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J. Raymond Claghorn Scrapbook

Creator:
Claghorn, J. Raymond  Search this
Names:
State Line and Sullivan Railroad.  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Photographs
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Date:
1881-1895
Summary:
A scrapbook compiled by Claghorn relating to his corporate and civic activities, including mostly photographs, correspondence and clippings.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of a scrapbook compiled by Mr. Claghorn relating to his corporate and civic activities, including mostly photographs, correspondence and clippings. There is also a small amount of materials relating to family members including James W. Claghorn (grandfather) , James Lawrence Claghorn (father), Clarence R. Claghorn (son) and Juliet Lockwood Claghorn (daughter) .
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical/Historical note:
James Raymond Claghorn (1845- ?) was a wealthy Philadelphia resident. He entered into the dry goods business in February of 1862 and continued until 1865. Mr. Claghorn then became a builder erecting 542 houses in the twenty-eighth ward. In 1880, he became president of the State Line and Sullivan Railroad, in addition to having interests in coal mines and properties in the city of Philadelphia. He was active in civic and social circles in Philadelphia in the late 19th century, belonging to the Sons of the Revolution, the Philadelphia Union League, among other organizations, and served on the city council.
Provenance:
Found in collection.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- 19th century -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Clippings -- 19th century
Photographs -- 19th century
Citation:
J. Raymond Claghorn Scrapbook, 1881-1895, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0582
See more items in:
J. Raymond Claghorn Scrapbook
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d1182ca8-4096-41ea-ad22-59236c284ab8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0582

Robinson and Via Family Papers

Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Creator:
Quinn, Terry (photographer)  Search this
Conner, Mary Robinson, 1930-2009  Search this
Names:
Capital Transit Company (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Serenity Farm, Inc.  Search this
Howes, Grace Bourne, ?-1976  Search this
Robinson, Adina Theresa, 1963-  Search this
Robinson, Amanda Baden, 1849-1940  Search this
Robinson, Elizabeth Bourne, 1892-1976  Search this
Robinson, Frank A., 1883-1970  Search this
Robinson, Franklin A., 1841-1905  Search this
Robinson, Franklin A., Sr., 1932-2023  Search this
Robinson, Martha Walls, 1807-1897  Search this
Robinson, Robert David, 1962-  Search this
Robinson, Robert Henry, 1851-1937  Search this
Robinson, Thomas Wells, 1803-1869  Search this
Townshend, Martha Robinson, 1880-1961  Search this
Via, Adina Mae, 1937-1966  Search this
Via, Ida Virginia Woods, 1914-2010  Search this
Via, Robert Delano, 1933-  Search this
Via, Robert Milton, 1906-1983  Search this
Extent:
31.1 Cubic feet (93 boxes, 3 map-size folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Correspondence
Photographs
Postcards
Baby books
Phonograph records
Postcard albums
Ephemera
School yearbooks
Diaries
Albums
Housebooks
Snapshots
Home movies
Family papers
Scrapbooks
Funeral registers
Architectural drawings
Place:
Maryland -- Family farms
Washington (D.C.)
Prince George's County (Md.)
Arizona -- Motion pictures
Benedict (Md.)
Charles County (Md.) -- Family farms
Calvert County (Md.) -- Family farms
California -- Motion pictures
Bahamas -- Motion pictures
Yosemite National Park (Calif.)
Puerto Rico -- Motion pictures
Washington -- motion pictures
Oregon -- Motion pictures
Disneyland (California)
Brandywine (Md.)
St. Thomas, V.I. -- Motion pictures
Florida -- Motion pictures
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- Westminster
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- Marston
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- New Windsor
Date:
1838-2023, undated
bulk 1872-1985
Summary:
Papers documenting the farming and family life of the Robinson family of Prince George's County and after 1975, Charles County, Maryland. Papers documenting the farming and family of the Via family of Greene County, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Prince George's by 1949, and Calvert Counties by 1956, Maryland.
Scope and Contents:
An extensive and comprehensive collection of papers relating to family, farming, and the Southern Maryland tobacco culture, the Robinson and Via Family Papers cover many aspects of family and farm life. The papers are particularly important in regard to the tobacco culture that defined Southern Maryland for generations. The papers concern two distinct family groups, the Robinson and Via families who are connected through the marriage of Franklin A. Robinson and Adina Mae Via. The papers consist of material generated by the Robinson and Via families in their personal and working lives and as farm owners and operators.

The papers are especially strong in 20th century material. They consist of various types of farm records: account books, bills, receipts, tenant farming agreements, ephemera, land rental and purchase agreements, insurance policies, photographs and 8mm and 16mm films of farming practices and procedures, equipment and landscapes, related to the farming of tobacco, small grains, and livestock. The personal records include diaries, letters both personal and business, greeting cards, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, high school yearbooks, baby books, house plans, recipe books, photographs and 8mm films of birthdays, holidays, weddings, baptisms, family occasions, and family travel, oral histories, and funeral ephemera including photographs, and transcription discs. Of particular interest are the "Serenity Farm Tobacco Production Photographs" documenting the crop year 1999-2000 and the films detailing agricultural practices. There is a memorandum book for Black Walnut Thicket, 1885-1901, the Baden farm in Baden, Prince George's County.

This collection includes a comprehensive range of 8mm and 16mm films and photographs documenting farming practices and landscapes as well as family gatherings, birthdays, holidays, and vacations. The researcher is alerted to the fact that in some cases with the memorandum and account books, books printed for a given year were often saved and used for subsequent years, some were dated, some were not.

The collection is divided into seven series arranged by subject and most often chronologically at folder level within each series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series:

Series 1: Ferndale Farm (Potomac Landing), Prince George's County, Maryland, 1861-1973, undated

Subseries 1.1: Farm papers, bill, and receipts, and publications, 1861-1973, undated

Subseries 1.2: Farm papers, bill, and receipts, 1945-1960, undated

Subseries 1.3: Farm papers, bills, and receipts, 1960-1965, undated

Series 2: Robinson Family, 1845-2017, undated

Subseries 2.1: Family Papers and Publications, 1845-1993, undated

Subseries 2.2: Townshend, Martha Robinson, 1896-1961, undated

Subseries 2.3: Robinson, Frank A., 1899-1970, undated

Subseries 2.4: Robinson, Elizabeth Bourne, 1841-1976, undated

Subseries 2.5: Conner, Mary Robinson, 1938-1985, undated

Subseries 2.6: Robinson, Franklin A., 1932-1997, undated

Subseries 2.6.1: Farming, 1948-1976, undated

Subseries 2.6.2: Financial, 1948-1988, undated

Subseries 2.6.3: 4-H and Future Farmers of America (FFA), 1945-1954, undated

Subseries 2.6.4: Travel, 1959-1970, undated

Subseries 2.7: Robinson, Jr., Franklin A., 1959-2001, undated

Series 3: Serenity Farm, Charles County, Maryland, 1962-2000, undated

Series 4: Via Farm, Calvert County, Maryland, 1954-1987, undated

Series 5: Via Family, 1932-2010, undated

Subseries 5.1: Family papers, 1941-1983, undated

Subseries 5.2: Via, Robert M., 1933-1987, undated

Subseries 5.3: Via, Ida Virginia, 1928-2010, undated

Subseries 5.4: Via, Robert D., 1933-1988, undated

Subseries 5.5: Robinson, Adina Via, 1937-1966, undated

Series 6: Photographs, Photographic Slides, and Photographic Negatives, 1860-2000, undated

Subseries 6.1: Photographs, 1872-2000, undated

Subseries 6.2: Photographic negatives, 1927--2000, undated

Subseries 6.3: Photographic Slides, 1955-1979, undated

Series 7: AudioVisual, 1943-1988
Biographical / Historical:
Robinson Family

The Robinson family is thought to be of Scottish origin and appear in the records of Prince George's County, Maryland by the early 18th century. The line has been definitively traced to James Robinson (?-1849). James' father was probably Benjamin Robinson (?-1810), of Prince George's County, Maryland. (Will Book TT1, pg. 15, Records of Prince George's County, Maryland, Maryland State Archives (MSA))

James Robinson and Sarah Wynn were issued a marriage license on February 28, 1802 in Prince George's County, Maryland. (Marriage Records of Prince George's County, Maryland) Eleven children lived to maturity (not listed in birth order); Thomas Wells (1803-1869), Ann, Priscilla, James Monroe, Benjamin (1813-1882), John C. (1819-1895), Mary Sophia, Thomas Stanley (1800-1874), Alfred, Sarah Ann, Matilda, and Rebecca Maria.

James worked as a farm manager for Benjamin Oden near Upper Marlborough, Prince George's County. (Oden Papers, Maryland Historical Society) The Robinsons and their children, moved to Wood County, Virginia (now West Virginia) by April 18, 1818 where James acted as Oden's land agent (Deed Book 6, pg. 123, Land Records of Wood County, West Virginia). They brought with them three enslaved described in the above reference as, "Kate a woman 45 years of age very black; Colonel a boy aged 8 years yellow complexion: and George a boy aged six years of a dark brown complexion." They settled on part of what was known as the "Burnt Mill" tract in the general area where the Hughes River meets the Little Kanawha River. (Deed Book 9, pg. 110 and Deed Book 14, pg. 40, Land Records of Wood County)

Thomas Wells Robinson may not have accompanied his family to Virginia as he has a presence in Prince George's County prior to 1822 and was employed as a farm manager for Benjamin Oden at least until 1832. He married Elizabeth J. Richards on December 15, 1829 (Robinson Family Bible). They had nine children; Richard Thomas (1831 1906), Rebecca Maria (1832-1895), Mary Wynn (1834-1916), James George (1835-1883), Virlinda Victoria (1837-1838), Elizabeth Ann (1839-1916), Sarah Ann Sophia (1840-1874), Franklin Alexander (1841-1905) and John Alfred (1843); seven lived to maturity. (Robinson Family Bible) Elizabeth died on August 17, 1843 from complications in childbirth. She was buried in the graveyard of Page's Chapel (later known as St. Thomas Episcopal Church), Croom, Prince George's County. In 1843, Thomas purchased the plantation of Dr. Benjamin B. Hodges for $10,000 or approximately $15 an acre. Hodges was a brother-in-law of Benjamin Oden. The deed dated September 7, 1843 describes the parcel as containing, "Six hundred and twenty nine acres of land more or less and constitute that plantation or Estate of the said Benjamin Oden heretofore commonly called "Brown's Quarter Place" being the Land tracts and parcels of land sold by the said Benjamin Oden to the said Benjamin B. Hodges and by deed bearing date the tenth day of December eighteen hundred and thirty five and recorded in Liber AB no. 10 folio 162 also one of the land Records of the County aforesaid". (JBB no. 3 pgs. 312 314, Land Records of Prince George's County) The land was level to rolling bordered on the north by a tributary of Piscataway Creek and generally termed "white oak land". Underlying the whole property was a large strata of gravel and sand. The entire parcel went by the name, Potomac Landing.

Thomas supplemented his land holdings with later purchases. With the exception of twenty acres purchased from Sarah Talbert in 1844, (JBB no. 3 pg. 475, Land Records of Prince George's County) and the purchase of lot #3 consisting of 195 acres, part of the estate of John Townshend in 1856, these purchases were not contiguous to Potomac Landing. By the time of his death in 1869 these non-contiguous parcels had been sold. Thomas sold eighty-six acres of Potomac Landing and Jeffries to Edward Eversfield in October of 1843. (JBB no. 3, pg. 198, Land Records of Prince George's County) On January 13, 1846 Thomas married the widow Martha Ann Walls, daughter of George and Martha Naylor Walls. They had two sons; Benjamin Wells (1848-1849) and Robert Henry (1851-1937).

In addition to his sons, Thomas owned enslaved. The number varied from six in 1849 (JBB 6, folio 186, Land Records of Prince Georges' County) to eleven as noted in the census for 1850, and finally six as noted in the census of 1860. The 1867 Maryland Slave Statistics noted that, "at the time of the adoption of the Constitution of Maryland, in the year 1864, . . ." Thomas owned six enslaved, their names and ages being; Isaac Franklin age 31, Alfred West age 19, Susan West age 17, Margaret Franklin age 14, Fannie Franklin age 12, and Peter Franklin age 9. All were noted as being in good physical condition. (Prince Georges' County Slave Statistics 1867 1869, C 1307 1, MdHR:6198, page 185, MSA)

Thomas's financial problems began in the mid-1800s when Deeds of Trust appear in the county records securing outstanding loans. In 1856 and 1857 Thomas joined with others as bondsman for his son, Richard who was serving as "Collector of the State and County Taxes" for the 4th collection district, making he and the other signatories liable for any uncollected taxes. This, coupled with poor investments, led to his almost being "sold out" in 1859-1860 by J.W. & E. Reynolds of Baltimore to pay his debts. He executed three drafts on Penn & Mitchell, also of Baltimore, to pay off J.W. & E. Reynolds. (Equity Case #597, Prince Georges' County) Thomas was in poor health and his son James managed the farm in 1857 and 1858, and again from 1861 to October of 1862 (Equity Case #873, Prince Georges' County)

In October of 1862 Thomas' two sons, James and Franklin, traveled to Richmond to join the Confederate States Army. James enrolled in the 5th Battalion, Local Defense Arsenal and Franklin enrolled in the 5th Virginia Infantry, the Stonewall Brigade. (CSA Military Records, National Archives) James visited home frequently but was captured by the Union Army in St. Mary's County, Maryland on May 15, 1864 and spent the remainder of the war in Point Lookout Prison Camp. He was released on May 14, 1865. Franklin was not able to visit home at all during the war but survived to return home in 1865. In 1865, Thomas surveyed a parcel of 172 acres for his daughter Rebecca Maria. Rebecca had married her second cousin, William B. Robertson, on November 18, 1855. He made a gift of fifty acres, and Rebecca agreed to purchase the remainder. The Robertsons named this parcel Holly Grove. In Equity Case #849 (1872) filed after Thomas' death, his widow Martha and Samuel H. Berry, as executrix and executor, sought to recover payment for this land. At that time, William B. Robertson described this 172 acres of Potomac Landing: "There was no fences on the line which separated this land from the old gentleman's land, but he was to put a fence on it which he agreed to do before we agreed to come there. The land was thin, unimproved, with gullies and scrubby pine. If witness had been a judge of land he would not have given five dollars for it. All the improvements were one comfortable quarter the other indifferent with a poor oak shingle roof, worn out which made it not tenantable." Further along in his testimony, William gave an account of a conversation, "In a few days my father in law Thos. W. Robinson came to Washington and told me there his children had returned from the South, his two sons, that his debts were small and he was a happy man." Rebecca and William built a house on the property, a side-hall, double parlor plan that most likely her brother James was builder. They also built accompanying farm structures. (Records of Prince George's County, Maryland, Equity Case #849, MSA)

Thomas' son, Franklin, managed the farm after the War. In December 1868 Thomas entered into a sharecropping agreement with Edward Hanson, an African-American. After about a year-long illness, on May 16, 1869, Thomas died, deeply in debt. He was buried beside Elizabeth in the graveyard at St. Thomas' Church. He named as executrix his wife, Martha, and his friend and lawyer, Samuel H. Berry, as executor. His will divided the farm into thirds, one third going to his wife and their son Robert Henry, one third to his son James, and one third to his son Franklin. The land was surveyed according to the will. His personal property was sold but not enough profit was realized to pay off his creditors. The Commissioners of Prince George's County sued the estate on behalf of Thomas' creditors. The outcome was that in 1876 the property was sold at public auction. The Notice of Sale dated September 1, 1876 in the local county newspaper, The Prince Georgian, describes the farm as, "containing 514 2/3 acres More or less. The Improvements consist of a SMALL DWELLING, Three Barns, Stabling, and other necessary outbuildings. It is well wooded and watered, and the soil of fair quality. It has recently been divided into three lots and will be offered in lots, a description of which will be given at the time of sale." The sale was held on September 27, 1876, Lot No. 1 was purchased by Robert for $6.00 an acre, Lot #2 was purchased by Franklin for $5.00 an acre and Lot #3 was purchased by James for $4.00 per acre. Robert and Franklin eventually paid off their mortgage, but James defaulted on his purchase and later moved to St. Mary's County, Maryland. His portion later came to be owned by the Hawkins family, some members who had worked on the Robinson farm. (Equity Case #873, Prince Georges' County, MSA)

Lot #1, purchased by Robert from his fathers' estate, consisted of 177-1/3 acres, including the dwelling and farm buildings. On July 24, 1872, he married Amanda Malvina Baden (1849-1940), daughter of Robert W. G. and Margaret Caroline Early Baden. The Baden and Early families were both prominent south county families. Robert and Amanda had eight children; Caroline Early (1873 1967), Lucy Tennent (1875 1958), Albert Henry (1878 1914), Martha Perry (1880 1961), Robert Gover (1882 1882), Frank Alexander (1883 1970), Margaret Baden (1886 1956) and Grace Malvina (1889 1965).

By 1880 Robert had paid off his debt on the property and was fully engaged in farming. Unlike his father, or perhaps because of his father, Robert did not add to his land holdings, choosing to remain relatively debt free for his lifetime. The only land transactions he participated in were the sales of 79-3/4 acres in 1921 of Amanda's inheritance from her father and her interest in two smaller parcels of her father's land sold in 1894 and 1928 respectively. In 1928 he transferred 3.09 acres to his son Frank.

As late as the Federal census of 1880, Franklin was living with Robert and his household, both men engaged in farming. Sometime after 1880, Franklin took up residence on his part of Potomac Landing. His brother James most likely built the side-hall double parlor house that copied the main house at Potomac Landing. On February 18, 1897, Martha Robinson, died at the age of ninety. She was buried in the graveyyard of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden, Prince George's County. Robert continued cultivation of tobacco and small grains as his father before him. The first reference to the farm being named Ferndale is found in the "Communion Record" of Robert's daughter, Martha Perry "Pattie", dated 1896. (Robinson and Via Family Papers) The exact origin or reason for this new name is lost but perhaps the name Potomac Landing held such bitter memories of debt and hardship that, as a symbolic break with the past, a new name was found. It also may have simply been a way to distinguish this portion of Potomac Landing from the others. The farm continued to be listed on tax bills as Potomac Landing well into the 20th century, but was known to the general public and businesses as the Ferndale Farm. (Robinson and Via Family Papers)

Robert served as deputy inspector at the State Tobacco Warehouse in Baltimore for eight years under W.B. Bowie. He also served on the Board of Directors of the Bank of Brandywine. In July of 1905, Franklin died, a bachelor farmer. He was buried facing south in the graveyard of the Church of the Atonement, Cheltenham, (a chapel in St. Thomas' Episcopal Parish) where he had served as vestryman, treasurer, and cemetery custodian. Franklin died intestate and a lengthy process of dividing his estate began. This resulted in the sale of his part of Potomac Landing (Lot #2) in July 1908 to William E. Boswell. The court declared Robert ineligible for any inheritance due to his being " . . . a brother of the half blood." The Boswell family later sold the property to the Billingsley family of St. Mary's County. (Equity Case 3209, Prince George's County)

In 1910, after living in the farm's original home for approximately sixty seven years, the Robinson family built a new home. It was described in a 1956 insurance policy as, "2 story, frame, metal roof, 16x43, wing 14x28, 9 rooms." (Robinson and Via Family Papers) The house design was a simple Victorian with plastered walls, and lit by carbide gas. Electrical lighting was installed in 1951. The house was built with monies from Robert and Amanda, and their son Frank, who served as builder and contractor.

On Tuesday March 9, 1937, "During a celebration in honor of his wifes birthday anniversary, Mr. Robinson collapsed at the table and died immediately without a word or a sigh." (Robinson and Via Family Papers) Robert was buried beside his mother in the cemetery at St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden.

At Robert's death, Ferndale Farm was valued at $30.00 an acre, the total acreage, 174 acres, being valued in the whole at $5,220.00. Robert died intestate, again the fate of the land was in question. He left eight heirs, his widow, Amanda, six of his children and his son Albert Henry's only surviving child, R. Henry Robinson. Rather than have the farm sold and his mother's life disrupted, Frank purchased the estate and personal property from the heirs. Before this could take place, a deed had to be granted the heirs for the property since one had never been recorded after the 1876 sale. Equity case 873 was reopened sixty-two years after its supposed resolution. Frank testified, "over a period of about thirty years I would on a number of occasions, talk about the fact that he had purchased and paid for this property and that a deed had never been executed to him and [he] kept saying he was going to have someone straighten this matter out for him." It was discovered that Robert had fully paid for his part of Potomac Landing. On February 14, 1938 the farm was deeded from Amanda along with Robert''s heirs to Frank. (Book 499, page 334, Land Records of Prince George's County) According to the deed and a 1937 fire insurance policy the farm consisted of 177 1/3 acres, "1 two story dwelling, one tenant house, 1 barrack, 1 tobacco barn, 1 corn house & cow stable, 1 Stable, and 1 Granary & Stable." (Robinson and Via Family Papers)

Frank A. Robinson, now the sole owner of Ferndale Farm, was born August 17, 1883. He learned farming and in addition took up the trade of builder and contractor. As a young man, he worked in the general store of his uncle Robert Baden. He was the contractor for the first Bank of Brandywine and many homes in and around the town of Brandywine, including the home of his cousin Robert E. Baden, DDS. He was secretary of the Building Committee for construction of the Chapel of the Incarnation in Brandywine, a mission chapel for St. Thomas' Episcopal Parish. His success in the building trade gave him disposable income that he invested in land. His first purchase was in August, 1915 of a 2-9/100 acre of land in Brandywine that was being sold by the Board of County School Commissioners; the purchase price was $300. In March 1916 he purchased 38.09 acres of his Uncle Franklin's farm. This property adjoined Ferndale Farm. Over the next fifty-four years of his life, Frank bought and sold many pieces of real estate. Perhaps his most significant purchases were: 18-1/3 acres purchased from The German American Colonization Land Company of Maryland in October 1915 (Book 115, pg. 140, Land Records of Prince George's County); 147.99 acres purchased from August and Wilhelmina Noltensmeir in December 1917 (Book 129, pg. 263, Land Records of Prince George's County) and 320 acres called the Vineyard purchased from William M. Wilson in March 1928. Frank used these three parcels as collateral for other purchases. Never once did he mortgage Ferndale Farm, insuring that no matter what financial stormy seas might blow, his home was secure. Over the course of his life, especially in the case of the Noltensmeir farm, when cash was needed a parcel of land would be surveyed off and sold. He inherited his grandfather Thomas' love of land but had fortunately developed a shrewd business sense to go along with it.

On November 20, 1929, he married Elizabeth Freeland Bourne, daughter of Joseph Blake and Maria Gantt Bourne of Calvert County, Maryland. They had three children: Mary Elizabeth (1930-2009), Franklin Alexander (1932-2023), and Robert Lee (1935-1997). In addition to his construction business he continued farming, raising tobacco, hay, and small grains. He engaged in sharecropping with tenants on his various properties. He was active in community affairs serving on the Board of The Maryland Tobacco Growers Association (MTGA), the Vestry of St. Thomas Parish, and as sheriff of Brandywine. On January 9, 1940 Amanda Baden Robinson died. She was buried next to her husband at St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden. In February 1958, Frank and Elizabeth conveyed 1.57 acres of Ferndale Farm to son Franklin where he and his fiancée, Adina M. Via, were building their new home prior to their marriage in July of that same year.

