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Seminoles

Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Container:
Box 79
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1849 October 29
Scope and Contents:
Includes Anthony Breath to "Jim", 10/29/1849, re a meeting with Billy Bowlegs and other Seminoles and Mikasukis (concerns cat. 380,668) and a bibliography on Seminole Indians for popular distribution.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3c5286395-3ca0-44de-83d3-e239ce034bf9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15212

Sash/Belt

Culture/People:
Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Previous owner:
Louisa Hadjo, Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Collector:
Chief William M. Skye (Bill Skye), Peoria, 1868-1923  Search this
Hope M. Fulbright, Non-Indian, 1876-1949  Search this
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Sash/Belt
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, wool yarn, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Overlay beadwork, fingerwoven, edge beaded, tasseled
Dimensions:
35 x 254.5 x 3.5 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Native Term:
si' wa na gi da La ko
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Date created:
1850-1900
Catalog Number:
2/5650
Barcode:
025650.000
See related items:
Oklahoma Seminole
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws61b9378d4-6d93-46e6-b000-b515c373d75d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_26919
Online Media:

Creativity and Resistance: Maroon Culture in the Americas

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
Contemporary Maroon peoples' identities are rooted in memories of the collective liberation struggles from which their societies emerged. In most Maroon communities, a profound sense of history pervades present-day life. The 1992 Festival encouraged visitors to understand the contemporary cultures of Maroons as creative syntheses that combined and recombined originally diverse African elements, as well as non-African elements, in unique ways. This historical process of blending and adaptation, resulting in cultures that are simultaneously old and new, is known as "creolization."

Eight contemporary Maroon peoples from six different countries participated in the Festival in the Quincentenary year. Three of these peoples came from the Amazon basin in northeastern South America. The ancestors of the Saramaka began escaping from Surinamese plantations in the late 17th century; after fighting against the Dutch for nearly a century, they made a treaty with them in 1762. Today the Saramaka live along the Suriname River in the interior rainforest of Suriname. Their neighbors, the Ndjuka or Okanisi (Aukaners), began fleeing from Dutch plantations in the early 18th century, and made a treaty with the Dutch in 1760. Across the Maroni and Lawa rivers in French Guiana live the Aluku or Boni, whose forebears began leaving the plantations shortly after the Ndjuka. In 1776-77 they crossed from Suriname into French Guiana, where they have lived ever since. After years of struggle, their freedom was recognized by a joint treaty with the French and Dutch in 1860.

Colombia is home to the contemporary Maroon community of Palenque de San Basilio, not far from the port of Cartagena, which was once at the center of the Spanish slave trade. The Palenqueros are descended from slaves who escaped from Spanish plantations during the 17th century. After several failed attempts to eradicate them, the colonial government and the ancestors of the Palenqueros came to terms between 1713 and 1717. In Jamaica are some of the best known contemporary Maroon communities. The Windward Maroons are based in the villages of Moore Town, Scotts Hall and Charles Town in the eastern Blue Mountains. They can trace their origins as a people back to 1655, when the British seized the island from the Spanish, and a large number of slaves fled into the hills. In later years these initial runaways were joined by others from British plantations. The ancestors of the Leeward Maroons, whose main contemporary settlement is Accompong in the western Cockpit Country, began to escape from plantations in the late 17th century. By the 1730s, both groups posed such a threat to the plantation system that the British colonial government had to sue for peace, concluding separate treaties with the two groups in 1739.

The Maroons of the Costa Chica area in the Mexican states of Guerrero and Oaxaca are descendants of slaves who began escaping in the late 16th century from Spanish cattle ranches and estates along the Pacific coast. When the colonial government launched a military campaign against them, they retreated into more inaccessible areas, where they remained undefeated until the abolition of slavery in Mexico in 1829. The Seminole Maroons, now divided among Oklahoma, Texas, the Bahamas, and the northern Mexican state of Coahuila, originated in Spanish Florida, where groups of escaped slaves from South Carolina and Georgia began seeking refuge in the early 18th century. After the end of the Seminole War in 1842, they were transported along with their Seminole Indian allies to Oklahoma. To avoid raids by slave-catchers, a portion of the Seminole Maroons moved to Mexico, where their descendants, known as Negros Mascogos, remain today. During the mid-19th century, some of these Mexican Seminoles moved to Texas, where they joined the U.S. Cavalry as part of a special division known as the Seminole Negro Indian Scouts. Their descendants live today in Brackettville and Del Rio, Texas.

