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Oral history interview with Carl Andre, 1972 September

Interviewee:
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Chapman, Michael  Search this
Frampton, Hollis  Search this
Martin, Agnes  Search this
Morgan, Maud  Search this
Morgan, Patrick  Search this
Rose, Barbara  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13302
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211931
AAA_collcode_andre72sep
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_211931

Colette Roberts Papers and Interviews with Artists

Creator:
Roberts, Colette, 1910-  Search this
Names:
British Broadcasting Corporation  Search this
Grand Central Moderns (Gallery)  Search this
Le Point Cardinal (Gallery)  Search this
New York University -- Faculty  Search this
Bauermeister, Mary, 1934-  Search this
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Chryssa, 1933-  Search this
Dehner, Dorothy, 1901-1994  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Ferren, John, 1905-1970  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph, 1903-1974  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-  Search this
Karp, Ivan C., 1926-2012  Search this
Le Prat, Thérèse  Search this
Lindner, Richard, 1901-  Search this
Marisol, 1930-2016  Search this
Moy, Seong  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
O'Doherty, Brian  Search this
Ray, Man, 1890-1976  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad, 1913-1967 -- Photographs  Search this
Schwabacher, Ethel, 1903-1984  Search this
Sterne, Hedda, 1910-  Search this
Vieira da Silva, Maria Helena, 1908-1992  Search this
Extent:
10.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Reviews (documents)
Interviews
Articles
Notes
Manuscripts
Photographs
Sound recordings
Date:
1918-1971
Summary:
The papers of New York City and Paris art historian, educator, and gallerist Colette Roberts measure 10.2 linear feet and date from 1918 to 1971. Papers include correspondence, writings, teaching records, project proposals, gallery records from Grand Central Moderns Gallery, clippings, Roberts' printed articles, press releases, exhibition catalogs, posters, photographs, and a few works of art on paper. Also found are 124 interviews with contemporary artists conducted by Roberts.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of New York City and Paris art historian, educator, and gallerist Colette Roberts measure 10.2 linear feet and date from 1918 to 1971. Papers include correspondence, writings, teaching records, project proposals, gallery records from Grand Central Moderns Gallery, clippings, Roberts' printed articles, press releases, exhibition catalogs, posters, photographs, and a few works of art on paper. Also found are 124 interviews with contemporary artists conducted by Roberts.

Significant correspondents include Sam Adler, Erwin Barrie, Hubert Damisch, George Deem, Mesdames de Harting and de Tinan, Lamar Dodd, Hélène Drude (Le Point Cardinal gallery), Arne Ekstrom, Albert M. Fine (Fluxus artist), Iqbal Geoffrey, R.G. Gilllet, Adolph Gottlieb, Cleve Gray, Leon Hartl, Jennett Lam, Alberto Cifolelli Lamb, Mike Nevelson, Norman Norotzky, Jacqueline Pavlowsky, Abe Rattner, Ad Reinhardt, H. Sandberg, Philippe Stern, Russell Twiggs, and Zuka.

Writings by Roberts include manuscripts and articles about artists, writings about her own art, personal writings, working notes from interviews and classes, reviews, and translations between English and French.

Among the personal records are Robert's files relating to teaching, charitable activities, and exhibitions. Also found are gallery records from Grand Central Moderns Gallery, including artist résumés, a card file of artworks with provenance information, exhibition catalogs and announcements, membership records, posters, publicity, and sales records.

Printed materials in the collection include clippings, Roberts' printed articles, press releases, and other exhibition catalogs and announcements. Photographs are of Roberts, artists, including Ad Reinhardt, classes, art spaces, and works of art. A small number of artworks on paper are also found, including Fluxus art stamps and a printed picture of Ray Johnson stamped "DOUGHNUT FESTIVAL."

Documentation of interviews with artists conducted by Roberts includes a card index file, a few transcripts, and the original sound recordings. Most of the recordings are interviews with artists that Roberts created during a class she taught at New York University between 1957 and 1971 called "Meet the Artist," including Mary Bauermeister, Romare Bearden, Dorothy Dehner, John Ferren, Ray Johnson, Ivan Karp, Thérèse Le Prat, Richard Lindner, Marisol, Seong Moy, Brian O'Doherty, Man Ray, Ethel Schwabacher, Hedda Sterne, Marie Helena Vieira da Silva, and many others. In preparation for magazine articles, Roberts conducted more extensive interviews with Chryssa, Marcel Duchamp, Adolph Gottlieb, and Louise Nevelson. A few of the recordings of Marcel Duchamp were not created by Roberts. In all, over 100 artists are represented in Roberts' interviews. Other recordings found include lectures and interviews conducted by people other than Roberts.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1918-1971 (Box 1, 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Notes and Writings, 1936-1970 (Box 1, 0.3 linear feet)

Series 3: Personal Records, 1944-1971 (Box 1-2, 11; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 4: Grand Central Moderns Gallery Records, 1952-1970 (Box 2-3, 11; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1938-1971 (Box 3-5, 11-12; 2.0 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, 1930-1971 (Box 5; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1940-1969 (Box 5; 4 folders)

Series 8: Interviews with Artists, 1959-1971 (Box 5-10; 5.5 lienar feet)
Biographical Note:
Colette Roberts was a French artist, curator, gallery director, and scholar who emigrated to the United States in 1939, settling in New York City and remaining there until her death in 1971.

Roberts was born in Paris, France in 1910. She studied art with Roger Bissière at the Académie Ranson and with Henry Focillon at the Ecole du Louvre, and she later attended the Institut d'Art et Archeologie at the Sorbonne. Roberts came to the United States in 1939, settling in New York City, and became an American citizen three years later. In her early years in the United States, Roberts lectured and wrote on art and literature, and was active in various war-relief organizations, raising money and organizing benefits for organizations such as the American Red Cross and UNICEF. She was the gallery director for the National Association of Women Artists' Argent Galleries from 1947 to 1949, secretary to the curator of Far Eastern Art at New York's Metropolitan Museum from 1950 to 1951, and art editor for "France Amérique," the French-language newspaper in New York, beginning in 1953.