The booming economy and suburbanization of the Washington metropolitan area in the early 1960's led to the high quality gravel lying beneath Ferndale into becoming a valuable commodity. In October 1962, Franklin and his parents granted a three-year lease to William C. Nolte for mining sand and gravel on the Ferndale Farm at .174 per yard. (Book 2747, pg. 11, Land Records of Prince George's County) From now until 1975 when the property was sold, gravel would be mined from under the farm by various companies. In November 1962, Elizabeth and Frank transferred to Franklin the 38.09 acres Frank had purchased from Fitzhugh Billingsley in 1916. (Book 2754, pg. 99, Land Records of Prince George's County) That same year they transferred 6.754 acres, part of the Vineyard, to son Robert and his wife Lois, (Book 2765, pg. 201, Land Records of Prince George's County)

On December 28, 1965, Frank and Elizabeth participated in a land exchange/purchase of the farm of Ralph W. and Cordelia H. Brown located along the Patuxent River in Benedict, Charles County, Maryland. Franklin had rented this farm the year before and was impressed enough by its location and arability to work out a purchase. Frank and Elizabeth traded 65.9920 acres that would eventually become Franklin's under Frank's will. On February 21, 1966 they deeded the Charles County farm to Franklin and Adina. Adina named this property Serenity Farm. The property consisted of 480.66 acres. (Liber 179, page 708 etc., Land Records of Charles County)

On February 5, 1970, after a short illness, Frank died at Cafritz Memorial Hospital. He was buried at St. Paul's Episcopal Church near his parents. In his will, probated March 4, 1970 he left thirty acres of the property purchased from the German American Land Company and A. Noltensmeir to Elizabeth. He willed forty acres of the same parcel to daughter Mary Robinson Conner. The remainder of Ferndale Farm was willed to Franklin and the remaining acreage of the Vineyard was left to Robert Lee. Franklin Alexander Robinson was born August 13, 1932 at the Garfield Hospital in Washington, D.C.. He received his schooling in the public school system of Prince George's County, graduating from Gwynn Park High School in June 1951. He was a charter member of Gwynn Park's chapter of The Future Farmers of America. He was extremely active in FFA, achieving the Degree of Maryland Farmer in 1950 and their highest award, the Degree of American Farmer at their convention in Kansas City, Missouri in October 1953. He obtained his private pilots license in 1954. He entered the United States Army in February 1955 and went through basic training at Camp Gordon, Augusta, Georgia. After basic training he was transferred to Camp Hanford, Washington State. There he worked part time on the farm of Dick and Theresa Laurent during his off duty hours and began a lifelong friendship with them. He returned home to farming on an agricultural discharge in October of 1956. On July 27, 1958 he married his high school sweetheart, Adina Mae Via, daughter of Robert Milton and Virginia Woods Via. They had three children: Franklin Alexander (1959), Robert David (1962), and Adina Theresa (1963).

Franklin continued expanding and improving the farming operation by modern methods and means. At times, he farmed over one thousand acres, both owned and rented. On February 21, 1966, his parents deeded their purchase of the Ralph W. and Cordelia H. Brown farm in Benedict to he and Adina, later known as Serenity Farm Franklin and Adina engaged an architect to draft house plans for an anticipated new residence. A small A frame vacation home was built on the property so the family could spend weekends there.

On December 14, 1966, after a long illness, Adina died from complications associated with Hodgkin's Disease. She was buried in Trinity Memorial Gardens, Waldorf, Charles County. Franklin married Margaret Walker Lennox (nee Tallen, known as Rita) on August 21, 1970 (Marriage Records of Prince George's County, Maryland). This marriage ended in divorce in 1977. There were no children from this marriage.

On July 14, 1975 the Robinson family, Franklin, his second wife, Margaret, her daughter Margaret W. Lennox, Franklin, Jr., R. David, A. Theresa and Elizabeth B. Robinson, moved to Serenity Farm. On July 17, 1975 Franklin and Elizabeth sold the remaining acreage of Ferndale Farm to Brandywine Sand and Gravel, thus ending 131 years of ownership by the Robinson family. Elizabeth Bourne Robinson died on July 15, 1976 and was buried beside her husband at St. Paul's Church, Baden. Franklin married Hiltrud (Ceddie) Harris (nee Sedlacek) on July 15, 1978. (Robinson Family Bible) This marriage ended in divorce in 1986. There were no children from this marriage. Franklin married Diedre Gale Merhiage on April 19, 1989; this marriage ended in divorce in 1997. There were no children from this marriage. He married Remelda Henega Buenavista on January 13, 2007.

The Robinson family continue day-to-day operations of Serenity Farm. The land is well suited to the growing of tobacco and small grains, which crops, (with the exception of tobacco) along with a flock of sheep, are cultivated there to the present time. After the crop year 2001 the Robinson family took the tobacco buyout program offered by the state of Maryland and ceased growing tobacco. Franklin is active in farming and community affairs having served on the vestry of St. Thomas Episcopal Parish, the Board of Directors of the Maryland Tobacco Growers Association (MTGA), the Board of the Production Credit Association, the Boards of three schools, Holy Trinity Day School, Queen Anne School, and Calverton School, and numerous other organizations. Currently the farm consists of approximately 275 acres. In 1981 a state agricultural land preservation district of 222.755 acres was created. This was the first such district in Charles County and one of the first in the state of Maryland.

Via Family

The Via family traces its origins to the colony of Virginia, where the probable progenitor of the line, Amer Via, a French Huguenot, settled in Manakin Town, Albemarle County between 1670-1700. It is impossible to trace the Via line definitively due to the loss of Virginia county records during the Civil War.

The Via family line covered in this collection can be definitively traced to William Via of Fredericksville Parish, Louisa (later Albemarle) County, Virginia. The William Via family lived west of the present day town of Whitehall at the base of the Blue Ridge Mountains, an area commonly known as Sugar Hollow. William Via III served in the Virginia Line during the Revolutionary War. He married Mary Craig, daughter of Thomas Craig and Jane Jameson, on March 17, 1784. William died on June 27, 1836, in Albemarle County (Rev. War Pension Appl. 6363, National Archives). His son Thomas married Sally, widow Griffin, on January 1, 1811 (Albemarle County Marriage Records). Their son, Hiram Karl Via (1812-1893), married Harriet Ardenia Naylor by license dated March 7, 1836 (Albemarle County Marriage Records).

Hiram and Harriet's son, Robert St. Clair Via (1844-1925), served as a private in Company I, 7th Virginia Infantry of the Confederate States Army (CSA Military Service Records, National Archives). After the war he married his first cousin, Mary Frances Naylor, daughter of Samuel Chapman Naylor and Eliza Jane Gardner, on April 3, 1866 in Rockingham County (Rockingham County, Virginia, Marriage Records). Sometime between 1870 and 1872, they moved to Linn County, Missouri, and settled about seven miles from the town of Bucklin. Their son, Hiram Chapman Via (1872-1933), was born there. In 1893, the family returned to Virginia, and settled on a farm in Greene County near the town of Stanardsville.

Hiram Chapman Via operated a mill as well as a farm. On March 15, 1899, he married Adina Eleanor Eusebia Runkle, daughter of Milton D. L. Runkle and Roberta A. Beadles (Greene County, Virginia, Marriage Records). They had three children: Bernice Olive (1902-1999), Robert Milton (1906-1983), and Deward Daniel (1909-1977).

Robert moved to Washington, D.C.. In December 1927 he began employment with the Capitol Traction Company as a streetcar conductor (Robinson and Via Family Papers). During the early 1930s, Robert rented a townhouse at 715 A St., SE, where he lived with his sister Bernice V. McMullan and her son, William C. McMullan; his brother and sister in law, and his parents. Next door, at 717, lived the Moses Albright family, including Moses's stepdaughter Ida Virginia Woods (1914-2010), daughter of Jesse Lee Woods (1894-1918) and Donna Mae Barker (1896-1928) of Frederick County, Maryland. Robert and Virginia began a courtship and on September 3, 1932 were married in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland (Frederick County, Maryland, Marriage Records).

After their marriage, Robert and Virginia lived in various locations in the Washington metropolitan area. Their first child, Robert Delano, was born on March 24, 1933, and their second child, Adina Mae, was born on April 12, 1937. Virginia was employed outside the home while her children were in school. Her first job before her marriage had been with Woolworth's in Martinsburg, WV working the candy counter and then before the birth of her son at The Hecht Company on F St. in Washington, D.C.. After her marriage she worked briefly for the United States Postal Service in Capitol Heights, Maryland. Beginning in the 1950s, she worked first at the Hecht Company department store on 7th Street in the District and later for Charles of the Ritz as a receptionist in their beauty salon located in Woodward & Lothrop's F Street store in Washington, D.C.. She also worked as salon manager at the Charles of the Ritz salons in the Woodward & Lothrop stores in Seven Corners, Virginia, and Chevy Chase, Maryland. She retired due to health reasons in 1973.

On September 10, 1941, Robert and Virginia purchased Lot #43 in Woodlane subdivision in Prince George's County. (Book 619, pg. 12, Land Records of Prince George's County) A house was designed for them for this lot by Clyde E. Phillips. They did not construct a home on this property due to the outbreak of World War II. Robert, due to his employment in public transportation, did not serve with the Armed Services in World War II. On October 18, 1946, they purchased approximately thirty acres bordering on Burch's Creek near the towns of Clinton, also know as Surrattsville, and T.B. in Prince George's County from Joseph H. and M. Pauline Blandford. (Book 873, pg. 483, Land Records of Prince George's County) Over the next three years, hiring private contractors, doing work themselves, and with the help of Robert's brother Deward, they built the two story house designed by Phillips in 1941. They moved to the farm from Capitol Heights in 1949. Robert raised hogs, small grains and a crop of tobacco yearly on this farm and also maintained his job with Capitol Transit (formerly Capitol Traction). In 1954, Robert and Virginia purchased a farm of approximately 150 acres in Island Creek, Calvert County, Maryland. The intention was for Robert and his son to enter into a full time farming operation on expanded acreage. Robert D. Via, known as Delano, graduated from Gwynn Park High School in June 1951. Delano was a part-time farmer and pursued a career as a country and western singer with Bashful Bob and the Rhythm Rangers, he being Bashful Bob. He was employed in various jobs, and began a tour in the Army in 1953. By the time the Via family moved to Calvert County in 1956, he decided to pursue careers other than farming. He eventually traveled and worked in various parts of the United States. He married first Delores Cooper, second Gloria J. Irick, and finally Candice Marinelli in December 1974, they had two children, Robert Marin (1975) and Kirstin Marin (1976).

On June 1, 1956 Robert resigned from his position at Capitol Transit due to health reasons. He and his family moved to the farm in Island Creek, Calvert County where he began full time farming. He and Virginia sold the thirty-acre farm in Prince George's County on June 21, 1956 to Melvin C. and Geraldine H. Rardia. (Book 2003, pg. 564, Land Records of Prince George's County) Virginia continued her employment with Charles of the Ritz. Adina, now a graduate of Gwynn Park High School, was employed by the USAF at Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs, Maryland. They both commuted daily from Calvert County to their places of employment.

Robert farmed in Calvert County, raising hogs, cattle, small grains and tobacco. Over the course of the next twenty-seven years, Robert and Virginia sold smaller parcels off the farm. In 1974, Robert and Virginia built a small retirement home designed for them by Calvert Masonry Contractors. Robert died on December 22, 1983. He was buried beside his daughter Adina in Trinity Memorial Gardens. At the time of Robert's death, the farm consisted of 28.694 acres. In 1998, Virginia deeded the remainder of the farm, then less than six acres, to her grandson, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr. who sold all but a one-acre lot in April 1999.

Virginia continued to live on the farm in Calvert County, maintaining a small herd of cattle. In the fall of 1989 Franklin, Jr. went to live with her. In 1993, the onset of Alzheimer's Disease required her to move to Serenity Farm and take up residence with her granddaughter A. Theresa. Virginia participated in various studies on Alzheimer's Disease conducted by the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland beginning in 1992. She was profiled in the September 1997 issue of Washingtonian Magazine. In October of 1998 she moved to All American Senior Care in Brandywine, Maryland and in 1999 she moved to Morningside, an elderly care facility in Waldorf, Maryland. In 2002, she moved to St. Mary's Nursing Center in Leonardtown, Maryland. The remainder of the farm was sold in 1999 and 2002. She died January 14, 2010 and was buried at Trinity Memorial Gardens in Waldorf.

Adina Mae Via was born April 12, 1937 at the Homeopathic Hospital in Washington, D.C.. Adina grew up in Washington, D.C. attending public schools. She moved with her family to the Burch's Creek farm, Prince George's County, in 1949. She enrolled in the Prince George's County school system, and graduated from Gwynn Park High School in June of 1955. After graduation, she was employed by the USAF at Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs.

In July of 1956, she moved with her family to the Via farm in Island Creek, Calvert County. On July 27, 1958 she married Franklin A. Robinson at the Chapel of the Incarnation. They had three children: Franklin Alexander (1959), Robert David (1962) and Adina Theresa (1963). In the fall of 1958, she and Franklin took up residence in the home they had built on Ferndale Farm. She resigned from her position with the USAF in 1959.

On December 14, 1966, at Providence Hospital in Washington, DC, Adina died from complications due to Hodgkin's Disease. She had been battling this disease for many years prior to her death. She was buried in Trinity Memorial Gardens, Charles County.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

The Maryland Historical Society holds items (costume, farming related implements) related to the Robinson and Via families.
Separated Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry (Agriculture Collection) holds agricultural implements and artifacts associated with both the Robinson farms and the Via farm; the Division of Home and Community Life holds clothing, textiles (crib quilt), jewelry, cosmetics and Adina M. Robinson's sewing box and dress patterns; (Costume and Textiles Collection). See accession numbers: 1989.0688, 1990.0394, 1991.0010; 1991.0722, 1992.0184, 1992.0283, 1992.0321, 1992.0474, 1992.3106, 1994.0064, 1994.0304, 1997.0327, 1998.0038, 1998.0129, 2001.0196, 2002.0087, 2003.0015, 2005.0009.

Division of Armed Forces History (now Division of Olitical and Military History, National Numismatics Collection) holds the Robert M. Via Trolley Token Collection.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center, by Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., in November 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farms -- Maryland  Search this
Holidays  Search this
Amusement parks -- California  Search this
Children's parties  Search this
Rural women  Search this
Sheep ranches  Search this
Parks -- California  Search this
Rural families  Search this
Tobacco -- Harvesting  Search this
Tobacco -- Storage  Search this
Street-railroads  Search this
Street-railroads -- Employees  Search this
Travel  Search this
Urban transportation  Search this
Work and family  Search this
Tobacco curing  Search this
Women in agriculture  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Farm buildings  Search this
Family recreation  Search this
Family festivals  Search this
Farm ownership  Search this
Farm life -- 20th century  Search this
Farm management  Search this
Illiterate persons  Search this
Christmas  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Students  Search this
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Family farms  Search this
Easter  Search this
Electric railroads  Search this
Acting -- 1980-2000  Search this
Amateur films  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Agriculture -- 20th century -- Maryland  Search this
Tobacco farmers  Search this
Housewives -- United States  Search this
Weddings  Search this
Farmers  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 20th century
Postcards
Baby books
Phonograph records
Postcard albums
Ephemera
School yearbooks
Diaries
Albums
Housebooks
Photographs -- 19th century
Snapshots
Home movies
Family papers
Scrapbooks
Funeral registers
Architectural drawings
Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0475
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86b1972cf-a789-45ec-8f3e-fb780d43456d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0475
Online Media:

Scrapbook

Medium:
Medium: paper, cotton, silk, metallic thread
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 19.3 x 25.4 x 2.1 cm (7 5/8 x 10 x 13/16 in.)
Type:
sample books
Scrapbook
Made in:
Japan
Date:
1905
Accession Number:
1905-14-1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Textiles Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq49ae56393-4fe9-4a7a-a6f7-0bda4c9ff517
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1905-14-1

Scrapbook

Medium:
Medium: silk, wool, cotton Technique: a variety of weave structures
Dimensions:
H x W x D (closed): 54 × 35.5 × 5.5 cm (21 1/4 in. × 14 in. × 2 3/16 in.)
Type:
sample books
Scrapbook
Made in:
probably Lyon, France
Date:
1890–1900
Credit Line:
Bequest of Benjamin E. Marks
Accession Number:
1967-54-14
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Textiles Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq4af244fe5-d71f-4fc8-83d1-353fc512c2e5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1967-54-14

Macbeth Gallery records, 1947-1948, bulk 1892-1953

Creator:
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Stuart, Gilbert  Search this
Weir, Robert Walter  Search this
Macbeth, William  Search this
McIntyre, Robert G. (Robert George)  Search this
Macbeth, Robert W. (Robert Walker)  Search this
Hartley, Marsden  Search this
Homer, Winslow  Search this
Type:
Daguerreotypes
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Macbeth Gallery records, 1947-1948, bulk 1892-1953. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Eight (Group of American artists)  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Theme:
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9703
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211939
AAA_collcode_macbgall
Theme:
Art Gallery Records
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211939
Online Media:

Macbeth Gallery records

Creator:
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
Names:
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Macbeth, Robert W. (Robert Walker), 1884-1940  Search this
Macbeth, William, 1851-1917  Search this
McIntyre, Robert G. (Robert George), b. 1885  Search this
Stuart, Gilbert, 1755-1828  Search this
Weir, Robert Walter, 1803-1889  Search this
Extent:
131.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Daguerreotypes
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1947-1948
1838-1968
bulk 1892-1953
Summary:
The Macbeth Gallery records provide almost complete coverage of the gallery's operations from its inception in 1892 to its closing in 1953. Through extensive correspondence files, financial and inventory records, printed material, scrapbooks, reference and research material, and photographs of artists and works of art, the records document all aspects of the gallery's activities, charting William Macbeth's initial intention to lease his store "for the permanent exhibition and sale of American pictures" through over sixty years of success as a major New York firm devoted to American art. The collection measures 131.6 linear feet and dates from 1838 to 1968 with the bulk of the material dating from 1892 to 1953.
Scope and Content Note:
The Macbeth Gallery records provide almost complete coverage of the gallery's operations from its inception in 1892 to its closing in 1953. The records document all aspects of the gallery's activities, charting William Macbeth's initial intention to lease his store "for the permanent exhibition and sale of American pictures" through over sixty years of success as a major New York firm devoted to American art. The collection measures 131.6 linear feet and dates from 1838 to 1968 with the bulk of the material dating from 1892 to 1953.

The gallery's correspondence files form the core of the collection and illuminate most aspects of American art history: the creation and sale of works of art, the development of reputations, the rise of museums and art societies, change and resistance to change in the art market, and the evolution of taste. Ninety-five feet of correspondence house substantial and informative letters from dozens of important American painters and sculptors, including older artists and younger contemporaries of the gallery in its later years. There are also letters from collectors, curators, other galleries, and critics.

The financial files found in the collection offer insight into the changing economic climate in which the gallery operated. They include information ranging from the details of individual sales and the market for individual artists, to consignment activities and artist commissions, to overviews of annual sales. This information is augmented by the firm's inventory records and the photographs of artwork with their accompanying records of paintings sold. The inventory records provide details of all works of art handled by the gallery, both sold and unsold, and the buyers who purchased them; the photographs of artwork include images of artwork sold with accompanying sales information.

The highlight of the gallery's printed material is the publication Art Notes. Although published only until 1930, Art Notes provides an excellent and detailed view of the gallery's exhibition schedule and the relationship of the gallery owners with many of the artists whose work they handled. It was a house organ that also provided a running commentary on events in the art world. The gallery's 19 fragile scrapbooks, maintained throughout the firm's history, provide further coverage of activities through exhibition catalogs and related news clippings. Printed material from other sources provides a frame of reference for activities in the art world from the mid-19th to the mid-20th-centuries and includes an almost complete run of the rare and important pre-Civil War art publication The Crayon.

Reference files record the interest which the gallery owners took in the work of early portrait painters and in later artists such as George Inness and Winslow Homer. Together with the immense volume of correspondence with buyers and sellers of paintings by the great portraitists and the Hudson River School found in the gallery's correspondence files, these records are still useful sources of information today and underscore the deep interest that the Macbeths and Robert McIntyre took in 18th and 19th-century American art.

The photographs of artists found here are a treasure trove of images of some of the major figures of the 19th and 20th-centuries. There are photographs of artists such as Chester Beach, Emil Carlsen, Charles Melville Dewey, Frederick Carl Frieseke, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, George Inness, Maurice Prendergast, and Julian Alden Weir, many of them original prints and the majority of them autographed.

With the exception of the "The Eight" and a few of their contemporaries, an important aspect of art history, the modernist movement, is generally represented in the Macbeth Gallery records only in a negative form as the three successive proprietors of the gallery showed very little interest in this area. Nevertheless, the collection is a highly significant source of information on many of the major and minor figures in American art in the period after 1890.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Correspondence, 1838-1968 (Box 1-95, 163-164, OV 165; 96.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Financial and Shipping Records, 1892-1956 (Box 96-110; 11.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Inventory Records, 1892-circa 1957 (Box 111-113; 3.0 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1838-1963 (Box 114-119, 162; 5.0 linear feet)

Series 5: Scrapbooks, 1892-1952 (Box 120-130; 3.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Reference Files, 1839-1959 (Box 131-132; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Miscellaneous Files, 1912-1956 (Box 133-134; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1880-circa 1968 (Box 135-161; 12.1 linear feet)
Historical Note:
The Macbeth Gallery was established in 1892 by William Macbeth, a Scotch-Irish immigrant who had spent ten years with the print dealer Frederick Keppel before he opened his doors to the art-buying public at 237 Fifth Avenue in New York. Despite the prevailing interest in foreign art at that time, particularly in that of the Barbizon and Dutch schools, Macbeth was determined to dedicate his gallery to "the permanent exhibition and sale of American pictures, both in oil and water colors."

Although some of the gallery's earliest exhibitions were of work by European artists, the business soon became the only gallery in continuous operation that kept American art permanently on display. In the January 1917 issue of Art Notes, Macbeth recounts those early days remembering that "The opening of my gallery......was a rash venture under the existing conditions, and disaster was freely predicted." Nevertheless, he struggled through the financial crisis of 1893 and persisted with his devotion to American art; slowly the market for his pictures grew more amenable.

Macbeth moved to more spacious quarters at 450 Fifth Avenue in 1906 and two years later undertook what was to become the major event in the gallery's early history: the 1908 exhibition of "The Eight," featuring work by Arthur B. Davies, Willam J. Glackens, Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, and John Sloan. "The Eight" were an unlikely combination of social realists, visionaries and impressionists eager to challenge the dominating influence of the National Academy. The exhibition received an immense amount of publicity and instantly entered into art history as a successful assault on tradition.

Despite the splash that the exhibition made and its implications for the future of American art, nothing that the gallery did subsequently indicated that Macbeth intended to capitalize on its significance. It is true that Macbeth supported many artists later considered leaders in American art when the public would pay no attention to them because of their modernist tendencies; Arthur B. Davies, Paul Dougherty, Maurice Prendergast, Theodore Robinson, and F. Ballard Williams all held their first exhibitions at his gallery. Nevertheless, neither Macbeth nor the gallery's two successive proprietors, Robert G. McIntyre (William's nephew) and Robert Macbeth (William's son), who joined the gallery in 1903 and 1906 respectively, ever developed a true interest in modern art. The November 1930 issue of Art Notes summarizes their collective disdain for modernism, stating: "We believe that, by and large, modern art is amusing. We are heretical enough to believe that much of it was started for the amusement of its creators and that no one was more surprised than they when it was taken seriously by a certain audience to whom the bizarre and the unintelligible always makes an appeal." So while the Macbeths and McIntyre cetainly championed American artists and insisted they deserved as much recognition as the Europeans, their deepest and most abiding interest was undoubtedly the established artists of the 18th and 19th-centuries and those of the early 20th-century who continued in a more conservative style. Artists such as Emil Carlsen, Charles Harold Davis, Frederick C. Frieseke, Robert Henri, Winslow Homer, Chauncey F. Ryder, Abbot Handerson Thayer, J. Francis Murphy, A. H. Wyant were the gallery's bread and butter.