Ken Bilby and Diana N'Diaye served as Curators of the Maroon program, with Héctor Corporán as Program Coordinator. Regional Coordinators were: Thomas Doudou, French Guiana; Miguel Angel Gutiérrez Avila, Mexico; Ian Hancock, Texas; Hermes R.M. Libretto, Suriname; Lorenzo Manuel Miranda Torres and Heliana Portes de Roux, Colombia; Maureen Rowe, Jamaica.

Creativity and Resistance: Maroon Culture in the Americas was made possible with the support of the governments of Colombia, French Guiana, Jamaica, Suriname, and Guerrero, Mexico; the Texas Commission on the Arts and Texas Folklife Resources; Camille O. and William H. Cosby, Jr.; InterAmerican Foundation; and the Smithsonian Educational Outreach Fund.
Fieldworkers:
Farika Birhan, Bernhard Bisoina, Miguel Angel Gutiérrez-Avila, Ian Hancock, Heliana Portes de Roux
Presenters:
Adiante Franszoon, Miguel Angel Gutiérrez Avila, Ian Hancock, Hermes Richène Martin Libretto, Hazel McClune, Heliana Portes de Roux, Richard Price, Sally Price
Participants:
Colombia Palenqueros

Rafael Cassiaini Cassiani, singer, drummer, Colombia

Cristobalina Estrada Valdez, singer, dancer, Colombia

Gabino Hernandez Palomino, oral historian, Colombia

Lorenzo Manuel Miranda Torres, drummer, dancer, singer, Colombia

Graciela Salgado Valdez, drummer, singer, Colombia

Dolores Salinas de Caceres, singer, dancer, Colombia

Maximo Torres Berrio, drummer, drum maker, singer, Colombia

Jose Valdez Simanca, marimbula player, craftsperson, storyteller, drummaker, Colombia

Ecuador

Juan Garcia, oral historian, storyteller, Ecuador

French Guiana Aluku (Boni) Maroons

Granman Joseph-Joachim Adochini, Paramount Chief, oral historian, French Guiana

Cecilon Anabi, basket maker, -- kwakwa -- player, French Guiana

Adolphe Anelli, drummer, -- agwado -- player, singer, storyteller, French Guiana

Charles Anelli, dancer, French Guiana

Romain Balla, drummer, singer, French Guiana

Charles Cazal, drummer, dancer, singer, -- agwado -- player, flute player, French Guiana

Agnes Ceguy, hair braider, singer, cook, French Guiana

Thomas Doudou, dancer, French Guiana

Marcel Doye, dancer, singer, French Guiana

Samacon Doye, basket maker, woodcarver, dancer, drummer, French Guiana

Analia Kondokou, calabash carver, dancer, cook, French Guiana

Simon Kouakou, dancer, flute player, French Guiana

Antoine Lamoraille, woodcarver, French Guiana

Marie Celine Lobi, hair braider, dancer, French Guiana

Stanislas Lobi, dancer, -- kwakwa -- player, French Guiana

Sephiro Mais, singer, dancer, French Guiana

Saneti Sacapou, singer, cook, French Guiana

Louis Topo, oral historian, drummer, singer, dancer, French Guiana

Jamaica Accompong Town Maroons

George Huggins, drum maker, calabash carver, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Ferrel McKenzie, singer, dancer, drummer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Nevilte McLeggon, abeng blower, cook, drummer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Edwin Peddie, -- gumbe -- drummer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Rosalie Rowe, singer, dancer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Alrena Wright, singer, dancer, drummer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Colonel M.L. Wright, Chief, oral historian, singer, Accompong Town, Jamaica

Jamaica Moore Town Maroons

Major Charles Aarons, 1929-, drummer, dancer, jerk specialist, herbalist, abeng blower, Moore Town, Jamaica

Hermine Daure, dancer, singer, cook, craftsperson, Moore Town, Jamaica

Martha Downer, 1931-, dancer, singer, cook, Moore Town, Jamaica

Colonel C.L.G. (Collin Lloyd George) Harris, 1917-, Chief, oral historian, Moore Town, Jamaica

