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Anthony Leeds Papers

Creator:
Leeds, Anthony, 1925-  Search this
Extent:
18.37 Linear feet (32 document boxes, 2 card file boxes, one photo album, one oversize box, 2 map folders, and one document box of restricted materials.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Bahia (Brazil : State)
Date:
1946-1989
Summary:
This collection is comprised of the professional papers of Anthony Leeds, anthropologist and university professor. Leeds' reasearch was primarily concerned with urban development, though the fieldwork included in this collection is from rural areas. Included are correspondence, field notes, published and unpublished papers, photographs, newspaper and periodical clippings, conference papers, lecture notes, syllabi, critiques of colleague and student work, and several personal documents.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of the professional papers of Anthony Leeds, anthropologist and university professor. Included are correspondence, field notes, published and unpublished papers, photographs, newspaper and periodical clippings, conference papers, lecture notes, syllabi, critiques of colleague and student work, and personal documents such as calendars, biographical materials, and personal poems.

The materials in this collection reflect Leeds' field work in South America and Portugal, his role as a university professor, and his extensive involvement in various professional organizations. The majority of his anthropological endeavors focused on urban culture, the growth of technology and agriculture in society, and the philosophy behind anthropology and the social sciences. The fieldwork included in this collection is from early in his career, focusing on the study of Cacao agriculture in Brazil and the Yaruro people in Venezuela. The items in this collection document Leeds' various interests and activities.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 7 series: (1) Correspondence, 1950-1989; (2) Research, 1949-1989; (3) Field Work, 1950-1973; (4) University, 1947-1989; (5) Professional Activities, 1951-1988; (6) Personal, 1946-1989; (7) Photo Album, circa 1952
Biographical Note:
Anthony Leeds was born January 26, 1925 on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Because of his parents' strong ties to Europe (both were of Jewish descent, with kin in Germany and England), Leeds spent a fair amount of his childhood in Vienna and Switzerland, where he became fluent in French and German. His father, a businessman and lawyer, died when Leeds was only three years old. Though his family returned to the United States in 1933 due to political unrest in Europe, Leeds continued to be exposed to world cultures and politics through his family. For instance, Leeds' mother was an actor, translator, and psychoanalyst who once studied at Freud's Psychoanalytic Institute in Vienna. His stepfather was not only a sculptor and musician, but also a political activist. This rich familial environment fostered an interest in the social sciences and the arts from a young age.

Leeds also got a taste for rural life when his mother moved to a working farm in Clinton Corners, New York in 1935. For the next nine years Leeds intermittently helped his mother with the farm work and attended a small high school in the area. Of his time spent at Clinton Corners, Leeds felt a strong sense of community which would make a profound influence in his understanding of rural settings as an anthropologist.

Leeds eventually attended Columbia University in New York City and received a B. A. in Anthropology in 1949. He then went directly into the graduate program at Columbia, where his fellow anthropology colleagues included Marvin Harris and Andrew P. Vayda. Some of his favorite professors and later influences were Alfred L. Kroeber, William Duncan Strong, and Karl Polyani. His dissertation was a study of the politics behind cocoa production in the Bahia region of Brazil. Conducted in 1951-1952, Leeds' investigation was one of four in Bahia supervised by Charles Wagley and Brazilian anthropologist Thales de Azevedo. This study led to his dissertation, "Economic Cycles in Brazil: The Persistence of a Total-Cultural Pattern: Cacao and Other Cases," in which Leeds analyzed the topic from a Marxist viewpoint.

After receiving his Ph.D. in Anthropology from Columbia University in 1957, Leeds embarked on his primary career as a university professor. For the next 32 years, Leeds taught at a variety of institutions--first at Hofstra University and City College in New York City, then the University of Texas, and later at Boston University. In between, Leeds found the time to spend two years (1961-63) as the chief of the Program of Urban Development at the Pan-American Union (PAU) in Washington, D.C. He also spent a year (1972-73) at the Latin American centers in England associated with Oxford University and the University of London.

It was during his university years that Leeds focused on urban studies and urban analysis. Though he did conduct a brief study of the Yaruro peoples of Venezuela in 1958, the majority of his field work thereafter concerned urban development and its effects on society as a whole. Leeds made several field trips to Brazil and other areas of South America while working at the University of Texas; he specifically traveled to Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Bogota, Lima, and Santiago de Chile to study the cultural and political cultures of squatter settlements. From 1965 to 1966, Leeds received funding from the Social Science Research Council and the Ford Foundation to conduct a study of twelve specific favelas (squatter settlements) in Rio de Janeiro. For this fieldwork, Leeds organized Peace Corps volunteers, local community workers, academics (both foreign and Brazilian), and favela residents to help collect and analyze the data. It was during this trip that Leeds met Elizabeth Plotkin, a Peace Corps community action worker, who would later become Leeds' second wife and one of his most important collaborators. Together they wrote a book in Portuguese titled A Sociologia do Brasil Urbano (1978), based on their favela research.

In the 1970's Leeds and Plotkin made seven different trips to Portugal to follow different lines of research regarding the area. Leeds specifically researched the labor migration movements from the rural areas to the cities. He later wrote a book on his studies titled Minha Terra, Portugal: Lamentations and Celebrations (The Growth of an Ethnography and a Commitment), though it would go unpublished.

In his later years, Leeds not only took a more active role in various anthropological organizations (specifically those concerning the study of urban development), but he also became an active mentor to many students at Boston University. Leeds supported a variety of graduate student research in anthropology at Boston, as well as student research from other neighboring New England universities. In addition, Leeds began a "Thursday Night Group" that regularly met at his home in Dedham, Massachusetts to discuss a variety of anthropological subjects.

On February 20th, 1989, Leeds died of a heart attack in his Randolph, Vermont farmhouse.

Sources Consulted

Sieber, Timothy R. "The Life of Anthony Leeds: Unity in Diversity." In Cities, Classes, and Social Order, by Anthony Leeds, edited Roger Sanjek, 3-26. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Chronology

1925 -- Born January 26 in New York, New York

1949 -- Earns B.A. in Anthropology from Columbia University

1951-52 -- Conducts disseration field work in the Cacao region of Bahia, Brazil, where he studies the political economy of cocoa production

1956-61 -- Teaches at Hofstra University and later City College, both in New York City

1957 -- Completes dissertation, titled "Economic Cycles in Brazil: The Persistence of a Total-Cultural Pattern: Cacao and Other Cases"

1958 -- Conducts brief field work studying the Yaruro people in Venezuela

1961-63 -- Head of the Program of Urban Development at the Pan-American Union (PAU) in Washington, D.C.

1963-72 -- Professor at the University of Texas-Austin

1965-66 -- Organizes Peace Corps volunteers, Brazilian and foreign academics, and local residents to conduct an intense study of twelve favelas (Brazilian squatter settlements) in Rio de Janeiro

1972-73 -- Spends a transitional year teaching at the Latin American centers at Oxford University and the University of London

1973-89 -- Professor at Boston University

1976-80 -- Takes several field trips to Portugal with his second wife, Elizabeth Plotkin Leeds; there he studies Portuguese labor migrations

1978 -- Sociologia do Brasil Urbano, co-written with Elizabeth Plotkin Leeds, is published

1989 -- Leeds dies of a heart attack on February 20 in Randolph, Vermont at the age of 64

Selected Bibliography

1964 -- Leeds, Anthony. "Brazilian Careers and Social Structure: An Evolutionary Model and Case History." American Anthropologist 66 (1964): 1321-47.

1965 -- Leeds, Anthony and Andrew P. Vayda. Man, Culture, and Animals: The Role of Animals in Human Ecological Adjustment. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1965.

1968 -- Leeds, Anthony. "The Anthropology of Cities: Some Methodological Issues." In Urban Anthropology, Research Perspectives and Strategies, edited by M. Fried, M. Harris, and R. Murphy, 31-47. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1968.

1971 -- Leeds, Anthony. "The Culture of Poverty Concept- Conceptual, Logical, and Empirical Problems, with Perspectives from Brazil and Peru." In The Culture of Poverty, A Critique, edited by E. Leacock, 226-284. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1971.

1976 -- Leeds, Anthony and Elizabeth Leeds. "Accounting for Behavioral Differences: Three Political Systems and the Responses of Squatters to them in Brazil, Peru, and Chile." In The City in Comparative Perspective: Cross-National Research and New Directions in Theory, edited by J. Walton and L. H. Masotti, 193-248. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1976.

1978 -- Leeds, Anthony and Elizabeth Leeds. A Sociologia do Brasil Urbano. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar Editora, 1978.

1979 -- Leeds, Anthony. "Forms of Urban Integration: "Social Urbanization" in Comparative Perspective." Urban Anthropology 8, no. 3/4 (1979): 227-27.

1981 -- Leeds, Anthony. "Low Income Urban Settlement Types, Processes, Structures, Policies." In The Residential Circumstances of the Urban Poor in Developing Countries, edited by United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, 21-61. New York: Praeger, 1981.