Roberts became gallery director of the Grand Central Moderns Gallery (New York, NY) in 1952 and remained in that position until 1968, when the gallery closed. The gallery was opened in 1946 by Erwin S. Barrie of the Grand Central Galleries for the promotion of living American artists. Among the artists represented there were Jennett Lam and Seong Moy. During this period she was also an instructor at New York University and Queens College, teaching art history and contemporary art. In 1957, she began a course at New York University called "Meet the Artist," for which she took her classes to the studios of working artists to see and discuss their work. In the early 1960s, she began to tape record her interviews of artists for this course, a practice which continued until her death in 1971. In 1968, Roberts worked briefly as Gallery Director for the A.M. Sachs Gallery (New York, NY), and as an oral history interviewer for the Archives of American Art.

Roberts wrote extensively on contempoary art, including articles and monographs on Mark Tobey (1960, Grove Press), Louise Nevelson (1964, The Pocket Museum), and Marcel Duchamp. She was a regular contributor to Aujourd'hui and Art and Architecture magazines.
Related Material:
Additional papers and recordings of Colette Roberts are held by Syracuse University Library Special Collections Research Center.
Separated Material:
A copy of a 1967 oral history with Adolf Gottlieb conducted by Dorothy Seckler for the Archives of American Art oral history program, which was found in Roberts' papers, has been returned to the Archives' oral history collection.
Provenance:
The sound recordings and transcripts of interviews with artists, were donated by Colette Roberts in 1970. The remaining papers were donated by her son, Richard B. Roberts, in 1973.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Colette Roberts papers and interviews with artists are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Art historians -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Fluxus (Group of artists)  Search this
Artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Reviews (documents)
Interviews
Articles
Notes
Manuscripts
Photographs
Sound recordings
Citation:
Colette Roberts papers and interviews with artists, circa 1930-1971. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.robecoli
See more items in:
Colette Roberts Papers and Interviews with Artists
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-robecoli
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Carl Andre

Interviewee:
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Chapman, Michael, 1935-  Search this
Frampton, Hollis, 1936-  Search this
Martin, Agnes, 1912-2004  Search this
Morgan, Maud, 1903-1999  Search this
Morgan, Patrick, 1904-  Search this
Rose, Barbara  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Extent:
68 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1972 September
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Carl Andre conducted 1972 September, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art. Andre speaks of his family and education at Phillips Andover Academy and Kenyon College and classes with Patrick and Maud Morgan. He discusses his interest in Brancusi; Ezra Pound as a critic of sculpture; the relationship between painting, sculpture, prose, and poetry; materials and methods including his "theory of masonry"; exhibitions at Hunter College, the Tibor de Nagy, Dwan, and Konrad Fisher Galleries; the appeal of Japanese art; artists' rights and art and language. He recalls his employment at the Boston Gear Works, Prentice-Hall Publishing Company, and the Pennsylvania Railroad and reminisces about Michael Chapman, Hollis Frampton, Agnes Bernice Martin, Frank Stella, Barbara E. Rose, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Carl Andre (1935-) is a sculptor from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 4 digital wav files. Duration is 4 hrs., 9 minutes.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
ACCESS RESTRICTED; written permission required. Contact Archives Reference Services for information.
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.andre72sep
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-andre72sep

Eugenie Gershoy papers

Creator:
Gershoy, Eugenie, 1901?-1983 or 6  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Federal Art Project (N.Y.)  Search this
Woodstock Artists Association (Woodstock, N.Y.)  Search this
Yaddo (Artist's colony)  Search this
Baker, Mildred, 1905-  Search this
Blanch, Arnold, 1896-1968  Search this
Blanch, Lucile, 1895-1981  Search this
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme, 1896-1986  Search this
Calder, Alexander Stirling, 1870-1945  Search this
Dehn, Virginia  Search this
Force, Juliana, 1876-1948  Search this
Fruhauf, Aline, 1909-1978  Search this
Gottlieb, Harry, 1895-  Search this
Hart, Agnes, 1912-1979  Search this
Knight, Frederic C., 1898-1979  Search this
Marantz, Irving, 1912-1972  Search this
Millay, Edna St. Vincent, 1892-1950  Search this
Nakian, Reuben, 1897-1986  Search this
Picken, George, 1898-  Search this
Pollet, Joseph C., 1897-1979  Search this
Presser, Josef, 1906-1967  Search this
Refregier, Anton, 1905-  Search this
Scaravaglione, Concetta, 1900-1975  Search this
Soyer, Moses, 1899-1974  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Thomson, Virgil, 1896-  Search this
Varda, Jean  Search this
Extent:
7.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Christmas cards
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Place:
Woodstock (N.Y.)
Date:
1914-1983
Summary:
The papers of sculptor and art instructor, Eugenie Gershoy, measure 7.2 linear feet and date from 1914 to 1983. The collection documents Gershoy's career through biographical material, correspondence, business records, notes, writings, artwork, printed material, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The Eugenie Gershoy papers date from 1914 to 1983, measure 7.2 linear feet, and reflect Gershoy's career as a sculptor and teacher. The collection contains biographical material, correspondence, business records, notes, writings, artwork of Gershoy and others, printed material including exhibition catalogs, and photographs with subjects including Gershoy, her friends and colleagues, her studio, and her artwork.

Correspondence forms the bulk of the collection and includes correspondence between Gershoy and her siblings and their families regarding her activities, as well as with colleagues, many of whom were associated with the Woodstock Artist Association, and many of whom were museum colleagues.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series according to material type. The contents of each series have been arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1939-1971 (boxes 1, 8-9; 3 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1914-1983, undated (boxes 1-6, 8-9; 5.8 linear ft.)

Series 3: Business Records, 1952-1978 (box 6; 5 folders)

Series 4: Notes, 1967-1970, undated (box 6; 3 folders)

Series 5: Writings, 1970, undated (box 6; 2 folders)

Series 6: Artwork, 1932-1978, undated (boxes 6, 8-9, OV 10, 26 folders)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1932-1983, undated (boxes 7, 9; 19 folders)

Series 8: Photographs, 1916-1983, undated (boxes 7, 9; 12 folders)
Biographical Note:
Born in Krivoi Rog, Russia on January 1, 1901, Eugenie was the youngest of the Gershoy children. The family immigrated to New York City in 1903. She later became a U.S. citizen.