George Harris, 1926-, drummer, drum maker, jerk specialist, thatcher, carver, abeng blower, mat maker, Moore Town, Jamaica

Edith Myers, 1925-, cook, dancer, singer, craftsperson, Moore Town, Jamaica

Emmanuel Palmer, 1935-, drummer, abeng blower, calabash carver, Moore Town, Jamaica

Carl Patterson, 1977-, dancer, animal trapper, Moore Town, Jamaica

Mexico Costa Chica Maroons

Melquiades Dominguez Guzman, storyteller, Mexico

Adan Garcia Marcial, singer, Mexico

Tiburcio Noyola Rodriguez, guitarist, Mexico

Suriname Ndjuka Maroons

Granman Gazon Matodja, Paramount Chief, oral historian, Suriname

Baja Kalenga Cason, boat builder, drummer, singer, dancer, Suriname

Badjan Kelion, hunting & fishing skills, drummer, storyteller, boat builder, Suriname

Albert Koejoe Dosoe, dancer, Suriname

Sentele Molly, animal trapper, drummer, singer, oral historian, Suriname

Jomena Sibe, cook, dancer, singer, needle worker, hair braider, Suriname

Modillie Siemie, cook, house decorator, hair braider, storyteller, Suriname

Suriname Saramaka Maroons

Granman Songo Aboikonie, Paramount Chief, oral historian, Suriname

Adwingie Aboikoni, drummer, singer, thatcher, storyteller, woodcarver, Suriname

Djangilie Amoesi, hunting & fishing skills, thatcher, dancer, wrestler, basket maker, Suriname

Aniekil Awardie, woodcarver, drummer, dancer, singer, Suriname

Edoe Eduard Bobby, fish trapper, thatcher, drummer, dancer, singer, Suriname

Patricia Main, cook, dancer, house decorator, hair braider, Suriname

Alisetie Ngwete, cook, dancer, singer, calabash carver, house decorator, hair braider, textile artist, calf-band maker, Suriname

Akoemajajo Pansa, cook, dancer, singer, calabash carver, textile artist, calf-band maker, hair braider, Suriname

Kajanasieh Saakie, cook, dancer, singer, calabash carver, house decorator, textile artist, calf-band maker, Suriname

Texas Seminole Maroons

Alice Fay Lozano, 1916-2011, cook, Del Rio, Texas

Ethel I. Warrior, 1919-, cook, Del Rio, Texas

William "Dub" Warrior, 1927-, storyteller, Del Rio, Texas

Charles Emily Wilson, 1912-2006, storyteller, Brackettville, Texas
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1992, Series 3
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk51e33e6d0-cfab-4687-ae7c-63f76e7cd41c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1992-ref26

Festival Recordings: Maroon Narrative: Seminole Maroons; From Florida to Brackettville: Palenque de San Basilio; Oral Traditions

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Maroon Program 1992 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Keydel, Stefan (recorder)  Search this
Spinks, Vondale (recorder)  Search this
Artist:
Wilson, Charles Emily, 1913-2006  Search this
Miranda Torres, Lorenzo Manuel  Search this
Berrio, Maximo Torres  Search this
Cassiani Cassiani, Rafael  Search this
Performer:
Wilson, Charles Emily, 1913-2006  Search this
Miranda Torres, Lorenzo Manuel  Search this
Berrio, Maximo Torres  Search this
Cassiani Cassiani, Rafael  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Americans  Search this
Colombians  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Texas
Brackettville (Tex.)
Colombia
Date:
1992 July 4
Track Information:
101 Seminole Maroons: From Florida to Brackettville / Charles Emily Wilson.