1984 -- Leeds, Anthony. "Cities and Countryside in Anthropology." In Cities of the Mind, edited by Lloyd Rodwin and Robert M. Hollister, 291-311. New York: Plenum, 1984.
Related Materials:
Anthony Leeds' correspondence and writings can also be found in the Marvin Harris papers at the National Anthropological Archives.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Columbia University's Department of Anthropology.
Restrictions:
Graded materials of Anthony Leeds' students and grant applications that he reviewed are restricted. His photo album is also restricted due to preservation concerns.
Rights:
Contact the respository for terms of use.
Topic:
Urban anthropology  Search this
Cacao  Search this
Yaruro Indians  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Citation:
Anthony Leeds papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1994-35
See more items in:
Anthony Leeds Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1994-35

Hiram Powers papers, 1819-1953, bulk 1835-1883

Creator:
Powers, Hiram, 1805-1873  Search this
Subject:
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett  Search this
Atlee, Samuel Yorke  Search this
Astor, William B. (William Backhouse)  Search this
Adams, John Quincy  Search this
Webster, Daniel  Search this
Healy, G.P.A. (George Peter Alexander)  Search this
Peabody, George  Search this
Powers, Preston  Search this
Powers, Longworth  Search this
Story, William Wetmore  Search this
Sartain, John  Search this
Trollope, Francis  Search this
Taylor, Bayard  Search this
Bryant, William Cullen  Search this
Calhoun, John C. (John Caldwell)  Search this
Crawford, Thomas  Search this
Dix, John A. (John Adams)  Search this
Durand, Asher Brown  Search this
Everett, Edward  Search this
Fuller, Charles Francis  Search this
Gray, Henry Peters  Search this
Greeley, Horace  Search this
Jackson, Andrew  Search this
Kinney, E. Clementine  Search this
Kinney, William  Search this
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth  Search this
Marsh, George Perkins  Search this
Morse, Samuel Finley Breese  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Writings
Drawings
Poetry
Topic:
Sculptors -- Italy -- Florence  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7255
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209405
AAA_collcode_powehira
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209405
Online Media:

Naomi Savage Papers on Man Ray

Creator:
Savage, Naomi, 1927-2005  Search this
Names:
Galerie Anderson-Mayer  Search this
La Boetie, Inc.  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
Prakapas Gallery  Search this
Ronny Van de Velde (Gallery : Antwerp, Belgium)  Search this
Serpentine Gallery  Search this
Vered Gallery  Search this
Zabriskie Gallery  Search this
Duchamp, Alexina, 1906-1995  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968 -- Photographs  Search this
Greenbaum, Theodora S.  Search this
Hunter, Sam, 1923-  Search this
Kimmel, Roberta  Search this
Man Ray, Juliet, d. 1991  Search this
Noguchi, Isamu, 1904-1988  Search this
Ray, Man, 1890-1976  Search this
Savage, Naomi, 1927-2005  Search this
Serger, Helen  Search this
Extent:
1.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1913-2005
Summary:
The Naomi Savage papers on Man Ray measure 1.6 linear feet and date from 1913-2005. The collection provides an overview of Man Ray's career as a photographer and painter through correspondence, exhibition files, writings, notes, artwork, printed material, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The Naomi Savage papers on Man Ray measure 1.6 linear feet and date from 1913-2005. The collection provides an overview of Man Ray's career as a photographer and painter through correspondence, exhibition files, writings, notes, artwork, printed material, and photographs.

Correspondence primarily consists of incoming letters from art historians, students, publishers, museums, and galleries interested in obtaining biographical information, scheduling exhibitions, or seeking permission to reproduce artwork. Correspondents include Theodora Greenbaum, Sam Hunter, and Roberta Kimmel. Also found is a letter to Man Ray from Isamu Noguchi.

Exhibition files document some of Man Ray's solo and group exhibitions held at museums and galleries in the United States and abroad, including Galerie Anderson Mayer, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Prakapas Gallery, Helen Serger, La Boetie, Inc., Ronny Van De Velde Gallery, Serpentine Gallery, Vered Gallery, and Zabriskie Gallery.

Writings and notes include typescripts of unpublished pieces on Man Ray and Surrealist photography and on Juliet Man Ray, miscellaneous writings, and Naomi Savage's list of Man Ray published work. Artwork consists of an artist's proof of a print by Paul Levitt.

Printed material houses news and periodical clippings on Man Ray and Juliet Man Ray, newsletters, reproductions of artwork, and miscellaneous printed material. Clippings provide documentation on Man Ray's early commercial photography for advertisements and fashion magazines as well as his experimental photographic work.

Photographs include portrait photographs of Man Ray and Juliet Man Ray. There are photographs of Man Ray and Juliet with family, friends, and colleagues, including photographs of Marcel Duchamp and Teeny Duchamp.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 6 series:

Series 1: Naomi Savage Correspondence, 1939-1995 (Box 1; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 2: Man Ray Exhibition Files, 1941-1997 (Box 1, OV 4; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1974-1998 (Box 1, OV 4; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 4: Artwork, circa 1963 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 5: Printed Material, circa 1913-1998 (Boxes 1, 3; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, 1913-1991 (Boxes 1-3; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Photographer Naomi Siegler Savage (1927-2007) lived and worked in Princeton, New Jersey. While a teenager, Savage attended a photography class taught by Berenice Abbott and pursued this interest at Bennington College in Vermont. In California, Savage apprenticed with her uncle Man Ray, who was a close friend as well as mentor to his niece.

Influenced by Man Ray's experimental techniques with film, Naomi Savage pioneered the use of the photographic metal plate which produced a three dimensional form with a metallic surface. One of her best-known photographic engravings is a magnesium mural for the Johnson Library and Museum in Austin, Texas, depicting the national elective offices held by President Johnson and the various Presidents under which he served. In later years, Savage continued to experiment with the photographic process by using digital cameras, color photocopiers, and computer imaging.

In 1952, Savage had her first exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In addition to the Museum of Modern Art, Savage's work is also in the collections of the Art Institute of Chicago, the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, the International Center of Photography in New York, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts.

Naomi Savage was married to the painter, sculptor, and architect, David Savage. Naomi Savage died in Princeton, New Jersey in 2007.

Man Ray (1890-1976) lived and worked in New York and Paris, France and was best known for his painting and photography.

Man Ray was born Emmanuel Radnitsky in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1890. His family later moved to Brooklyn, New York. During this period, the family changed their name to Ray and Emmanuel shortened his first name to Man, gradually using Man Ray as his combined single name. Man Ray attended Boys High School from 1904-1908 where he developed an interest in painting. After high school, he worked as a commercial artist and technical illustrator in New York City while attending classes at the Art Students League, Ferrer School, and National Academy of Design.

Influenced by European artists, whose Modernist works were being shown at the 1913 Armory Show and Alfred Stieglitz's "292" Gallery, and other such venues, Man Ray began to incorporate elements of Cubism in his paintings and drawings. In 1915, Man Ray met Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) and they formed a lifelong friendship and professional partnership. That same year, the Dada group, founded by a Tristan Tzara and other artists in Zurich, Switzerland also took root in New York; Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia were credited for starting the New York Dada movement.

By 1921, Man Ray moved to Paris and became part of the circle that formed the Dada group. He photographed many of the Dada poets and writers, including Louis Aragon, André Breton, and Paul Eluard. Man Ray's work for André Breton established his reputation as a portrait photographer of artists, writers, and other prominent individuals, including George Antheil, Salvador Dalí, James Joyce, Sinclair Lewis, Gertrude Stein, and Virginia Woolf. In that same period, Man Ray pioneered the photographic process of rayographs (named after him) and he also participated in the first Surrealist exhibition at the Galerie Pierre.

Man Ray moved to Los Angeles, California in 1940. There he met New York City-born Juliet Browner (1910-1991), a trained dancer and professional artists' model. They married in 1946 in a double wedding ceremony with their friends Max Ernst and Dorothea Tanning. In 1951, Man Ray and Juliet Man Ray returned to live in the Montparnasse section of Paris.

In addition to an autobiography, Self-Portrait, published in 1963, Man Ray wrote a number of monographs and articles on photography that included Electricité, a portfolio of ten gravure prints of rayographs commissioned by the Paris electric company, Compagnie Parisenne de Distribution d'Electricité, 1931.

Man Ray received an honorary Master of Fine Arts degree from Freemont University, Los Angeles, 1948 and the gold medal for photography at the Venice Photo Biennale, 1962. In 1967, Man Ray received an award from the Philadelphia Arts Festival honoring its native son for his accomplishments.