With the aid of two scholarships, she attended the Art Students League and studied under A. Stirling Calder, Leo Lentelli, Kenneth Hayes Miller, Boardman Robinson, and Carl Walters. During the late 1920s and early 1930s, she maintained a studio with Harry Gottlieb in Woodstock, New York. From 1936 to 1939, under the WPA Federal Art Project, she worked in conjunction with Max Spivak on murals for the children's recreation room in the Astoria branch of the Queens Borough Public Library, New York.

Gershoy's first solo show was at the Robinson Gallery in New York in 1940. Following a year of teaching at the New Orleans Art School, she moved to San Francisco in 1942. In 1946 she taught ceramics at the California School of Fine Arts, and in May 1950, she studied at Yaddo.

In addition to visits to England and France in the early 1930s, Gershoy travelled to Mexico and Guatemala in 1947, 1948, and 1961. She worked in Paris in 1951 and toured Africa, India, and the Orient in 1955.

Eugenie Gershoy died in 1986.
Related Material:
Related material in the Archives of American Art includes a transcribed oral history interview with Eugenie Gershoy conducted by Mary McChesney for the Archives of American Art's New Deal and the Arts Oral History Program, October 15, 1964. A link to the transcript is provided from the online catalog.
Provenance:
The Eugenie Gershoy papers were donated to the Archives of American Art between 1975 and 1983 by the artist.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Rights:
The Eugenie Gershoy papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Artists -- New York (State) -- Woodstock  Search this
Artists' studios -- New York (State) -- New York -- Photographs  Search this
Women painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Women sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Prints
Christmas cards
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Citation:
Eugenie Gershoy papers, 1914-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.gerseuge
See more items in:
Eugenie Gershoy papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gerseuge

Oral history interview with Robert Smithson, 1972 July 14-19

Interviewee:
Smithson, Robert, 1938-1973  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Environmental artists -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Interviews  Search this
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12013
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212421
AAA_collcode_smiths72
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212421
Online Media:

Oral history interview with George Rickey, 1968 June 11

Interviewee:
Rickey, George, 1907-2002  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Lhote, André  Search this
Bauhaus  Search this
Institute of Design  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- New York (State) -- East Chatham  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- East Chatham -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Sculpture -- Technique  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13050
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213074
AAA_collcode_rickey68
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213074
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Tony Smith, 1978 August 22-30

Interviewee:
Smith, Tony, 1912-1980  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12890
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213103
AAA_collcode_smitht78
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213103

Oral history interview with Isamu Noguchi, 1973 Nov. 7-Dec. 26

Interviewee:
Noguchi, Isamu, 1904-1988  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Itō, Michio  Search this
Barnard, George Grey  Search this
Becker, John Bruere  Search this
Borglum, Gutzon, 1867-1941  Search this
Brancusi, Constantin  Search this
Breton, André  Search this
Brummer, Joseph  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Calder, Alexander Stirling  Search this
Collier, John, Jr.  Search this
Covarrubias, Miguel  Search this
Davis, Stuart  Search this
De Kooning, Willem  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Egan, Charles  Search this
Fraser, James Earle  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster)  Search this
Gorky, Arshile  Search this
Graham, John  Search this
Graham, Martha  Search this
Gregory, Peter Ronald  Search this
Guston, Philip  Search this
Hare, David  Search this
Hasegawa, Saburō  Search this
Hopkins, Harry Lloyd  Search this
Kahn, Louis I.  Search this
Kantor, Morris  Search this
Kline, Franz  Search this
Knoll, Hans  Search this
Léger, Fernand  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
McMahon, Audrey  Search this
Moore, Henry, 1898-1986  Search this
Neumann, J. B. (Jsrael Ber)  Search this
Price, Edison A.  Search this
Raymond, Antonin  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée  Search this
Ruotolo, Onorio  Search this
Schoen, Eugene  Search this
Shoji, Sadao  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred  Search this
Taniguchi, Yoshirō  Search this
Ward, Eleanor  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Bollingen Foundation  Search this
Brummer Gallery  Search this
Japanese American Citizens' League  Search this
Leonardo da Vinci Art School  Search this
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill  Search this
UNESCO  Search this
Japanese American Citizens' League  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Place:
Japan -- Description and Travel
Italy -- description and travel
Egypt -- description and travel
India -- description and travel
Topic:
Sculptors -- Interviews  Search this
Asian American artists -- Interviews  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Sculpture, American  Search this
Gardens, Japanese  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11906
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216546
AAA_collcode_noguch73
Theme:
Asian American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_216546
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Stephen Antonakos, 1975 May 9

Interviewee:
Antonakos, Stephen, 1926-2013  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Droll, Donald E.  Search this
Fischbach, Marilyn Cole  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Neon sculpture -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12023
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212217
AAA_collcode_antona75
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212217
Online Media:

Howard W. and Jean Lipman papers

Creator:
Lipman, Howard, 1905-1992  Search this
Names:
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Gaylor, Wood, 1883-1957  Search this
Huge, Jurgan Frederick, 1809-1878  Search this
Lipman, Jean, 1909-1998  Search this
Porter, Rufus, 1792-1884  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Extent:
46.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1848, 1916-2000
Summary:
The Howard W. and Jean Lipman papers measure 46.6 linear feet and span the years 1916 to 2000, with one brochure maintained in a research file dating to 1848. The bulk dates for the collection are 1932 to 1992. The papers primarily concern the art collecting activities and interests of the Lipmans which included modern American sculpture, American folk art, and other contemporary American paintings. Found within the papers are correspondence files, notes and printed material that served as research and reference material, along with financial material. The collection also contains writings, notes, and editorial material used by Jean Lipman in her dual roles as an editor for Art in America magazine and as a respected art critic and author.
Scope and Content Note:
The Howard W. and Jean Lipman papers measure 46.6 linear feet and span the years 1916 to 2000. A copy of an 1848 brochure, retained by Jean Lipman in her research and writings files accounts for the early span date listed in the title of the collection. The bulk dates for the collection are 1932 to 1992. The records include correspondence, notes and printed material that served as research and reference material, along with some financial material that documents the art collecting activities and interests of the Lipmans. The collection also contains writing and editorial material used by Jean Lipman in her dual roles as an editor for Art in America magazine and as a respected author.