When William Macbeth died in 1917 Robert Macbeth took up the reins with the assistance of Robert G. McIntyre . Although they incorporated the business as William Macbeth, Inc., in 1918 the gallery continued to be known, as it always would be, simply as Macbeth Gallery. Macbeth and McIntyre continued to show work in the same vein as the elder Macbeth. They concentrated primarily on oil paintings at this time, having found by the 1920s that "oils are all that our gallery owners will buy," though they also exhibited an occasional group of watercolors and pastels in addition to bronzes and other sculpture by contemporary American artists such as Chester Beach and Janet Scudder.

Of the early American painters the Macbeths and McIntyre were particularly interested in colonial portraits and miniatures, especially those painted by prominent artists in the latter part of the eighteenth century such as John Singleton Copley, Gilbert Stuart, Thomas Sully and John Trumbull. In its early years the gallery also handled the work of a few prominent American etchers including Frank W. Benson, Emil Fuchs, Daniel Garber, Childe Hassam and Chauncey F. Ryder. The print department was generally discontinued, however, in the late 1930s although the gallery continued to show prints by contemporaries such as Stow Wengenroth.

In 1924 relative prosperity allowed the gallery to move uptown to 15 East Fifty-seventh Street. When the 1930s brought new financial hardship for the gallery Macbeth and McIntyre took a variety of approaches to boosting sales. In 1930 they decided to hold only group exhibitions throughout the season to the exclusion of one-man shows, and also held some special exhibitions of paintings priced at a hundred dollars each in the hope that they could tempt those "willing to take advantage of a rare chance to secure representative examples of good art at a most attractive price." A move to smaller quarters at 15 East Fifty-seventh Street in 1935 was made with the intention of concentrating their efforts on the work of fewer contemporary artists, while continuing to handle the work of the older Americans they had long supported.

When Macbeth died suddenly and unexpectedly in August 1940 following an operation for appendicitis, McIntyre continued to run the gallery with the assistance of Hazel Lewis. During the 1940s McIntyre and Lewis showed primarily contemporary art in a wide range of media including oil, watercolor, pastel, drawing and sculpture, while continuing, as always, to show the occasional group of 19th-century Americans. The great success of the gallery's later years was undeniably Andrew Wyeth whose first exhibition, held at Macbeth Gallery in 1937, resulted in the sale of all twenty-two paintings cataloged.

Although subsequent Wyeth exhibitions were also successful, McIntyre struggled financially throughout the 1940s and periodically considered liquidating the company. Although "vitally interested" in contemporary art by people such as Robert Brackman, Jay Connaway, Carl Gaertner, James Lechay, Herbert Meyer and Ogden M. Pleissner he found that, for the most part, it did not pay. McIntyre continued operations until 1953 when he decided that doing so for profit was not only a financial burden but also ran contrary to his desire to spend more time devoted to his first love, early American art. When the lease expired on 11 East Fifty-seventh Street in April 1953 McIntyre did not renew it. After closing the gallery's doors he sold art from his New York apartment and from his home in Dorset, Vermont. He officially dissolved William Macbeth, Inc., in 1957.

The history of the Macbeth Gallery is a long and distinguished one with each successive proprietor making a significant contribution to art in America. William Macbeth helped establish an audience and a market for American art when few were willing to give it serious consideration. Robert Macbeth continued to cement the gallery's reputation as one of the leading firms in New York and was instrumental in organizing the American Art Dealers Association. Robert G. McIntyre claimed in a letter to Lloyd Goodrich, dated 22 June 1945, that the thing of which he was most proud was "the share I have had in the formation of the collection of the Addison Gallery of American Art, at Andover, Massacusetts." McIntyre was widely respected in the art community as a dealer, as an adviser to curators, and as a scholar whose research and book on Martin Johnson Heade helped "rediscover" an important American artist. One of his most significant and lasting contributions to the history of art in America, however, was undoubtedly his gift of the gallery's historical records to the Archives of American Art.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American are a small collection of scattered Robert McIntyre's papers and 9 items of William Macbeth's papers. Macbeth Gallery exhibition catalogs are also available in the American Art Exhibition Catalog collection and the Brooklyn Museum Records, both loaned and microfilmed collections.

An extensive collection of Macbeth Gallery exhibition catalogs are also held by the Frick Art Reference Library and the Watson Library of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Provenance:
The bulk of the Macbeth Gallery records were donated and microfilmed in several installments between 1955 and 1966 by Robert G. McIntyre and Estate. Additional Macbeth Gallery printed material was donated by Phoebe C. and William Macbeth II, grandchildren of William Macbeth, in 1974.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Eight (Group of American artists)  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Daguerreotypes
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Macbeth Gallery records, 1838-1968, bulk 1892 to 1953. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.macbgall
See more items in:
Macbeth Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9755cec30-3318-4f15-a7b7-031c448a7a46
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-macbgall
Online Media:

Scrapbooks

Collection Creator:
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
Extent:
3.3 Linear feet (Boxes 120-130 )
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1892-1952
Scope and Contents:
The 19 scrapbooks in this series are the collection's main source of Macbeth Gallery exhibition catalogs and related news clippings. Although incomplete, the scrapbooks provide fairly comprehensive coverage of the gallery's history and include material on day-to-day events at the gallery as well as important occasions such as the gallery's fortieth, fiftieth and sixtieth anniversaries, news of the art world in general and some photographs. Some of the scrapbooks also contain printed material related to art, exhibitions and events elsewhere. Many of the exhibition catalogs found here are annotated with prices and other notes. Notably missing is the catalog for the 1908 exhibition, The Eight.

See Appendix for a list of Macbeth Gallery exhibitions documented in Series 5: Scrapbooks.
Arrangement:
As some of the dates of the scrapbooks overlap, they were numbered 1-19 for clarity. The scrapbook cover for #3 is housed in Box 120, and the contents are housed in Box 122.
Appendix: Macbeth Gallery Exhibitions Documented in Scrapbooks:
This chronological list of Macbeth Gallery exhibitions is extensive, but incomplete. While an attempt has been made to establish the accuracy of the information provided here, dates and titles of exhibitions are not guaranteed to be accurate. Most of the exhibitions listed here are documented in the scrapbooks through exhibition catalogs and/or invitations, lists of artwork and news clippings. The list is annotated with AAA microfilm reel and frame numbers to assist researchers in locating material on specific exhibitions.

Scrapbook 1, 1892-1901

Dec. 7-21, 1892 -- Water Colors by American Artists (NMc1: 273-275)

Jan.23-Feb.11, 1893 -- Landscapes in Oil (NMc1: 276-277)

Feb. 27-Mar. 18, 1893 -- Landscapes in Oil by William Keith (NMc1: 278-279)

Mar. 20-Apr. 8, 1893 -- Watercolors by Dutch Artists (NMc1: 281-282)

Nov. 8-29, 1893 -- Second Annual Exhibition of Watercolors by American Artists (NMc1: 283-285)

Dec. 2-16, 1893 -- Drawings in Watercolors and in Black and White by C. R. Grant and Wilson De Meza (NMc1: 287-290)

Jan. 20-Feb. 3, 1894 -- Pictures and Sketches by Anton Mauve (NMc1: 291-292, 311-313)

Feb. 6-17, 1894 -- Paintings by Henry W. Ranger (NMc1: 295-296)

Feb. 23-Mar. 8, 1894 -- Paintings by Gaylord Langston Truesdel (NMc1: 299-300)

Mar. 16-29, 1894 -- Figure Subjects by Seven American Artists (NMc1: 302-303)

Apr. 13-May 6, 1894 -- Landscapes by American Artists (NMc1: 304-305)

Dec. 1-22, 1894 -- Paintings and Drawings by D.A.C. Artz (NMc1: 315-316)

Feb. 2-16, 1895 -- Paintings and Sketches by Theodore Robinson (NMc1: 318-319)

Mar. 15-30, 1895 -- Pictures and Sketches by Anton Mauve (NMc1: 321-323)

Feb. 17-29, 1896 -- Paintings in Oil by Philip Zilcken (NMc1: 329-330)

Mar. 9-21, 1896 -- Paintings by Arthur B. Davies (NMc1: 329-331)

Mar. 6-20, 1897 -- Paintings by Robert C. Minor (NMc1: 343-344)

Apr. 24-May 8, 1897 -- Paintings by Arthur B. Davies (NMc1: 348-349)

Jan. 17-29, 1898 -- Portrait Drawings in Pastel and Chalk by Sergeant Kendall (NMc1: 356-357)

Jan. 31-Feb. 12, 1898 -- Expressions of New England Landscape by Leonard Ochtman (NMc1-358-359)

Jan. 9, 1898 -- Exhibition of Pictures and Sketches by Anton Mauve (NMc1: 362)

Nov. 7, 1898 -- Exhibition of Watercolors by Mr. Ozawa of Tokyo, Japan (NMc1: 363)

Jan. 9-21, 1899 -- Paintings by Willbur A. Reaser (NMc1: 366-367)

Feb. 1-14, 1899 -- Paintings by H. M. Rosenberg (NMc1: 368-369)

Feb. 17-Mar. 9, 1899 -- Paintings by Charles Walter Stetson (NMc1: 370-371)

Jan. 8-20, 1900 -- Twenty-seven Drawings by Childe Hassam (NMc1: 376-377)

Mar. 9-24, 1900 -- Watercolors and Monotypes in Color by Maurice B. Prendergast (NMc1: 379-380)

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1900 -- Pictures by Rosina Emmet Sherwood (NMc1: 383-384)

Jan. 21-Feb. 2, 1901 -- Pictures and Portraits by Wilbur A. Reaser (NMc1: 385)

Feb. 25-Mar. 9, 1901 -- Frederick Ballard Williams (NMc1: 394-395)

Feb. 4-16, 1901 -- Landscapes by Alexander H. Wyant and George Inness (NMc1: 390-391)

May 9-31, 1901 -- Paintings by Arthur B. Davies (NMc1: 400-402)

Nov. 29-Dec. 14, 1901 -- Watercolors, Color Prints from Wood Blocks and Etchings Printed in Color by Helen Hyde (NMc1: 405-406)

Scrapbook 2, 1893-1898

Primarily news clippings.

Scrapbook 3, 1902-1910

Feb. 3-15, 1902 -- Private Collection of American Pictures (NMc1: 2-5)

Mar. 17-29, 1902 -- Some Phases of London When the Lamps Are Lighted, Done in Pastel by Fernand Lungren (NMc1: 10-13)

Mar. 31-Apr. 5, 1902 -- Group of Pictures by Sidney Starr (NMc1: 13)

Apr. 1-12, 1902 -- Pictures by Robert Henri (NMc1: 15-16)

Apr. 14-26, 1902 -- Drawings by Jane Erin Emmet (NMc1: 21-22)

Apr. 28-May 11, 1902 -- Landscapes by W. L. Lathrop (NMc1: 20)

Jan 19-31, 1903 -- Drawings and Sketches by Homer D. Martin, 1836-1897 (NMc1: 27)

Jan. 27-Feb. 11, 1905 -- Pictures by William Sartain (NMc1: 37-39)

Feb. 23-Mar. 8, 1905 -- Paintings by Arthur B. Davies (NMc1: 62-64)

May 1-6, 1905 -- Oil Paintings by American Artists from the Macbeth Gallery (at the Galleries of George D. Brodhead, Rochester, NY) (NMc1: 69-72)

Jan 29-Feb. 10, 1906 -- Abbot H. Thayer and Gladys Thayer (NMc1: 77-78)

Feb. 19-Mar. 3, 1906 -- Pictures by Charles H. Davis (NMc1: 79-80)

Mar. 10-24, 1906 -- Stephen Parrish (NMc1: 81-82)

Nov. 9-24, 1906 -- A Group of American Paintings (NMc1: 91-92)

Jan. 11-26, 1907 -- Paintings by William Sartain (NMc1: 100-101)

Feb. 1-16, 1907 -- Paintings by Paul Dougherty (NMc1: 105-106)

Feb. 23-Mar. 9, 1907 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis (NMc1: 107-108)

Mar. 11-23, 1907 -- Portraits by Ellen Emmet (NMc1: 112-113)

Mar. 28-Apr. 3, 1907 -- Paintings by William Keith (NMc1: 115-117)

Nov. 11-23, 1907 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack (NMc1: 124-125)

Nov. 27-Dec. 12, 1907 -- Paintings by John La Farge (NMc1: 127-131)

Jan. 6-18, 1908 -- Paintings by Jerome Myers (NMc1: 133-134)

Jan. 20-Feb. 1, 1908 -- Paintings by Paul Dougherty (NMc1: 137-138)

Feb. 3-15, 1908 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Arthur B. Davies, William J. Glackens, Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice B. Prendergast, Everett Shinn, John Sloan (NMc:142-143 Catalog missing from scrapbook)

Feb. 19-Mar. 7. 1908 -- Forty Selected Paintings by Living American Artists (NMc1: 147-149)

Mar. 11-24, 1908 -- Paintings by a Group of American Artists (Deceased), Copley to Whistler (NMc1: 151-152)

1908 -- Kwaunon Meditating on Life by John La Farge (NMc1: 155)

Nov. 10-25, 1908 -- Paintings by Howard Pyle (NMc1: 158-159)

Nov. 27-Dec. 10, 1908 -- Paintings by Charles Melville Dewey (NMc1: 161-162)

Dec. 15-31, 1908 -- Bronzes by a Group of American Artists (NMc1: 165-166)

Jan. 7-21, 1909 -- Forty Selected Paintings by Living American Artists (NMc1: 168-169)

Jan. 22-Feb. 4, 1909 -- Paintings by Henry W. Ranger (NMc1: 171-172)

Feb. 5-18, 1909 -- Paintings by Paul Dougherty (NMc1: 176

Feb. 19-Mar. 4, 1909 -- Arthur B. Davies (NMc1: 178)

Mar. 5-Mar. 18, 1909 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, N.A. (NMc1: 183-184)

Mar. 19-Apr. 1, 1909 -- A Group of Figure Subjects by Blendon Campbell, Charles W. Hawthorne, Robert Henri, George Luks, Kenneth Miller (NMc1: 186-187)

Apr. 2-15, 1909 -- Paintings by Louis Loeb (NMc1: 188-189)

Apr. 16-29, 1909 -- Paintings by a Group of Boston Artists (NMc1: 191-192)

May 10-22, 1909 -- Paintings by American Artists from the Macbeth Galleries, New York [at Findlay Art Co., Kansas City, MO] (NMc1: 195-197)

Nov. 18-Dec. 4, 1909 -- Paintings by Albert P. Lucas (NMc1: 203-205)

Dec. 7-24, 1909 -- Watercolors and Pastels by American Artists (NMc1: 207-210)

Dec 7-24, 1909 -- Second Annual Exhibition of Bronzes by American Sculptors (NMc1: 211-212)

Jan. 6-19, 1910 -- Sixteen Paintings of the Cornish Coast by Paul Dougherty (NMc1: 213-215)

Jan. 20-Feb. 2, 1910 -- Paintings by Mary Curtis Richardson of San Francisco (NMc1: 218-220)

Jan. 20-Feb. 2, 1910 -- First Exhibition of Paintings by Ben Foster (NMc1: 216-218)

Feb 3-16, 1910 -- Landscapes and Figures by Frederick Ballard Williams (NMc1: 227-229)

Feb. 3-16, 1910 -- Spanish Paintings by F. Luis Mora (NMc1: 225-227)

Feb. 17-Mar. 2, 1910 -- The Fur Jacket by J. McNeill Whistler (NMc1: 231-232)

Feb. 17-Mar. 2, 1910 -- Paintings by William Sartain (NMc1: 233-235)

Mar. 3-16, 1910 -- Fourteen Landscapes by Charles H. Davis (NMc1: 237-239)

Mar. 3-16, 1910 -- Recent Portraits by Cecilia Beaux (NMc1: 239-240)

Mar. 17-30, 1910 -- Paintings by Hermann Dudley Murphy (NMc1: 244-246)

Mar. 17-30, 1910 -- Figure Paintings by Charles W. Hawthorne (NMc1: 242-244)

Mar. 31-Apr. 13, 1910 -- Paintings of Baily's Island by Frederick J. Waugh (NMc1: 249-251)

Mar. 31-Apr. 13, 1910 -- Nineteen Landscapes by Chaucey F. Ryder (NMc1: 247-249)

Apr. 14-27, 1910 -- George B. Luks (NMc1: 253-255)

Apr. 30-May 14, 1910 -- The Woman's Art Club of New York, Exhibition of Works in Oil and Sculpture (NMc1: 259-262)

Scrapbook 4, 1907-1913

Primarily news clippings.

Scrapbook 5, 1910-1915

Nov. 3-16, 1910 -- Recent Paintings by Charles W. Hawthorne (NMc2: 1-2)

Nov. 17-30, 1910 -- The Navajo Country in Watercolors by Frederick J. McComas (NMc2: 4-6)

Dec. 6-24, 1910 -- Watercolors, Pastels and Small Bronzes (NMc2: 7-14)

Jan. 5-18, 1911 -- Portraits by Ellen Emmet (NMc2: 15-16)

Jan. 19-Feb. 1, 1911 -- Paintings by Henry B. Snell (NMc2: 17-24)

Feb. 2-22, 1911 -- A Group of Thirty Selected Paintings (NMc2: 25-28)

Feb. 23-Mar. 8, 1911 -- A Group of Forty Selected Paintings (NMc2: 29-32)

Mar. 9-22, 1911 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Paul Dougherty, Daniel Garber, William Sartain, F. Ballard Williams (NMc2: 33-35)

Mar. 23-Apr. 5, 1911 -- A Group of Paintings by Ben Foster, Albert L. Groll, Leonard Ochtman, Chauncey F. Ryder, Gardner Symons (NMc2: 36-38)

Apr. 8-22, 1911 -- The Woman's Art Club of New York, Exhibition of Works in Oil and Sculpture (NMc2: 39-42)

Nov. 16-29, 1911 -- Landscapes, Marines and Wood Interiors by Robert Henri (NMc2: 45-48)

Dec. 6-30, 1911 -- Small Bronzes by American Sculptors (NMc2: 49-52)

Jan. 3-16, 1912 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 53-55)

Jan. 17-30, 1912 -- Paintings by Frederick C. Frieseke (NMc2: 56-58)

Jan. 31-Feb. 13, 1912 -- Paintings by Elihu Vedder (NMc2: 59-63)

Feb. 14-Mar. 2, 1912 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Paul Dougherty, Ben Foster, William Sartain, Gardner Symons, F. Ballard Williams (NMc2: 64-66)

Mar. 4-16, 1912 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen (NMc2: 67-69)

Mar. 6-19, 1912 -- Memorial Exhibition of a Collection of Paintings by Joseph R. Woodwell (NMc2: 71-75)

Mar. 18-30, 1912 -- Paintings by Arthur B. Davies (NMc2: 71, 76)

Apr. 1-10, 1912 -- Paintings by Richard E. Miller (NMc2: 77-79)

Apr. 15-27, 1912 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 80-85)

Nov. 4-18, 1912 -- Frederick Ballard Williams (NMc2: 80-97)

Nov. 19-30, 1912 -- First Annual Exhibition of Painters of the Far West (NMc2: 99-103)

Dec. 3-16, 1912 -- Paintings by William Baxter Closson (NMc2: 99, 104)

Dec. 4-16, 1912 -- Marbles and Bronzes by Chester Beach (NMc2: 99, 105-114)

Dec. 30-Jan. 13, 1913 -- Lawrence Mazzanovich (NMc2: 116-119)

Jan 14-27, 1913 -- Paintings by Guy C. Wiggins (NMc2: 120-122)

Jan. 14-27, 1913 -- Paintings by Charles A. Hawthorne (NMc2: 120, 122-124)

Jan. 28-Feb. 10, 1913 -- Paintings by Paul Dougherty (NMc2: 125-127)

Feb. 11-24, 1913 -- Paintings by Gardner Symons (NMc2: 128-130)

Feb. 15-Mar. 1, 1913 -- Annual Exhibition of The Woman's Artclub (NMc2: 131-136)

Feb. 25-Mar. 10, 1913 -- Paintings by F. C. Frieseke (NMc2: 137-138)

Mar. 4-17, 1913 -- Paintings by Charles Morris Young (NMc2: 137-142)

Mar. 11-24, 1913 -- Landscapes by F.K.M. Rehn, N.A. (NMc2: 143-147)

Mar. 18-31, 1913 -- Paintings by John Carlson (NMc2: 148-151)

Mar. 25-Apr. 7, 1913 -- A Selected Group of Paintings (NMc2: 148, 152-154)

Apr. 15-28, 1913 -- A Selected Group of American Paintings (NMc2: 155-158)

Apr. 15-28, 1913 -- Paintings and Pastels by Blendon R. Campbell (NMc2: 155, 159)

Oct. 14-27, 1913 -- Paintings by Katherine S. Dreier (NMc2: 161-163)

Oct. 28-Nov. 10, 1913 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 164-166)

Nov. 17-24, 1913 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 167-169)

Dec. 2-15, 1913 -- Second Exhibition by the Society of Men Who Paint the Far West (NMc2: 172-176)

Jan. 1914 -- Drawings of Game Birds by Frank W. Benson (NMc2: 179-180)

Jan. 6-19, 1914 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen, Paul Dougherty, Frederick C. Frieseke, Childe Hassam, Willard L. Metcalf, Kenneth H. Miller, J. Alden Weir (NMc2: 179, 181-183)

Jan. 27-Feb. 16, 1914 -- Recent Sculpture by Chester Beach (NMc2: 185-186)

Jan. 27-Feb. 16, 1914 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Daniel Garber, Richard E. Miller, Chauncey F. Ryder, Gardner Symons (NMc2: 185, 187)

Feb. 17-Mar. 2, 1914 -- Sculpture by Chester Beach, Abastenia St. L. Eberle, Mahonri Young (NMc2: 188-191)

Feb. 17-Mar. 9, 1914 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 188, 192-193)

Mar. 10-30, 1914 -- Sketches in Passing by Frederick J. Waugh (NMc2: 195, 208-209)

Mar. 11-30, 1914 -- A Collection of Paintings by Deceased American Artists (NMc2: 195-207)

Mar. 31-Apr. 20, 1914 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 212-217)

Apr. 21, 1914 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 219-224)

Oct. 27-Nov. 16, 1914 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 226-227)

Nov. 17-Dec. 7, 1914 -- Portrait Heads in Terra Cotta by Janet Scudder (NMc2: 233)

Nov. 17-Dec 7, 1914 -- Recent Paintings by Robert Henri (NMc2: 235-237)

Dec. 8-28, 1914 -- Exhibition of Home Pictures (NMc2: 243-247)

Jan. 5-25, 1915 -- A Group of Selected Paintings (NMc2: 243, 248-249)

Jan. 26-Feb. 15, 1915 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 251-254)

Jan. 26-Feb. 15, 1915 -- Parisian Sketches by Lester D. Boronda (NMc2: 251)

Feb. 2-15, 1915 -- Our Untrodden Empire: A Collection of Paintings Executed in South Central Alaska by Robert V. Sewell (NMc2: 257-260)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1915 -- Paintings by Deceased American Artists (NMc2: 262, 265)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1915 -- Small Paintings by Guy C. Wiggins (NMc2: 261)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1915 -- Paintings by Colin Campbell Cooper (NMc2: 261-264)

Scrapbook 6, March 1915-January 1918

Mar. 10-30, 1915 -- The Dance As Interpreted in Marble and Bronze by American Sculptors (NMc2: 267)

Mar. 30-Apr. 19, 1915 -- Paintings by Twelve Landscape Painters (NMc2: 274-277)

Sept. 27-Oct. 17, 1915 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Woman Artists for the Benefit of the Woman Suffrage Campaign (NMc2: 279-283)

