florida tribes to emigrate. Seeing no alternative, Billy Bowlegs led a Seminole war party in December of 1855 against Lt. George Hartsuff's patrol in the Big Cypress starting the Third Seminole War. Captain Casey who had long been fighting tuberculosis died of pulmonary consumption on December 25, 1856. It is said that Casey's remains were taken with Billy Bowlegs on the vessel Grey Cloud when Bowlegs and the remaining Seminoles departed from Edgemont Key at the close of the war in 1858. Efforts to find Casey's burial place have been unsuccessful.

Sources: Wallace, Fred. "The Story of Captain John C. Casey," Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 41 No. 2 (Oct 1962), pp127-144
Provenance:
The John C. Casey Copybooks were purchased by the Museum of the American, Heye Foundation from Gilman's Book Store in 1964. They became a part of the NMAI Archive Center in 1990.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Seminole Indians -- Wars  Search this
Mexican War, 1846-1848  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letter books
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Captain John C. Casey Journals; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.029
See more items in:
John C. Casey letter books
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-029
Online Media:

William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians

Creator:
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Photographer:
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
J. Gurney & Son  Search this
Savage & Ottinger  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Carter, C. W., 1832-1918  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Easterly, Thomas M. (Thomas Martin), 1809-1882  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
M'Clees, Jas. E. (James E.)  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Ulke, Henry, 1821-1910  Search this
Vannerson, Julian, 1827-  Search this
Westmann, Orloff R.  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Names:
Hayden Survey  Search this
Powell-Thompson Survey  Search this
Extent:
9 Albums (circa 4000 prints, albumen (some copies))
Culture:
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache (New Mexico)  Search this
Wahpeton Indians  Search this
Waco Indians  Search this
Yampa Indians  Search this
Wyandot Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Tewa Indians  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Stockbridge Indians  Search this
Sisseton Indians  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Uinta Indians  Search this
Tonkawa Indians  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Yankton Indians  Search this
Yanktonai Indians  Search this
Montauk Indians  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Brotherton Indians  Search this
Modoc Indians  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Mohave Indians  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Miniconjou Indians  Search this
Missouri Indians  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Mandan Indians  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Miami Indians  Search this
Oto Indians  Search this
Keeche Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Ottawa Indians  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Nez Percé Indians  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Indians  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Hunkpapa Indians  Search this
Iowa Indians  Search this
Sauk Indians  Search this
Seminole Indians  Search this
Santee Indians  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Potawatomi Indians  Search this
Shoshoni Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Sihasapa Indians  Search this
Choctaw Indians  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Delaware Indians  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Hopi Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Seneca Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Date:
circa 1877
Scope and Contents note:
Albums probably assembled by William Henry Jackson, mostly containing portraits of American Indian delegates in Washington, D.C. and photographs made on US Geological Surveys (including the Hayden and Powell surveys). Photographs from the field include John K. Hillers' photographs of the Southwest, photographs of Fort Laramie (possibly by Alexander Gardner), Orloff R. Westmann's photographs of Taos Pueblo, and Jackson's photographs of Crow, Shoshoni, Pawnee, and Nez Perce Indians and related sites. Most of the photographs were made circa 1860s-1870s.

The albums were likely made by Jackson while working under Ferdinand V. Hayden for the United States Geological Survey of the Territories. The reason for their creation is uncertain, though it may have been a project set up by Hayden or a continuation of William Henry Blackmore's tradition of publishing albums. Some of the albums include captions pasted from Jackson's Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians (1877) while others have handwritten captions.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Henry Jackson (1843-1942) was an American painter, photographer and explorer. Born in New York, he sold drawings and retouched photographs from an early age. After serving in the Civil War, he opened a photography studio in Omaha, Nebraska, with his brother Edward. As photographer for the US Geological and Geographical Surveys (1870-1878), he documented the American west and published the first photographs of Yellowstone. When the surveys lost funding in 1879, Jackson opened a studio in Denver, Colorado, and also worked for various railroad companies. Many of Jackson's photographs were displayed at the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago (1893), for which he was the official photographer.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4420
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for many of the photographs in this collection can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds William Henry Jackson photographs and negatives.
Additional Jackson photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4605, MS 4801, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 29, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 93, Photo lot 143, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 87-20, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Correspondence from Jackson held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4517, MS 4881, MS 4821, and collections of personal papers.
Contained in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
See others in:
William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians, circa 1877
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pueblos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4420, William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4420
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4420