The Personal Files describe the social activities and associations of the Lipmans and include biographical information, personal and family correspondence, gift giving activities, the art career of Jean Lipman, and relationships maintained by the Lipmans with various art organizations.

The Howard and Jean Lipman Art Collection Files describe the art collecting activities and interests of the Lipmans throughout their lifetime. The General Files section consists of reference files on art organizations and galleries with whom the Lipmans maintained relationships. Also included are particular topics or exhibitions of interest to the Lipmans. The Sculptors and Painters of Interest section served as reference files about the activities of artists in whom the Lipmans were interested and whose works they owned, or considered owning. The Folk Art Collection section documents the collecting and purchasing activities of the Lipmans as they amassed and then subsequently sold their two significant folk art collections.

The Artists Files document the friendship and projects that developed between the Lipmans and three major American artists: Alexander Calder, Louise Nevelson, and David Smith. Of special interest to researchers will be some original Calder artwork mixed into the correspondence between the Lipmans and Calder, as well as drawings, sketches, prints, and posters found in the associated oversize folder. Also found in the Calder subseries are some proofs from Calder's Circus, edited by Jean Lipman.

The Research and Writing Files is divided into five sections dealing with research and writing projects undertaken by Jean Lipman. The first three sections deal with biographical projects that resulted in books or articles about three significant American primitive artists: Jurgan Frederick Huge, Rufus Porter, and Samuel Wood Gaylor. The fourth section deals with writing projects that resulted in the publication of several generalized books on the topic of American folk art. The final section consists of materials associated with the published articles and other authored works of Jean Lipman on a variety of American art topics.

The Art in America Editorial Files consists of editorial material maintained by Jean Lipman during her tenure (1941-1971) as editor of Art in America. The Financial Files reflect the early financial activities of the magazine during the brief period when the Lipmans owned it.

During the period that Jean Lipman served as editor, a variety of distinguished art historians, artists, architects, novelists, and poets contributed articles, columns, or artwork to the magazine. A sampling of correspondents that can be found in the general correspondence of this series include: Joseph Albers, Marcel DuChamp, John Dos Passos, Nelson Rockefeller, Charles Sheeler, and Andrew Wyeth. The General Correspondence Files also document the two subsequent changes of ownership and the growth of subscribers that occurred during the period of Lipman's editorship.

Editorial material related to individual magazine issues is found within this series, as well as information pertaining to the innovative advertising and special projects undertaken by the magazine as it sought to expand its readership and prestige. The Art in America series also chronicles the changes at the magazine that led to Lipman's resignation as editor in 1971.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as five series. Arrangement is generally alphabetical by subject heading or type of material. Items within folders are arranged chronologically by year.

Series 1: Personal Files (Boxes 1-3; 3 linear ft.)

Series 2: Howard and Jean Lipman Art Collection (Boxes 3-15; 12 linear ft.)

Series 3: Artists Files (Boxes 15-18, 46-47, OV 50-52; 3.6 linear ft.)

Series 4: Research and Writings Files (Boxes 18-28, 48; OV 50, 53; 10.3 linear ft.)

Series 5: -- Art in America -- Editorial Files (Boxes 28-45; 49, OV 50; 17.3 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Howard W. and Jean Lipman shared a lifetime sponsorship of art. The Lipmans' personal art collection, acquired throughout their marriage, was eventually divided into three separate parts: The Howard W. Lipman Foundation collection that was donated and merged into the modern sculpture holdings of the Whitney Museum of American Art; an American folk art collection that was later sold through two separate auctions in 1950 and 1981 and is now part of the holdings of the New York Historical Association and the Museum of American Folk Art; and a personal collection that was retained and displayed in the Lipmans' various residences in Connecticut, New York, and Arizona.

Married in 1933, the Lipmans began jointly collecting American folk art at a time when few art museums or institutions recognized the historical and artistic value of early primitive, self-taught artists. By the late 1940s, the Lipmans had amassed a large, significant collection that was highly regarded for its quality and scope.

During the early 1950s, the Lipmans also began actively collecting sculpture, focusing upon American contemporary sculptors. In the late 1950s they created the Howard W. Lipman Foundation, with an initial inventory of forty sculptures and three paintings by contemporary American artists. The purpose of the foundation was to acquire significant works by emerging American sculptors and to make them available through loans or donations to various art institutions.

In 1965 the Howard W. Lipman Foundation approached the Whitney Museum of American Art with a proposal to coordinate the foundation's efforts and goals with the museum's contemporary sculpture program. The foundation offered a majority of its growing collection of sculpture and acquisition funds towards the development of the evolving permanent collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art. Thereafter, the Howard W. Lipman Foundation served in an advisory role to the museum's acquisitions, and the foundation supplied the necessary funds to acquire works of sculpture desired by the Whitney for its permanent collection.

In addition to their folk art and foundation collections, the Lipmans also acquired important works by Alexander Calder, Louise Nevelson, and David Smith, through their lifelong association and friendship with these artists. Many of these pieces were retained in the Lipmans' personal collection throughout their lives.

Individually the Lipmans also expressed their interest in art through various means. Jean Lipman served as editor of Art in America magazine from 1940 to 1970, which provided her with continuous exposure to emerging artists and trends in American art. Jean Lipman's abiding interest in folk and contemporary art was also expressed through her voluminous writings. Throughout her life she wrote and edited highly acclaimed books and articles about major themes and artists in American art, and she was a recognized folk art authority and connoisseur. Some of her best known works include: The Flowering of American Folk Art; Rufus Porter, Yankee Wall Painter; and Calder's Universe.

Jean Lipman, born in 1909, was also an amateur artist in her later years, creating paintings and assemblages that often dealt with the theme of "art about art." She was represented by a gallery in New York City, as well as one in Arizona, and she had several solo exhibitions.

Howard W. Lipman, born in 1905, showed an early interest in art. By the mid 1920s he had gone to Paris to study painting, but Lipman found himself more attracted to sculpture and he began studying with a German wood carver. In the late 1930s, after returning to the New York City area, Lipman began stone carving with the Clay Club on Eighth Street, adjacent to the Whitney Museum of American Art. He was represented by a New York City gallery and participated in local exhibitions.