102 Palenque de San Basilio: Oral Traditions / Lorenzo Manuel Miranda Torres, Maximo Torres Berrio, Rafael Cassiani Cassiani.
Local Numbers:
FP-1992-CT-0202
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 4, 1992.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Frontier & pioneer life  Search this
Treaties  Search this
Juneteenth  Search this
Scouts and scouting  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Lumbalu  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Funeral rites and ceremonies  Search this
Wakes  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1992, Item FP-1992-CT-0202
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife / Series 3: Creativity and Resistance: Maroon Culture in the Americas / 3.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk574ae90d7-8305-4075-97e4-2b5c3e235a95
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1992-ref751

Festival Recordings: Maroon Narrative: Saramaku Maroons; Innovations in Styles of Dress: Texas Maroons: Language Workshop

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Maroon Program 1992 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Howard, Timothea, 1953-2017 (recorder)  Search this
Tran, Tuan (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
Pansa, Akoemajajo  Search this
Ngwete, Alisetie  Search this
Main, Patricia  Search this
Warrior, Ethel I., 1919-  Search this
Warrior, William, 1927-  Search this
Lozano, Alice Fay, 1916-2011  Search this
Harris, Colin L.G.  Search this
Eersteling, Cyriel  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Surinamese  Search this
Americans  Search this
Jamaicans  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Saramacca (Surinamese people)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Suriname
Texas
Del Rio (Tex.)
Jamaica
Moore Town (Jamaica)
Date:
1992 July 5
Track Information:
101 Innovation: Personal Styles in Dress / Akoemajajo Pansa, Alisetie Ngwete, Patricia Main.

102 Texas Maroons, Seminole Maroons / Ethel I. Warrior, William Warrior.

103 New Languages Created from Old / Alice Fay Lozano, Colin L.G. Harris, Cyriel Eersteling.
Local Numbers:
FP-1992-CT-0204
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 5, 1992.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Hairstyles  Search this
Hairdressing of African Americans  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Frontier & pioneer life  Search this
History  Search this
Scouts and scouting  Search this
language  Search this
Creolization  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1992, Item FP-1992-CT-0204
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife / Series 3: Creativity and Resistance: Maroon Culture in the Americas / 3.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk522620e9b-4995-48eb-a2d7-978762b54d53
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1992-ref753

Festival Recordings: Maroon Narrative: Language Workshop: Maroon Healing?

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Maroon Program 1992 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Tran, Tuan (recorder)  Search this
Howard, Timothea, 1953-2017 (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
Lozano, Alice Fay, 1916-2011  Search this
Harris, Colin L.G.  Search this
Eersteling, Cyriel  Search this
Aarons, Charles, 1929-  Search this
Doye, Marcel  Search this
Doye, Samacon  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Americans  Search this
Surinamese  Search this
French Guianese  Search this
Jamaicans  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Wayana Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Texas
Jamaica
Del Rio (Tex.)
Suriname
Moore Town (Jamaica)
French Guiana
Date:
1992 July 5
Track Information:
101 New Languages Created from Old / Alice Fay Lozano, Colin L.G. Harris, Cyriel Eersteling.

102 Aluku and Jamaican Maroons / Charles Aarons, Marcel Doye, Samacon Doye.
Local Numbers:
FP-1992-CT-0205
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 5, 1992.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
language  Search this
Creolization  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Wayana Indians  Search this
Herbs  Search this
Subsistence economy  Search this
Herbs -- Theraputic use  Search this
Governments  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1992, Item FP-1992-CT-0205
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife / Series 3: Creativity and Resistance: Maroon Culture in the Americas / 3.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5c4ee0f62-627c-40cc-9f9e-b0a3858f2fb2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1992-ref754

Corn area: Mike Seeger- presenter; Sarah Ogan Gunning, Ralph Rinzler, Mike Seeger, Alice Gerrard- presenters; Monroe Family workshop (Bill Monroe, Birch Monroe, Charlie Monroe); Betty Mae Jumper- presenter- Seminole Indian Corn Dance

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife (1969)  Search this
Artist:
Gunning, Sarah Ogan, 1910-1983  Search this
Monroe, Bill, 1911-1996  Search this
Monroe, Birch, 1901-1982  Search this
Performer:
Gunning, Sarah Ogan, 1910-1983  Search this
Monroe, Bill, 1911-1996  Search this
Monroe, Charlie  Search this
Monroe, Birch, 1901-1982  Search this
Monroe Brothers  Search this
Author:
Monroe, Charlie  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (7 inch reel, 1/4 inch tape)
sound-tape reel (analog, 7 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Anglo-American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Michigan
Kentucky
Tennessee
Date:
1969 July 3
Contents:
Sarah Ogan Gunning-- I hate the capitalist system--Silver dagger--Wayworn traveller (Palms of victory); Bill, Charlie and Birch Monroe--Interview--Old Joe Clark--Family history- Uncle Pen--Maggie--Long journey home
Track Information:
101 Ballad Singer / Sarah Ogan Gunning.