Man Ray died in Paris in 1976. Juliet Man Ray survived her husband and continued to live in Paris until her death in 1991.
Provenance:
The Naomi Savage papers were donated in 2007 by Lourie Savage Bates, Naomi Savage's daughter. Naomi Savage was Man Ray's niece.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Naomi Savage papers on Man Ray are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Photography  Search this
Surrealism  Search this
Photographers -- France -- Paris  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Photographers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Naomi Savage papers on Man Ray, 1913-2005. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.savanaom
See more items in:
Naomi Savage Papers on Man Ray
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-savanaom

Hiram Powers papers

Creator:
Powers, Hiram, 1805-1873  Search this
Names:
Adams, John Quincy, 1767-1848  Search this
Astor, William B. (William Backhouse), 1792-1875  Search this
Atlee, Samuel Yorke, b. 1808  Search this
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, 1806-1861  Search this
Bryant, William Cullen, 1794-1878  Search this
Calhoun, John C. (John Caldwell), 1782-1850  Search this
Crawford, Thomas, 1813 or 14-1857  Search this
Dix, John A. (John Adams), 1798-1879  Search this
Durand, Asher Brown, 1796-1886  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Fuller, Charles Francis  Search this
Gray, Henry Peters, 1819-1877  Search this
Greeley, Horace, 1811-1872  Search this
Healy, G.P.A. (George Peter Alexander), 1813-1894  Search this
Jackson, Andrew, 1767-1845  Search this
Kinney, E. Clementine  Search this
Kinney, William  Search this
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882  Search this
Marsh, George Perkins, 1801-1882  Search this
Morse, Samuel Finley Breese, 1791-1872  Search this
Peabody, George, 1795-1869  Search this
Powers, Longworth, 1835-1904  Search this
Powers, Preston, 1842 or 1843-1904  Search this
Sartain, John, 1808-1897  Search this
Story, William Wetmore, 1819-1895  Search this
Taylor, Bayard, 1825-1878  Search this
Trollope, Francis  Search this
Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852  Search this
Extent:
12.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Writings
Drawings
Poetry
Date:
1819-1953
bulk 1835-1883
Summary:
The papers of sculptor Hiram Powers measure 12.4 linear feet and date from 1819 to 1953, with the bulk of the material dating from 1835 to 1883. Over two-thirds of the collection consists of Powers' correspondence with business associates, purchasers of his artwork, and numerous friends in the United States and Florence, Italy. Of note is Powers' "Studio Memorandum," from 1841 to 1845, which contains dated notations of letters written, receipts and expenditures, business contacts, works in progress, commissions and price quotations for work, comments on problems encountered during studio work, and other notes. Additional papers include scattered biographical material, financial and legal records, printed materials, photographs of Powers, his family, artwork, as well as an extensive collection of carte de visite and cabinet card portraits of many notable figures. Also found is a small amount of artwork by Powers and others, a scrapbook, and two autograph and memorabilia albums.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of sculptor Hiram Powers measure 12.4 linear feet and date from 1819 to 1953, with the bulk of the material dating from 1835 to 1883. Over two-thirds of the collection consists of Powers' correspondence, which is particularly rich in documenting his artwork, methodology, and his interaction with business associates, purchasers of his artwork, and his numerous friends in the United States and Florence, Italy. Other papers include scattered biographical material, writings by Powers and others, financial and legal records, news clippings and printed items, photographs of Powers, his family, artwork, as well as an extensive collection of carte de visite and cabinet card portraits of many notable figures. Also found is a small amount of artwork by Powers and others, a scrapbook, and two autograph and memorabilia albums.

Biographical material consists of documents for honors conferred on Powers, price lists and inventories of his artwork, papers regarding his death, including a translation of his will, and ephemera, such as his studio cap.

The bulk of the collection consists of Powers' correspondence with family, friends, business associates, and others, documenting his career as an artist and his personal life after he and his family moved to Florence, Italy, in 1837. Almost all of the letters have typed unconfirmed transcriptions completed by volunteers at the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Besides details of his studio work and business dealings, his letters often discuss his views on aesthetics, American politics, slavery and the Civil War, and Spiritualism. Notable correspondence is with William B. Astor, Edward Everett, Samuel York Atlee, William and E. Clementine Kinney, George P. Marsh, George Peabody, Presidents Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams, William Cullen Bryant, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, John C. Calhoun, Thomas Crawford, John A. Dix, Asher Durand, Charles Francis Fuller, Henry Peters Gray, Horace Greeley, George P. A. Healy, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Samuel F. B. Morse, W. W. Story, John Sartain, Frances Trollope, and Daniel Webster.

Writings by Powers include his "Studio Memorandum," a journal-type notebook he kept from 1841 to 1845, which contains dated notations of letters written, receipts and expenditures, business contacts, works in progress, commissions and price quotations for work, comments on problems encountered during studio work, and other notes. Additional writings include poetry and autobiographical essays and instructions for handling his sculptures. Writings by others include poetry, most of which was written in praise of Powers' artwork. Of note are handwritten transcripts of poems by Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Bayard Taylor, and John Quincy Adams. Also found here are short writings about Powers and his artwork.

Scattered financial and legal records in this collection include patent documents for tools invented by Powers, legal agreements, account statements, and bills and receipts. Printed material consists of news clippings, two booklets, an art association brochure, and an exhibition catalog for works by Powers.

This collection contains photographs of Hiram Powers, his family, friends, notable public figures, and artwork. Many of the photographs were taken by his son, Longworth Powers, who had a private photography studio in Florence. Included are portraits of Powers and his family, as well as a collection of 267 carte de visite and cabinet card portraits of artists, performers, politicians, writers, scientists, and other public figures, many of whom were friends with the Powers family. Other photographs depict Woodstock, Vermont, the marble quarry at Carrara, Italy, and artwork by Hiram and Preston Powers. Also found here is a photograph album kept by Louisa Powers.

Artwork consists of three drawings by Hiram Powers, including a caricature of Miner Kellogg. Also found in this collection is a scrapbook containing news clippings regarding the American tour of the sculpture Greek Slave, an autograph album belonging to Louisa Powers, and an album containing pencil drawings by Preston Powers and dried flowers collected on travels.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1841-1927 (Box 1, 15; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1819-1883 (Box 1-10; 9.0 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1827-1887 (Box 10; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 4: Financial and Legal Records, circa 1840s-1892, 1915 (Box 10, OV 17; 8 folders)

Series 5: Printed Material, circa 1845-1953 (Box 10; 5 folders)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1860s-1900, 1927, 1932, early 1950s (Box 10-13, 16, OV 17; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1860, mid-1800s (Box 11; 4 folders)

Series 8: Scrapbooks and Albums, 1847-1876 (Box 14; 3 folders)
Biographical Note:
American sculptor Hiram Powers (1805-1873) was born in Woodstock, Vermont, and lived and worked briefly in Washington, D.C. and Boston, before settling permanently in Florence, Italy. Powers is known for portrait busts of prominent American politicians and his idealized neo-classical sculptures, most notably the Greek Slave.

The second youngest of nine children, Powers moved with his family to Cincinnati, Ohio in 1817. When he was 18 he began working in a factory that repaired watches and organs, and he later worked in the mechanical department of Dorfeuille's Western Museum. There, he developed his interest in sculpture and received a commission to create wax figures for a tableau of Dante's Inferno. In 1825 he studied with the Prussian sculptor Frederick Eckstein, who taught him how to model clay and make plaster casts. His early commissions for portrait busts caught the attention of Nicholas Longworth, who became his first patron and funded his travel to Washington, DC, in 1834. While in Washington, Powers completed portrait busts of several prominent politicians, including President Andrew Jackson. He also briefly worked on several commissions in Boston. In 1837, thanks to the patronage of Colonel John S. Preston, he and his family moved to Florence, Italy. He intended to live there for only a few years, but remained there for the rest of his life.

Powers set up a studio in Florence with several assistants, and continued to work on portrait bust commissions. He and his family were active members of the intellectual community of American and English émigrés, such as Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Horatio Greenough, the Trollope family, and many others. His studio was also a frequent stop on tourists' visits to Florence. In 1839 Powers began working on idealized sculptures in the Neo-classical style, based on history, mythology, and religion. Perhaps most famous of these are Greek Slave and Fisher Boy. Completed in 1845, Greek Slave was exhibited in London and toured the United States. The sculpture received wide attention from the press for its depiction of female nudity and its philosophical significance, and established Powers' international success as a sculptor.

During his career Powers received private and government commissions for portrait busts and ideal sculptures, and sold many replicas of his work. He also invented improved tools for use in his studio, which were patented in the United States, and he developed a special finishing process for marble from the Carrara quarry. He maintained friendships with many Americans through extensive correspondence, and openly expressed his views on the Civil War and the abolition of slavery. Powers' son Longworth had a photography and sculpture studio nearby, and his son Preston, also a sculptor, took over many of Hiram Powers' remaining projects at the time of his death in 1873.
Related Material:
Additional Hiram Powers papers are available at the Winterthur Museum.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds materials lent for microfilming. Reel D117 contains "The Sculpture of Hiram Powers," by Paul B. Metzler. Reels 815-818 includes a "Collection of Letters from Old Residents of Cincinnati to Hiram Powers," compiled by Clara Louise Dentler. Reels 1102-1103 are comprised of an unpublished manuscript entitled "White Marble: The Life and Letters of Hiram Powers, Sculptor," by Clara Louise Dentler. Lent materials were returned to the lenders and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The Hiram Powers papers were purchased by the Smithsonian American Art Museum in 1967 from Christina Seeber, great-granddaughter of Hiram Powers which was subsequenlty transferred to the Archives of American Art in 1984. The Cincinnati Historical Society and Ohio State University also lent the Archives omaterials for microfilming in 1974.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Hiram Powers papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Sculptors -- Italy -- Florence  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Writings
Drawings
Poetry
Citation:
Hiram Powers papers, 1819-1953, bulk 1835-1883. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.powehira
See more items in:
Hiram Powers papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-powehira
Online Media:

Virginia Teague papers relating to the Armory Show, 1913-1962, bulk 1913-1917

Creator:
Teague, Virginia Vanderbilt  Search this
Subject:
Taylor, Henry Fitch  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen)  Search this
Copley Society  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Armory Show  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15861
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)294185
AAA_collcode_teagvirg
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_294185
Online Media:

The Zorach Family papers

Creator:
Zorach Family  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Brooklyn Museum  Search this
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Cunningham, Imogen, 1883-1976  Search this
Ipcar, Dahlov Zorach, 1917-  Search this
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Partridge, Roi, 1888-1984  Search this
Zorach, Marguerite, 1887-1968  Search this
Zorach, Tessim  Search this
Zorach, William, 1887-1966  Search this
Extent:
4.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Prints
Articles
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Notes
Writings
Date:
1900-1987
Summary:
The Zorach Family papers measure 4.4 linear feet and consist of materials relating to the lives and careers of sculptor and painter William Zorach, his wife painter and weaver Marguerite, and their children, painter and multi-media artist Dahlov Ipcar and collector and art dealer Tessim Zorach. The bulk of the papers consists of letters to Tessim regarding his parent's artwork. Additional materials include scattered letters to William Zorach; writings and notes by William, Marguerite, and Tessim; a sketchbook and drawings by William; prints by Marguerite; Marguerite's scrapbook; printed materials; and photographs of the Zorach family and of William Zorach in his studio and at work.
Scope and Content Note:
The Zorach Family papers measure 4.4 linear feet and consist of materials relating to the lives and careers of sculptor and painter William Zorach, his wife painter and weaver Marguerite, and their children, painter and multi-media artist Dahlov Ipcar and collector and art dealer Tessim Zorach. The bulk of the papers consists of letters to Tessim regarding his parent's artwork. Additional materials include scattered letters to William Zorach; writings and notes by William, Marguerite, and Tessim; a sketchbook and drawings by William; prints by Marguerite; Marguerite's scrapbook; printed materials; and photographs of the Zorach family and of William Zorach in his studio and at work.

The majority of correspondence is between Tessim Zorach and various museums and galleries concerning exhibitions and donations of his parents' works of art. There are scattered letters to William Zorach among the correspondence. Business records consist of materials relating to the Collection of the Zorach Children, including lists of works of art by the Zorach's, a file relating to an exhibition of Zorach artwork at the Brooklyn Museum, and photographs of works of art considered for donation.

Writings and Notes include a typescript of an article written by Marguerite Zorach, writings by William Zorach, a typescript of Young Poems by William and Marguerite, as well as articles written by others about the Zorachs. Artwork by Marguerite Zorach includes two prints and a tracing. Also found is one sketchbook, and additional drawings by William Zorach. There is one unsigned lithograph.

The majority of exhibition announcements, catalogs, and clippings concern William and Marguerite Zorach although there are two announcements for Dahlov Ipcar. There is one scrapbook of clippings about Marguerite.

The papers include photographs of Marguerite and William Zorach, their parents, baby photos of Tessim and Dahlov, family pictures of the Zorachs, and of Marguerite and William in their studios. There are several folders of William Zorach working in his studios and additional photos of him carving a relief sculpture and a sculpture for the Southwest Bank. Most of these photographs contain detailed annotations written by William Zorach about the work. There is one folder of photographs of William in France in 1910-1911, including one of Zorach in Roi Partridge's studio. There is one photograph of Zorach taken by Ansel Adams in Yosemite, a photo of Zorach working by Arnold Newman, and several taken by Imogen Cunnigham.

Other photographs are of works of art, most of which depict William's works.

Artifacts include Marguerite's batik tools and approximately fifty commercially made printing blocks.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 9 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1907-1969 (Box 1, 6; 3 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1922-1982 (Box 1-2; 1.75 linear feet)

Series 3: Business Records, 1967-1971, circa 1960s-1970s (Box 2-3; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, circa 1930s-1973, 1987 (Box 3; 8 folders)

Series 5: Artworks, 1900-circa 1920s (Box 3, 6; 12 folders)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, 1922-1953 (Box 3; 1 folder)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1912-1982 (Box 3; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, 1908-1966 (Box 3-5; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts, circa 1910s, circa 1950s (Box 4; 0.5 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
William Zorach (1887-1966) was a modernist painter and sculptor working primarily in New York city, along with his wife Marguerite (1887-1968) who worked as a fauvist painter, printmaker, and textile artist. Their children were painter Dahlov Ipcar (1917-) and art collector Tessim Zorach (1915-1995.)

Born in Lithuania, William Zorach immigrated to the United States where his family settled in Cleveland, Ohio. An early interest in art led to a printmaking apprenticeship. He then moved to New York City and enrolled in the National Academy of Design where he studied painting and drawing. In 1910, Zorach traveled to Paris to study and where he met his wife Marguerite Thompson at the La Palette art school. Marguerite grew up in Fresno, California and studied art at Stanford University. Both artists were heavily influenced by the fauvist and cubist art movements.

Returning to America, Marguerite and William married and both continued to create and experiment with varied media. Their paintings were featured in the 1913 New York City Armory Show and they are credited with being among the first artists to introduce European modernist styles to American modernism. The Zorachs were very close both as a couple and as working active artists.

In the 1920s, Marguerite began to experiment with textiles and created large, fine art tapestries and hooked rugs. Also, she used batik dying techniques on fabrics. William also expanded his genre by creating direct sculpture in 1918, which would become his primary medium.

In 1915, William and Marguerite started a family with their son, Tessim. Two years later, their daughter Dahlov was born. The Zorachs divided the year and lived in New York City, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In 1923, the family bought a farm on Georgetown Island, Maine where they lived, worked, and entertained friends.

Dahlov and Tessim were exposed to art from an early age. Dahlov showed artistic promise as a child and her parents supported her creativity by allowing her to express herself without formal training. Dahlov pursued painting and later became an illustrator for children's books. Additionally, she wrote fantasy novels and short stories. Dahlov married Adolf Ipcar in 1936. Like the rest of his family, Tessim Zorach developed an interest of art and along with his wife Peggy, he amassed a large private collection of ancient to modern art.

William and Marguerite continued to sculpt and paint until their deaths in 1966 and 1968, respectively.

Together, Dahlov and Tessim established the Collection of the Zorach Children which coordinated donations of their parents' art to many museums throughout the United States and the world. The artwork of both artists is found in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Whitney Museum of American Art, Delaware Art Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Farnsworth Art Museum, Portland Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum, The Philips Collection, and educational institutions such as Colby College, University of Vermont, Williams College, Bowdoin College, and the University of Virginia. In addition William has works associated with many public buildings, among them: Radio City Music Hall, New York City Municipal Court, the U.S. Post Office in Washington D.C. as well as Farleigh Dickinson University.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art holds the Dahlov Ipcar papers, 1906-1997. Also found is one oral history interview with William Zorach conducted by by John D. Morse on April 2, 1959 and an oral history interview with Dahlov Ipcar conducted by Robert F. Brown on November 13, 1979.

The bulk of William Zorach's papers are held by the Library of Congress.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming on reels NY59-1-NY59-4 and NY59-19. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are now held by the Library of Congress, Manuscript Division. This material is not described in the collection container inventory or finding aid.
Provenance:
William Zorach lent papers for microfilming to the Archives of American Art in 1959. Tessim Zorach donated materials between 1976-1987.
Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Zorach Family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artist couples  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Weavers  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Prints
Articles
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Notes
Writings
Citation:
The Zorach Family papers, 1900-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.zorazora
See more items in:
The Zorach Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-zorazora

Richard Morris Hunt

Artist:
J. Gautherin, 1840 - 1890  Search this
Sitter:
Richard Morris Hunt, 31 Oct 1827 - 31 Jul 1895  Search this
Medium:
Bronze
Dimensions:
60.3 × 49.5cm (23 3/4 × 19 1/2")
Type:
Sculpture
Place:
France\Île-de-France\Ville de Paris, Départment de\Paris
Date:
1886
Topic:
Richard Morris Hunt: Male  Search this
Richard Morris Hunt: Visual Arts\Architect  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2014.8
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm46164b8e5-3b38-4b61-8c0e-f60b6178b0fb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2014.8
Online Media:

Virginia Teague papers relating to the Armory Show

Creator:
Teague, Virginia Vanderbilt  Search this
Names:
Armory Show (1913: New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Brandeis, Dunbar, & Nutter  Search this
Copley Society (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
United States. Department of the Treasury  Search this
United States. General Services Administration  Search this
Abbott, Holker  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Flanders, L.  Search this
Grimball, Elizabeth  Search this
Kuhn, Vera, d. 1961  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin, 1867-1933  Search this
McRae, Elmer  Search this
Quinn, John, 1870-1924  Search this
Taylor, Henry Fitch, 1853-1925  Search this
Townsen, James  Search this
Warren, Edward  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1913-1952
bulk 1913-1917
Scope and Contents:
Scattered records and papers compiled by Virginia Teague for the intended purpose of writing a history of the 1913 Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS). The exhibition opened at the 69th Street Regiment, in New York City, in February 1913, and traveled to Chicago's Art Institute of Chicago, in March, and Boston's Copley Hall, in April. Included are scattered records of the AAPS; and correspondence; business records; and printed material.
Records of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors include meeting minutes, 1913-1915, with agendas, drafts and completed reports of proceedings, checklists of attendees, a hand-written statement by Walt Kuhn, signed by Arthur B. Davies and Elmer McRae, and a mimeograph copy of the AAPS Constitution.
Correspondence regarding the Armory show and the Copley Society is with Walt Kuhn, Arthur B. Davies, John Quinn, Holker Abbott, Edward Warren, L. Flanders, and the law firm of Brandeis, Dunbar & Nutter, and regards a disagreement over sharing revenue generated by the Armory Show exhibition. Additional correspondence is between Henry Fitch Taylor, George Luks, and James Townsen regarding a review published in American Art News; a March 27, 1917 letter from Art Alliance of America Secretary, Elizabeth Grimball, to Henry Fitch Taylor advocating "preparedness" for artists in the event of international hostilities; letters from Elmer MacRae and Vera Kuhn to Virginia Teague recalling the Armory Show, 1951; and letters from General Services Administration and the U.S. Treasury Department regarding customs records for the Armory Show, 1951-1952.
Business records include an exhibition contract and daily sales tallies from the Copley Society, which hosted the Boston venue at Copley Hall. Printed material includes clippings about the Armory Show.
Biographical / Historical:
Virginia Vanderbuilt Teague was an historian in New York, N.Y. and Vermont and was the wife of sculptor and painter R. Lewis Teague.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are the Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family and Armory Show records, which contain records of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors kept by Walt Kuhn, Secretary of AAPS.
Provenance:
Donated 2010 by Adam and Clover Bergmann, son and daughter of Rudolph Bergmann, Virginia Teague's friend. The papers were found in Bergmann's home after his death in 2009. Correspondence (January 1951) between Teague and Vera Kunn in the Walt Kuhn, Kuhn family papers, and Armory Show records in the Archives of American Art shed some light on Teague's intentions to compile a history of the Armory Show and contact she had with others to gather materials.
Restrictions:
This collection is closed for processing.
Identifier:
AAA.teagvirg
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-teagvirg

Villanova -- Gardens of Red Rose

Former owner:
Mitchell, J. Kearsley  Search this
Mitchell, J. Kearsley Mrs.  Search this
Perkins, Chiswell  Search this
Perkins, Chiswell Mrs.  Search this
Wheeler, Arthur Mrs.  Search this
Wheeler, Arthur  Search this
Architect:
Durham, Walter K. (Walter Kremer), 1896-1978  Search this
Lederach, Philip  Search this
Shehab, Tara Kolff  Search this
Landscape designer:
Hallmark, Andrea  Search this
Provenance:
The Garden Workers  Search this
Creator:
Holly Days Nursery  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Gardens of Red Rose (Villanova, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Montgomery -- Villanova
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, plant lists, list of pieces and sculptures with names of sculptors and historical information.
General:
Native stone walls and sandstone steps from circa 1900 can be seen in some of the twelve distinct garden areas on this three and one-third acre property. The plant selections, sculptures and ornaments in each garden room provide four seasons of interest. Contoured paths and views connect the different rooms. At the entrance to the property there is a custom made hand-forged iron gate and hollies intended to keep deer away from the gardens. A substantial gravel court with a Vermont granite millstone in its center at the front of the house opens to a four-season garden with tulips, phlox and dianthus in the spring, blooming rock garden plants and pink azaleas in summer, asters and chrysanthemums in fall, and winter interest from yellow and red twig dogwoods and witch hazels. Across the courtyard the sandstone steps lead to the woodland garden that has a stepping stone path, rhododendrons, redbud, hosta, forget-me-nots, columbine and other shade perennials. The woodlands overlook the kidney-shaped swimming pool and its plantings including shrub roses, peonies, crepe myrtles, perennials and annuals along the surrounding rail fence. A red painted concrete giant pomegranate gives the name to the pomegranate garden which has Japanese maples, willow and gold spirea.
A sunken brick patio that was original to the property has child-sized wrought iron furniture, shaped cherry trees and a bronze fox sculpture. A fish pond has been added to another sunken area with an original fieldstone wall, with plantings that include hydrangea, skimmia and witch hazel. Nearby there is a fountain garden with a painted concrete mushroom tree with skimmia, mountain laurel and daffodils planted around this water source for birds. Next to the house there is the colorful inner view garden planted with hundreds of tulips and summer annuals in colors that complement the furnishings inside. A blue atlas cedar is espaliered on the house next to the rear patio; the bed across the patio includes smoke bush, viburnum, southern magnolia, hosta and ferns. A steeply sloping bank, known as the Red Rose Inn overlook garden, has a switchback path, native trees, daffodils and other native plants to encourage wildlife and birds. The garage and greenhouse outbuilding is used for orchids and over-wintering plants, with a perennial and annuals cutting garden that includes tree peonies, calla lilies and day lilies, shasta daisies, freesia and plumbago. A butterfly garden with a custom butterfly-shaped bench includes hosta, milkweed, allium, asters and catmint.
The Gardens of Red Rose has been designated a bird habitat by Audubon at Home, with many bird feeders, the watering fountain, native plants in the hillside overlook garden, and deer fencing that encourage visiting birds and small wildlife. The Garden Conservancy, Pennsylvania Horticultural Society and the centennial celebration of the Garden Club of America have toured this garden.
Persons associated with the garden include Mr. and Mrs. J. Kearsley Mitchell (former owners, 1911-1959); Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Wheeler (former owners, 1955-1966); Mr. and Mrs. Chiswell Perkins (former owners, 1966-1978); Walter K. Durham (1886-1978)(architect, 1955); Philip Lederach (architect, 1988-1999); Tara Kolff Shehab (architect, 2006); Andrea Hallmark (landscape designer); Holly Days Nursery.
Related Materials:
Gardens of Red Rose related holdings consist of 1 folder (32 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Villanova  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA754
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16584

Manchester -- Turkey Hill Farm

Provenance:
Bennington Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
United States of America -- Vermont -- Bennington County -- Manchester
Turkey Hill Farm (Manchester, Vermont)
Scope and Contents:
55 digital images (2019) and 1 file folder with a photocopy of cover art of this farm for a 1925 Country Life magazine.
General:
In the 1930's the owners of a farmhouse originally built in 1849 installed gardens around the house including a sunken rose garden, perennial borders, a cutting garden, and a formal terrace with a spring-fed fountain. These gardens were maintained by three generations of the Childs family and by the current owner when the 15-acre property was purchased in 1998. In 2005 a five-acre pasture was developed as a sculpture garden with contemporary works of art and complementary plantings. A dry stream bed (arroyo) that cuts through the property was turned into another garden, planted with iris, Japanese primrose, cranesbill and hosta. Between 2012 and 2015 a woodlands garden with a rustic pergola and hexagonal gazebo and a Japanese garden with a pagoda, French Art Deco gate and arched bridge were designed and installed. Some of the original perennial borders were updated with flowers in bolder colors but antique apple trees, another pergola with benches underneath for appreciating the views, a cider press, and outbuildings including a stone spring house have been preserved. A corn crib was converted into a guest cottage; a larger guest house near the main house has linear hedges and flower beds as well as a reflecting pool on the axis that leads to a sculpture.

The stone walls and hedges are meticulous, lawns are mowed in the crisscrossing pattern, and narrow brick paths have been set into wider mowed grass walkways. Clipped hedges with stone walls or artefacts highlight long views of these grounds toward distant mountains. There are two fenced vegetable gardens and a greenhouse. A large pond has a pond house nearby as well as a small sand beach. The garden has been included in tours sponsored by the Nature Conservancy and used by non-profit organizations for fund raising events. The owner is interested in preserving the property as a public space.

Persons associated with the garden include: F. Nelson and Florence Doubleday (former owners, -1931); Lowrie and Hortense Childs (former owners, 1931-1944); Charles S. and Helen Childs (former owners, 1944-1976); Charles (Pete) and Jane Childs (former owners, 1976-1998); Sylvia and Stanley Stroup (owners, 1998-2017); Stanley Stroup (owners, 2017-); Hortense Childs (house gardens designer, 1930's); North Hill Garden Design (sculpture garden and woodland garden designers, 2008 and 2007-2012); Ray Smith (Japanese garden designer, 2013); Sugar Rock Landscape (hardscape construction, 2008-2014); Janette Morrison and Ernie Dibble (gardeners, 1998- ); David Tamych (sculptor); Rita Dee (sculptor); Richard Erdman (sculptor); Phil Thorne (sculptor); Roger Di Taranto (sculptor); Thomas Ostenberg (sculptor); Mark Chatterley (sculptor); Hans Van de Bovencamp (sculptor); Peter Woytuk (sculptor); George Sherwood (sculptor); Curt Brill (sculptor); Royden Mills (sculptor).
Provenance:
The Bennington Garden Club facilitated the 2019 submission.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Vermont -- Manchester  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VT020
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Vermont
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref33198

Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records

Creator:
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Names:
Armory Show (1913: New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
International Exhibition of Modern Art  Search this
Kit Kat Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Penguin Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Kuhn, Brenda, 1911-  Search this
Kuhn, Vera, d. 1961  Search this
Oldfield, Otis, 1890-1969  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Quinn, John, 1870-1924  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Photographer:
Rainford, Percy  Search this
Weston, Edward, 1886-1958  Search this
Extent:
31 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Date:
1859-1984
bulk 1900-1949
Summary:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records measure 31 linear feet and date from 1859 to 1984, with the bulk of material dating from 1900 to 1949. Papers contain records of the legendary Armory Show of 1913, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, which introduced modern European painting and sculpture to the American public. Papers also contain records of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS), the artist-run organization that mounted the Armory Show; records of the New York artists' clubs the Kit Kat Club (founded 1881) and the Penguin Club (founded 1917); and the personal and family papers of New York artist Walt Kuhn (1877-1949), one of the primary organizers of the Armory Show.
Scope and Contents note:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records measure 31 linear feet and date from 1859 to 1984, with the bulk of material dating from 1900 to 1949. Papers contain records of the legendary Armory Show of 1913, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, which introduced modern European painting and sculpture to the American public. Papers also contain records of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS), the artist-run organization that mounted the Armory Show; records of the New York artists' clubs the Kit Kat Club (founded 1881) and the Penguin Club (founded 1917); and the personal and family papers of New York artist Walt Kuhn (1877-1949), one of the primary organizers of the Armory Show.