Deciding that his sculptural talent was not sufficient for professional pursuit, Lipman began his business career as a stockbroker in Neuberger and Berman, a prominent New York investment management firm that he helped to establish in 1939. Lipman subsequently channeled his artistic endeavors toward collecting and supporting the work of established and emerging American sculptors. He also served on the boards of both the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Archives of American Art.

Howard and Jean Lipman maintained long and close relationships with three prominent American artists: Alexander Calder, Louise Nevelson, and David Smith. Jean Lipman, in particular, was involved in promoting and documenting Calder and his works through numerous articles, books, and exhibitions that she helped produce as editor of the magazine Art in America and publications director for the Whitney Museum of American Art. Calder's Universe, which she edited to accompany a major Whitney Museum of American Art retrospective exhibition of his works in 1976, was considered by Calder to be his "official" biography. The book went to fourteen printings, one of the largest ever, in the history of art books.

The Lipmans were also great admirers of Louise Nevelson and her work. They purchased her artwork for their own collection, as well as donating pieces to various art museums and institutions. Jean Lipman wrote articles about Nevelson and edited the book, Nevelson's World.

David Smith and the Lipmans established a friendship in the late 1950s that lasted until Smith's untimely death in May 1965. The Lipmans purchased several Smith sculptures, which they placed on the grounds of their Wilton, Connecticut, home. They also purchased Smith works for donation to public institutions, such as the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts.

The Lipmans retired to Carefree, Arizona, a private residential community renowned for its sensitivity to ecologically-based, architectural design. Howard Lipman died in 1992. Jean Lipman remained active in art and community affairs until her death in 1998.
Provenance:
The papers of Howard and Jean Lipman were initially donated to the Archives of American Art by Howard and Jean Lipman from 1965-1989. Subsequent additions to the original gift were made by Jean Lipman in 1998 and by Peter and Beverly Lipman in 2001. Several small portions of these early accessions were microfilmed.

An associated gift that was originally accessioned as the Art in America Magazine Records was made by Howard and Jean Lipman from 1970-1973. This group, which largely consisted of Jean Lipman's editorial files from her years as editor of the magazine, was subsequently merged with the Howard W. and Jean Lipman records in 2004.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Howard W. and Jean Lipman papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, Primitive  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Folk art -- United States  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Citation:
Howard W. and Jean Lipman papers, 1848, 1916-2000. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lipmhowa
See more items in:
Howard W. and Jean Lipman papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lipmhowa
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Robert Smithson

Interviewee:
Smithson, Robert  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Extent:
59 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1972 July 14-19
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Robert Smithson conducted 1972 July 14-19, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art at 799 Greenwich Street in New York on July 14 and 19 1972. Smithson speaks of growing up in Passaic, New Jersey; primary and high school; high school art education; going to New York Museums; writing and its impact on art work; the Artists Gallery; the Art Students League; his time in the army; the Cedar Bar; Quicksand; the Museum of Modern Art; art education; Sam Smithson; his father; traveling the U.S.; Brooklyn Museum School; impact of the Museum of Natural History; moving to New York; visiting Europe; psychology; show at the George Lester Gallery; the Broken Circle; Dallas-Fort Worth Airport; crystalline structures; meeting William Carlos Williams; cosmology; Enantiomorphic Chambers; mapping; painting and drawing; the Dwan Gallery; getting married; Aerial Art; earthworks; sculpture; the Cryosphere; Alogon; Rome; stratas; nonsites; When Attitudes Become Form; Attitudes; mining sites and quarries; light and reflection; the Spiral Jetty; coordination of large works; documentation; selection of sites; Gyrostasis; weather's impact and seasonal change of the Spiral Jetty; confines of the gallery and museum; mirrors; landscapes; artist materials; art education; traveling; art and vacations; documenta; Smithson also recalls Federica Beer-Monti , Hugh Stix , Danny Donohue, Joe Levin, Charlie Hasloff, John Cassavetes , Alan Brilliant, Irving Sandler, Barnett Newman, Richard Bellamy,John Groth, Lawrence Alloway, T. S. Elliot, Donald Judd, William Carlos Williams, Jackson Pollock, William Burroughs, Ad Reinhardt, Dan Flavin, Virginia Dwan, Rosalind Krauss, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Smithson (1938-1973) was a sculptor well known for his earthworks.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 3 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hr.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Occupation:
Conceptual artists -- Interviews  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Environmental artists -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Interviews  Search this
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.smiths72
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-smiths72

Oral history interview with Monica Borglum Davies

Interviewee:
Davies, Monica Borglum, 1903-1997  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F.  Search this
Names:
School for American Sculpture  Search this
Borglum, Emma Vignal, 1864-1934  Search this
Borglum, Gutzon, 1867-1941  Search this
Borglum, Solon Hannibal, 1868-1922  Search this
Brinley, Putnam  Search this
Cole, Alphaeus Philemon, 1876-1988  Search this
Manship, Paul, 1885-1966  Search this
Millar, Addison T. (Addison Thomas), 1860-1913  Search this
Extent:
2 Items (sound cassettes)
39 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1990 May 8-August 27
Scope and Contents:
An interview with Monica Borglum Davies conducted 1990 May 8-August 27, by Robert Brown, for the Archives of American Art.
Biographical / Historical:
Monica Borglum Davies (1903-1997) was the daughter of Solon Borglum (1868-1922), sculptor.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 3 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hr., 14 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Davies discusses childhood memories in Silvermine, Connecticut; her father, sculptor Solon H. Borglum, and her mother Emma Vignal. She recalls their artist friends, including Daniel Putnam Brinley and Addison Millar; her father's candid personality; her mother's family, which took in young American artists in Paris as boarders, including her father and Alphaeus Cole; Paul Manship as her father's student; tensions between the Solon and Gutzon Borglum families; Borglum's service with the YMCA in France 1918-19; his establishment of schools for American sculptors in Paris and New York, 1920-22 (School for American Sculpture); purchase of large figurative works by St. Mark's-in-the-Bouwerie, NYC; sudden death of her father and support received by the family from friends.
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 19th century -- United States  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Sculptors -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Function:
Art Schools -- France -- Paris
Art Schools -- New York (State) -- New York
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.davies90
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-davies90