MS 606 Muskoki or Creek. Words, grammatical elements and texts collected by Albert S. Gatschet. Vol. 1

Creator:
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Extent:
1 Volume (274 pages)
Culture:
Alibamu  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Alabama Indians  Search this
Apalachee Indians  Search this
Cherokee Indians  Search this
Chickasaw Indians  Search this
Choctaw Indians  Search this
Creek Indians  Search this
Koasati Indians  Search this
Seminole Indians  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Timucua Indians  Search this
Yuchi Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Volumes
Date:
1878-1891
Scope and Contents:
Title on back of binding reads, "Maskoki I." Dates within the notebook range from December 23, 1878, to January 8, 1891. Includes much of material from other sources as well as material collected by Gatschet himself. Most of the material is Creek or Hitchiti, but other Southeastern Indian languages and a few Plains Indian languages are represented. (See Gatschet's index on pages 271-274, and list of contents following main entry; copy filed with volume.) Includes list of gentes, colors, birds, insects, local names, numerals, personal names, and grammatical material as well as notes on the Red Stick War, mythology, etc. Also notes on Samuel Perryman (Thenahta Tustenugga) and a list of songs.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 606
Other Archival Materials:
See MS 2503 for Volume II of the same title.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Languages  Search this
Creek language  Search this
Hitchiti language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 606, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS606
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms606
Online Media:

MS 577 Muskokee or Muskogee or Creek vocabulary as spoken by the Florida Indians or Seminoles

Creator:
Casey, John Charles  Search this
Extent:
28 Pages
Culture:
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Seminole Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
ca. 1836 ?
Scope and Contents:
Includes copy in handwriting of George Gibbs. Manuscript Document. 7 pages. Original is recorded in HRSCV.
Biographical / Historical:
The following note referring to the date of Casey's activity in Florida has been located by W. C. Sturtevant: "ABORIGINAL LITERATURE--Lt Casey, of the 2nd Artillery, who has been stationed at Fort Brooke, Tampa Bay, as commisary, since the commencement of our Indian war, we hear, speaks the Indian language fluently, and is now, during the recess of arms, busily engaged in making a SEMINOLE GRAMMAR."--Army and Navy Chronicle, volume 3, September 1, 1836, page 141.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 577
Local Note:
autograph document signed in printed outline
General:
Previously ttiled "Muskhogee or Creek vocabulary as spoken by the Florida Indians or Seminoles."
Topic:
Creek language  Search this
Seminole language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 577, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS577
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms577
Online Media:

Billy Bowlegs

Artist:
McClees & Vannerson, active 1857 - 1860  Search this
Copy after:
John Hawley Clarke, c. 1831 - 1914  Search this
Sitter:
Billy Bowlegs, 1810 - Mar 1864  Search this
Medium:
Salted paper print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 19 × 13.5 cm (7 1/2 × 5 5/16")
Mount: 33.6 × 25.6 cm (13 1/4 × 10 1/16")
Mat: 45.7 × 35.6 cm (18 × 14")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1858 (copy after 1852 original)
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Ring  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Feather  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Medallion  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Sash  Search this
Costume\Headgear  Search this
Billy Bowlegs: Male  Search this
Billy Bowlegs: Military\Army\Officer\Civil War  Search this
Billy Bowlegs: Military\Army\Officer\Captain  Search this
Billy Bowlegs: Native American\Leader\Chief  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.78.62
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4a3dcbbf0-8495-45e6-9b65-57aa75d0ff3c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.62

Photographic prints by commercial photographers 1873- ca. 1910

Photographer:
Markey, D. A  Search this
Physical description:
109 prints
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Local number:
NAA MS 4544
See more items in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_84639

Diary

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 39, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1950
Collection Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site to portions of collection, but some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 2: Robinson Family / 2.6: Robinson, Franklin A.
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref167
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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  • View Diary digital asset number 2

Florida Seminole Agency: Letter Book and Journal of Operations

Collection Creator:
Casey, John C.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Item 2
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1848-1856
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Captain John C. Casey Journals; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
John C. Casey letter books
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-029-ref513
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Florida Seminole Agency: Letter Book and Journal of Operations digital asset number 1

Seminoles in the Civil War

Collection Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 32
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1943 August 30
Collection Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers / Series 5: Seminole Indians / History: Seminoles, Florida
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0166-ref1378