As Secretary for the AAPS, Kuhn retained the bulk of existing records of that organization and of the Armory Show. Minutes and correspondence make up most of the AAPS records (Series 2), as well as documents related to John Quinn's legal brief against a tariff on imported works of living artists. Armory Show Records (Series 1) include personal letters, voluminous business correspondence, a record book, miscellaneous notes, inventories and shipping records, two large scrapbooks, printed materials, a small number of photographs, and retrospective accounts of the show. The printed materials and photographs in Kit Kat Club and Penguin Club Records reflect Kuhn's deep involvement in those clubs.

The Walt Kuhn Family Papers (Series 4) contain records of his artwork, career, travels, personal and professional associations, family members, and work in vaudeville, film, and interior design. Notable among the family papers are illustrated letters and other cartoons; sketches, drawings, watercolors, and prints; candid letters from Walt to Vera Kuhn discussing art scene politics and personalities in New York, Paris, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Florida, and the Midwest; general correspondence with artists, dealers, collectors, journalists, writers, models, and fans; notes in index card files containing biographical anecdotes of the Kuhns' many contacts; provenance files that document the origin and fate of Kuhn's paintings, sculptures, and prints; papers relating to Kuhn's exhibitions and his relationships with the Marie Harriman Gallery and Durand-Ruel Gallery; and photographs and drawings depicting Kuhn's early years in Munich, Germany and Fort Lee, New Jersey; trips to Nova Scotia, New England, the Western United States, and Europe; New York and summer studios, among other subjects.
Arrangement:
This collection has been arranged into 4 series, with multiple subseries in Series 1 and 4.

Series 1: Armory Show Records, 1912-1963 (Boxes 1-2, 27-31, 56, OV 36; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 2: Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS) Records, 1911-1914, undated (Box 3; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Kit Kat Club and Penguin Club Records, 1909-1923, undated (Box 3, 32, 56, OVs 37-38; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Walt Kuhn Family Papers, 1859-1984, undated (Box 3-26, 32-35, 56-57, OVs 39-55, 58; 26.7 linear feet)

In general, documents are arranged chronologically, alphabetically, or by type of material. Copy negatives and copy prints made from documents in this collection have been filed separately from originals, in a folder marked "copy." Duplicates of original records made or obtained by the Kuhns have been filed separately as well.

Existing envelopes are filed in front of correspondence and enclosures directly after. Correspondence in the Armory Show Records and AAPS Records is arranged alphabetically, and correspondents are listed in the box inventory following series descriptions below.
Biographical/Historical note:
Walt Kuhn (1877-1949) was an etcher, lithographer, and watercolorist, as well as being a teacher, an advisor to art collectors, an organizer, and a promoter of modern art. He played a key role in the art scene of New York City in the early 20th century, and was among the small group that organized the infamous Armory Show of 1913, officially known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, held at the 69th Regiment Armory building in New York City. After the Armory Show, Kuhn went on to a distinguished career as a painter. He was best known for his sober oil portraits of show people, clowns, acrobats, and circus performers, but was equally prolific in landscapes, still lifes, and figure and genre drawings.

Walt Kuhn was born in Brooklyn, NY in 1877. After a brief career as a bicycle shop owner in downtown Brooklyn, Kuhn traveled West in 1899 to San Francisco, CA and earned his living as a cartoonist for newspapers such as Wasp. After two years in California, he moved back East and then on to Europe to pursue further art training. He briefly attended the Académie Colarossi studio in Paris, but quickly moved to Munich where he joined the class of Heinrich von Zügel in the Royal Academy.

Kuhn returned to New York City in 1904 and took up an active role in the art scene there, participating in the Salmagundi Club and the Kit Kat Club, teaching at the New York School of Art, and cartooning for Life, Judge, Puck, and other publications. In 1910, he participated in an exhibition of Independent Artists on 35th St. with Robert Henri and met artist Arthur B. Davies.

In 1911, when the National Academy of Design opened their annual exhibition, Kuhn, Henry Fitch Taylor, Elmer MacRae, and Jerome Myers were exhibiting at Clara Potter Davidge's Madison Gallery. To these four young artists, the Academy exhibition was typically lackluster, and the attention it received was unwarranted. Sensing that they were not alone in their attitude, they decided to organize. They invited a dozen other artists to join them, thus forming the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS). The group elected Kuhn Secretary and Arthur B. Davies President, and with the help of attorney and art collector John Quinn, they incorporated and began raising funds for an independent exhibition the following year.

In September of 1912, at Davies' suggestion, Kuhn traveled to Cologne, Germany to view the Sonderbund Internationale Kunst-Austellung. There he saw presented, in overwhelming volume, the work of his European contemporaries and their modern antecedents, the post-impressionists. He immediately began selecting and securing artwork for the upcoming AAPS exhibition. Kuhn traveled through Germany, Holland, France, and England, visiting private collectors, dealers, and artists. In Paris, Kuhn was joined by Davies and American artist and art agent Walter Pach. Kuhn and Davies sailed for New York in November, leaving the details of European arrangements to Pach.

The resulting Armory Show exhibition opened in New York in February 1913, and a selection of the foreign works traveled to Chicago and Boston in March and April. It included approximately 1300 American and European works of art, arranged in the exhibition space to advance the notion that the roots of modernism could be seen in the works of the old masters, from which the dramatically new art of living artists had evolved. Savvy and sensational publicity, combined with strategic word-of-mouth, resulted in attendance figures over 200,000 and over $44 thousand in sales. The Armory Show had demonstrated that modern art had a place in the public taste, that there was a market for it and legitimate critical support as well.

During the first World War, Kuhn stayed in NY and was active in the Kit Kat Club, an artists' club founded in 1881, which provided its members with collective studio space, live models, exhibitions, and an annual costume ball. In 1917, Kuhn founded another group called the Penguin Club, which had similar objectives to the Kit Kat Club, but with Kuhn himself as the gatekeeper. In addition to exhibitions and costume balls, the Penguin Club held summer outings and stag dinners, and maintained collective studio and exhibition space on East 15th Street in Manhattan. Its members included Americans and European artists displaced by the war in Europe. In the 1920s, Kuhn expanded a few sketches he had written for Penguin Balls into full-blown vaudeville productions, some of which were incorporated into larger musical revues such as The Merry Go Round and The 49ers and traveled around the country. Kuhn's theater work continued until 1928, and his fascination with show business continued to influence him throughout his life.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Kuhn gradually achieved recognition for his artwork, with sales to private collectors and dealers including Edith Halpert, Merritt Cutler, Lillie Bliss, John Quinn, and Marie Harriman. Kuhn also promoted other young painters whose work he liked, including Otis Oldfield, Lily Emmet Cushing, John Laurent, Frank di Gioia, and the self-taught Vermont artist Patsy Santo. Sometimes artists would contact him by mail, asking for lessons or advice. His lengthy letters to students offer coaching in technique and subject matter, as well as in the overall problem of success in art.

In 1929, Kuhn moved into the 18th St. studio that he would keep until the end of his life. He kept a rack of costumes in the studio, mostly made by Vera Kuhn, and his models, many of them stage and circus performers, would come and sit for Kuhn's portraits. The same year his painting The White Clown was exhibited at the newly established Museum of Modern Art in New York, bringing intense publicity and sales interest. Around this time, Kuhn began to receive the support of collector Duncan Phillips and curator Juliana Force of the Whitney Museum of American Art, both of whom made purchases and consistently exhibited his work.

Marie Norton Whitney Harriman, second wife of railroad magnate and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, shared a professional liaison with Kuhn that would take many forms and last until his death. Soon after the success of The White Clown, Kuhn established a relationship with the Marie Harriman Gallery, where he participated in group and solo shows during the height of his career. Kuhn also traveled with the Harrimans to Europe in 1931, where the three visited important private collections and acquired many valuable modern paintings for the Harrimans. Their collection, so heavily influenced by Kuhn's ideas about art, would eventually go to the National Gallery of Art.

Kuhn was an artist who understood the art business and never shied away from it. For Kuhn, promoting the ideas and practitioners of a certain brand of modernism was an expression of both aesthetic ideology and pragmatic self-interest. His contribution to the public discourse on modernism situated his own work at the heart of art history and the marketplace. Regardless of his motivations, he was indisputably a key player at a pivotal time in American art, when academic art was riotoulsy overturned to make way for modernism. His paintings are now held in major museum collections around the country, where most of them arrived with bequests from the collectors Kuhn had cultivated so carefully in his lifetime.