Oral history interview with Thomas Chimes

Interviewee:
Chimes, Thomas, 1921-2009  Search this
Interviewer:
Veloric, Cynthia  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Fairmount Park Art Association  Search this
Moore College of Art and Design  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Jarry, Alfred, 1873-1907  Search this
Extent:
3 Sound cassettes (Sound recording)
123 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1990 June 14
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Thomas Chimes conducted 1990 June 14, by Cynthia Veloric, for the Archives of American Art Philadelphia Project. Chimes speaks about his Greek background, his childhood in Philadelphia and in several southern states, studies at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Art Students League, New York in the 1940's including a comparison of the two institutions and a discussion of the New York City art scene; teaching at Drexel Institute, Philadelphia College of Art (now the University of the Arts), and Moore College of Art in Philadelphia; the development of his painting and sculpture including the religious paintings of the 1960's, the metal boxes, and the transition to the portraits of the 1970's and 1980's based on his readings and interest in Alfred Jarry and Marcel Duchamp; and "Sleeping Woman" commissioned by the Fairmount Park Art Association.
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Chimes (1921-2009) was a painter, sculptor, and educator from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 6 digital wav files. Duration is 4 hr., 27 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Painting, Abstract -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Portrait painting -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.chimes90
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-chimes90

Oral history interview with Faith Ringgold, 1989 September 6-October 18

Interviewee:
Ringgold, Faith, 1930-  Search this
Interviewer:
Nadelman, Cynthia  Search this
Subject:
Gwathmey, Robert  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Lloyd, Tom  Search this
Morris, Robert  Search this
Tucker, Marcia  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Performance art -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11497
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214751
AAA_collcode_ringgo89
Theme:
African American
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_214751

Colette Roberts Papers and Interviews with Artists, 1918-1971

Creator:
Roberts, Colette Jacqueline, 1910-1971  Search this
Subject:
Marisol  Search this
Moy, Seong  Search this
Chryssa  Search this
Schwabacher, Ethel  Search this
O'Doherty, Brian  Search this
Ray, Man  Search this
Johnson, Ray  Search this
Ferren, John  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph  Search this
Le Prat, Thérèse  Search this
Lindner, Richard  Search this
Karp, Ivan C.  Search this
Bearden, Romare  Search this
Bauermeister, Mary  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Dehner, Dorothy  Search this
Nevelson, Louise  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad  Search this
Sterne, Hedda  Search this
Vieira da Silva, Maria Helena  Search this
Grand Central Moderns (Gallery)  Search this
New York University  Search this
Le Point Cardinal (Gallery)  Search this
British Broadcasting Corporation  Search this
Type:
Transcripts
Reviews (documents)
Interviews
Articles
Notes
Manuscripts
Photographs
Sound recordings
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Fluxus (Group of artists)  Search this
Artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9702
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211935
AAA_collcode_robecoli
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211935
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Faith Ringgold

Interviewee:
Ringgold, Faith  Search this
Interviewer:
Nadelman, Cynthia  Search this
Names:
Gwathmey, Robert, 1903-1988  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Lloyd, Tom, 1929-  Search this
Morris, Robert, 1931-2018  Search this
Tucker, Marcia  Search this
Extent:
349 Pages (Transcript)
15 Items (sound files (10 hr., 49 min.), digital)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1989 September 6-October 18
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Faith Ringgold conducted 1989 September 6-October 18, by Cynthia Nadelman, for the Archives of American Art.
Ringgold discusses Harlem from the 1930s through the 1970s; her background and education; her art and political activities; feminism; the evolution of her work; her paintings, soft sculpture constructions, quilts, and performance pieces. She recalls Robert Gwathmey, Tom Lloyd, Robert Morris, Marcia Tucker, Lucy Lippard, her mother, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Faith Ringgold (1930- ) is an Afro-American painter, sculptor, and performance artist from New York, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 8 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 15 digital wav files. Duration is 10 hr., 50 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics, and administrators. Funding for this interview provided by the Lannan Foundation.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Quiltmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Performance art -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.ringgo89
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-ringgo89

Chaim Gross papers

Creator:
Gross, Chaim, 1904-1991  Search this
Names:
Blume, Peter, 1906-1992  Search this
Grooms, Mimi Gross  Search this
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Robbins, Warren M.  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Extent:
21.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1920-2004
Summary:
The papers of New York City sculptor and teacher Chaim Gross measure 21.1 linear feet and date from 1920-2004. The collection provides comprehensive documentation of Gross's career through biographical material, personal and professional correspondence with family, artists, writers, galleries, museums, educational institutions, and religious and philanthropic organizations, writings, personal business records, extensive printed and published material including motion picture film and video recordings of four documentaries, one hundred and fifteen sketchbooks spanning the bulk of Gross's career, and photographs of Gross, his family, many friends and colleagues from the art world, his studio, personal art collection, and works of art. An unprocessed addition of three sketchbooks was donated in 2020.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York City sculptor and teacher Chaim Gross measure 21.1 linear feet and date from 1920-2004. The collection provides comprehensive documentation of Gross's career through biographical material, personal and professional correspondence with family, artists, writers, galleries, museums, educational institutions, and religious and philanthropic organizations, writings, personal business records, extensive printed and published material including motion picture film and video recordings of four documentaries, one hundred and fifteen sketchbooks spanning the bulk of Gross's career, and photographs of Gross, his family, many friends and colleagues from the art world, his studio, personal art collection, and works of art.

Biographical material includes records collated to document awards and honors given to Gross documenting the recognition he received for his lifelong achievements in the last two decades of his career, including from the American Academy of Arts and Letters and the National Academy of Design. The series also includes Gross's birth certificate printed in 1920, some biographical notes and resumes prior to the 1970s, documentation of Gross's business and personal contacts through addresses and business cards, and a motion picture film of a documentary about Gross, Art and the Model, made in 1976 by Thea Bay and edited by Bob Worth.