MS 4161 Notes relating to the Seminole War

Creator:
Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958  Search this
Bailey, Joseph H.  Search this
Names:
Cooacooche  Search this
Wild Cat  Search this
Extent:
3 Folders
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Folder 1: Notes on Cooacooche or Wild Cat and other personalities and events of the Seminole War. 9 pages. Photostat and typed transcript of 9 page manuscript by Joseph H. Bailey, 1841, and 1 map; originals in possession of F. H. Douglas, Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado. (Almost entirely duplicated in Sprague; John T., Origin, Progress, and Conclusion of the Florida War, New York, 1848, pages 90-91, 325-329.) Folder 2: Five negatives (and prints) of 1 drawing, 2 maps, and 1 letter relating to the Dade massacre and other incidents of the 2nd Seminole War; originals in possession of David I. Bushnell, Jr (later willed to Peabody Museum, Harvard University ?). To have been published by W. P. Marchman, Secy, Florida Historical Society. Folder 3: Notes by Swanton from various published sources of the 1820's and 1830's. 23 pages.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4161
Topic:
Seminole Indians  Search this
War -- Seminole War  Search this
Seminole Indians  Search this
War -- Dade massacre  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographs
Citation:
Manuscript 4161, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4161
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4161

Guides & Bibliographies-Smithsonian Information Leaflets (sample only)

Collection Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Container:
Box 424
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1957-1966
Scope and Contents note:
Selected references/bibliographies on: Indian Art of North and Middle America; Indian Wars and Warfare; North American Indian Songs and Dances; Seminole Indians; American Indian Medicine and Health; Indian Languages and Language Families; Present-Day Conditions among U.S. Indians; Maps relating to the American Indian; Indians of Northeastern North America; American Indian Basketry; North American Indian clothing
Collection Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
William C. Sturtevant papers / Series 5: Smithsonian / 5.5: Administrative
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2008-24-ref11474

Creativity and Resistance: Maroon Culture in the Americas

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
Contemporary Maroon peoples' identities are rooted in memories of the collective liberation struggles from which their societies emerged. In most Maroon communities, a profound sense of history pervades present-day life. The 1992 Festival encouraged visitors to understand the contemporary cultures of Maroons as creative syntheses that combined and recombined originally diverse African elements, as well as non-African elements, in unique ways. This historical process of blending and adaptation, resulting in cultures that are simultaneously old and new, is known as "creolization."

Eight contemporary Maroon peoples from six different countries participated in the Festival in the Quincentenary year. Three of these peoples came from the Amazon basin in northeastern South America. The ancestors of the Saramaka began escaping from Surinamese plantations in the late 17th century; after fighting against the Dutch for nearly a century, they made a treaty with them in 1762. Today the Saramaka live along the Suriname River in the interior rainforest of Suriname. Their neighbors, the Ndjuka or Okanisi (Aukaners), began fleeing from Dutch plantations in the early 18th century, and made a treaty with the Dutch in 1760. Across the Maroni and Lawa rivers in French Guiana live the Aluku or Boni, whose forebears began leaving the plantations shortly after the Ndjuka. In 1776-77 they crossed from Suriname into French Guiana, where they have lived ever since. After years of struggle, their freedom was recognized by a joint treaty with the French and Dutch in 1860.

Colombia is home to the contemporary Maroon community of Palenque de San Basilio, not far from the port of Cartagena, which was once at the center of the Spanish slave trade. The Palenqueros are descended from slaves who escaped from Spanish plantations during the 17th century. After several failed attempts to eradicate them, the colonial government and the ancestors of the Palenqueros came to terms between 1713 and 1717. In Jamaica are some of the best known contemporary Maroon communities. The Windward Maroons are based in the villages of Moore Town, Scotts Hall and Charles Town in the eastern Blue Mountains. They can trace their origins as a people back to 1655, when the British seized the island from the Spanish, and a large number of slaves fled into the hills. In later years these initial runaways were joined by others from British plantations. The ancestors of the Leeward Maroons, whose main contemporary settlement is Accompong in the western Cockpit Country, began to escape from plantations in the late 17th century. By the 1730s, both groups posed such a threat to the plantation system that the British colonial government had to sue for peace, concluding separate treaties with the two groups in 1739.