Sources consulted for this biography include The Story of the Armory Show (1988) by Milton W. Brown, Walt Kuhn, Painter: His Life and Work (1978) by Philip Rhys Adams, and "Walt Kuhn" by Frank Getlein, in the 1967 catalog of the Kennedy Galleries, Inc.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Archives of American Art holds the papers of Walter Pach, the European representative of the Armory Show.
Provenance:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records were loaned for microfilming and later donated to the Archives of American Art by Walt Kuhn's daughter Brenda Kuhn in several installments between 1962 and 1979. An additional accession of letters, photographs, and an artifact was purchased by the Archives in 2000. Another addition was donated by Terry DeLapp, Kuhn's dealer, in 2015.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Etchers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Watercolorists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Lithographers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Societies, etc. -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Modernism (Art)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Citation:
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records, 1859-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kuhnwalt
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kuhnwalt
Online Media:

Simon Moselsio papers, 1924-1971

Creator:
Moselsio, Simon, 1890-1963  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Sculpture, American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9067
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211260
AAA_collcode_mosesimo
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211260

Simon Moselsio papers

Creator:
Moselsio, Simon, 1890-1963  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet ((partially microfilmed on 1 reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1924-1971
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material; photographs; criticism; scrapbooks; and catalogs.
REEL 141: Biographical material; catalogs; criticism; 2 scrapbooks of clippings; and Moselsio's comments on 2 works: his statue of Mahatma Gandhi and his film of Martha Graham's dance, "Lamentation", with an interview of Miss Graham.
UNMICROFILMED: Photographs of Moselsio's work, 1940s; newspaper clippings; and a 47 p. typescript of an interview conducted by Richard Carter Barret, ca. 1960.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, sculptor, educator; Bennington, Vermont. Born in Russia. Died 1963.
Provenance:
Material on reel 141 lent for microfilming, and unmicrofilmed material donated 1971, by Herta Moselsio, widow of Simon Moselsio.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Vermont  Search this
Sculptors -- Vermont  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Sculpture, American  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.mosesimo
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-mosesimo

Frank Lieberman photographs of Ivan Albright, 1981

Creator:
Lieberman, Frank Joseph, 1910-  Search this
Subject:
Albright, Ivan  Search this
Topic:
Photography, Artistic  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7213
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209350
AAA_collcode_liebfran
Theme:
Audio - Visual
Photography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209350

Frank Lieberman photographs of Ivan Albright

Creator:
Lieberman, Frank  Search this
Names:
Albright, Ivan, 1897-1983  Search this
Extent:
4 Items ((on partial microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1981
Scope and Contents:
Four photographs of painter Ivan Albright (1897-1983) working on a self-portrait series in his Woodstock, Vermont studio.
Biographical / Historical:
Photographer, graphic artist, illustrator, and sculptor; born 1910 in Atlanta, Ga.
Provenance:
Donated 1986 by Frank Joseph Lieberman.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Illustrators  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Topic:
Photography, Artistic  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.liebfran
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-liebfran

Oral history interview with Barbara Zucker, 1995 June 22-November 6

Creator:
Zucker, Barbara M., 1940-  Search this
Schlegel, Amy  Search this
Topic:
Sculptors -- Interviews  Search this
Women sculptors -- Interviews  Search this
Feminism and art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6126
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216341
AAA_collcode_zuckbarb
Theme:
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_216341

Oliver O'Connor Barrett papers, 1930-1980

Creator:
Barrett, Oliver O'Connor, 1908-  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5870
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208710
AAA_collcode_barroliv
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208710

Oliver O'Connor Barrett papers

Creator:
Barrett, Oliver O'Connor, b. 1908  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Linear feet ((on 3 partial microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1930-1980
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, art works, writings, photographs, printed material, and business records document Barrett's sculpture and life.
REEL 138: Letters between Barrett and his colleagues discuss his art works and writings (1943-1964). Art works consist of 157 sketches and an annotated sketchbook (1942-1962). Writings include poems and autobiographical notes and articles (1930-1939). Photographs show Barrett and his works (1944-1951). Printed material consists of a press release, clippings (1961-1963), 10 exhibition catalogs (1944-1962), a bulletin, and 2 programs (1953-1955). Business records include meeting notes (1951), a contract for Barrett's "Sculpture Continuum" (1963), lists of expenses (1959-1962), receipts (1962-1963), and income tax returns (1953-1959).
REEL 3837: Fourteen pages from an annotated sketchbook.
REEL 4391: A resume (1969); photographs of Robert Moses, President of the New York World's Fair, and Jeff Jaffe, President of the Chunky Corporation, with Barrett and a model of his "Chunky Square Continuum" for the World's Fair (1963); a brochure on Barrett's sculpture continuum works; and his book, MYSELF EMERGING (1980).
Biographical / Historical:
Sculptor, illustrator, and teacher; New York, N.Y. and Colchester, England. Born Oliver O'Connor Barrett in London, England, Barrett studied at Fircroft College, Birmingham, England, and is a self-taught sculptor. In 1940, he arrived in the United States, becoming a sculpture and drawing instructor at the Putney School in Vermont (1941-1942), Tulane University (1942), and Cooper Union Art School (1945).
Barrett produced illustrations for TOWN AND COUNTRY and other magazines, and has published poems and short stories. He later returned to England. He often shortened his name to Connor Barrett.
Provenance:
Reel 138: A press release, clippings, exhibition catalogs, a bulletin, and programs were transferred to the Library of the National Museum of American Art and the National Portrait Gallery.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Illustrators  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.barroliv
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-barroliv

Paul Aschenbach papers

Creator:
Aschenbach, Paul, 1921-  Search this
Names:
Vermont International Sculpture Symposia (1968)  Search this
Vermont International Sculpture Symposia (1971)  Search this
Vermont Marble Company  Search this
Baumann, Herbert, 1925-  Search this
Campbell, Kenneth, 1913-  Search this
Mizui, Jasuo, 1925-  Search this
Pavia, Philip, 1915-2005  Search this
Prantl, Karl  Search this
Reischke, Erich  Search this
Sartory, Barna von  Search this
Witkin, Isaac  Search this
Extent:
2.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1957-1976
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, notes and writings, project files, printed material, photographs, and art work primarily concerning Aschenbach's involvement with the Vermont International Sculpture Symposia (1968, 1971), and other projects he participated in, most relating to sculpture and its role in the community.
Included are biographical material; correspondence, 1965-1975, primarily related to Aschenbach's coordination of the Vermont International Sculpture Symposia of 1968 and 1971, the Sculpture on the Highway project, ca. 1971, and to his association with the Vermont Marble Company. Correspondence with artists participating in the Symposia include Karl Prantl, Jasuo Mizui, Herbert Baumann, Erich Reischke, Barna von Sartory, Philip Pavia, Kenneth Campbell, Clement Meadmore, Isaac Witkin, Eduardo Ramirez, James Silva, and Rudolf Uher. Notes and writings include unmailed letters to Aschenbach, ca. 1973-1974, written by his wife, June.
Project files, 1968-1975, contain correspondence, notes and writings, printed material, invoices, receipts, mailing lists, reference material, biographical material on participating artists, and photographs for the Vermont International Sculpture Symposia, Danby Sculpture Works, Inc., Danby-Currier Memorial Sculpture Project and other sculpture projects. Printed material, 1957-1978, includes newspaper and magazine clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, newsletters, and annual reports.
Photographs consist of Aschenbach at work, his finished sculptures, and a few personal photographs. Works of art include a variety of Aschenbach's studies and sketches for sculptures, executed in watercolor, pencil, felt pen, woodblock and chalk, and an unbound booklet of anonymous wood engravings.
Biographical / Historical:
Sculptor; Vermont. b. 1921; d. 1994. Organized the Vermont International Sculpture Symposium in 1968 and 1971, which supported stone sculpture by several sculptors for installation in rest areas along the Vermont Interstate Highways 89 and 91.
Provenance:
Donated 1983 by Paul Aschenbach.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Sculptors -- Vermont  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Public sculpture  Search this
Citation:
Paul Aschenbach papers. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.aschpaul
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-aschpaul

William Page and Page Family papers

Creator:
Page, William, 1811-1885  Search this
Names:
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Beecher, Henry Ward, 1813-1887  Search this
Beecher, Thomas Kinnicut, 1824-1900  Search this
Briggs, Charles F. (Charles Frederick), 1804-1877  Search this
Curtis, George William, 1824-1892  Search this
Cushman, Charlotte, 1816-1876  Search this
Fenton, Rueben  Search this
Garrison, William Lloyd, 1805-1879  Search this
Hicks, Thomas, 1823-1890  Search this
Lowell, James Russell, 1819-1891  Search this
O'Donovan, William Rudolph, 1844-1920  Search this
Olmstead, Bertha  Search this
Olmstead, Mary  Search this
Page, Sophia Stevens, 1827-1892  Search this
Page, William, 1811-1885  Search this
Perry, E. W. (Enoch Wood), 1831-1915  Search this
Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884  Search this
Scranton, William Walker  Search this
Shaw, Francis George, 1809-1882  Search this
Stark, William, 1825-1873  Search this
Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874  Search this
Tilton, Theodore, 1835-1907  Search this
Wilmarth, Lemuel Everett, 1835-1918  Search this
Extent:
11.06 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketches
Poems
Drawings
Diaries
Date:
1815-1947
bulk 1843-1892
Summary:
The papers of the portraitist and art theorist William Page and the Page family measure 11.06 linear feet and date from 1815 to 1947, bulk 1843-1892. In addition to the papers of William Page, the papers include documents related to Page's wife's career as a writer and records documenting their personal lives and the lives of their family members. Types of documents found include personal documents and artifacts, correspondence, essays, lectures, diaries, poems, notes and notebooks, financial records, legal records, published works, clippings, catalogs, photographs, and artwork.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of the painter William Page and the Page family measure 11.06 linear feet and date from 1815 to 1947, with the bulk of papers dating from 1843 to 1892. Papers contain records related to the life and career of William Page, president of the National Academy of Design from 1871 to 1873 and prominent portraitist and art theorist of his day. Also found are records related to his wife's career as a writer and records documenting their personal lives and the lives of their family members. Types of documents found include personal documents and artifacts, correspondence, essays, lectures, diaries, poems, notes and notebooks, financial records, legal records, published works, clippings, catalogs, photographs, and artwork.