Oct. 30-Nov. 19, 1915 -- Oils and Water Colors by Hayley Lever; Recent Paintings by Randall Davey (NMc2: 294-296

Dec. 4-31, 1915 -- Third Exhibition of the Society of Men Who Paint the Far West (NMc2: 300, 302-305)

Feb. 1916 -- Decorations by Elmer Mac Rae (NMc2: 318-319)

Jan. 4-18, 1916 -- Recent Paintings by F. C. Frieseke (NMc2: 306-307)

Jan. 4-18, 1916 -- Paintings by John F. Carlson (NMc2: 306, 309-310)

Jan. 19-Feb. 1, 1916 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen, Helen M. Turner, Daniel Garber (NMc2: 313)

Jan. 19-Feb. 1, 1916 -- Decorative Panels of Flowers, Birds and Animals by F. S. Church (NMc2: 311,317)

Feb. 2-15, 1916 -- Paintings by Jules Guerin (NMc2: 318-321)

Feb. 16-29, 1916 -- Annual Exhibition of Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 323-326)

Mar. 1916 -- Group of High Fire Porcelains by Adelaid Alsop Robineau of Syracuse, NY, recently shown at the Panama-Pacific Exposition (NMc2: 322)

Mar. 8-21, 1916 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Paul Dougherty, Kenneth H. Miller, Chauncey F. Ryder, William Sartain (NMc2: 329-330)

Mar. 22-Apr.4, 1916 -- Recent Water Colors by Charles Hovey Pepper (NMc2: 333)

Mar. 22-Apr. 4, 1916 -- Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture by Arthur B. Davies, Walt Kuhn, Jules Pascin (NMc2: 332, 334)

Apr. 6-27, 1916 -- Paintings by American Artists Past and Present (NMc2: 338-341)

Oct. 31-Nov. 13, 1916 -- The Whalers of New Bedford: Paintings by Clifford W. Ashley (NMc2: 346-348)

Oct. 31-Nov. 14, 1916 -- Special Exhibition by Painter Friends (NMc2: 346)

Nov. 14-27, 1916 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by the Late Roger Donoho (NMc2: 349-353)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1916 -- Paintings by Randall Davey (NMc2: 356-357)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1916 -- Paintings by Kenneth Hayes-Miller, Benjamin D. Kopman and J. M. Block (NMc2: 356)

Dec. 13-Jan. 15, 1917 -- Watercolors by Paul Dougherty (NMc2: 358-362)

Jan. 16-Feb. 5, 1917 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 366-368)

Feb. 8-26, 1917 -- Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Charles W. Hawthorne (NMc2: 370-379)

Feb. 27-Mar. 12, 1917 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Richard E. Miller, Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc2: 381-382)

Mar. 13-26, 1917 -- Paintings by Arthur Crisp, Florence W. Gotthold, Martha Walter (NMc2: 384-385)

Mar. 28-Apr. 10, 1917 -- Pictures in Tempera of the St. Andrew's Golf Links by William R. O'Donovan (NMc2: 386-387)

Summer, 1917 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc2: 388-391)

Oct. 1917 -- Opening Exhibition of Our Second Quarter-Century (NMc2: 393-396)

Nov. 3-17, 1917 -- Portraits by Louis Betts (NMc2: 400-403)

Nov. 13-26, 1917 -- Paintings by Arthur Crisp, Florence W. Gotthold, Martha Walter (NMc2: 384-385)

Nov. 22-Dec. 5, 1917 -- Paintings and Small Bronzes of New York (NMc2: 407-410)

Dec. 1917 -- Pastels by Lillian Crittenden (NMc2: 411)

Dec. 6-24, 1917 -- Small paintings and Pastels by Frederick C. Frieseke, Nancy M. Ferguson, Lilian Crittenden (NMc2: 411)

Jan. 2-31, 1918 -- In Aid of Men Blinded in Battle: Retrospective Loan Exhibition of Arthur B. Davies (NMc2: 412-416)

Scrapbook 7, February 1918-January 1922

Feb. 5-20, 1918 -- Watercolors by Gifford Beal (NMc2: 433-434)

Feb. 5-20, 1918 -- Intimate Paintings Moderately Priced (NMc2: 435-436)

Mar. 1918 -- Group of Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 441-442)

Mar. 6-27, 1918 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 438-439)

Mar. 27-Apr. 18, 1918 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Ben Foster, Willard L. Metcalf (NMc2: 441, 443-444)

Apr. 18-May 10, 1918 -- Group of Paintings by Charlotte B. Coman (NMc2: 446)

Apr. 19-May 9, 1918 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen, Childe Hassam, J. Alden Weir (NMc2: 446-447)

Oct. 23-Nov. 13, 1918 -- Opening Exhibition: Group of Selected Paintings (NMc2: 449-451)

Dec. 1918 -- Second Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc2: 453-458)

Jan. 7-29, 1919 -- John H. Twachtman (NMc2: 460-470)

Jan. 27-Feb. 8, 1919 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis and Paul Dougherty (NMc2: 473-474)

Feb. 17-Mar. 1, 1919 -- Thirty Paintings by Fifteen Artists (NMc2: 476-477)

Mar. 6-22, 1919 -- Paintings by Louis Ritman (NMc2: 480-483)

Mar. 6-29, 1919 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 484-491)

Apr. 7-19, 1919 -- Paintings by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc2: 496-497)

Apr. 7-19, 1919 -- Fifteen American Paintings (NMc2: 499-500)

May 1919 -- Comparative Exhibition of American Paintings (NMc2: 501-506)

Oct. 5-Nov. 8, 1919 -- Fifteen Paintings by Fifteen Artists (NMc2: 510-511)

Nov. 10-Dec. 6, 1919 -- Third Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc2: 512-518)

Dec. 10-31, 1919 -- Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Emil Carlsen (NMc2: 520-527)

Dec. 3-20, 1919 -- Paintings by William Baxter Closson (NMc2: 520)

Jan. 9-31, 1920 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 531-536)

Feb. 2-21, 1920 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Frederick C. Frieseke, Richard E. Miller (NMc2: 539-541)

Mar. 20-Apr.10, 1920 -- Paintings by Hayley Lever (NMc2: 542-545)

Apr. 5-24, 1920 -- Group of Paintings by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc2: 546)

Apr. 5-24, 1920 -- Paintings by Maurice Fromke (NMc2: 546-548)

Oct. 18-Nov. 8, 1920 -- Paintings of the Orient by Hovsep Pushman (NMc2: 550-554)

Oct. 18-Nov. 8, 1920 -- Group of Paintings by Ben Foster, Robert Henri, Hayley Lever, Gardner Symons (NMc2: 555-558)

Nov. 9-29, 1920 -- Paintings by Frank W. Benson and Willard L. Metcalf (NMc2: 559-562)

Nov. 30-Dec. 31, 1920 -- Fourth Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc2: 564-570)

Jan. 3-17, 1921 -- Recent Landscapes by Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc2: 573-576)

Jan. 3-17, 1921 -- Old Salem Doorways Painted Last Summer by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc2: 577-581)

Jan. 18-Feb. 7, 1921 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 583-588)

Feb. 9-28, 1921 -- An American Summer in Watercolors by F. Luis Mora (NMc2: 596-599)

Feb. 9-28, 1921 -- The East Side in Sculpture by Abastenia St. L. Eberle (NMc2: 600)

Feb. 9-28, 1921 -- Recent Paintings by Emil Carlsen (Br14: 623; NMc2: 589-594)

Mar. 1-21, 1921 -- Connecticut Landscapes by Charles H. Davis (NMc2: 603-606)

Mar. 1-21, 1921 -- Paintings of Cornwall and Elsewhere by W. Elmer Schofield (NMc2: 607-610)

Mar. 1-21, 1921 -- Annual Exhibition, Society of Animal Painters and Sculptors (NMc2: 611-616

Mar. 22-Apr. 11, 1921 -- Paintings by F. C. Frieseke and Albert L. Groll (NMc2: 621-624)

Mar. 22-Apr. 11, 1921 -- Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc2: 617-620)

Mar. 22-Apr. 11, 1921 -- Portraits and Landscapes by Gladys Thayer (NMc2: 625-628)

Apr. 12-May 7, 1921 -- Loan Exhibition of Paintings by J. Francis Murphy, 1853-1921 (NMc2: 629-637)

Oct. 11-30, 1921 -- Opening Exhibition, Season of 1921-1922: Group of Selected Paintings (NMc2: 640-641)

Nov. 1-19, 1921 -- West Indian Marines by Frederick J. Waugh (NMc2: 642-645)

Nov. 21-Dec. 12, 1921 -- Fifth Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc2: 646-655)

Dec. 13-Jan. 2, 1922 -- Paintings of Glacier National Park by Charles Warren Eaton (NMc2: 660, 664-666)

Dec. 13-Jan. 2, 1922 -- Oils, Pastels, and Watercolors by George Alfred Williams (NMc2: 660-663)

Scrapbook 8, January 1922-March 1923

Jan. 3-23, 1922 -- Paintings of South America by E. W. Deming (NMc2: 669-670)

Jan. 3-23, 1922 -- New England Streets by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc2: 671-674)

Jan. 3-23, 1922 -- California Landscapes by F. Ballard Williams (NMc2: 677-680)

Jan. 24-Feb. 13, 1922 -- Paintings by Elliot Torrey (NMc2: 681-684)

Jan. 24-Feb. 20, 1922 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 685-692)

Feb. 14-Mar. 6, 1922 -- Third Annual Exhibition, Society of Animal Painters and Sculptors (NMc2: 694-698)

Mar. 7-27, 1922 -- Paintings by Edmund Greacen (NMc2: 704-707)

Mar. 7-27, 1922 -- Paintings by Gardner Symons (NMc2: 700-705)

Mar. 28-Apr. 17, 1922 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis (NMc2: 707-717)

Apr. 27-May 20, 1922 -- Paintings by Frederick C. Frieseke Hayley Lever and Malcolm Parcell (NMc2: 721-726)

Apr. 27-May 20, 1922 -- Paintings by Malcolm Parcell (NMc2: 722)

Oct. 31-Nov. 20, 1922 -- Paintings by Alice Worthington Ball (NMc2: 731-735)

Oct. 31-Nov. 20, 1922 -- Recent Paintings and Figure Compositions by Charles W. Hawthorne (NMc2: 731-735)

Nov. 21-Dec. 11, 1922 -- Sixth Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc2: 738-747)

Nov. 21-Dec. 11, 1922 -- George Wharton Edwards (NMc2: 748-749)

Dec. 12-30, 1922 -- Imaginitive Landscapes by W. G. Krieghoff (NMc2: 751-752)

Dec. 12-30, 1922 -- Watercolors of New York by Joseph Pennell (NMc2: 751, 753-755)

Jan. 2-22, 1923 -- Paintings and Studies by Orland Campbell (NMc2: 758-761)

Jan. 2-22, 1923 -- Recent Landscapes by Daniel Garber (NMc2: 758, 762-764)

Jan. 2-22, 1923 -- Decorative Paintings by Spencer Nichols (NMc2: 765, 769)

Jan. 2-22, 1923 -- Figure Compositions by Ivan G. Olinsky (NMc2: 765-768)

Jan. 23-Feb. 12, 1923 -- The Canadian Rockies in Paintings by Belmore Browne (NMc2: 772, 778)

Jan. 23-Feb. 12, 1923 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 772-777)

Jan. 23-Feb. 12, 1923 -- Decorative Panels by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc2: 778-782)

Feb. 13-Mar. 5, 1923 -- Paintings by Ruth A. Anderson and Elizabeth C. Spencer (NMc2: 783, 788-790)

Feb. 13-Mar. 5, 1923 -- Landscapes by Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc2: 783-786)

Feb. 13-Mar. 5, 1923 -- Paintings of the West by Maynard Dixon (NMc2: 783, 787)

Mar. 6-26, 1923 -- Recent Paintings by Emil Carlsen (NMc2: 792-794)

Mar. 12-31, 1923 -- Watercolors by J. Olaf Olson (NMc2: 795-796)

Scrapbook 9, March 1923-December 1924

Mar. 27-Apr. 16, 1923 -- Paintings by John J. Enneking (NMc3: 1-4)

Apr. 17-May7, 1923 -- Paintings by Maurice Braun (NMc3: 5-8)

Apr. 17-May 7, 1923 -- Recent Paintings by Catharine Wharton Morris (NMc3: 5, 9)

Oct. 9-29, 1923 -- Opening Exhibition, Season 1923-1924 (NMc3: 17-22)

Oct. 30-Nov. 19, 1923 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen, Theodore Robsinson, J. Alden Weir (NMc3: 24-27)

Nov. 20-Dec. 10, 1923 -- Seventh Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc3: 30-35)

Nov. 20-Dec. 11, 1923 -- South American Sketches by Rachel Hartley (NMc3: 37-42)

Dec. 11-31, 1923 -- Scenes about Provincetown by Charles W. Hawthorne; Flowers by Marion C. Hawthorne (NMc3: 37, 43)

Dec. 11-31, 1923 -- Recent Paintings by Douglas Parshall (NMc3: 44)

Dec. 1923 -- Collection of Paintings from the Macbeth Gallery, Halaby Galleries, Dallas (NMc3: 47-54)

Jan. 2-21, 1924 -- Paintings by Robert Henri and Grace Ravlin (NMc3: 56-57)

Feb. 7-25, 1924 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc3: 62-68)

Feb. 26-Mar. 17, 1924 -- Paintings by Victor Higgins (NMc3: 68, 72-74)

Feb. 26-Mar. 17, 1924 -- Paintings by Frank Duveneck (NMc3: 68-69)

Mar. 18-Apr. 7, 1924 -- Paintings from Tusayan by Maynard Dixon (NMc3: 76-79)

Apr. 8-28, 1924 -- Paintings of the Orient by Hovsep Pushman (NMc3: 80-82)

Apr. 8-28, 1924 -- The Canadian Rockies in Paintings by Belmore Browne (NMc3: 80, 84)

Sept. 23-Oct. 6, 1924 -- Paintings of the French West Indies by Christiana Moron (NMc3: 86-87)

Oct. 7-27, 1924 -- Selected Group of Paintings by Thirty American Artists (NMc3: 86, 88)

Nov. 4-17, 1924 -- Recent Paintings by Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc3: 90-91)

Nov. 18-Dec. 8, 1924 -- A Group of Paintings by Frederick C. Frieseke (NMc3: 92-93)

Dec. 9-29, 1924 -- Retrospective Exhibition of Paintings by Louis Comfort Tiffany (NMc3: 95-97)

Scrapbook 10, January 1925-November 1927

Dec. 30-Jan. 19, 1925 -- Montauk by Childe Hassam (NMc3: 104-112)

Jan. 20-Feb. 9, 1925 -- George Inness Centennial Exhibition, 1825-1894 (NMc3: 117-123)

Feb. 10-Mar. 2, 1925 -- Water Colors of Egypt and Jerusalem by Taber Sears (NMc3: 126, 129-130)

Feb. 10-Mar.2, 1925 -- The New England Year in Paintings by Charles H. Davis (NMc3: 126-128)

Mar. 3-23, 1925 -- Paintings by E. W. Redfield (NMc3: 131-133)

Mar. 24-Apr. 13, 1925 -- Paintings by Daniel Garber (NMc3: 135-138)

Apr. 14-May 4, 1925 -- Recent Paintings by Robert Henri (NMc3: 140-143)

Apr. 14-May 4, 1925 -- C. W. Hawthorne: Watercolors of Bermuda (NMc3: 139)

Oct. 13-26, 1925 -- Collection of American Masters Loaned for Exhibition (NMc3: 152-154)

Oct. 27-Nov. 16, 1925 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by the Late William Sartain (NMc3: 155-158)

Nov. 7-23, 1925 -- Paintings by Contemporary American Artists Loaned by the Macbeth Galleries, New York, Engaged by the Muncie Art Students' League, Muncie, Indiana (NMc3: 147-148)

Nov. 17-Dec. 7, 1925 -- Paintings by DeWitt and Douglass Parshall (NMc3: 159-162)

Dec. 4-31, 1925 -- Easel Paintings by American Artists, Loaned by Macbeth Galleries to the Springfield Art Association (NMc3: 205, 207)

Dec. 8-Jan. 4, 1926 -- Watercolors by Distinguished American Artists (NMc3: 163-166)

Jan. 5-25, 1926 -- Recent American Portraits (NMc3: 168, 172-173)

Jan. 5-18, 1926 -- American Society of Miniature Painters, 27th Annual Exhibition (NMc3: 168-171)

Jan. 26-Feb. 15, 1926 -- Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc3: 176-179)

Jan. 26-Feb. 15, 1926 -- First Exhibition of Paintings by John Huffington (NMc3: 176, 180-181)

Feb. 7-Mar. 17, 1926 -- Exhibition of Oil Paintings by American Artists Lent by the Macbeth Galleries to the Utica Public Library Art Gallery (NMc3: 205-206)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1926 -- New Paintings by Charles W. Hawthorne (NMc3: 186-189)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1926 -- Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc3: 184)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1926 -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky (NMc3: 186-189)

Mar. 9-29, 1926 -- Modern Landscapes by Guy Wiggins (NMc3: 191-194)

Mar. 9-29, 1926 -- Etchings and Drawings by Emil Fuchs (NMc3: 191, 195-197)

Mar. 30-Apr. 19, 1926 -- The Affairs of Anatol by Robert Reid (NMc3: 198-201)

Apr. 20-May 3, 1926 -- Pastels Done in Spain by A. Sheldon Pennoyer (NMc3: 202)

June 1-25, 1926 -- Pictures Selected from the Brooklyn Museum Exhibition of the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors (NMc3: 204)

Summer, 1926 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc3: 199-201)

Oct. 11-18, 1926 -- Paintings Selected by Louis Bliss Gillet (NMc3: 210-212)

Oct. 19-Nov. 8, 1926 -- Paintings by Stanley M. Woodward (Br14: 671; NMc3: 213-214)

Nov. 9-22, 1926 -- Ernest Haskell, 1876-1925, Memorial Exhibition (NMc3: 215-222)

Nov. 23-Dec. 6, 1926 -- Porto Rico and St. Thomas: Exhibition of Paintings by Rachel Hartley (NMc3: 226-229)

Nov. 23-Dec. 6, 1926 -- Recent Landscapes and Marines by Jay H. Connaway (NMc3: 226, 230)

Dec. 1926 -- Watercolors and Etchings by American Artists (NMc3: 231-233)

Dec. 28-Jan. 10, 1927 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of Mystic, Conn., Artists (NMc3: 235-238)

Jan. 11-31, 1927 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc3: 239-244)

Jan. 18-31, 1927 -- Watercolors by John Lavalle of Boston (NMc3: 253-255)

Jan. 22-Feb. 7, 1927 -- Crapo Gallery Opening Exhibition: Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists assembled by Macbeth Gallery at Swain School, New Bedford, Mass. (NMc3: 245-249)

Feb. 1-14, 1927 -- Recent Paintings by Frank W. Benson (NMc3: 259-262)

Feb. 2-14, 1927 -- American Society of Miniature Painters, 28th Annual Exhibition (NMc3: 253, 256-258)

Feb. 8-26, 1927 -- Works by American Artists Selected by the Associated Dealers in American Paintings, Inc. at Anderson Galleries (Macbeth Gallery one of nine participants (NMc3: 263, 265-271)

Feb. 15-28, 1927 -- New Paintings by Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc3: 278-281)

Mar. 1-14, 1927 -- Watercolors by Aiden L. Ripley (NMc3: 282, 286)

Mar. 1-14, 1927 -- Paintings by a Group of Members of the Guild of Boston Artists (NMc3: 282-285)

Mar. 15-28, 1927 -- Paintings by Malcolm Parcell (NMc3: 287-290)

Mar. 15-28, 1927 -- Recent Pastels of Chartres by Carl Schmidt (NMc3: 287)

Mar. 29-Apr. 18, 1927 -- Thirty-fifty Anniversary Exhibition, Retrospect and Prospective (NMc3: 291-294)

Apr. 19-May 9, 1927 -- Frank A. Brown, Watercolors (NMc3: 296, 302-303)

Aug. 22-Sept. 5, 1927 -- American Art Exhibition arranged for Eastern Long Island by the Macbeth Gallery at Southampton, NY (NMc3: 297-301)

Oct. 18-29, 1927 -- American Art Exhibition, Art League of Fort Worth, Assembeled by the Macbeth Gallery (NMc3: 304, 306-311)

Oct. 18-31, 1927 -- Etchings by Walter Raymond Duff (NMc3: 313-315)

Oct. 18-31, 1927 -- Paintings by Max Bohm (NMc3: 313-315)

Nov. 1-14, 1927 -- Yankee Whalers by Clifford W. Ashley (NMc3: 316-317)

Scrapbook 11, November 1927-June 1930

Nov. 15-28, 1927 -- Paintings of Mallorca by Bernhard Gutmann (NMc3: 319-320)

Nov. 15-28, 1927 -- Paintings of Flowers by Carle J. Blenner (NMc3: 319, 321)

Nov. 29-Dec. 12, 1927 -- The Bathers , Paintings by William S. Horton (NMc3: 322-325)

Nov. 29-Dec. 12, 1927 -- Sidewalks of New York, Chalk Drawings by H. Devitt Welsh (NMc3: 326-327)

Dec. 13-31, 1927 -- Joint Exhibition of Paintings by Daniel Garber and Stanley Woodward (NMc3: 328)

Jan. 3-16, 1928 -- Portrait Drawings by Edith Leslie Emmet (NMc3: 329, 331)

Jan. 3-23, 1928 -- Recent Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc3: 329-330)

Jan. 24-Feb. 13, 1928 -- Watercolors by John Lavalle (NMc3: 332-334)

Jan. 24-Feb. 13, 1928 -- Walter Ufer: Pictures from Taos (NMc3: 332, 334)

Jan. 24-Feb. 6, 1928 -- American Society of Miniature Painters, 29th Annual Exhibition (NMc3: 337-340)

Feb. 7-21, 1928 -- Small Pictures of Mountain and Sea by Jay Connaway (NMc3: 342)

Feb. 14-27, 1928 -- The Canadian Rockies by Belmore Brown (NMc3: 342-343)

Feb. 14-27, 1928 -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky (NMc3: 342-344)

Feb. 21-Mar. 5, 1928 -- Watercolors of Venice, Spain and Brittany by Frank A. Brown (NMc3: 351-356)

Feb. 21-Mar. 10, 1928 -- Works by American Artists Selected by the Associated Dealers in American Paintings, Inc., at Anderson Galleries; Macbeth Gallery one of sixteen participants (NMc3: 346-352)

Feb. 25-Mar. 17, 1928 -- The Macbeth-Milch Circuit Exhibition of Contemporary American Paintings at Grand Rapids Art Gallery (NMc3: 385-387)

Feb. 28-Mar. 12, 1928 -- Paintings by Frank L. Schenk, 1856-1927 (NMc3: 357-358)

Feb. 28-Mar. 19, 1928 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc3: 357, 359-363)

Mar. 20-Apr. 2, 1928 -- Lanscapes of Italy by A. Sheldon Pennoyer (NMc3: 366, 368)

Mar. 20-Apr. 9, 1928 -- Recent Landscapes, Switzerland and Other Subjects by Carl Lawless (NMc3: 366-367)

Apr. 2-15, 1928 -- Water Colors by Earl Winslow (NMc3: 355)

Apr. 10-30, 1928 -- St. Ives by Hayley Lever (NMc3: 369)

Apr. 29-May 20, 1928 -- The Macbeth-Milch Circuit Exhibition of Contemporary American Paintings at the University of Wyoming (NMc3: 385-386)

Spring, 1928 -- American Painting for Home Decoration (NMc3: 370-377)

Oct. 16-29, 1928 -- The Canadian Rockies in Watercolors by J. Olaf Olson (NMc3: 389-392)