102 Bluegrass / Monroe Family, Bill Monroe, Charlie Monroe, Birch Monroe. Mandolin,Guitar,Fiddle.
General note:
DPA number 69.101.22
Local Numbers:
FP-1969-7RR-0022
General:
CDR copy
69.101.22
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 3, 1969.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Ballads  Search this
Folk songs -- United States  Search this
Folk songs -- Kentucky  Search this
Folk music  Search this
Labor unions -- Songs and music  Search this
Protest songs  Search this
Political ballads and songs  Search this
Working class -- Songs and music  Search this
Bluegrass music  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Mandolin  Search this
Guitar  Search this
Violin  Search this
Struggle  Search this
Coal  Search this
Protest  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1969, Item FP-1969-7RR-0022
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife / 4.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk582b48f39-faea-4487-a0ad-26b7d4ed9631
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1969-ref130

Festival Recordings: Narrative Stage: Mayan Indian Culture in Guatemala

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Cultural Conservation Program 1985 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
sound tape reel
1 Sound recording (sound-tape reel, analog, 7 in.)
Culture:
Guatemalans  Search this
Mayan Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Guatemala
Date:
1985 June 26
Local Numbers:
FP-1985-7RR-0392
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, June 26, 1985.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
World music  Search this
Marimba  Search this
Guatemala -- Songs and music  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1985 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1985, Item FP-1985-7RR-0392
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1985 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1985 Festival of American Folklife / Series 2: Cultural Conservation / 2.1: Fieldwork
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk596b22d11-32bb-40c9-8dad-f9120b1e4f2f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1985-ref1214
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Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Crafts & Materials: Border History

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Leyva, Guadloupe Carrasco  Search this
Valenzuela, Felipe de Jesus  Search this
Galván, Omar, 1920-1999  Search this
Warrior, William, 1927-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Mexicans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Mexico
El Divisidero (Mexico)
Texas
Hebbronville (Tex.)
Del Rio (Tex.)
Magdalena de Kino (Mexico)
Date:
1993 July 3
Track Information:
101 Crafts and Materials / Guadloupe Carrasco Leyva.

102 Border History / Felipe de Jesus Valenzuela, Omar Galván, William Warrior.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0088
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 3, 1993.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Storytelling  Search this
Quilting  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Local history  Search this
Cowboys  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0088
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5b9b37d2e-bbd4-4f6a-9a41-1d96878678f1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref710

Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Murals & Low Riders: Border History; Chinese Presence in Baja, California

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Herrera, Alonso Encina  Search this
Callejo, Carlos, 1951-  Search this
Frías, Romulo  Search this
Sandoval, José Luis Lee  Search this
Felix, Marciella  Search this
Warrior, William, 1927-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Mexicans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Hispanic Americans  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Durango
Mexico
Texas
Ciudad Juar̀ez (Durango, Mexico)
El Paso (Tex.)
China
Tecate (Mexico)
Del Rio (Tex.)
Date:
1993 July 5
Track Information:
101 Murals and Low Riders / Alonso Encina Herrera, Carlos Callejo, Romulo Frías.

102 Border History: Chinese Presence in Baja California / José Luis Lee Sandoval, Marciella Felix, William Warrior.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0096
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 5, 1993.
General:
This audio recording has been transcribed. View transcription and play recording here. Download a PDF of the transcription here.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Lowriders  Search this
Automobiles  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Emigration & immigration  Search this
Wood-carving  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0096
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5c48cf350-a1b5-4c9b-8c39-5ffb9aaeb102
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref718
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  • View Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Murals & Low Riders: Border History; Chinese Presence in Baja, California digital asset number 1
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Festival Recordings: El Ranchito: Border Stories: Border Theater

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Bonaparte, Brad  Search this
Bernholz, Richard M., 1954-  Search this
Warrior, William, 1927-  Search this
Collins, Julius, 1928-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Americans  Search this
Mohawk Indians  Search this
Cajuns  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Texas
Del Rio (Tex.)
Presidio (Tex.)
New York
Brownsville (Tex.)
Date:
1993 July 4
Track Information:
101 Border Stories / Brad Bonaparte, Richard M. Bernholz, William Warrior.