The Maroons of the Costa Chica area in the Mexican states of Guerrero and Oaxaca are descendants of slaves who began escaping in the late 16th century from Spanish cattle ranches and estates along the Pacific coast. When the colonial government launched a military campaign against them, they retreated into more inaccessible areas, where they remained undefeated until the abolition of slavery in Mexico in 1829. The Seminole Maroons, now divided among Oklahoma, Texas, the Bahamas, and the northern Mexican state of Coahuila, originated in Spanish Florida, where groups of escaped slaves from South Carolina and Georgia began seeking refuge in the early 18th century. After the end of the Seminole War in 1842, they were transported along with their Seminole Indian allies to Oklahoma. To avoid raids by slave-catchers, a portion of the Seminole Maroons moved to Mexico, where their descendants, known as Negros Mascogos, remain today. During the mid-19th century, some of these Mexican Seminoles moved to Texas, where they joined the U.S. Cavalry as part of a special division known as the Seminole Negro Indian Scouts. Their descendants live today in Brackettville and Del Rio, Texas.

Ken Bilby and Diana N'Diaye served as Curators of the Maroon program, with Héctor Corporán as Program Coordinator. Regional Coordinators were: Thomas Doudou, French Guiana; Miguel Angel Gutiérrez Avila, Mexico; Ian Hancock, Texas; Hermes R.M. Libretto, Suriname; Lorenzo Manuel Miranda Torres and Heliana Portes de Roux, Colombia; Maureen Rowe, Jamaica.

Creativity and Resistance: Maroon Culture in the Americas was made possible with the support of the governments of Colombia, French Guiana, Jamaica, Suriname, and Guerrero, Mexico; the Texas Commission on the Arts and Texas Folklife Resources; Camille O. and William H. Cosby, Jr.; InterAmerican Foundation; and the Smithsonian Educational Outreach Fund.
Fieldworkers:
Farika Birhan, Bernhard Bisoina, Miguel Angel Gutiérrez-Avila, Ian Hancock, Heliana Portes de Roux
Presenters:
Adiante Franszoon, Miguel Angel Gutiérrez Avila, Ian Hancock, Hermes Richène Martin Libretto, Hazel McClune, Heliana Portes de Roux, Richard Price, Sally Price
Participants:
Colombia Palenqueros

Rafael Cassiaini Cassiani, singer, drummer, Colombia

Cristobalina Estrada Valdez, singer, dancer, Colombia

Gabino Hernandez Palomino, oral historian, Colombia

Lorenzo Manuel Miranda Torres, drummer, dancer, singer, Colombia

Graciela Salgado Valdez, drummer, singer, Colombia

Dolores Salinas de Caceres, singer, dancer, Colombia

Maximo Torres Berrio, drummer, drum maker, singer, Colombia

Jose Valdez Simanca, marimbula player, craftsperson, storyteller, drummaker, Colombia

Ecuador

Juan Garcia, oral historian, storyteller, Ecuador

French Guiana Aluku (Boni) Maroons

Granman Joseph-Joachim Adochini, Paramount Chief, oral historian, French Guiana

Cecilon Anabi, basket maker, -- kwakwa -- player, French Guiana

Adolphe Anelli, drummer, -- agwado -- player, singer, storyteller, French Guiana

Charles Anelli, dancer, French Guiana

Romain Balla, drummer, singer, French Guiana

Charles Cazal, drummer, dancer, singer, -- agwado -- player, flute player, French Guiana

Agnes Ceguy, hair braider, singer, cook, French Guiana

Thomas Doudou, dancer, French Guiana

Marcel Doye, dancer, singer, French Guiana

Samacon Doye, basket maker, woodcarver, dancer, drummer, French Guiana

Analia Kondokou, calabash carver, dancer, cook, French Guiana

Simon Kouakou, dancer, flute player, French Guiana

Antoine Lamoraille, woodcarver, French Guiana

Marie Celine Lobi, hair braider, dancer, French Guiana

Stanislas Lobi, dancer, -- kwakwa -- player, French Guiana

Sephiro Mais, singer, dancer, French Guiana

Saneti Sacapou, singer, cook, French Guiana

Louis Topo, oral historian, drummer, singer, dancer, French Guiana

Jamaica Accompong Town Maroons

George Huggins, drum maker, calabash carver, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Ferrel McKenzie, singer, dancer, drummer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Nevilte McLeggon, abeng blower, cook, drummer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Edwin Peddie, -- gumbe -- drummer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Rosalie Rowe, singer, dancer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Alrena Wright, singer, dancer, drummer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Colonel M.L. Wright, Chief, oral historian, singer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Jamaica Moore Town Maroons