Correspondence includes the personal and professional correspondence of William and Sophia Page, and their parents, siblings, and children. Significant correspondents include Thomas Hicks, Enoch Wood Perry, William Stark, Theodore Tilton, Lemuel Wilmarth, Wendell Phillips, William Walker Scranton, Francis G. Shaw; James Russell Lowell, Charles Frederick Briggs, George W. Curtis, Charlotte Cushman, Thomas K. Beecher, Mary Olmsted, and Bertha Olmsted.

Writings include the essays and lectures of William Page, as written by him and revised by Sophia Page in the late 1870s, as well as Sophia's writings as a columnist in Europe in the 1850s. Notes, notebooks, diaries, and poems are also found. Personal Business Records include business records related to the sale and exhibition of artwork as well as financial and legal documents. A small number of memoranda and documents related to Page's work at the National Academy of Design are also found. Printed Materials include exhibition catalogs, published works by William and Sophia Page, and clippings and articles about Page.

Photographs consist mainly of portraits, most of them mounted cabinet photographs or cartes-des-visites, some of which appear to have been used as studies for Page's painted portraits. Among those pictured are William Page, James Russell Lowell, Henry Ward Beecher, Reuben Fenton, Wendell Phillips, Charles Sumner, William R. O'Donovan, and William Lloyd Garrison. Many of the photographic portraits are unidentified. Artwork includes sketches, drawings, prints, and a small number of notes made by Page in the course of painting portraits.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 7 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Series 1: Biographical Materials and Artifacts, 1847-1917 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1815-1942 (Boxes 1-4, 9-10; 3.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Notes and Writings, 1839-1888, 1949 (Boxes 4-5, OV 10; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1848-1932 (Boxes 5 and 9; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Materials, 1845-1938 (Boxes 5-7, 9, OV 11; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, 1845-1947 (Boxes 7-9, OV 12, MGP 5-6; 1.4 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1856-1874 (Box 8, OV 13-16, rolled documents 17-19; 0.6 linear feet and 3 rolled documents)
Biographical Note:
The painter William Page was born in 1811 in Albany, NY. He attended public schools in New York City, and after working briefly in the law firm of Frederick de Peyster, was placed in the studio of the painter/engraver James Herring in 1825, where he received his first formal art training. He took classes at the National Academy of Design the year it was formed, in 1826, under Samuel F.B. Morse, and in 1827 he was awarded one of the National Academy's first annual student prizes.

Page joined the Presbyterian church and attended Phillips Academy and Amherst with the intention of becoming a minister, but his artistic ability won out, and by 1830 he was painting commissioned portraits in Albany, Rochester, and New York. He married Lavinia Twibill in 1833, and they had three daughters between 1834 and 1839. He joined the American Academy and served on its board of directors in 1835. He exhibited at the American Academy, the National Academy of Design, the Boston Athenaeum, and other venues throughout the 1830s. Favorable reviews brought steady portrait commissions, including John Quincy Adams and the New York governor William L. Marcy. He was made a full member of the National Academy in 1837.

In the 1840s, Page's reputation and maturity as a painter grew. His first wife left him around 1840, and in 1843 he married Sarah Dougherty. The couple moved to Albany, Boston, and back to New York seeking portrait commissions and patronage. He became friends with the poet James Russell Lowell and the writer and publisher Charles Frederick Briggs, two writers and editors who helped to promote his artwork in Boston and New York and published his theoretical writings. In 1844, Lowell dedicated his first published book of poetry to Page, and the following year, Briggs published a series of articles by Page in the Broadway Journal, entitled "The Art of the Use of Color in Imitation in Painting." The series described Page's arduous experiments with color and glazes, and his ideas about correspondences between spirituality and the natural world as expressed in art.

In 1850, Page traveled to Florence, Italy, where he painted several copies of the works of Titian in the galleries of the Uffizi and Pitti palaces, studying his use of color and further developing his own experimental techniques. He became friends with the sculptor Hiram Powers, who introduced him to the writings of Emmanuel Swedenborg, a Christian metaphysician whose ideas fueled Page's interest in the spiritual aspects of art. In 1852, Page moved to Rome, a city with an international artists' community and a strong market for art. Page found a loyal following in Rome's large circle of American ex-patriates, including the sculptors Thomas Crawford and Harriet Hosmer, the actress Charlotte Cushman, and the poets Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, all of whom sat for portraits by Page.

In 1854, Page's second wife left him amidst public scandal, and he sank deep in debt to his bankers at Packenham and Hooker, an English firm that by 1856 had a lien on all the paintings in his studio. That same year Page met Sophia Stevens Hitchcock, an American widow traveling in Rome with Bertha Olmsted, Frederick Law Olmsted's sister. Hitchcock was from Barnet, Vermont and came to Europe after her first husband died in 1852 after only a year of marriage. She traveled to England and Paris, where she wrote regular columns on local customs and events for the New York Tribune that were published under the by-line "An American Woman in Paris." She and Page met in Rome in 1856, and in October 1857, after Page traveled back the United States to obtain a divorce from Sarah Dougherty, he and Sophia married.

The couple stayed in Rome until 1860. His wife's three brothers, all businessmen, helped to promote his artwork in Europe and America. Page's paintings of this period include several Venus subjects, one of which was championed by his most loyal patrons, who raised $3000 by subscription to buy the painting for the Boston Athenaeum. A later Venus painting was rejected from the Paris salon for indecency, a controversy that was later leveraged for publicity in a touring exhibition in the United States.

The Pages returned to the United States in 1860 and settled in Tottenville, New York. They had six children between 1858 and 1870. Page had a studio at Eagleswood, NJ, and later in the Studio Building on 10th Street in Manhattan, where he held a large exhibition in 1867. In the 1860s, he painted a self-portrait and a companion portrait of Sophia set in Rome, as well as a series of civil war heroes including Robert Gould Shaw, Winfield Scott, and David Farragut. Photographs played a consistent part in Page's technique of portraiture, and he is known to have worked with the photographer Matthew Brady, who attended art classes early on with Page, as well as the photographers Sarony and Charles Williamson, who taught classes on drawing from enlarged photo-transparencies. Brady photographs taken for Page include David Farragut and Reuben Fenton.

Page lectured frequently on Titian and Venetian art, a subject in which he was considered an expert, and on painting technique and his philosophical ideas about nature, art, and spirituality. In 1871, Page was elected the president of the National Academy of Design, a post he held until 1873, but his poor health following a collapse in 1872 limited his accomplishments in office. Despite these limitations, he continued to paint, including portraits of General Grant, an idealized portrait of the president based on early photographs and Charles Sumner. He also became interested in portraiture of William Shakespeare around this time, and his studies resulted in a book, Shakespeare's Portraits, a bust based on existing portraiture, and a full-length portrait entitled "Shakespeare Reading," based on Page's measurements of a supposed death mask in Darmstadt, Germany, which he went to inspect against the advice of his doctor in 1874.

In 1877, another collapse left Page incapacitated for the remainder of his life. Sophia Page tried editing and publishing his writings and lectures, but with little success. Page died in 1885. A life marked by personal scandal ended the same, when two of his daughters from his first marriage contested his will, tying up his estate in a lengthy and public probate trial. Their suit was dismissed in 1889, and Sophia Page died in 1892.

This biography relies heavily on Joshua Taylor's William Page: The American Titian (1957).
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds materials lent for microfilming (reel 1091) including letters from Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning, Lydia Maria Child, Charlotte Cushman, James Russell Lowell, Charles A. Dana, and others. Lent material was returned to the donor and is This material is not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
A portion of the collection was donated to the Archives of American Art by Mrs. Lesslie S. (Pauline Page) Howell, William Page's grandaughter, in 1963. William S. Page, Pauline Page Howell's nephew, donated additional papers in 1964 and 1973. Pauline Page Howell and William S. Page also loaned a group of letters to the Archives in 1964 which were microfilmed on reel 1091 and then returned to the donors. Mrs. Howell's son, William Page Howell, donated material in 1980.

Letters of Charles F. Briggs to James Russell Lowell (Series 2.2) were a part of Pauline Page Howell's 1963 donation to the Archives of American Art. They had been given to Mrs. Howell by Charlotte Briggs, daughter of Charles F. Briggs, because of her father's lifelong friendship with William Page. Letters from Lowell to Briggs are in the James Russell Lowell papers in Houghton Library at Harvard University.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The William Page and Page Family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painting -- 19th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Poems
Drawings
Diaries
Citation:
William Page and Page Family papers, 1815-1947, bulk 1843-1892. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.pagewill
See more items in:
William Page and Page Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-pagewill
Online Media:

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