Nov. 7-24, 1928 -- Etchings by Sears Gallagher (NMc3: 393)

Nov. 13-26, 1928 -- Sand Dunes and Flowers by Frederick Lowell (NMc3: 393-394)

Nov. 26-Dec. 17, 1928 -- Etchings by Carlton T. Chapman (NMc3: 395)

Nov. 27-Dec. 10, 1928 -- Portraits by Ernest L. Ipsen (NMc3: 396-397)

Dec. 4-31, 1928 -- Etchings by Margery A. Ryerson (NMc3: 395)

Dec. 11-24, 1928 -- Landscapes in Watercolor and Gouache by H. Anthony Dyer and Character Studies in Watercolor and Pastel by Nancy Dyer (NMc3: 398-400)

Jan. 2-14, 1929 -- Figures and Landscapes by the Late J. Alden Weir, 1852-1929 (NMc3: 401-402)

Jan. 15-28, 1929 -- Paintings by H. Dudley Murphy; Watercolors by Nellie Littlehale Murphy (NMc3: 404-405)

Jan. 15-28, 1929 -- Portraits by William James (NMc3: 406-407)

Feb. 4-18, 1929 -- Twenty-five Etchings by Harold Denison (NMc3: 410, 416-417)

Feb. 5-18, 1929 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen and Dines Carlsen (NMc3: 408-409)

Feb. 19-Mar. 4, 1929 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc3: 410-415)

Mar. 5-18, 1929 -- Marine Paintings by Stanley W. Woodward (NMc3: 419-423)

Mar. 19-Apr. 1, 1929 -- Watercolors by Frederick C. Frieseke (NMc3: 424-425)

Mar. 19-Apr. 1, 1929 -- Pastels of Louisiana by Will H. Stevens (NMc3: 424)

Apr. 1929 -- Paintings by Childe Hassam (NMc3: 433-438)

Apr. 2-15, 1929 -- Paintings by Arthur Meltzer (NMc3: 431)

Apr. 2-15, 1929 -- Watercolors by Earle B. Winslow (NMc3: 431)

June, 1929 -- Old Mill Afternoon by Childe Hassam, Ainslie Galleries, Inc., Detroit in collaboration with Macbeth Gallery (NMc3: 465-467)

Oct. 1-14, 1929 -- Portraits in Oil and Pastel by Paul Swan (NMc3: 472-473)

Oct. 15-28, 1929 -- Exhibitions from the Summer Colonies: No. 1, Lyme (NMc3: 476-477)

Oct. 19-29, 1929 -- Milch-Macbeth Exhibition of Prints and Paintings by American Artists at the High Museum under the auspices of the Atlanta Art Association (NMc3: 462)

Oct. 20-Nov. 11, 1929 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by John Huffington (NMc3: 476-479)

Nov. 12-25, 1929 -- Exhibition from the Summer colonies: No. 2, Selections from the North Shore Arts Association of Gloucester (NMc3: 480-481)

Nov. 26-Dec. 3, 1929 -- Recent Landscapes by Charles H. Davis (NMc3: 482-483)

Dec. 10-Dec. 23, 1929 -- Watercolors by J. Olaf Olson (NMc3: 484-486)

Dec. 24-Jan. 6, 1930 -- Exhibitions from the Summer Colonies: No. 3, Mystic (NMc3: 487-488)

Jan. 7-20, 1930 -- Paintings of Wyoming Days and Nights by Ogden N. Pleissner (NMc3: 490, 492)

Jan. 21-Feb. 3, 1930 -- Landscapes by Aldro T. Hibbard (NMc3: 490-491)

Feb. 4-17, 1930 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc3: 493-498)

Feb. 4-18, 1930 -- Monotypes in Black and White by Seth Hoffman (NMc3: 500-502)

Feb. 18-Mar. 3, 1930 -- Decorative Pastels by Wilbur A. Reaser (NMc3: 503-504)

Feb. 18-Mar. 3, 1930 -- Landscapes by John F. Carlson (NMc3: 503, 505

Mar. 4-17, 1930 -- Art of the Cartoon by Clare A. Briggs (NMc3: 507)

Mar. 4-17, 1930 -- Watercolors by Gladys Brannigan (NMc3: 507)

Mar. 18-31, 1930 -- Landscapes by Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc3: 508-509)

Apr. 1-14, 1930 -- Landscapes by Harry Leith-Ross (NMc3: 510-511)

Apr. 15-29, 1930 -- The Soviet Union as Seen by Eliot O'Hara (NMc3: 512-513)

Spring 1930 -- Spring/Summer Exhibition (NMc3: 514-516)

Scrapbook 12, September 1930-December 1932

Oct. 1930 -- Opening Exhibition, 1930-1931 Season (NMc3: 517-519)

Oct. 14-Nov. 4, 1930 -- Etchings by Thomas Handforth (NMc3: 523-524)

Nov. 1930 -- Paintings of Museum Importance (NMc3: 521)

Nov. 4-25, 1930 -- Monotypes in Black and White by Seth Hoffman (NMc3: 522, 524

Dec. 1930 -- Paintings by Young Americans (NMc3: 525)

Dec. 1930 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Edward Haskell (NMc3: 526-527)

Jan. 6-31, 1931 -- Brittany and Other Recent Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc3: 528-531)

Feb. 2-8, 1931 -- Group Exhibition of Important Paintings (NMc3: 535)

Feb. 9-21, 1931 -- Brackman (NMc3: 536)

Feb. 24-Mar. 7, 1931 -- Paintings by Paul Dougherty and Mahonri Young (NMc3: 539)

Mar. 9-28, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by Daniel Garber (NMc3: 540)

Mar. 30-Apr. 11, 1931 -- Brittany Subjects by Jay Connaway, Landscapes by Arthur Meltzer, Pastel Impressions by J. H. Guest (NMc3: 545-549)

Apr. 13-May 2, 1931 -- Paintings and Drawings by Abbot H. Thayer (NMc3: 545-549)

May, 1931 -- Selected Paintings and Etchings by American Artists (NMc3: 552-553)

Oct. 1931 -- October Show (NMc3: 355)

Oct. 1931 -- October Watercolor Exhibition (NMc3: 556)

Nov. 4-30, 1931 -- Fifteen New Paintings from the Artists Studios (NMc3: 558-559)

Nov. 11-Dec. 31, 1931 -- Lithographs by Stow Wengenroth (NMc3: 560-566)

Dec. 1-19, 1931 -- Small Paintings by Ivan Olinsky and Cecil Chichester (NMc3: 562-563)

Dec. 8-31, 1931 -- Wood Engravings by Thomas Nason (NMc3: 564)

Dec. 21-Jan. 9, 1932 -- Maine Coast Towns by C. K. Chatterton (NMc3: 565-566)

Jan. 11-23, 1932 -- Landscapes, Figures, Still Life Subjects Painted in Vermont by Herbert Meyer (NMc3: 564)

Jan. 11-23, 1932 -- Paintings by Lily Cushing (NMc3: 569, 571)

Jan. 25-Feb. 13, 1932 -- Hudson River School (NMc3: 573-576)

Feb. 15-27, 1932 -- Paintings by James Chapin (NMc3: 589)

Feb. 15-Mar. 1, 1932 -- Monotypes in Black and White by Seth Hoffman (NMc3: 590-591)

Feb. 29-Mar. 10, 1932 -- Sanford Ross: 16 Wash Drawings of 16 New Jersey Landmarks (NMc3: 598-599)

Feb. 29-Mar. 12, 1932 -- George Fuller, 1822-1844 (NMc3: 593-596)

Mar. 14-26, 1932 -- Winter Landscapes and Other Subjects by F. C. Frieseke (NMc3: 600-601)

Mar. 28-Apr. 9, 1932 -- Recent Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc3: 603)

Apr. 11-30, 1932 -- Forty Years of American Art (NMc3: 605-610)

May 2-14, 1932 -- Paintings by a Group of Younger Artists (NMc3: 616-618)

June 1932 -- June Exhibition (NMc3: 619)

Sept. 26-Oct. 15, 1932 -- Paintings from the Summer Colonies (NMc3: 621-622)

Oct. 17-Nov. 7, 1932 -- Special Sale Exhibition (NMc3: 626-628)

Oct. 17-Nov. 7, 1932 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Mons Breidvik (NMc3: 626-627)

Nov. 9-26, 1932 -- Paintings by Max Bohm, Eugene Higgins, Jerome Myers, John Noble (NMc3: 630)

Nov. 14-Dec. 5, 1932 -- Lithographs by Stow Wengenroth (NMc3: 630)

Nov. 29-Dec. 12, 1932 -- Vermont Watercolors by Henry Holt (NMc3: 632-633)

Dec. 6-19, 1932 -- Lights of New York by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc3: 634-635)

Dec. 14-Jan. 3, 1933 -- Paintings by Robert Strong Woodward (NMc3: 636)

Scrapbook 13, 1932

Scrapbook of 40th Anniversary of Macbeth Gallery, 1932.

Scrapbook 14, 1930-1934

Jan. 1-29, 1933 -- Forty Years of American Painting assembled by the Macbeth Gallery at Montclair Art Museum (NMc4: 263-268)

July 9-25, 1933 -- American Landscapes assembled by the Macbeth Gallery at Four Fountains, Southampton, NY (NMc4: 290-295)

Scrapbook 15, January 1933-February 1935

Jan. 1933 -- Watercolors Made by Americans, Assembled by the College Art Association (NMc3: 639-641)

Jan. 3-16, 1933 -- Drawings by J. Louis Lundean (NMc3: 643)

Jan. 17-30, 1933 -- Paintings of Flowers by C. G. Nelson (NMc3: 644)

Jan. 31-Feb. 13, 1933 -- Intimate Paintings (NMc3: 645)

Feb. 21-Mar. 6, 1933 -- Group Exhibition (NMc3: 646)

Mar. 1933 -- Paintings and Etchings by Living American Artists (NMc3: 647-648)

Mar. 7-20, 1933 -- Paintings by Robert Henri (NMc3: 649)

Mar. 21-Apr. 3, 1933 -- Watercolors by Sanford Ross (NMc3: 652)

Mar. 21-Apr. 10, 1933 -- Brackman (NMc3: 652-653)

Apr. 4-17, 1933 -- Opportunity Exhibition (NMc3: 661)

Apr. 4-18, 1933 -- Drawings by Adolf Dehn (NMc3: 661)

Apr. 11-24, 1933 -- The Sea at Monhegan by Jay Connaway (NMc3: 662)

Apr. 18-May 1, 1933 -- Watercolor Exhibition (NMc3: 663)

Apr. 25-May 8, 1933 -- Paintings by A. T. Hibbard, Hayley Lever and Ivan G. Olinsky (NMc3: 664)

May 2-22, 1933 -- Mono-Etchings by Bernard Sanders (NMc3: 664)

May 9-29, 1933 -- Child Portraits by Margery Ryerson (NMc3: 669)

May 16-29, 1933 -- Exhibition of Figures and Still Lifes, Macbeth Gallery Extension (NMc3: 669)

June 1933 -- American Art Past and Present (NMc3: 671)

Oct. 17-30, 1933 -- Paintings and Watercolors by a Group of American Artists Under 35 (NMc3: 672)

Oct. 31-Nov. 13, 1933 -- Drawings by Robert Henri (NMc3: 673)

Oct.-Nov. 1933 -- Mexico as Seen by American Printmakers (NMc3: 674)

Nov. 4-27, 1933 -- Brackman Portraits: Figures in Pastel (NMc3: 675, 678)

Nov. 4-27, 1933 -- American Sport and Other Subjects by Percy Crosby (NMc3: 675-677)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1933 -- Paintings by Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc3: 684, 686)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1933 -- Figures and Fantacies by Ralph Rowntree (NMc3: 684-685)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1933 -- Paintings by Horace Day (NMc3: 681)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1933 -- Drawings by Jerome Myers (NMc3: 682-683)

Dec. 12-23, 1933 -- Paintings by Janet Scudder (NMc3: 687)

Dec. 12-23, 1933 -- The New York Scene in Watercolor by Hamilton A. Wolf (NMc3: 688-689)

Dec. 26-Jan. 8, 1934 -- Group Exhibition, Members of the Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation (NMc3: 692)

Jan. 9-27, 1934 -- Paintings by Herbert Meyer (NMc3: 692)

Jan. 24-Feb. 6, 1934 -- Oils, Watercolors, Drawings, Etchings by Harrison Cady (NMc3: 696-697)

Jan. 30-Feb. 19, 1934 -- Paintings and Drawings by Lintott (NMc3: 699-700)

Feb. 20-Mar. 12, 1934 -- Paintings by C. K. Chatterton (NMc3: 703-704)

Feb. 27-Mar. 12, 1934 -- Golinkin (NMc3: 707-708)

Mar. 6-20, 1934 -- Drawings by Meyer Bernstein (NMc3: 709)

Mar. 13-36, 1934 -- Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc3: 710)

Mar. 20-Apr. 2, 1934 -- Watercolors of South America by Eliot O'Hara (NMc3: 712)

Mar. 27-Apr. 16, 1934 -- Memorial Exhibition, Paintings by Charles H. Davis, 1856-1933 (NMc3: 715-722)

Apr. 3-16, 1934 -- Drawings by Hetty Beatty, Sculptor (NMc3: 726)

Apr. 10-23, 1934 -- Oils and Watercolors by Gertrude Schweitzer (NMc3: 726)

Apr. 17-May 1, 1934 -- Monhegan Marines by Jan Connaway (NMc3: 727)

May 1-14, 1934 -- Watercolors and Pastels by H. Amaird Oberteuffer and Karl Oberteuffer (NMc3: 728)

May 1-21, 1934 -- Review of the Season (NMc3: 729)

May 7-14, 1934 -- Paintings by John C. E. Taylor, William Luther King, Stuyvesant van Veen (NMc3: 730)

May 1934? -- Third Exhibition and Sale of American Paintings at $100 (NMc3: 731)

June 4-15, 1934 -- Our Glorious Navy: Paintings by Arthur Beaumont, Lieut. U.S.N.R. (NMc3: 732-733)

Oct. 1-15, 1934 -- Opening Exhibition, Season of 1934-1935, Paintings by Nelson A. Moore, 1924-1902 (NMc3: 735-736)

Oct. 16-30, 1934 -- Collectors Examples of American Painting (NMc3: 739-740)

Nov. 7-19, 1934 -- Greenland and Other Subjects by Rockwell Kent (NMc3: 742-743)

Nov. 20-Dec. 3, 1934 -- Southern New Mexico: Drawings and Lithographs by Peter Hurd (NMc3: 748-749)

Nov. 20-Dec. 11, 1934 -- Brackman (NMc3: 742-743)

Dec. 4-31, 1934 -- Lithographs and Drawings of Stow Wengenroth (NMc3: 750)

Dec. 11-31, 1934 -- Robert Hallowell, Mostly Portraits (NMc3: 751-752)

Jan. 2-14, 1935 -- Leopold Seyffert, Subjects from Guatemala and Flowers (NMc3: 754-755)

Jan. 22-Feb. 4, 1935 -- Group of Paintings by Younger Artists (NMc3: 756)

Apr. 10-30, 1935 -- After St. Ives by Hayley Lever (NMc3: 761-762)

date unknown -- Mr. Jonas Lie: Brittany and Other Recent Paintings (NMc3: 764)

Sept. 30-Oct. 7, 1930 -- Watercolors by Carolyn G. Bradley and Marion L. Simmons (NMc3: 764-765)

March 28-April 19, 1932 -- Small Paintings of Museum Importance on Exhibition (NM3: 764-767)

Scrapbook 16, February 1935-January 1938

Feb. 5-19, 1935 -- Robert Strong Woodward, "Landscapes of New England" (NMc4: 401-402)

Feb. 19-28, 1935 -- Portraits by Leonebel Jacobs (NMc4: 404)

Mar. 5-18, 1935 -- Loan Exhibition (NMc4: 408-409)

Apr. 23-May 13, 1935 -- Still Lifes by Emil Carlsen, 1853-1932 (NMc4: 411-413)

May 14-June 3, 1935 -- Watercolors and Pastels (NMc4: 414)

Summer 1935 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 415)

Oct. 8-21, 1935 -- Recent Paintings by Frederick C. Frieseke (NMc4: 416-417)

Nov. 19-Dec. 3, 1935 -- Drawings by Lintott (NMc4: 418-419)

Dec. 3-31, 1935 -- Drawings and Lithographs by Stow Wengenroth (NMc4: 420)

Dec. 9-31, 1935 -- Oils, Watercolors, Drawings by Gertude Schweitzer (NMc4: 421)

Jan. 14-Feb. 3, 1936 -- Herbert Meyer (NMc4: 422-423)

Feb. 1936 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 429)

Feb. 1936 -- Drawings by Eastman Johnson (NMc4: 430)

Feb. 4-17, 1936 -- Homer D. Martin, 1836-1897, Centennial Exhibition (NMc4: 426-427)

Mar. 10-23, 1936 -- Contemporary Americans (NMc: 430)

Mar. 10-23, 1936 -- Watercolors by Steven Donahos (NMc4: 430)

Mar. 24-Apr. 16, 1936 -- Brackman (NMc4: 431)

Apr. 7-27, 1936 -- Paintings and Watercolors by C. K. Chatterton (NMc4: 433-434)

Apr. 28-May 11, 1936 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 435)

Apr. 28-May 11, 1936 -- Watercolors by Mary S. Powers (NMc4: 435)

May 19-June 1, 1936 -- Drawings by Richard Guggenheimer (NMc4: 436)

May 27-June 3, 1936 -- Pastel Portraits by Frank Root McCreery (NMc4: 437-438)

Oct. 5-26, 1936 -- Opening Exhibition, 45th Season, New Paintings by Fourteen American Painters (NMc4: 447-448)

Nov. 4-16 1936 -- Paintings by Elliot Orr (NMc4: 444-445)

Nov. 17-30, 1936 -- Recent Paintings by Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 447-448)

Dec. 1936 -- Lester D. Boronda: Paintings from Mason's Island (NMc4: 449)

Dec. 15, 1936-Jan. 18, 1937 -- An Introduction to Homer (NMc4: 451-460)

Jan. 19-Feb. 1, 1937 -- Exhibition of Portraits by Stuart, Copley, West, Allston, Badger, Jarvis, Morse, Sully, Peale, Smibert and Waldo (NMc4: 478-479)

Jan. 19-Feb. 1, 1937 -- Group of Watercolors (NMc4: 480)

Feb. 2-15, 1937 -- John C. E. Taylor: Flower Arrangements and Other Oils (NMc4: 481)

Feb. 16-Mar. 1, 1937 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Horace Day (NMc4: 482)

Mar. 2-15, 1937 -- Hayley Lever, Paintings New and Old (NMc4: 485)

Mar. 2-15, 1937 -- Paintings by Josef Presser (NMc4: 485)

Mar. 16-Apr. 5, 1937 -- Recent Work by Jon Corbino (NMc4: 487-490)

Apr. 13-26, 1937 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings, Crayon Drawings and Dry Points by the late Alexander Shilling (NMc4: 499)

Apr. 30-May 17, 1937 -- Edna Reindel (NMc4: 503)

Oct. 5-19, 1937 -- American Paintings Dedicating the Art Gallery Woman's Club Art Building, Montana State University (NMc4: 505-514)

Oct. 6-18, 1937 -- Opening Exhibition, Paintings by a Group of Contemporary Artists (NMc4: 517)

Oct. 19-Nov. 1, 1937 -- First Exhibition, Watercolors by Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 518-519)

Nov. 2-15, 1937 -- Marine and Other Subjects from the Canary Islands by Cadwallader Washburn (NMc4: 524-525)

Nov. 16-29, 1937 -- Paintings by Lorenzo James Hatch (NMc4: 524-525)

Nov. 30-Dec. 14, 1937 -- Monhegan Island, Maine, Marines by Jay Connaway (NMc4: 527)

Jan. 4-17, 1938 -- "The Eight" Thirty Years Later (NMc4: 529-530)

Scrapbook 17, January 1938-July 1941

Jan. 18-Feb. 1, 1938 -- Paintings by Dale Nichols (NMc4: 538-540)

Feb. 8-21, 1938 -- Vermont in Watercolors by Stanford Stevens (NMc4: 541-542)

Feb. 8-21, 1938 -- Modern American Interior: Prizewinning Design and Selected Drawings from a Competition Sponsored by James H. Blauvet and Associates, Interior Designers (NMc4: 543)

Feb. 23-Mar. 7, 1938 -- Herbert Dickens Ryman (NMc4: 546)

Mar. 1-14, 1938 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Anne Goldthwaite (NMc4: 546-547)

Mar. 8-21, 1938 -- Recent Watercolors of Woodstock, Charleston, New England by John W. Taylor (NMc4: 548-549)

Mar. 22-Apr. 11, 1938 -- Jon Corbino (NMc4: 554-561)

Apr. 12-25, 1938 -- Paintings by Ohio Artists (NMc4: 580-571)

Apr. 26-May 9, 1938 -- Paintings by Furman Joseph Finck (NMc4: 572-573)

May-June 1938 -- Winslow Homer: Watercolors and Early Oils from the Estate of Mrs. Charles S. Homer and Other Sources (NMc4: 574-579)

Oct. 4-28, 1938 -- Opening Exhibition (NMc4: 581)

Nov. 1-23, 1938 -- Dale Nichols, Watercolors and Tempera of Alaskan Subjects (NMc4: 582-583)

Nov. 29-Dec. 19, 1938 -- Sea Island Country Watercolors by Horace Day (NMc4: 584)

Jan. 10-30, 1939 -- Herbert Meyer (NMc4: 588-589)

Feb. 7-27, 1939 -- American Watercolors Past and Present (NMc4: 592-597

Mar. 7-Apr. 3, 1939 -- Monhegan by Jay Connaway (NMc4: 602-603)

Apr. 5-24, 1919 -- Oils and Watercolors by Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 606-607)

May 2-22, 1939 -- Paintings by Francis Chapin, Antonio P. Matino, and Moses Soyer and Drawings by Jon Corbino (NMc4: 609-611)

Oct. 10-30, 1939 -- Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 614)

Nov. 1-30, 1939 -- Americana Paintings, Watercolors, Prints, Drawings (NMc4: 616-617)

Dec. 5-30, 1939 -- In the Georges Islands, Maine: Paintings by N.C. Wyeth (NMc4: 618)

Dec. 5-30, 1939 -- Dry Brush Drawings by Stow Wengenroth (NMc4: 618-619)

Jan. 2-27, 1940 -- Brackman (NMc4: 623-624)

Jan. 30-Feb. 19, 1940 -- Paintings by Moses Soyer (NMc4: 630-631)

Feb. 20-Mar. 11, 1940 -- Watercolors by Emil J. Kosa, Jr. (NMc4: 637)

Mar. 12-30, 1940 -- Paintings by Edna Reindel (NMc4: 636)

April 1940 -- Paintings and Drawings by Jon Corbino (NMc4: 639-640)

May 7-18, 1940 -- "Star Boat Races," by Gerald Foster (NMc4: 640)

Summer 1940 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 641)

Oct. 1940 -- October Exhibition (NMc4: 642)

Nov. 12-Dec. 2, 1940 -- Paintings by Antonio P. Martino (NMc4: 645)

Dec. 10-30, 1940 -- Monhegan Paintings and Sketches by Jay Connaway (NMc4: 648)

Dec. 31, 1940-Jan. 13, 1941 -- Oils and Watercolors by Contemporary Artists (NMc4: 649)

Jan. 14-Feb. 3, 1941 -- Paintings and Drawings by Augustus Vincent Tack (NMc4: 650-651)

Feb. 4-24, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Peter Hurd (NMc4: 652)

Feb. 18-Mar. 3, 1941 -- Earl Gross Watercolors (NMc4: 654-655)

Feb. 25-Mar. 16, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Herman Maril (NMc4: 656-657)