101 Border Stories / William Warrior, Julius Collins.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0109
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 4, 1993.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Storytelling  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Border patrols  Search this
Smuggling  Search this
Business  Search this
Borderlands  Search this
Fishing  Search this
Shrimps  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0109
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5bdf33014-8dc2-4af8-bc2c-daf08671d61a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref731

Festival Recordings: Ramada Stage: Healing Traditions; Alice Fay Lorenzo, Gertrude Factor Vasquez

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Lozano, Alice Fay, 1916-2011  Search this
Vásquez, Gertrude Factor, 1921-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Mexicans  Search this
Afro-Seminole  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Mexico
Nacimiento (Mexico)
Date:
1993 July 2
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0118
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 2, 1993.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Childbirth  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Herbs -- Theraputic use  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0118
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk512cf7f38-5e95-4857-8833-0f87398e0d26
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref740

Festival Recordings: Ramada Stage: Herbal Healing Traditions

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Lozano, Alice Fay, 1916-2011  Search this
Warrior, Ethel I., 1919-  Search this
Moroyoqui de Roques, María Gloria, 1930-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Mexicans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Texas
Mexico
Del Rio (Tex.)
Nogales (Nogales, Mexico)
Nacimiento (Mexico)
Date:
1993 July 5
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0126
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 5, 1993.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Childbirth  Search this
Herbs -- Theraputic use  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0126
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5a22bdcbf-0656-430a-80cb-20d70179b2f2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref748

Crossing waters, crossing worlds : the African diaspora in Indian country / edited by Tiya Miles and Sharon P. Holland

Author:
Miles, Tiya 1970-  Search this
Holland, Sharon Patricia  Search this
Physical description:
xx, 364 p. : ill ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
North America
Latin America
Date:
2006
Topic:
Relations with Indians  Search this
Black people--Relations with Indians  Search this
Black people--Migrations  Search this
Mixed descent  Search this
Ex-slaves of Indian tribes  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_796907

Footage of Florida, Cuba, and Central America

Collection Creator:
Boys, Charles  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (36 minutes, black-and-white color silent; 1236 feet, 16mm)
Type:
Archival materials
Film reels
Date:
circa 1946
Scope and Contents:
Footage taken during travels in Florida, Cuba, Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), and Nicaragua. Florida footage includes migrant workers planting and harvesting at Palmer Farms, elephant act at the Barnum and Bailey Circus headquarters, Marine Studios, Seminole Indians posing with tourists, and Florida swamp style air boats and dugout canoes. Cuban footage includes harbor scenes, Havana street scenes, rural scenes of countryside and village including dwellings and inhabitants, sponge fishing, and mangrove swamps. Central American footage includes peasant dwellings; archeological sites including Chichen Itza; market scenes; Managua, Nicaragua street scenes and architecture including a cathedral; and bullfight.
Local Number:
HSFA 1989.20.1
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Charles Boys films, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Charles Boys films
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc9fac17549-3dfe-454e-804a-7f7587f6e803
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-hsfa-1989-20-ref1

Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Language and languages  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a548e5a0-c124-413d-ade0-345b46f30a72
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0166

History: Seminoles, Florida

Collection Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1936-1971
Collection Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166, Subseries 5.5
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers / Series 5: Seminole Indians
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3f4fde238-9c01-4c83-8d23-8474e1180093
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0166-ref127

Early Seminole and Florida History (Interesting Research)

Collection Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 32
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1942-1943
1955
1967-1970
undated
Collection Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers / Series 5: Seminole Indians / 5.5: History: Seminoles, Florida
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw33d78696c-b3ba-45ea-82c0-04327335c376
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0166-ref1373

Early Seminole History Article by E.C. Freeman

Collection Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 32
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1949 November
Collection Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers / Series 5: Seminole Indians / 5.5: History: Seminoles, Florida
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3c55b18f1-dba7-4959-87ac-cad387bcd90d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0166-ref1374

Survey of the Seminoles Today by Stanley Hanson

Collection Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 32
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers / Series 5: Seminole Indians / 5.5: History: Seminoles, Florida
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3441bf94e-064b-48dc-acf7-2483b033dcaf
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0166-ref1375

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