Personal and professional correspondence constitutes the largest series in the collection and documents all aspects of Gross's prolific career including: personal letters from friends and family such as daughter Mimi Gross and Red Grooms; professional correspondence with galleries, museums, and other art institutions including the Jewish Museum, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, and the Whitney Museum of American Art; correspondence documenting commissions, loans, and sales of Gross's artwork through galleries including Forum Gallery; and correspondence with synagogues including International Synagogue, Temple Sharaay Tefila, and Temple Sinai, Pittsburgh, and multiple other Jewish organizations such as Hadassah and State of Israel Bonds. Correspondence also documents publications by and about Gross including letters from Abe Lerner, the Jewish Publication Society of America, Chaim Potok, and Harry N. Abrams, Inc.; Gross's work as a teacher including at the Educational Alliance and the New School for Social Research; and the significance of Gross's personal collection of African art through correspondence with Warren M. Robbins, the Smithsonian Museum of African Art, and others. Gross's work for the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project and Treasury Relief Project, as well as for the 1939 World's Fair, is also documented in this series and includes contracts and correspondence with Ed Rowan.

Correspondence includes many letters from artist friends and colleagues including Isabel Bishop, Peter Blume, Eliot Elisofon, Eugenie Gershoy, Milton Hebald, Lewis Jacobs, Karl Knaths, Arnold Newman, Elias Newman, Saul Rosen, Moses Soyer, Raphael Soyer, Nicholas Sperakis, William and Marguerite Zorach, and many others. Writers and scholars who corresponded with Gross include Samuel French Morse, Jack C. Rich, Shea Tenenbaum, Roberta Tarbell, and others.

Writings primarily consist of a partial draft of Gross's book The Technique of Wood Sculpture but also include a copy of his first published article in 1938 in the American Federation of Arts Magazine of Art, and a few short writings by Gross on other artists. Writings by others include a memoir of Gross's boyhood written by his brother, poet Naftoli Gross.

Gross's personal business records are scattered, as many transactional records are included with his correspondence. They do include lists of Gross's artwork and his personal art collection, two agreements for rights to use his work, appraisals of twelve of his works of art, and receipts of consignments, sales, loans, and gifts of artwork.

Printed material is a comprehensive and substantial record of Gross's exhibitions, and his prolific engagement in the arts and his community throughout his long career. This series includes announcements and catalogs for many of his exhibitions, brochures and programs for art organizations for which he exhibited, taught, donated to, or was otherwise represented in, notably the Educational Alliance, the New School for Social Research, the Sculptors Guild, Inc., and numerous other private and public museums, galleries, and institutions. Also found is circa one linear foot of clippings about Gross that span his career from newspapers, magazines, and journals, including some Hebrew and Yiddish publications. The series also houses video recordings of the documentaries Tree Trunk to Head and A Sculptor Speaks, and an NBC broadcast of an interview with Gross entitled The Two Chaims, as the motion picture film, A Sculptor Speaks.

Sketchbooks provide a unique visual record of Gross's development and the shifting focus of his subject matter from 1933 to right before his death in 1991. They record his early subjects of acrobatic models, family bonds, and landscapes, and the emergence of darker "fantasy" drawings in the wake of the Holocaust and World War II which brought the news of the murder of his brother and sister and her family by the Nazis. The sketchbooks document Gross's travels abroad during the 1960s, and his incorporation of Jewish iconography and Old Testament themes in the 1960s and 1970s. They also illustrate how the constant theme of the celebration of the human form persisted in his work to the end of his life.

Photographs of people and events, although only measuring 0.7 linear feet, provide a rich visual record of Gross's life and his professional and personal relationships from the time he arrived in the United States in 1920 to the late 1980s. The earliest photographs picture Gross with his brothers and with new friends at the Educational Alliance including Moses and Raphael Soyer, Peter Blume, and Elias Newman. There are many photographs of Gross working in his studios, and at the Bedi-Makky Art Foundry in Brooklyn, photographs taken at parties, exhibition openings, receptions, and other events, and photographs of Gross's art collection and exhibition installations. Photographs picture artists such as Hyman Brown, Jose de Creeft, Joseph Hirsch, Moses Soyer, and Raphael Soyer; and gallery owners and collectors including Bella Fishko, Joseph Hirshhorn, Sidney Janis, and Warren M. Robbins. The series also houses photographs of works of art, primarily sculpture, executed by Gross between 1922 and 1987.

An unprocessed addition of three sketchbooks was donated in 2020.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as eight series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1920-circa 1991 (0.35 linear feet; Box 1, FC23)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1926-1997 (8.75 linear feet; Boxes 1-9, 22)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1938-circa 1980s (0.25 linear feet; Boxes 9-10)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, circa 1936-1982 (0.25 linear feet; Box 10)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1925-2004 (3.7 linear feet; Boxes 10-14, 22, FC 24)

Series 6: Sketchbooks, 1933-1991 (6.1 linear feet; Boxes 14-19, 22)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1921-circa 1990s (1.5 linear feet; Boxes 20-22)

Series 8: Unprocessed Addition, 1949-1951 (0.2 linear feet; Box 25)
Biographical / Historical:
New York City sculptor and teacher Chaim Gross (1904-1991) is considered one of America's foremost sculptors, known for his semi-abstract bronzes celebrating the human form, and his pioneering work in direct wood carving. Gross taught for over fifty years at the Educational Alliance Art School and for forty years at the New School for Social Research.

Born in 1904 in Wolowa, Galicia, in what is now the Ukraine, Gross studied at the National Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest in 1919 and at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna in 1920 before immigrating to New York in 1921. He attended the Lower East Side Educational Art School in New York City from 1921-1927 where he began lifelong friendships with artists Moses Soyer, Raphael Soyer, Peter Blume and other important twentieth century artists. Gross also studied with Elie Nadelman at the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design and Robert Laurent at the Art Students League. He began teaching at the Educational Alliance in 1927 where his students included Louise Nevelson.

Gross married Renee Nechin in 1932 and they had two children, Yehuda and Miriam (Mimi). Mimi Gross is a New York-based artist who was married to artist Red Grooms from 1963-1976.

Gross's first solo exhibition was held at Gallery 144 in New York City in 1932, and he began to develop a reputation as a major contemporary sculptor when he joined the Federal Art Project in 1934 and won a commission from the Treasury Department competition for art works for public buildings in 1936. His projects included relief panels for the Federal Trade Commission building in Washington, D. C., and a large-scale family group for the France Overseas and Finnish Buildings at the 1939 New York World's Fair. In 1938 Gross founded the Sculptors Guild with William Zorach and served as the guild's first president. His work began to be acquired by major American museums, including the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art which in 1939 awarded Gross a $3000 purchase prize for his wood sculpture of circus performer Lillian Leitzel.