Major Charles Aarons, 1929-, drummer, dancer, jerk specialist, herbalist, abeng blower, Moore Town, Jamaica

Hermine Daure, dancer, singer, cook, craftsperson, Moore Town, Jamaica

Martha Downer, 1931-, dancer, singer, cook, Moore Town, Jamaica

Colonel C.L.G. (Collin Lloyd George) Harris, 1917-, Chief, oral historian, Moore Town, Jamaica

George Harris, 1926-, drummer, drum maker, jerk specialist, thatcher, carver, abeng blower, mat maker, Moore Town, Jamaica

Edith Myers, 1925-, cook, dancer, singer, craftsperson, Moore Town, Jamaica

Emmanuel Palmer, 1935-, drummer, abeng blower, calabash carver, Moore Town, Jamaica

Carl Patterson, 1977-, dancer, animal trapper, Moore Town, Jamaica

Mexico Costa Chica Maroons

Melquiades Dominguez Guzman, storyteller, Mexico

Adan Garcia Marcial, singer, Mexico

Tiburcio Noyola Rodriguez, guitarist, Mexico

Suriname Ndjuka Maroons

Granman Gazon Matodja, Paramount Chief, oral historian, Suriname

Baja Kalenga Cason, boat builder, drummer, singer, dancer, Suriname

Badjan Kelion, hunting & fishing skills, drummer, storyteller, boat builder, Suriname

Albert Koejoe Dosoe, dancer, Suriname

Sentele Molly, animal trapper, drummer, singer, oral historian, Suriname

Jomena Sibe, cook, dancer, singer, needle worker, hair braider, Suriname

Modillie Siemie, cook, house decorator, hair braider, storyteller, Suriname

Suriname Saramaka Maroons

Granman Songo Aboikonie, Paramount Chief, oral historian, Suriname

Adwingie Aboikoni, drummer, singer, thatcher, storyteller, woodcarver, Suriname

Djangilie Amoesi, hunting & fishing skills, thatcher, dancer, wrestler, basket maker, Suriname

Aniekil Awardie, woodcarver, drummer, dancer, singer, Suriname

Edoe Eduard Bobby, fish trapper, thatcher, drummer, dancer, singer, Suriname

Patricia Main, cook, dancer, house decorator, hair braider, Suriname

Alisetie Ngwete, cook, dancer, singer, calabash carver, house decorator, hair braider, textile artist, calf-band maker, Suriname

Akoemajajo Pansa, cook, dancer, singer, calabash carver, textile artist, calf-band maker, hair braider, Suriname

Kajanasieh Saakie, cook, dancer, singer, calabash carver, house decorator, textile artist, calf-band maker, Suriname

Texas Seminole Maroons

Alice Fay Lozano, 1916-2011, cook, Del Rio, Texas

Ethel I. Warrior, 1919-, cook, Del Rio, Texas

William "Dub" Warrior, 1927-, storyteller, Del Rio, Texas

Charles Emily Wilson, 1912-2006, storyteller, Brackettville, Texas
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1992, Series 3
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1992-ref26

Speech of Horace Everett, of Vermont delivered in the House of Representatives, in Committee of the Whole on the Indian annuity bill, Friday, June 3, 1836

Title:
Speech of Everett on the Indian annuity bill DSI
Author:
Everett, Horace 1779-1851  Search this
Bookseller:
Drake, Samuel Gardner 1798-1875 DSI  Search this
Perkins, Oliver L. DSI  Search this
Former owner:
Pickering, John 1777-1846 DSI  Search this
Author:
United States Congress House  Search this
Physical description:
23 pages 23 cm
Type:
Treaties
Congressional addresses
Stamps (Provenance)
Date:
1836
Topic:
Indians of North America--Treaties  Search this
Seminole Indians  Search this
Seminole Indians--Treaties  Search this
Seminole War, 2nd, 1835-1842  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Call number:
E83.836 .E93X 1836
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_933808

Knife and sheath

Culture/People:
Seminole  Search this
Collector:
Lieutenant John H. Hill, Non-Indian, ca. 1819-1847  Search this
Previous owner:
Thomas Hart, Non-Indian  Search this
Reginald L. Hart, Non-Indian  Search this
James Economos, Non-Indian, 1938-2019  Search this
Object Name:
Knife and sheath
Media/Materials:
Hide, metal knife, porcupine quills
Techniques:
Quill embroidered, incised
Object Type:
Personal items
Place:
Florida; USA
Date created:
1830-1840
Catalog Number:
24/7000
Barcode:
247000.000
See related items:
Seminole
Personal items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6278d934a-fd8f-4119-b992-b9650cf742c9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_262794
Online Media:

Bow

Culture/People:
Seminole  Search this
Previous owner:
Marion Eppley, Non-Indian, 1883-1960  Search this
Donor:
Marion Eppley, Non-Indian, 1883-1960  Search this
Object Name:
Bow
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Florida; USA
Catalog Number:
21/2676
Barcode:
212676.000
See related items:
Seminole
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d30b5187-c12f-4b06-9ee7-0200e96496a7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_227032
Online Media:

Garters/Legbands

Culture/People:
Seminole  Search this
Previous owner:
Osceola, Seminole, ca. 1803-1838  Search this
Dr. Jacob Rhett Motte, Non-Indian, 1811-1868  Search this
Dr. George Jackson Fisher (Dr. G. J. Fisher), Non-Indian, 1825-1893  Search this
Union Free School, District One  Search this
Collector:
Dr. Jacob Rhett Motte, Non-Indian, 1811-1868  Search this
Donor:
Union Free School, District One  Search this
Object Name:
Garters/Legbands
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Strung, fingerwoven
Dimensions:
84 x 7 x 2 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Place:
Florida; USA
Date created:
1830-1837
Catalog Number:
22/9751
Barcode:
229751.000
See related items:
Seminole
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, New York, NY
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6ae0a2b7f-5efe-4e0f-a488-4245c1e18700
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_244789
Online Media:

Shoulder bag strap/bandolier

Culture/People:
Seminole  Search this
Previous owner:
Chief Cloud (Yoholoochee/Ye-how-lo-gee/Aholochi), Seminole  Search this
Abner Fuller Lyon, Non-Indian, b. 1811  Search this
Collector:
Abner Fuller Lyon, Non-Indian, b. 1811  Search this
Object Name:
Shoulder bag strap/bandolier
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, cotton cloth, glass bead/beads, silk ribbon, thread
Techniques:
Sewn, overlay beadwork
Dimensions:
25 x 21 cm
Object Type:
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Place:
Florida; USA
Date created:
circa 1820
Catalog Number:
8/4300
Barcode:
084300.000
See related items:
Seminole
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, New York, NY
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws60938f032-07c7-477a-bb69-82b0aa15ea01
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_90772
Online Media:

Knife

Culture/People:
Seminole  Search this
Collector:
George Gustav Heye (GGH), Non-Indian, 1874-1957  Search this
Object Name:
Knife
Media/Materials:
Antler, iron blade
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Tools and Equipment (General)
Place:
Florida; USA
Catalog Number:
15/3220
Barcode:
153220.000
See related items:
Seminole
Tools and Equipment (General)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws698b046f2-9eb6-421c-b6e7-18d41b80e299
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_164413
Online Media:

Bow

Culture/People:
Seminole  Search this
Previous owner:
Marion Eppley, Non-Indian, 1883-1960  Search this
Donor:
Marion Eppley, Non-Indian, 1883-1960  Search this
Object Name:
Bow
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Florida; USA
Catalog Number:
21/2675
Barcode:
212675.000
See related items:
Seminole
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws60ac10b89-b869-4157-b042-a6e5312c10b4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_227031
Online Media:

Man's coat

Culture/People:
Seminole  Search this
Previous owner:
Osceola, Seminole, ca. 1803-1838  Search this
Dr. Jacob Rhett Motte, Non-Indian, 1811-1868  Search this
Dr. George Jackson Fisher (Dr. G. J. Fisher), Non-Indian, 1825-1893  Search this
Union Free School, District One  Search this
Collector:
Dr. Jacob Rhett Motte, Non-Indian, 1811-1868  Search this
Donor:
Union Free School, District One  Search this
Object Name:
Man's coat
Media/Materials:
Deerhide/deerskin, hide thong/babiche, cotton thread
Techniques:
Stitched, sewn
Dimensions:
108 x 61 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments
Place:
Florida; USA
Date created:
1830-1837
Catalog Number:
22/9750
Barcode:
229750.000
See related items:
Seminole
Clothing/Garments
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws66f27bb3f-8469-4166-a5c6-f6b446f3821d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_244788
Online Media:

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