Mar. 18-Apr. 5, 1941 -- Joseph de Martini Gouache Paintings (NMc4: 656)

Mar. 25-Apr. 7, 1941 -- Men of Moment: Drawings by Ivan Opffer (NMc4: 660)

Apr. 8-28, 1941 -- Paintings by Orland Campbell (NMc4: 661-662)

Apr. 29-May 12, 1941 -- Small Paintings by Moses Soyer (NMc4: 667-668)

May 1941 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 667)

May 13-24, 1941 -- The 1941 Showing of Blauvelt Interiors (NMc4: 669-671)

May-June 1941 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 669)

Scrapbook 18, July 1941-October 1945

Sept. 1941 -- Group Exhibition: Oils (NMc4: 682)

Oct. 7-27, 1941 -- Third Exhibition of Watercolors by Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 685)

Oct. 28-Nov. 17, 1941 -- Recent Oils and Watercolors by Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 685-686)

Oct. 28-Nov. 17, 1941 -- Watercolors by Merrill A. Bailey (NMc4: 685)

Nov. 18-Dec. 1, 1941 -- Drawings and Watercolors by Carl Newland Werntz (NMc4: 688-689)

Nov. 18-Dec. 1, 1941 -- Hymn to the Sun: A Sculpture in Bronze by Emily Winthrop Miles (NMc4: 688)

Dec. 1941 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 690)

Dec. 2-22, 1941 -- Original Dolls by Edith Flack Ackley and their Portraits in Watercolor by Telka Ackley (NMc4: 690)

Jan. 5-24, 1942 -- Paintings by Furman Joseph Finck (NMc4: 694)

Jan. 5-24, 1942 -- Watercolors of Maine and Florida by Maurice Becker (NMc4: 694-695)

Jan. 19-Feb. 14, 1942 -- Watercolors, Pastels, Drawings by Jerome Myers, 1867-1940 (NMc4: 696)

Feb. 16-28, 1942 -- Watercolors by Cory Kilvert (NMc4: 697-698)

Feb. 16-Mar. 7, 1942 -- Paintings by Deceased American Masters (NMc4: 697-698)

Mar. 9-28, 1942 -- Paintings by Marsden Hartley (NMc4: 700-701)

Mar. 9-28, 1942 -- Watercolors by Karl Mattern (NMc4: 700)

Apr. 13-30, 1942 -- Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition, 1892-1942 (NMc4: 703-704)

May 4-29, 1942 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 707)

June 1942 -- June Exhibition (NMc4: 708)

June 15-27, 1942 -- War Bond Exhibitions of Contemporary American Art (NMc4: 708)

Sept. 1942 -- September Exhibition (NMc4: 709)

Nov. 16-28, 1942 -- Watercolors by Jean Paul Slusser (NMc4: 710)

Nov. 24-Dec. 12, 1942 -- T. Chambers, First American Modern (NMc4: 711-714)

Dec. 1-14, 1942 -- Watercolors by Red Robin (NMc4: 715-716)

Dec. 15, 1942-Jan. 2, 1943 -- Leaves From a Soldier's Sketchbook by Pvt. Olin Dows, U. S. Army (NMc4: 717)

Jan. 4-23, 1943 -- Paintings by Sprinchorn (NMc4: 717-718)

Feb. 1-13, 1943 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 719)

Feb. 15-Mar. 6, 1943 -- Small Paintings by Moses Soyer (NMc4: 720)

Mar. 15-27, 1943 -- Ellen du Pont Wheelwright (NMc4: 721)

Mar. 15-27, 1943 -- Watercolors by Cory Kilvert (NMc4: 721)

Mar. 29-Apr. 17, 1943 -- Recent Paintings by Joseph De Martini (NMc4: 722)

Mar. 29-Apr. 17, 1943 -- Watercolor Exhibition (NMc4: 722)

Apr. 19-May 1, 1943 -- Corp. Herman Maril (NMc4: 728)

Apr. 19-May 8, 1943 -- Theodore Robinson (NMc4: 723-725)

May-June 1943 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 729)

Sept. 1943 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 731)

Oct. 11-30, 1943 -- Watercolors by Henry Gasser (NMc4: 723-733)

Nov. 1-20, 1943 -- Tempera and Watercolors by Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 735-736)

Nov. 22-Dec. 4, 1943 -- Portraits of Children by Barnard Lentott (NMc4: 741-742)

Dec. 1943 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 741)

Dec. 6-24, 1943 -- Rural Vermont: Watercolors by Sylvia Wright (NMc4: 743-744)

Jan. 3-15, 1944 -- Watercolors of War by Red Robin (NMc4: 743-744)

Jan. 31-Feb. 19, 1944 -- Loan Exhibition, Worthington Whittredge, 1825-1910 (NMc4: 745-746)

Feb. 21-Mar. 11, 1944 -- Paintings by Constance Richardson (NMc4: 749-750)

Mar. 13-Apr. 1, 1944 -- Watercolors by Vanessa Helder (NMc4: 751, 753)

Mar. 13-Apr. 1, 1944 -- Temperas and Watercolors by Peter Hurd (NMc4: 751-753)

Apr. 3-22, 1944 -- American Paintings of the Early 19th Century (NMc4: 754-755)

Apr. 24-May 13, 1944 -- Brackman (NMc4: 756-757)

May 15-June 3, 1944 -- Two Vermont Artists: Clay Bartlett and Arthur K. D. Healy (NMc4: 758-759)

June 5-24, 1944 -- Women at War by Edna Reindel (NMc4: 760)

July 1944 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 762)

Sept. 25-Oct. 15, 1944 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 763)

Oct. 16-Nov. 4, 1944 -- Paintings by Felicia Meyer (NMc4: 764-765)

Nov. 15-Dec. 2, 1944 -- The Aleutian Air Force: Paintings by Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 766-767)

Dec. 4-23, 1944 -- Paintings by John W. Taylor (NMc4: 769-770)

Jan. 8-27, 1945 -- Paintings by Carl Gaertner (NMc4: 771-772)

Jan. 29-Feb. 10, 1945 -- Contemporary American Watercolors (NMc4: 772)

Feb. 19-Mar. 10, 1945 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Maurice Becker (NMc4: 773-774)

Mar. 12-31, 1945 -- Some Early 19th Century Americans (NMc4: 777-778)

Apr. 2-21, 1945 -- Paintings by Joseph De Martini (NMc4: 778-779)

Apr. 23-May 12, 1945 -- Gouaches by Herman Maril (NMc4: 781)

Apr. 23-May 12, 1945 -- Paintings by Molly Luce (NMc4: 781-782)

May-June 1945 -- Group Exhibition: Contemporary Oils and Watercolors (NMc4: 783)

July, Sept., 1945 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 783)

Oct. 1-7, 1945 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 784)

Scrapbook 19, October 1945-November 1949

Oct. 26-Nov. 17, 1945 -- Tempera and Watercolors by Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 787-788)

Nov. 26-Dec. 15, 1945 -- Marsden Hartley: Paintings and Drawings (NMc4: 791-792)

Dec. 1945 -- Christmas Exhibition (NMc4: 793)

Jan. 7-26, 1946 -- New York in Watercolors by James Lechay (NMc4: 794)

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, 1946 -- Herbert Meyer (NMc4: 795)

Feb. 18-Mar. 19, 1946 -- Ary Stillman (NMc4: 797-798)

Mar. 11-30, 1946 -- Watercolors by Arthur K. D. Haley (NMc4: 800-801)

Apr. 1-20, 1946 -- Albert P. Ryder (NMc4: 802-805)

Apr. 22-May 11, 1946 -- Paintings by Constance Richardson (NMc4: 809-810)

May 13-31, 1946 -- Furman Jospeh Finck (NMc4: 811-812)

June 1946 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 813)

July 1946 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 813)

Sept. 1946 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 814)

Sept. 30-Oct. 19, 1946 -- Gouaches by Charles Schucker (NMc4: 815)

Oct. 2-Nov. 9, 1946 -- Watercolors and Drawings by Olin Dows (NMc4: 816-817)

Nov. 4-30, 1946 -- Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 818)

Dec. 2-28, 1946 -- Oils and Watercolors by Emil J. Kosa, Jr. (NMc4: 819-820)

Jan. 6-26, 1947 -- Carl Gaertner (NMc4: 821-822)

Jan. 27-Feb. 15, 1947 -- Carl Sprinchorn (NMc4: 823)

Mar. 3-22, 1947 -- Dorothy Hoyt (NMc4: 825-826)

Mar. 24-Apr. 12, 1947 -- Joseph De Martini (NMc4: 827-828)

Apr. 14-May 10, 1947 -- Whistler Loan Exhibition (NMc4: 828-834)

June-July, 1947 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 840)

Sept. 1947 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 841)

Oct. 13-Nov. 1, 1947 -- Paintings by Allen Tucker (NMc4: 842-844)

Nov. 3-22, 1947 -- Watercolors by Henry Gasser (NMc4: 846-847)

Nov. 24-Dec. 13, 1947 -- James Lechay (NMc4: 849-850)

Dec. 15, 1947-Jan. 3, 1948 -- Watercolor Exhibition (NMc4: 851)

Jan. 5-24, 1948 -- Clay Bartlett (NMc4: 852-853)

Jan. 26-Feb. 14, 1945 -- Exhibition (NMc4: 854)

Jan. 26-Feb. 14, 1948 -- Oils and Watercolors by Contemporary Artists (NMc4: 854)

Feb. 16-Mar. 6, 1948 -- Herman Maril (NMc4: 855-856)

Mar. 22-Apr. 3, 1948 -- American Art: A Multiple Exhibition arranged by the Associated Dealers in American Art (NMc4: 857-858)

Apr. 5-24, 1948 -- Raphael Gleitsmann (NMc4: 866-867)

Apr. 26-May 15, 1948 -- Oils and Watercolors by John La Farge (NMc4: 864)

May-Sept. 1948 -- Group Exhibitions (NMc4: 867)

Oct. 4-23, 1948 -- Watercolors by Charles Culver (NMc4: 869-870)

Oct. 26-Nov. 13, 1948 -- Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 872)

Nov. 15-Dec. 4, 1948 -- Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 874-875)

Nov. 21-Dec. 4, 1948 -- Oils and Gouaches by Charles Schucker (NMc4: 332-333)

Dec. 6-31, 1948 -- Watercolors and Drawings by Hermann Gross (NMc4: 877-878)

Jan. 4-22, 1949 -- Electra Bostwick (NMc4: 879, 882)

Jan. 27-Feb. 19, 1949 -- Paintings by Edna Reindel (NMc4: 880-881)

Feb. 28-Mar. 19, 1949 -- Thomas Doughty (NMc4: 885-887)

Mar. 21-Apr. 9, 1949 -- Watercolors by Arthur K. D. Healy (NMc4: 889)

Apr. 12-30, 1949 -- Drawings by Olin Dows (NMc4: 890)

May 1949 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 894)

Oct. 10-29, 1949 -- Clay Bartlett: Paintings of North and South America (NMc4: 895-896)

Nov. 1-19, 1949 -- Watercolors by Henry Gasser (NMc4: 897-898)

Scrapbook 20, 1949-1952

Nov. 21-Dec. 10, 1949 -- Oils and Gouaches by Charles Shucker (NMc4: 332-333)

Dec. 1949 -- Watercolor Exhibition (NMc4: 334)

Jan. 3-21, 1950 -- Carl Gaertner (NMc4: 335-356)

Jan. 23-Feb. 11, 1950 -- Constance Richardson (NMc4: 337-338)

Mar. 6-25, 1950 -- John Taylor (NMc4: 339-340)

Apr. 1950 -- Joseph De Martini (NMc4: 341)

May 8-27, 1950 -- Carl Sprinchorn (NMc4: 342-343)

Summer 1950 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 345)

Oct. 9-28, 1950 -- Caseins by James Lechay (NMc4: 345-346)

Oct. 31-Nov. 18, 1950 -- Ogden M. Pleissner: Paris and the Provinces (NMc4: 347-348)

Nov. 21-Dec. 9, 1950 -- Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 349-350)

Jan. 2-20, 1951 -- Nat Koffman (NMc4: 356-357)

Jan. 22-Feb. 10, 1951 -- Watercolors by Hermann Gross (NMc4: 358)

Feb. 12-Mar. 3, 1951 -- Watercolors (D55:390-391; NMc4: 359)

Mar. 5-24, 1951 -- Paintings by Francis Colburn (NMc4: 360)

Mar. 27-Apr. 14, 1951 -- Paintings by Herman Maril (NMc4: 361)

Apr. 16-May 5, 1951 -- Raphael Gleitsmann (NMc4: 362-363)

Summer 1951 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 364)

July 7-Aug. 4, 1951 -- Paintings and Drawings by Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 364-381)

Nov. 26-Dec. 15, 1951 -- Watercolors by Arthur K. D. Healy (NMc4: 387)

Feb. 4-Mar. 1, 1952 -- Italian Landscapes by George Inness (NMc4: 388-389)

June-July, Sept. 1952 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 392)

Nov. 6-29, 1952 -- Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 391-392)
Restrictions:
Fragile original scrapbooks are closed to researchers. For more information, please contact Reference Services.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Macbeth Gallery records, 1838-1968, bulk 1892 to 1953. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.macbgall, Series 5
See more items in:
Macbeth Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw92653096a-424e-4227-a661-9a1b02109acc
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-macbgall-ref13377

Silas H. Woodard Papers

Creator:
Woodard, Silas H., 1870-1961  Search this
Names:
Isthmian Canal Commission.  Search this
Pennsylvania Railroad.  Search this
St. Lawrence River Power Development Commission.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes, 3 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Photograph albums
Maps
Place:
Great Lakes (North America)
St. Lawrence River
Date:
1899-1932
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of Silas H. Woodard include the Isthmian Canal Commission Report containing text, maps, profiles, and plates, 1899-1901; photograph albums on the East River Tunnel, 1904-1908; reports on the regulation of the levels of the Great Lakes, 1910-1914; and reports dealing with the development of hydroelectric power on the St. Lawrence River, 1930-1932.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Silas H. Woodard, civil engineer specializing in power development, dams, tunnels, and foundation work, served as an engineer for the Isthmian Canal Commission, 1899-1902; the Pennsylvania Railroad, 1902-1909; and the Engineering Board of the St. Lawrence River Power Development Commission, 1930s. Woodard also worked as a consulting engineer.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Panama Canal Commission Photonegatives (AC1116)

Joe Britton Panama Canal Zone Photographs (AC1234)

W.P. Stine Panama Canal Papers (AC1039)

Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album (AC1040)

W.A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album (AC1021)

John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook (AC0708)

Charles Wood Panama Canal Photograph Album (AC1114)

Robert Dearborn Panama Canal Glass Negatives (AC1111)

William Currie Photograph Album (AC1043)

Roland A. McCrady Photograph Collection (AC0710)

George S. Morison Collection (AC0978)

George W. Sims Papers (AC0127)

William R. Hutton Papers (AC0987)

Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs (AC0945)

Robert F. Olds Collection (AC0231)
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Tunnels  Search this
Dams  Search this
Canals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Photograph albums
Maps -- 19th century
Citation:
Silas H. Woodard Papers, circa 1899-1932, Archives Center, National Museum of American
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1038
See more items in:
Silas H. Woodard Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8930f229e-f4a0-4bc3-990a-1734049abc17
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1038

Scrapbook

Medium:
Medium: silk Technique: variety of woven techniques
Type:
sample books
Scrapbook
Made in:
France
Date:
late 19th century
Accession Number:
1896-27-9
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Textiles Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq4c1ddfb9d-0ef8-423f-8606-a3f90a23229a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1896-27-9

William R. Hutton Papers

Creator:
Hutton, William R., 1826-1901  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (33 boxes, 21 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Cashbooks
Business records
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books
Books
Family papers
Financial records
Cyanotypes
Correspondence
Deeds
Printed material
Contracts
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Place:
France
Maryland
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
Panama Canal (Panama)
New Jersey
New York (N.Y.)
Hudson River
Baltimore (Md.)
Georgetown (Washington, D.C.)
New York
Washington Bridge
New Croton Aqueduct
Kanawha River Canal
Washington Aqueduct
Potomac River -- 19th century
Washington Memorial Bridge
Hudson River Tunnel
Date:
1830-1965
Summary:
The papers document the life and work of William R. Hutton, a civil engineer during the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Materials include diaries, notebooks, correspondence, letterpress copy book, printed materials, publications, specifications, photographs, drawings, and maps that document the construction of several architectural and engineering projects during this period. Most notable are the records containing information related to the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington Aqueduct, the Kanawha River Canal, and the Washington/Harlem River Bridge. There are also several records about railroads in the state of Maryland, the District of Columbia and elsewhere, including the Western Maryland Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Colorado Midlands Railway, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, and the Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad. The records can be used to track the progression of these projects, and engineering innovation during the late 1800s to the early 1900s.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William R. Hutton's professional career as a civil engineer and his personal affairs. Although the personal materials in the collection provide insight into a man and a family that have been largely forgotten by biographers, it is the professional materials that are perhaps the most interesting to researchers. They provide a compelling narrative of the push to the West that occurred in 19th century America and the internal improvements movement typified by the American System plan proposed by Henry Clay. Perhaps best remembered for the high tariffs that accompanied it, the American System plan was also concerned with the advancement of internal improvements, such as canals, that would unite the East and West in communication, travel, and trade. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal can be seen as one of the products of this movement (1) and was in fact initially heralded as the first great work of national improvement (2).

The papers in this collection that are related to the construction and maintenance of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal are an invaluable documentation of efforts during this turbulent time to unite the eastern and western United States. They provide details of the canal from its initial construction to its decline with the incline at Georgetown project. The canal also serves as an example, or perhaps a warning against, federal involvement in state improvement efforts as it was the first project to be directly funded and staffed by the federal government (3). The groundbreaking ceremony was attended by then President John Quincy Adams whose toast, "to the canal: perseverance," (4) became an ironic omen, as construction of the canal took over twenty-two years to be completed. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal materials can be used as a case study for the problems encountered during canal building (5). These problems are best typified in the collection by the papers relating to the Georgetown incline. This project was headed by Hutton and was plagued with construction problems, boating accidents, and obsolescence from the moment of its completion. Despite these issues, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal remains a structure of historical significance in America. As the third and last effort to construct an all-water route to the West (6), the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is an important artifact of 19th century attitudes and efforts towards commerce, trade, travel, and communication between the eastern and western United States. Other significant canals and water structures represented in the collection are the Kanawha Canal, the Washington Aqueduct, and a large collection of materials relating to the Kingston Water Supply (New York).

One of the most significant internal improvements made during this time was the railroad. The legal conflicts that arose between the canal companies and railroads is also represented in the materials relating to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. These materials specifically deal with the legal conflict's between the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The development and construction of the railroads is also represented in the materials documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, the Western Maryland Railroad, the Mexican National Railroad, the Colorado Midlands Railroad, and the Columbia Railroad.

The collection also demonstrates the spirit of innovation and invention that was prevalent in the engineering field in the nineteenth century. Joseph Gies writes, "...one of the distinctive characteristics of the great nineteenth century engineering adventurers was their readiness to gamble on the translation of theory into practice" (7). In this quote, he is speaking of the civil engineer Dewitt Clinton Haskins and a project that truly encapsulates engineering invention in the nineteenth century, the Hudson River Tunnel. Responding to the increase in the population of the City of New York in the late nineteenth century from sixty thousand to three and a half million, the Hudson River Tunnel was originally devised as a way to alleviate traffic and to transport train passengers directly across the Hudson River (8). Beginning with records dating from 1881 to 1901, the Hutton papers can be used to document not only the advances in engineering during this time but also the costs of progress. Haskins' initial efforts to build the tunnel using submerged air pressurized caissons were marked by failure and in some cases fatalities. Workers on the tunnel often suffered from what came to be known as "caisson disease" or "the bends," caused by the immense forces of compression and decompression experienced while working in the tunnels (9). This problem was so prevalent that as construction progressed the rate of worker deaths caused by "the bends" rose to twenty-five percent (10). Materials in the collection document worker complaints and deaths resulting from this disease as well as providing a technical record of the construction of the tunnel. The highlight of the materials relating to the Hudson River Tunnel is an album that contains photographs of workers in the tunnel and a detailed daily report of the construction progress on the tunnel that was maintained by Hutton's assistant, Walton Aims. The first hand account in these reports provides insight not only into the construction of the tunnel, but also the problems encountered.

Another project featured in the Hutton collection that was devised in response to the population explosion in the City of New York in the nineteenth century is the Harlem River Bridge, or as it is now known, the Washington Bridge. Known as one of the longest steel arch bridges of its time, the Harlem River Bridge also represents that spirit of invention and innovation that was prevalent in the civil engineering field during the nineteenth century. The collection provides an invaluable resource for those wishing to track the construction of the bridge from early concept drawings and proposals to finalized plans. Also present are photographs of the construction and workers. Societal response to the bridge in the form of newspaper and magazine clippings help to create the narrative of the Washington Bridge, and these are supplemented by correspondence from the builders, suppliers, and planners.

This collection also includes diaries, 1866-1901; letterpress copybooks, 1858-1901; correspondence on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Bridge over the Harlem River, and Maryland and Colorado railroads, 1861-1901, and on Hutton's financial and real estate affairs, 1835-1921; construction photographs of the Harlem River, Cairo, Poughkeepsie, Niagara bridges and the Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Aqueduct, and Capitol Dome (in the form of albumen, cyanotype, salted paper print); data and drawings; rolled land profile drawings; canal notes, 1828-1892; Hudson River Tunnel construction reports, 1889-1891; publications, drawings, and maps of railroad routes; pamphlets and reprints on hydraulic works and water supply; road, railway, bridge, and hydraulic construction specifications, 1870-1900; drawings (linen, oil cloth, and heavy drawing paper), and blueprints; account books, 1891-1899; and plans, drawings, field notebooks, and publications on American and European construction projects, especially in Maryland, New York, and France; personal correspondence detailing his role as executor for the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and the Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt and his relationships with his children, siblings, cousins, and colleagues, 1850-1942.

Materials are handwritten, typed, and printed.

Special note should be made that any materials dated after the year 1901 were added to the collection by another creator who is unidentified. It can be speculated that professional materials added after this date were contributed by his brother and colleague Nathanial Hutton or his son Frank Hutton. Personal materials contributed after this date may have been added by his wife, daughters, or other members of his extended family.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901, consists of twenty seven letterpress copybooks containing correspondence between Hutton and other engineers, architects, and building suppliers. The letterpress copybooks in this series have been arranged chronologically. The books involve a process by which ink is transferred through direct contact with the original using moisture and pressure in a copy press. The majority of the correspondence is business- related. Some letterpress copybooks are devoted to specific projects such as the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The letterpress copybooks provide a record of correspondence written by Hutton, which makes it distinctive from the other correspondence in the collection. Most of the other correspondence has Hutton as recipient.

The letterpress copybooks also document Hutton's various residences throughout his life and provide a glimpse into the civil engineering profession at the time by demonstrating how engineers shared ideas and comments about projects. This can be supplemented with the printed materials in the collection as many of the authors also appear in the correspondence. Other topics covered in the letterpress copybooks include business reports (specifically the report of the president and directors of the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad), records of people and companies involved in projects, pasted in engineering sketches, engineering specifications and notes, travel expenses and estimates, construction histories and progress, legal issues with family estates, tax information, Colorado Railroad, payment certificate schedules, St. Paul Railroad, personal correspondence, title guarantees, Hudson River Tunnel, financial matters, real estate matters, insurance information, sketches and drawings, supply lists, cost estimates, the Memorial Bridge, Coffin Valve Company, engineering expenses, engineering calculations, payroll notes for Kingston Water Supply, proposals, account information, Hutton Park, reservoirs, contract drafts, French Society of Civil Engineers, inspection results (specifically Piedmont Bridge), land descriptions, damage reports, Morse Bridge, Illinois Central Railroad, North Sea Canal, moveable dams, iron works, site histories, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Kanawha River canal (lock quantities, specifications, payroll information), Pennsylvania Canal, and bills for services.