In 1938 filmmaker Lewis Jacobs produced a thirty minute film, Tree Trunk to Head, of Gross carving a wood sculpture of Renee Gross in his studio. Lewis subsequently produced a seventeen minute film, The Sculptor Speaks, of Gross working in his studio in 1957. That same year Gross published an influential how-to book The Technique of Wood Sculpture, featuring photographs by Eliot Elisofon.

Much of Gross's early work focused on performers such as acrobats and dancers, family groups, and the mother and child bond. The bulk of his work was in wood, particularly hardwoods with a dark or pronounced grain. In the 1940s, after hearing that his brother Pincus and sister Sarah and her family had been murdered by the Nazis, Gross devoted time daily to sketching in his notebooks, producing a visual diary of the emotional trauma involved in processing their horrific fate and navigating his own grief. A collection of the drawings was published in Chaim Gross: Fantasy Drawings (Beechurst Press) in 1956. Gross carved My Sister Sarah – in Memoriam (no. 36) in 1947 and made the first of seven trips to Israel in 1949.

By the late 1950s Gross was working less in direct carving and was focusing primarily on modeling in plaster on an armature for casting in bronze. In 1957 and 1959 he traveled to Rome, Italy, and worked with the Nicci Foundry. Bella Fishko began representing Gross's work after establishing Forum Gallery in New York City in 1961. After 1947 Gross had begun to incorporate more Jewish iconography and Old Testament themes into his work, designing and casting large scale menorahs for synagogues such as Temple Sinai in Pittsburgh and the Menorah Home for the Aged in Brooklyn during the 1960s. He executed six bronze panels, entitled Six Days of Creation, for Temple Sharaay Tefila in New York City in 1964, and Ten Commandments for the International Synagogue at Kennedy Airport in 1970-1971. In 1973 Gross illustrated The Book of Isaiah, published by the Jewish Publication Society of America.

Gross was active in many art-related and philanthropic organizations throughout his life and was the recipient of numerous awards, honors, and honorary degrees. He was elected to membership of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1964, became an Academician at the National Academy of Design in 1983, and was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1984. A solo exhibition Chaim Gross: Sculpture and Drawings, was held at the Smithsonian's National Collection of Fine Arts in 1974. In 1977 Gross had three retrospective exhibitions at the Lowe Art Museum at the University of Miami, the Montclair Art Museum, and the Jewish Museum in New York City. Scholar Roberta Tarbell wrote a key essay on Gross for the Jewish Museum exhibition.

In addition to being a professor of sculpture and printmaking at the Educational Alliance Art School and the New School for Social Research, Gross taught at the Brooklyn Museum Art School, the art school of the Museum of Modern Art, and the Art Students League.

Gross had begun collecting African sculpture in the 1930s and was later introduced by art critic Frank Getlein to Warren M. Robbins, who established the Museum of African Art in 1964. Gross gave Robbins several pieces for the museum and connected him with other individuals whose private collections of African art Robbins learned would be key to the success of the museum. A selection from Gross's renowned collection was exhibited at the Worcester Art Museum in The Sculptor's Eye: The African Art Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Chaim Gross in 1976.

The Renee & Chaim Gross Foundation was created in 1974 at 526 LaGuardia Place, the historic Greenwich Village townhouse which Chaim and Renee Gross purchased in 1962 and renovated to include studio and gallery space with living quarters above. Three years after Gross's death in 1991, the Renee and Chaim Gross foundation opened to the public with a memorial exhibition of the sculptor's work. 526 LaGuardia Place continues to house an extensive collection of Gross's artwork, a photographic archive, and Gross's personal art collection. Gross's work is represented in major museums throughout the United States and abroad, with the Smithsonian's Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden housing the largest collection of his sculpture in a public museum.
Related Materials:
Additional Chaim Gross papers are held by Syracuse University.
The Archives of American Art also holds an oral history interview of Chaim Gross conducted 1964 September 1 by Dorothy Seckler and an oral history interview of Chaim Gross conducted 1981 May 26-27 by Milton Wolf Brown.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art holds the microfilm (Reels D115a, 924, and 925) of ten record books, 1926-1975, containing rough drawings of artworks, dimensions, titles, dates, materials, production locations, and information regarding owners. The record books were returned to the donor after microfilming and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The Chaim Gross papers were given to the Archives of American Art in a series of accessions by Chaim Gross from 1963-1983. Thirteen postcards were given by Mrs. Irving Marantz in 1975. Mimi Gross donated eight letters and two envelopes in 2005. Additional papers were donated by the Renee and Chaim Gross Foundation in 2016 via Susan Fisher, executive Director, and in 2017 and 2020 by the Foundation via Sasha Davis, Interim Director and Curator of Collections.
Restrictions:
Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
One folder of letters, Box 3, Folder 63: permission to reproduce for purposes of publication requires written permission from Mimi Gross.

The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art teachers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Jewish artists  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Chaim Gross papers, 1920-2004. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.groschai
See more items in:
Chaim Gross papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-groschai

Oral history interview with John W. Rhoden, 1968 July 21

Interviewee:
Rhoden, John, 1918-  Search this
Interviewer:
Ghent, Henri, 1926-  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11469
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213047
AAA_collcode_rhoden68
Theme:
African American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213047

Oral history interview with Richard Stankiewicz, 1963

Interviewee:
Stankiewicz, Richard, 1922-1983  Search this
Interviewer:
Baker, Richard Brown, 1912-2002  Search this
Subject:
Muller, Jan  Search this
Hansa Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- History  Search this
Artist-run galleries -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- Massachusetts -- Huntington -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12263
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215622
AAA_collcode_stanki63
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_215622

Oral history interview with Carl Andre, 1972

Interviewee:
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Interviewer:
Raikin, Laurin  Search this
Subject:
Art Workers Coalition  Search this
National Art Workers Community (U.S.)  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Topic:
Art -- Political aspects  Search this
Art and state  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12059
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214150
AAA_collcode_andre72
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_214150

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