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901, consists of correspondence that relates to Hutton's architectural and engineering projects. This series is further subdivided into two subseries: Project Correspondence and General Correspondence. Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899, correspondence is divided by project and arranged alphabetically. Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901, is arranged chronologically. Both series contain handwritten and typed letters. Some letters are on letterpress copybook pages and are most likely copies. Some materials are in French and Spanish. Special note should be made that this series does not contain all of the professional correspondence in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to project and placed in Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, in order to make it easier for researchers to access materials related to those subjects.

Subseries 1, professional correspondence topics include comparisons between construction projects (specifically comparisons of the Kanawha River Canal to other canals), supply lists, location recommendations, sketches, construction plans and modifications, bills for supplies and works, leaks in the gates, cost estimates, Brooklyn Water Supply, use of lake storage (Ramapo Water Supply), water supply to states and counties, damages to water supply pipes, estimates of water quantities, responses to construction reports, legal issues related to projects, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and payment for services.

Subseries 2, general correspondence topics include employment opportunities, committee meetings and elections, land surveys, sketches, engineering plans and ideas, work on projects, dismissal from projects, notes on supplies, Washington Aqueduct, construction progress, land purchases, Civil War, Jones Falls, cost of water pumps, steam drills, lots divisions and prices, repairs, report of the engineering bureau, tidewater connection at Annapolis, bridge construction, construction costs, statement of vessels that entered and cleared Baltimore, technical questions from colleagues, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, supply costs, letters of introduction, requests for reference, changes to plans and designs, survey reports, St. Andrew's lot, Canal Coal Company, publication process, American Society of Civil Engineers and its members, responses to project inquiries, Graving Dock gross revenue, job offers, specifications, trade figures, contracts, water levels, appointment dates and times, moveable dams, proposals for membership, salaries, Piedmont Coal Lands, maps, land profiles, Washington Bridge, board payments, Nicaragua Canal, Grant Coal Company, statistics, engineering notes, Hartford Bridge, water pressures, coal deposits, Colorado Coal, pipe lines, reservoirs, boat costs for canals, floods, bridges, letters of resignation, engines, Ruxton Viaduct, Colorado and Midland Railroad, Morse Bridge, share values, railroad locations, membership invitations, call for submissions, structural tests, record of accounts for room and board, appointments, water rights (Putnam County), publications, blueprints, visitation programs, cotton compresses, street trenches, pressures in dams, level tests, Portland Transportation bureau, trade information, concrete steel, Chicago drainage canal, ship canals, Augusta Cotton and Compress Company, Sooysmith case, Consolidated Gas Company, masonry, book binding, Columbia Railway Company, jetties, land grades, Chesapeake and Delaware canal, water wheels, pneumatic lock, tunnel arches, rifton power, Hutton's health, elevators, Brooklyn Bridge Terminals, girder weights, legal issues and their results, rating table for the Potomac, land profiles, transmission lines, transformers, water turbines, and water power on the Potomac River.

Correspondents for this series include the following: Captain Montgomery C. Meigs, Captain T.W. Symons, William Bryan, Ernest Flagg, John Hurd, Jake Wolfe, J.C. Saunders, J.H. Dolph, Charles J. Allen, G.H. Mendell, Virgil S. Bogue, B.A. Mounnerlyn, Edward Burr, H.G. Prout, R. William, H. Dodge, C.R. Suter, M. Mink, W.R. King, John Lyons, Alex Brown and Sons, John G. Butler, D. Condon, Bernard Carter, R.P. McCormick, D.R. Magruder, Andrew Banks, Isaac Solomon, C.J. Mayer, C.W. Kern, John Herring, James S. Mackie, D.R. Magunde, D. Rittaguide, R.S. Stevens, J.L. Raudolph (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), J.M. Lane, W.D. Stuart, W.G.P. Palmer (Committee Church of the Ascension), C. Crozet, General W. Hughes, V.R. Maus, J.M. Hood (Western Maryland Railroad Company), Ernest Pontzen, M. Haus, William F. Craighill, Harry Hutton, John W. Pearce, Reverend James A. Harrald, William Watson, A.L. Rives, Thomas Monro, A.F. Croswan (Commander United States Navy), H.R. Garden, William McAlpine, James Forrest, Wm. Bloomsfield, Daniel Ammen, Linel Wells, A. and Otto Sibeth, Alfred Noble, Clemens Hershel, Sidney Warner, E.H. de Rheville, Theodore Cooper, William Findlay Shunk, Lewis S. Wolfe, Rufus Mead, Theodore F. Taylor, John Bogart, J. Whaler, B. Williamson, Colonel F.V. Greene, Robert H. Sayre (Lehigh Valley Railroad Company), Charles W. Pussey, Louis Q. Rissel, V.C. Bogue, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville E.G. Leston, Edwin Parson, Rudolph Hering, R.S. Hale, F.M. Turner, Thosl Martindale, Justus C. Strawbridge, William M. Ayresm, R.L. Austin, A.M. Miller, P. Livingston Dunn, T.J. Cleaver, C.S. Dutton, H.A. Carson, William Bainbridge Jaudon, H.A. Presset, Thomas H. McCann, Russel Sturgis, H.G. Prout, Alexis H. French, John K. Cowen, F.W. Williams, J. Waldorf, B.H. Byrant, B.H. Jones, M.H. Rogers, J.W. Ogden, General W. Cashing, William Longhudge, A.J. Cameron, T.L. Patterson, J.J. Hagerman, H. Wigglesworth, Charles B. Rowland, E. Bantz, W.G. Lathrop, Clarence King, George Rowland, George A. Tibbals (Continental Iron Works), George N. Vanderbilt, Eugene C. Lewis, F.P. Burt, Colonel John C. Clarke, Lieutenant Thomas Turtle, W.S.M. Scott, E. Bates Dorsey, Bernard Carter, George M. Shriver (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), Russel Sturgis, Macmillan Publishing, James Abernethy, B. Baker, J.G.W. Fynje, A. Mallet, Jean Hersuy, L.F. Vernon Horcourt, Robert Lilley, A.J. Johnson, F.M. Colby, Henry D. Loney, A.S. Cameron, James A. Harrald, William Watson, John B. Lervis, A.L. Rives, Edwin F. Bidell, Frank H. Stockett, E. McMahon, C.F. Elgin, Enrique Budge, G. Clayton Gardiner, Dwight Porter, William A. Chapman, T.E. Sickels, Theodore Cooper, C.J. Warner, Institution of Civil Engineers, Robert Gordon, United States Coast of Geodetic Survey Office, C.P. Pattun, J.N. Putnam, Sidney B. Warner, H.D. Fisher, Union Pacific Railway Company, Lewis S. Wolle, George E. Waring Junior, The American Exhibition, G.F. Swain, American Society of Civil Engineers, N.H. Whitten, U.S. Engineer Office, Government Works Committee, J.J. Hagerman, D. Jackson, Sterling Iron and Railway Company, E.P. Alexander, E. Williamson, Central Railway Company of New Jersey, William A. Underwood, F. Collingwood, James Dun (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company), Henry F. Kilburn, Louis A. Bissell, Virgil G. Boque, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville Egleston, Charles Parson, George Swain, Continental Iron Works, Rudolph Hering, J.B. Gordon, Mayor's Office (Baltimore), Harry Robinson, Pennsylvania Railway Company, W.H. Gahagan, L. Luiggi, B.H. Bryant, T.J. Cleaver (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company), H.A. Carson, H.A. Presset (Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey), John K. Cowen, Vernon H. Brown, J. Waldorf, B.H. Bryant, L.F. Root, P.W. White, Metropolitan Railroad Company, Charles F. Mayer (Consolidated Coal Company, Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad Company), J.M. Lane (Western Maryland Railroad), Dr. R.S. Stewart (Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad), Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad (John Lyons, John G. Butler, D. Candon, R.P. McCormick, Andrew Banks), Thomas F. Rowland, J.A. Bensel, Walton Aims, S.D. Coykendall, H.C. Rogers, John F. Ward, T.B. Jewell, H.A. Pressey, C.S. Armstrong, J. Nennett, V.G. Bague.

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, contains correspondence with immediate and extended family, specifically the heirs to the Benjamin H. Hutton and Joseph Hutton estates and Adele Gorman. Correspondence is primarily arranged chronologically, but some files have been divided based on subject or author (the Deer Park and Adele Gorman files), or by form (the Telegrams, and Cablegrams file). Special note is made of the posthumous correspondence file, which includes correspondence both relating to Hutton's death and correspondence that was written by family members after the years of his death. The series contains both hand written and typed letters. Some correspondence is in French. The correspondence demonstrates his relationship with his children specifically Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, and illuminates his role in his family. This series also provides details about nineteenth century upper class society and activities. Special note should be made that this folder does not contain all of the personal correspondence contained in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to recipient, or subject in order to make researching these recipients or subjects easier.

Series 3 correspondence topics include: estate payments, distribution of assets, funds transfers, estate lines, conflicts with tenants, sketches, lot maintenance, real estate sales, deeds, real estate sales negotiations, congratulations wishes on new babies, family illnesses, family affairs and travels, traveling directions, personal investments, invitations for social occasions, family debts, professional interests, professional and personal appointments, family issues, requests for money, sketches, advice to children (specifically Frank Hutton), life insurance, books, letters of introduction, legal issues, funeral expenses, charity donations, advertisements, minutes from professional organizations, army enlistment, deaths of friends and family, recipes, estimates of personal expenses, renovations, stock certificates (Great Northern Railway Company, New York), food, social activities, the weather, marriages, real estate and construction plans, and loan agreements.

Correspondents include the following: Frank Hutton, Thomas B. Brookes, J.L. Marcauley, C.M. Matthews, Edward J. Hancy, John M. Wilson, H.A. Carson, William H. Wiley (of John Wiley and Sons Scientific Publishers, New York), Georgina Hutton, Pierre and Jane Casson, George McNaughlin, Henrietta Hutton, Aaron Pennington Whitehead, J.B. Wheeler, B. Williamson, Robert De Forest, Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, Grace Beukard, J.C. Saunders, Mary Hutton, William J. Pennington, C.S. Hurd, Henry C. Cooper, Henry J. Segers, S.F. Miller, Annie Theller, Alfred Noble, Maria Burton, Joseph Hobson, E. Lennon, F. Hulberg, Charles Gordon Hutton, Edward C. Ebert, A. William Lewin, E.R. Dunn, William P. Craighill, Theodore Cooper, P.I. Chapelle, Anita McAlpine, Clarence King, Victoria Raymond, and Adele Gorman.

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946, contains documentation about Hutton's personal finances, role as executor of the Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt estates, Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Frank Hutton, John Caulfield (son-in-law), and B.F. and C.H. Hutton. The series has been divided into four subseries: Financial Records, 1876-1901, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, Other Huttons, 1876-1936, and Personal Material, 1878-1946. Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, contains correspondence relating to specific family estates and family members. This correspondence was separated from Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, to make it easier for researchers to access all records relating to the family estates. This series includes hand written, typed, and printed materials. Some materials are in French. All material dated after 1901 has been added to the collection by other creators such as Hutton's wife and children.

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901, includes account books, account records, correspondence related to bank accounts, bank statements, financial notes, bills and proofs of payment, rent receipts, tax bills (New York, Flatbush, Montgomery County), checks, money exchanges, receipts for tax payments, real estate receipts, stock and bond certificates, loan agreements, executor accounts, rebate calculation sheet, and tax and insurance payments.

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, includes property maps and information (rent, mortgage costs, deeds), correspondence, notes on estate distribution, estate assets, value of estate and estate payments, account records, loan agreements, receipts, proof of payments, checks, financial records, legal documents, insurance documents, tax bills, auction receipts, and wills relating to the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Countess H. de Moltke-Hivtfeldt, Annie Theller, and William R. Hutton. Also included are correspondence, property maps and information, and deeds and mortgages on Hutton properties.

Subseries 2, the estate and real estate records correspondence topics include: Virginia state building codes, construction costs, construction notices, purchasing offers for property, real estate prices, receipts of payments, property lines, real estate purchases and sales, real estate sales negotiations, deeds insurance estimates and costs, loan costs, property estimates, renovation costs, mortgages, property damages and repairs, property tax payments, insurance rates and payments, rent payments, telephone installation, building permits, rental agreements, reports on property condition, contracts of sale, conflicts with tenants, changes of address, deeds, distribution of estate monies, details about the Countess' illness, estate arrangements, changes of address, problems arising out of estate distribution, payment of debts, will details, selling of mortgage shares, accounts, estate settlement, money cables and transfers, dealings with lawyers, rent on Hutton Park property, legal and accounting fees, power of attorney transfer, investments, property security, land appraisals, lists of assets, legacy taxes, mortgages transfers, property management, Flatbush property, property rent and values, and physicians bills.

Correspondents include the following: A.C. Weeks, Walter I. Green, John D. Probsh, A.G. Darwin, Thomas H. McCann, Allan Farguhar, Thomas Dawson, Potter and Crandall Real Estate and Insurance Brokers, George C. Tilyou, H.D. Olephant, F. Winston, Richard E. Calbraith, Frank P. Martin, Henry DeForest, Henry C. Cooper, Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company, John Ecker, C.K. Avevill, Georgina Hutton, Edward J. Hancy, Robert Graham, W.M. Bennett, Willis E. Merriman, Nathan L. Miller, Harry Hutton, Marquise de Portes (Adele Gorman), Annie Theller, Samuel L. Theller, Mrs. R. Locke, Frank Z. Adams, John Palmer (Secretary of State, New York), J.T. Cammeyer, Frank P. Martin, Florence Theller, Francis H. Seger, Henry C. Cooper, D.W.G. Cammeyer, Campbell W. Adams, Jane Casson, Elizabeth Hutton, Rene de Portes, H.G. Atkins, Grace Beukard, Aaron Pennington Muikhead, J.E. Delapalme, T.H. Powers, Egerton L. Winthrop Junior, George B. Glover, William Jay and Robert W. Candler, B. Williamson, J.E. Knaff, Cornelius C. Vermeule, S.V. Hayden, Charles G. Landon[?], H.A. Hurlbert, F.A. Black, John L. Calwalder, the Health Department of New York, A.G. Darwin, William Laue, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Charles S. Brown, Henrietta Hutton, Edward Gelon.

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936, includes professional drawings and proposals, checks, insurance information, correspondence, tax information, medical information, tax bills, relating to Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Henry and Harry Hutton, Frank Hutton (son), John Caulfield (son-in-law), B.F. Hutton, and C.H. Hutton.

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946, contains handwritten property notes, school notes, sermons, travel documents, menus, Christmas cards, jewelry box, postal guide, typed religious materials and flyers.

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901, contains twenty nine diary books that document both Hutton's personal and professional life. These diaries provide not only a record of Hutton's life, but were also used by Hutton himself as a reference tool. When working on projects he would refer to notes and observations he made in his diary (as evidenced by notes made in his diaries). The first pages of the diaries often list his height, weight and clothing sizes as they varied from year to year. A researcher could probably use the cashbooks (see Series 7) and the diaries in conjunction as both detail the purchases made by Hutton. Many of the diaries also include a short record of accounts in the back. The diaries are arranged chronologically.

Topics found in the diaries include short form accounts of daily activities and appointments, records of the weather, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, construction progress on projects, steam pumps, sketches and calculations, extension of Washington railroads, cost of food, work supplies, travel costs, costs of goods and food, work deadlines, home renovations, visits to family, cash accounts, accounts of household duties, produce on Woodlands property, records of deaths, debts owed, account of clearing Woodlands property, church visits, Hancock and Tonoloway Aqueduct, canals, Drum Point Railroad, Montgomery C. Meigs, Washington Aqueduct, Annapolis Water Works, telegram costs, wages for Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, William Craighill, Morris Canal, Annapolis Railroad and Canal, professional duties (inspections), Kanawha River Canal, travel schedules, professional expenses, cash received from Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, John's Dam, cathedral construction (St. Patricks?), Piedmont Bridge, Cumberland, account of farm property belonging to Major Campbell Bruns, Cunard Pier, Marquise de Portes, rent costs, Baltimore Canal, Kingston Water Supply, Croton Orange Estate, Pierre Casson, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, entertainment costs, Greenwood cemetery, train schedule, notes on illness, real estate sales, Hutton Park, Benjamin H. Hutton estate and heirs, estimates, accounts of correspondence received and sent, Central Railroad, rent on Orange properties, addresses, contracts and building supplies for projects, personal finances, Joseph Hutton property on Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, amounts paid and received, medical appointments, Ramapo Water Company, drawing progress of maps and diagrams, Harbor Board (New York), property repairs, inspection and test reports, reservoirs, lists of birthdays, Boston Tunnel, family financial issues, tax payments, and prayers.

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900, document the engineering and architectural projects worked on by Hutton. The series has been divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899; Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886; and Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900. Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899, contains sixteen field notebooks used by Hutton. Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886, contains seven notebooks. Subseries three, Notes, 1863-1900, contains four documents.

Some notebooks correspond to specific projects such as the Kanawha River Canal (lockgate and Phoenix Waterline), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Buffalo Reservoir, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Northern Adirondack Railroad account, Washington Aqueduct, Little Rock Bridge, Wilson-Adam Dock, Croten Brick Works, Hutton Park, Centennial Iron Works, Cumberland Canal, Williamsport Aqueduct, Catoctin Aqueduct, Alexandria Canal, Miller's Saw Mill, Seneca Dam, Union Tunnel, Cumberland Waterworks, Victoria Bridge, Welland Canal, North Sea Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Annapolis Water Company, Antietam Aqueduct, Interoceanic Canal, San Quentin Canal, Suez Canal, Amsterdam Canal, Harlem Bulkhead, Morris Canal, Blue Lake Canal, and Nicaragua Canal.

These notebooks should be used in conjunction with the other materials in the collection related to professional projects, as they often provide more detailed accounts of the construction and land surveys. Some of the notebooks contain entries from several different sources. The notebooks were probably shared among the engineers working on these projects. The notebooks also contain looseleaf ephemera such as hand written calculations, newspaper clippings, and blueprints. Languages found in this series are English and French.

Notebook topics include construction projects, supply needs, costs for labor, sketches (Woodland Mills, landscapes, dams, railway cars, Noland Tunnel), costs of crops, survey measurements, cost of livestock, aqueducts, inspections, canal bridges, seed prices, dams, measurements, coffer dam, canal maintenance, worker salaries, calculations, towpath sketches and measurements, shipping rates, worker accidents, water and coal used, geometrical sketches (Washington Aqueduct), locks, damage reports, interactions with other engineers (William Reading), coal shipments on the canal, travel expenses, land survey notes, drafts for correspondence, William Craighill, Victoria docks, lists of personal supplies used, construction time estimates, surveying expenses, telegram costs, sand pump, canal from Sherling to Tuxedo Bay, analysis of several artificial lakes and reservoirs, distances of reservoirs to main pipes, calculations for the Austin Wheel, engine construction, bridges, gauging water depth, results and observations of tests and performance, problems with construction, to-do lists, cost of land surrounding towpaths, Fawcett's Lock, Tarman's Lock, comparison of costs in transporting coal by water and by rail, inspection notes, iron work, drainages, leaks, cost of supplies, watergates, harbor ferries, railroad station distances, flood protection, Panama Canal via the Nicaraguan route, cost of jetties, water levels, pressure of steam, boilers, steam and water cycle, water depth, cement, Great Falls, Virginia, waterflow, soundings, time of floats, flow of currents, rain fall measurements, tunnel measurements, cost of trenching San Francisco water supply, record of livestock, cost of food, rates of sawing woods and mills, preliminary railroad line measurements, profile of final line, and railroad line profiles.

Series 7, Cash Books, 1856-1899, contains seven cashbooks which list prices for personal items purchased by Hutton. Topics include groceries, church dues, clothes, hygiene products, cigars, some short journal entries about his work (Williamstown), concerts, dinners, family addresses, cakes, meals, cars, stamps, office supplies (pencils and papers), valentines, glasses, gloves, fabric, medicine, needles, diapers, tobacco, shoes (adult and childrens), travel expenses, telegrams, candles, newspapers, liquor, coal oil, jewelry, allowances given to family members, bank deposits, monies paid and received, taxes, subscriptions, tailoring costs, deposits and payments into estate trusts, and notes about payments to Benjamin H. Hutton heirs. The cashbooks also contain some personal loose leaf ephemera such as prayers, sketches, and engineering notes collected by Hutton.

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, contains documents about engineering and architectural projects throughout Hutton's career, including information about the professional organizations and the legal issues in which he was involved. This series has been divided into eight subseries based on project, document form, and document subject. Some materials are in French and Italian.

Series 8, Professional Projects, also includes correspondence related to specific projects, primarily the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, and the Georgetown Incline.

Topics include construction and repair to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, engineering and use of Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, worker contracts, supply and labor purchases, design plans and proposals, construction and repair costs, supply notes and costs of supplies, water pressure and power, shipping materials and routes (specifically the shipping of coal), inspections and their findings, condition of canal dam and locks, water supply, drainage, sketches, board proceedings, business meetings, deeds, cost comparisons to other shipping methods, hiring processes, wages, cost estimates, Hutton's consulting fees, measurements and calculations, funding issues, worker conflicts, negotiations with municipal governments, payment schedules, bills for services, air pressure in Hudson River Tunnel, permission for construction, specifications, mortality rate among workers on the Hudson River Tunnel, construction reports, outlet incline, proposals for construction, letters of introduction, railroad versus water for trade, controversy with Tiersey, construction contracts, construction schedules, construction issues, construction progress, construction damage, basis for estimates, supply requests, internal politics, changes to construction plans, contract and price adjustments, issues with suppliers, construction delays, work permits, bills, worker issues, engineering notes, construction excavations, expenses, construction instructions, Union Bridge Company, lighting installations, construction processes, hiring practices, electrical conductors, water proofing, hydraulics, cement, concrete, payment of contributors, processes of approval for construction, meeting dates of the Harlem River Bridge Commission, and contract restrictions.

Correspondents include the following: W.W.M. Kaig, Henry Dodge, E. Mulvany, John Shay, James Clarke, H.D. Whitcomb, Horace Benton, J. Rellan, J.R. Maus, W.E. Merrill, A.P. Gorman, J.H. Staats, Vernon H. Brown, Charles H. Fisher (New York Central and Hudson River Railway Company), B. Baker, John Fowler, Benjamin and John Dos Passos, Charles B. Colby, Charles B. Brush, S. Pearson, Stanford White, Horace E. Golding, R.H. Smith, Daniel Lord, A. Fteley, Herbert Hinds, J.R. Bartlett, D.M. Hirsch, M.H. Bartholomew, Thomas O. Driscoll, W.E. Porter, Thomas F. Rowland, George Edward Harding, R.H. Dames, William Watson, James B. Eads, J.D. Bright, H. Aston, Charles Suley, A.M. Maynard, W.R. Henton, G. Geddes, H.P. Gilbut, Malcolm W. Niver (Secretary of the Harlem River Bridge Commission), J.D. Patterson, George Devin (Assistant Engineer Washington/ Harlem River Bridge), J.B. Wheeler, John Bogart, Charles Burns, J. McClellon, Rob Bassee, B. Williamson, Theodore Cooper, Lewis Cass Ledyard, R.M. Hunt, John Cooper, Henry Wilson, A.A. Caille, Myles Tierney, W. Pentzen, L.B. Cantfield, George Q. Grumstaid Junior, M.J. Funton, George Pierce, W.O. Fayerweather, Noah S. Belthen, Herbert Steward, W.M. Habirsham. Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965, consists of plans, blueprints, land profiles, drawings, boat rates, contract forms, order forms, descriptions of the canal, design information, engineering data, sketches, cost estimates, land titles, microfilm, business papers, supply bills, patent bills, news clippings, reports, specifications, stockholder's reports, receipts, water leases, printed materials, and correspondence.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project was started in 1828 and completed twenty two years later in 1850. The canal's main objective was to connect Georgetown to the coal banks above Cumberland, Maryland, providing a short and cheap trade route between the eastern and western United States. It was also hoped that the canal would provide greater communication and travel between these two regions. Plagued by natural disasters, and construction setbacks, the canal was never completed in time to be useful and became obsolete shortly after its completion. Canal trade was eventually put out of business by the increase of railroads. Although it was an important development in engineering at its inception, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is no longer in use and has become what locals affectionately refer to as "the old ditch." The canal was designated a National Historical Park in 1971 and consists of 184.5 miles of hiking and biking trails.

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901, consists of agreements for construction, certificates, contracts, and cost estimates, construction reports, engineering notebooks, engineering notes, sketches, land profiles, maps, progress profiles, plans, proposals, printed material, statements of expenses, and correspondence.

The Hudson River Tunnel project was started in 1874, and the final tubes were opened in 1910 after several construction setbacks. The tunnel connects Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City. Today the Hudson River Tunnel, known as the North River Tunnels is used by Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit rail lines.

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1982, consists of blueprints, printed materials, photographs, engineer's estimates, schedules, costs, reports, proposals, contracts, specifications, and correspondence.

The Harlem River Bridge project was started in 1885 and was completed in 1889. It spans the Harlem River in New York City, New York and connects the Washington Heights section of Manhattan with the Bronx. It was later named and is still known as the Washington Bridge and has been adapted over time to carry highway traffic. These adaptations have allowed the bridge to remain in use today.

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1832, consists of drawings, maps, blueprints, plans, proposals, cost estimates, bills, correspondence, sketches, land profiles, dimensions, engineering notes, account records, photostats, supply lists, calculations, legal documents, surveys, inspection reports, financial data, and measurements on architectural and engineering projects. Highlights of this subseries include: Western Maryland Railroad, Washington Aqueduct, Panama Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Piedmont Bridge, Northern Adirondack Railroad, Columbia Railroad, Morris Canal, Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad, Suez Canal, St. Gothard Canal, Tansa Dam, Colorado Midland Railroad Company, Memorial Bridge, Mersey Tunnel, Little Rock Bridge, Kingston Water Supply, Kanawha River Canal, Florida Ship Canal, East Jersey Water Company, Consolidated Coal Company, Dismal Swamp Canal, Boston and Baltimore Tunnels, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Annapolis Water Company, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad Company, and the Baltimore Beltline.

Subseries 5, Unidentified Project Files, 1872-1900, consists of bills of sale, engineering forms and regulations, cement test results and methods, census bulletin, contracts, cost estimates, correspondence, notes on publications, engineering data and notes, drawings, surveys, sketches, payrolls, photographs, and reports.

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900, consists of documents related to some of Hutton's projects, including specifications for bridges, reservoirs, canals, viaducts, docks, buildings, water works, and tunnels. Some specifications are more general, and some are blank proposal/specification forms. There are also proposals for estimates and a "call" or advertisement to contractors to bid on certain projects. Many of the specifications deal with projects in New York State, but projects in Pennsylvania, the City of Baltimore, and Europe are represented. The materials are arranged alphabetically by project name. There is one folder of documentation for the Potomac River Bridge (Arlington Memorial Bridge) in Washington, D.C. The Arlington Memorial Bridge was part of the 1901 McMillan Commission's plan for restoring Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's original plan for the capital. Two decades passed before construction was initiated by the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White. The documentation for the Memorial Bridge consists of calculations and monetary figures for materials such as granite.

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886, contains documents related to a patent infringement suit for moveable dams involving Alfred Pasqueau vs. the United States. This file contains both a printed version of the case and a handwritten statement from Hutton.

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902, contains documents related to professional organizations where Hutton held membership. Specific organizations represented are American Institute of Architects, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institution of Civil Engineers, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, Librarie Polytechnique, American Agency of "Engineering" in London, Imperial Institute, League of Associated Engineers, Railroad Corporation, American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Century Association. Material in the subseries includes correspondence, candidates for membership, membership payments, membership lists, meeting minutes, schedule of terms, professional practices, charges, articles of association, invitations for membership, and election notes. Some materials are in French.

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1850-1913, contains a variety of printed materials relating to engineering and architectural projects written by Hutton and fellow engineers. This series can be used to examine not only professional developments of the period and responses to those developments, but also to track how ideas were transferred between engineers across countries and continents. This series should be used in conjunction with the professional correspondence found in this collection, as many of the authors also appear there. Some materials are in French, German, Spanish, and Italian.

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900, includes printed papers on the Missouri flood wave, the Ravine du Sud, the Potomac waterfront, the Colorado midlands, and the application of water supply machinery.

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913, includes printed materials on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canals, Tehuantec Ship Railway, Interoceanic canals and railways, jetties, Nicaragua Canal, uses of cements, mortars, concretes, steam power, harbors, Niagara Falls, Kanawha River canal, Mississippi River, Hudson River Bridge, sewage disposal, Washington Aqueduct, specifications, construction progress reports, hydraulic experiments, water supply, drainage, road surfacing, sea walls, water-cooling apparatus, pollution reports, bridges, pipes, channels, reservoirs, irrigation, water power, and sewers.

Subseries 2 contains an issue of The North American Review in which Hutton has specifically highlighted an article entitled, "The Inter-Oceanic Canal." Please see the container list for names of authors.

Subseries 3, Printed Materials with No Author, 1852-1903, includes printed materials on harbor reports, Annapolis Water Company, Ramapo Water Company, water departments and boards, maps, engineer's reports, sea walls, preservation of structures, annual reports, Coal and Iron Railway Company, sewers, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, contract specifications, proposals, social club life, Croton Water Supply, law suits, water supplies, moveable dams, reservoirs, East River Bridge, Eastern Canal, water filtration, Kingston New Water Supply, water pipes, locks, docks, contracts, construction reports, Croton Water Supply, and surveys. Also included are issues of journals such as Le Correspondant, Circular of the Office of Chief Engineers, The Club, VIII Congres International de Navigation, Journal of the Association of Engineering Studies, and Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Subseries 4, Newspaper, Journals and Magazine Clippings, 1873-1900, contains clippings from a variety of newspapers such as Scientific American, andRailroad Gazette. Subjects included are the Union Tunnel opening in Baltimore, Drum Point Railroad, railroad company conflicts, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Metropolitan Railroad, Western Maryland Railroad, crop prospects, lumber trade, North Avenue Bridge, Nicaraguan Canal, harbors, river improvements, reactions to engineering projects, Belt tunnel, city transit, Washington, D.C. flood in 1880, tunnel shields, Springfield Bridge, railroad patents, Panama Canal, jetties, Hudson Tunnel, steel boilers, composition and use of cement, and the Brooklyn Bridge.

Subseries 5, Oversized Printed Materials, 1889-1892, contains large printed materials related to the Washington Aqueduct, General Post Office Building, subway arches, cornices, Warwick's Castle, Neuschwanstein Castle, Renaissance paintings, botanical drawings, school buildings, church architecture, the Hospital for the Insane of the Army and Navy and the District of Columbia, the Panama Canal, Morningside Park, and the Mississippi Jetties. Also includes engravings of Hutton, T.N. Talfound, and F. Jeffrey and photographs of Montgomery C. Meigs, and Hutton. Some materials are in German and French.

References:

1. Ward, George Washington, "The Early Development of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Project," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series XVII, no. 9-11 (1899): 8.

2. Ibid., 88.

3. Ibid., 55.

4. Ibid., 90.

5. Sanderlin, Walter S., "The Great National Project: A History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series LXIV, no. 1 (1946): 21.

6. Ibid., 282.

7. Gies, Joseph, Adventure Underground (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1962): 134.

8. Ibid., 131-132.

9. Ibid., 135-136.

10. Ibid., 145.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901

Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899

Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900

Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899

Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886

Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900

Series 7, Cashbooks, 1856-1899

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965

Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1892

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1932

Subseries 5, Identified Project Files, 1872-1900

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1826-1913

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913

Subseries 3, Newspaper, Journals, and Magazine Clippings, 1855-1901

Subseries 4, Oversized Printed Material, 1889-1892

Series 10: Drawings, 1875, 1883
Biographical / Historical:
Not much is known about the history of William Rich Hutton outside of his role in architectural and engineering projects of the late 1800s and early 1900s. In many cases, he is spoken of only in reference to his projects, and the short biographies that have been written read more like a resume than a life story. Because of this lack of information, this note will focus on Hutton's professional accomplishments, but will attempt to make some comments on his personal life.

William Rich Hutton was born on March 21, 1826 in Washington, D.C., the eldest son of James Hutton (died 1843) and his wife, the former Salome Rich (1). He was educated at the Western Academy (Washington, D.C.) from 1837-1840 under George J. Abbot and then at Benjamin Hallowell's School in Alexandria, Virginia, where he received special training in mathematics, drawing, and surveying (2). Hutton began his professional career in California when he, along with his younger brother James, accompanied their uncle William Rich to work for the United States Army. His uncle was a paymaster for the army and Hutton became his clerk. They traveled around the new state paying the various platoons stationed there, but Hutton also occupied his time by drawing the landscapes and structures he saw in the settlements of Los Angeles, San Francisco, La Paz, Mazatlan, Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Pedro, San Diego, and Cape San Lucas (3). These drawings are now held by the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. Hutton held the position of clerk until the spring of 1849, and in July of that year he began working with Lieutenant Edward O.C. Ord and completed the first survey of Los Angeles and its surrounding pueblo lands and islands. Hutton continued surveying in California from 1850-1851. He was hired by William G. Dana to survey the Nipomo Ranch in San Luis Obispo County and also surveyed the ranches Santa Manuela and Huer-Huero, both owned by Francis Z. Branch. After his employment with Dana, he became the county surveyor for San Luis Obispo County, where he prepared the first survey and map of the region. He also continued to survey ranches for Captain John Wilson during this time. In August 1851, he resigned from his position as county surveyor and moved to Monterey where he worked as an assistant to Captain (later General) Henry W. Hallack, superintendent of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine in Santa Clara County (4). He remained in this position until March, 1853 when he returned to Washington, D.C. by way of Mexico (5).

Hutton began his career as a civil engineer in Washington, D.C. He was first assigned to the position of assistant engineer on a survey of the projected Metropolitan Railroad in 1853, which was chartered to connect Washington, D.C. with the mainline of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1855 he began his professional relationship with Montgomery C. Meigs when he was appointed to the position of assistant engineer on the Washington Aqueduct. He also served as division engineer on this project until construction was shut down in 1861 because of the outbreak of the Civil War. Fortunately for Hutton, the construction on the Aqueduct was resumed in 1862, and when Congress transferred the supervision of the aqueduct project from the War Department to the Department of the Interior, Hutton was made chief engineer. By the end of the Civil War, Hutton's reputation as a civil engineer was established (6).

During this decade Hutton also served as the chief engineer for the Annapolis Water Works (1866) and as chief engineer for one of his most famous projects, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (1869-1871). Although some historians minimize Hutton as just one of many engineers to work on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, he did make one major contribution to its construction: the Georgetown Canal Incline. Perhaps the final effort of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal company to compete with the emerging and fast expanding railroad, the Georgetown Incline was designed to allow canal boats to travel through the canal with low water levels and to alleviate canal congestion. Unfortunately, by the time the incline was completed use of the canal had decreased so significantly that it was no longer needed to help control traffic (7). Despite this, Hutton continued to work as a consulting engineer for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company until 1881, when he was let go because of the dwindling fortunes of the company (7).

In the 1870s and 1880s Hutton was busy with several engineering projects. During 1871-1873, he was the chief engineer in the completion of the Western Maryland Railroad to Hagerstown and Williamsport (9). He also practiced as an architect with his brother, the prominent Baltimore architect Nathanial Henry Hutton, during the years 1873-1880. He relocated to New York in 1880, serving as chief engineer for the Washington Bridge in 1888 and 1889 and the Hudson River Tunnel from 1889 to 1891. In 1886, he became the consulting engineer for the New Croton Aqueduct and served in the same position for the Colorado Midland Railway between the years of 1886-1889 (10).

As his personal and professional correspondence shows, Hutton continued to work on various engineering and architectural projects until his death on December 11, 1901. In addition to these projects, he also invented the innovative system of locks and moveable dams used in the Kanawha River Canal. He was awarded the Diplome d'Honneur for this featat the Paris Exposition in 1878 (11). His correspondence also demonstrates how Hutton was respected within his professional community. These letters refer to the accuracy of his work, his willingness to help other colleagues and supply them with reference materials and information, and, in addition to all this, his politeness. It seems that these qualities defined not only his personality but also his ideology. In one of the cashbooks in the collection, dated 1899, a hand written note contains a religious parable of "The Straw." The phrase in this parable that speaks most to Hutton's work ethic, and to the spirit of inventors everywhere, is this: "Even so however lowly may be the act, however little opportunities we may have of assisting others, we may still do something. Let us beg to fulfil our duty in this regards by making ourselves useful to others by some little act of thoughtful charity..." (12). Hutton, in his dedication to civil engineering, seems to have lived up to this virtue, and in his work he changed the landscape of Washington, D.C. and New York.

The Fairy Godfather: Hutton's Personal History

His professional records reveal a man who was fiercely dedicated to his work. His obituary references his professional life more than his personal life (13). Despite his reputation in the professional engineering community, his personal records demonstrate that Hutton was also dedicated to his family and children. In 1855, he married Montgomery County native Mary Augusta Clopper (died 1915). Together they lived on her family's estate known as the Woodlands, and had five children: Frank C. Hutton, Mary Hutton, Elizabeth Hutton (later Caulfield), Rosa Hutton, and Annie Salome Hutton (14). It is at this estate that Hutton died and was buried. The personal letters to his wife found in the Woodlands Collection held at the Montgomery County Historical Society show a man in love and willing to take time from his work to write to his wife. His letters to his children show a similar interest and compassion. In the many letters found in this collection from his daughter Elizabeth (Bessie) one can see a father who is interested in not only his daughter's activities abroad, but also in her opinion. This interest also extends to his son Frank Hutton, as their correspondence shows Hutton offering his son advice on his own engineering projects.

Hutton also served as executor to many of his extended family's estates. Many letters show the conflicts that Hutton had to mediate and the dependence of his cousins on him for advice and money. Although his family was wealthy (his cousin was Benjamin H. Hutton whose daughters married into the court of Napoleon III), they were volatile, and his records seem to indicate that he served as a mediator for many of their disputes. In addition to this, as his nickname of Fairy Godfather suggests, Hutton was always willing to lend his family either financial or moral support when needed. Unfortunately, little other documentation concerning Hutton's personal life exists outside of this collection and the one held at the Montgomery County Historical Society.

References:

1. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

2. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): ix.

3. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942). and Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): x-xi.

4. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

5. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii.

6. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii-xviii.

7. Skramstad, Harold, "The Georgetown Canal Incline," Technology and Culture, Vol. 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1969): 555.

8. Business Correspondence, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 22 February 1881, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 27, folder number 29.

9. "William Rich Hutton," The Club: A Journal of Club Life for Men and Women,(July 1894):37

10. Ibid.

11. Monzione, Joseph, "William R. Hutton," A.P.W.A. Reporter (Sept. 1977): 7.

12. Cashbook, 1899, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 23, folder number 5.

13. The Woodlands Collection, Montgomery County Historical Society.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1870-1890, (AC0987). Contains materials relating to the construction of the Washington Aqueduct including a book of drawings illustrating reservoirs, tunnels, culverts, and other structural elements, a Government Senate Document relating to construction progress, scrapbooks created by Meigs that include newspaper clippings about the Washington Aqueduct project, water supply, engineering projects, building construction, architecture and other subjects. Collection is currently unprocessed, but is available for research.

Materials in Other Organizations:

The William Rich Hutton Papers, 1840-1961, are located at the Huntington Library in California (see http://catalog.huntington.org).

The collection contains 95 drawings, 13 letters, and 39 facsimile copies of letters and manuscripts. The illustrative material includes both watercolor and pencil drawings of California (including Los Angeles, Monterey, San Francisco, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, and the California missions), Baja California, Mexico, and Peru. There are also five pieces in the collection related to the author María Amparo Ruiz de Burton. In 1942, the Huntington Library published Glances at California 1847--853: Diaries and Letters of William Rich Hutton, Surveyor and California 1847--852: Drawings by William Rich Hutton.

The Hutton family papers are located at the Montgomery County Historical Society, Sween Library (see http://www.montgomeryhistory.org/sites/default/files/Family_Files.pdf).

The collection contains account books from the Woodlands estate, recipe books, livestock records, records of Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary and Rose Hutton (daughters), newspaper clippings (including his obituary), correspondence, record books, deeds, bills and receipts, engineering papers, religious momentos (funeral service cards), and insurance papers.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mr. and Mrs. James J. Madine, a relative of Hutton's and last owners of the Woodlands estate; the Department of Forests and Parks, Maryland; Louis Fischer; and Mr. and Mrs. Mayo S. Stuntz, 1965-1966, 1974.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dams  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Canals  Search this
Underwater tunnels  Search this
Railroad bridges  Search this
Railroad construction  Search this
Water-supply  Search this
Construction workers  Search this
Construction equipment  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Concrete  Search this
Coal -- Transportation  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Canals -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Canals -- Maryland  Search this
Canals -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridges -- United States  Search this
Waterworks  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Tunnels -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Construction -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Underground construction  Search this
Locks and dams  Search this
Shipping  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Sewage disposal  Search this
Railroads -- Maryland  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroad engineering  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Aqueducts  Search this
Arch bridges  Search this
Architects -- 19th century  Search this
Books  Search this
Bridges -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridge construction industry -- United States  Search this
Engineering notebooks  Search this
Docks  Search this
Domestic and family life  Search this
Architecture -- United States  Search this
Architecture -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Harlem River Bridge  Search this
Western Maryland Railroad  Search this
Annapolis Waterworks  Search this
Steam engineering  Search this
Harlem River Bridge Commission  Search this
Washington (D.C.) -- 19th century  Search this
Reservoirs  Search this
Patents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Photographs -- 19th century
Cashbooks
Business records -- 19th century
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps -- 19th century
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books -- 19th century
Books -- 19th century
Family papers -- 18th century
Financial records -- 19th century
Diaries -- 19th century
Drawings -- 19th century
Cyanotypes
Correspondence -- 19th-20th century
Deeds
Printed material
Correspondence
Contracts
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Citation:
William R. Hutton Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0987
See more items in:
William R. Hutton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84f6824ce-7291-4ac4-ab0f-abaa2071815e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0987
Online Media:

James Leffel and Company Records

Creator:
James Leffel and Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (42 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Business records
Charts
Clippings
Correspondence
Drawings
Order books
Patents
Photographs
Specifications
Trade catalogs
Glass plate negatives
Place:
Springfield (Ohio)
Date:
circa 1848-1976
Summary:
Collection documents James Leffel and Company of Springfield, Ohio, manufacturer of turbines, water wheels and engines.
Scope and Contents:
The records contain business and legal records; correspondence; patents and patent files; specifications; charts; blueprints; mechanical drawings and original catalog art; photographs and negatives; catalogs, and clippings documenting James Leffel and Company.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1974-1978

Series 2: Patent Materials, 1848-1931

Series 3: Testing Data, 1913-1966, bulk 1920s

Series 4: Catalogs, 1870-1946

Series 5: Catalog Artwork, 1919-1959

Series 6: Trade Literature, 1890s-1976

Series 7: Photographs, 1908-1929

Series 7: Writings and Journal Articles, 1881-1854

Series 8: Glass Plate Negatives, 1890s-1950s, undated
Biographical:
James Leffel was born in 1806 in Botetourt County, Virginia to John and Catherine Leffel. The family moved to Ohio, settling near Springfield. where John Leffel established saw and grist mills. Leffel grew up surrounded by mills and and developed a strong interest in water wheels. Leffel trained as a millwright acquiring skills in metal work to make sickles, knives, and other small iron implements. In the late 1830s, Leffel established his first foundry and machine shop near Springfield, Ohio, quickly expanding and taking on two partners, William A. John and T.Y. Ferrell and adding mill gearing and stoves to their line of products. By 1845, Leffel ended his business relationship with John and Ferrell and formed a partnership with William Blackeney, a machinist who helped him support the foundry and its work. In 1846, Andrew Richards joined Leffel to build a cotton mill and machine shop. Leffel envisioned the utilization of water power in Springfield. Ohio, with the establishment of mills along a race--a dug channel leading from a creek or river to the mill--that would eventually bring trade. With the help of Samuel and James Barnett, gristmill operators, Leffel was able to "cut a race" and erect a Water Power and Flouring Mill. Leffel was especially interested in water wheel development and would receive patent US34,150 for a water wheel (1862) which later reissued as RE1791 and RE1792 in 1864.

Leffel also patented cooking stoves (US6775) in 1849 which became known as the "Buckeye," "Double Oven" and "Red Cook Stove" that were successful and earned him a strong reputation. In 1852, Leffel broke with Richards, and Nathaniel Cook, a machinist, joined Leffel and Blackeney. With his 1862 patent for a water wheel, Leffel focused his attention on demonstrating the water wheel and speaking about its productive uses. Numerous test runs of the water wheel convinced Leffel that he could sell the wheel to mills and factory operators. Leffel marketed the wheel as the "American Double Turbine" an efficient, cheap turbine for the mass market (Layton page 86 ). In 1863, Leffel and Blackeney formed a new firm, along with Perry Betchel and Leander Mudge to create a foundry designed solely for the production of the wheel. Leffel later joined forces with John Foos, a mill operator and James S. Goode, a lawyer, to form the James Leffel and Company. Leffel sold his water wheel to flour mills, woolen goods manufacturers, paper mills and farm equipment manufacturers. The company became one of the leading manufacturers of waterwheels and turbines and today continues to operate under the name of James Leffel and Company as part of Canyon Hydro which acquired the company in 2019.

Leffel died in 1866.

Source

Becker, Carl M. "James Leffel: Double Turbiner Water Wheel Inventor, Ohio History, Volume 75, No. 4, Autumn 1966, pages 200-211.

Layton, Edwin. "Scientific Technology, 1845-1900: The Hydraulic Turbine and the Origins of American Industrial Research," Technology and Culture, January 1979, Vol. 20, No. 1, pages 64-89.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian

Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Trade Literature Collection

Pelton Water Wheel Collection, NMAH.AC.1093

Lombard Governor Company Records, NMAH.AC.1091

Niagara Falls Power Company Photographs, NMAH.AC.0949

J. & W. Jolly Company Records, NMAH.AC.1009

Uriah Boyden Papers, NMAH.AC.0982

William R. Hutton Papers, NMAH.AC.0987

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Waterworks

Materials at Other Organizations

Special Collections and Archives, University Libraries, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio

James Leffel & Company Records, 1867-1971

The James Leffel and Company Records consist of ledgers, journals, order books, inventories, cash and day books, payroll files, correspondence, photographs, publications, and scrapbooks of a late 19th and early 20th century Springfield, Ohio manufacturer of turbines, water wheels and engines.

Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio

James Leffel and Company Records, 1845-1890

Records of water-wheel company of Springfield, Ohio including a letter press book, notebook of hydraulic tables, and patents for water wheels and cooking stoves.
Provenance:
Collected for the National Museum of American History.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hydraulic turbines  Search this
Steam-boilers  Search this
Stokers, Mechanical  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Valves  Search this
Water-wheels  Search this
Turbines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Business records
Charts
Clippings
Correspondence
Drawings
Order books
Patents
Photographs -- 19th century
Specifications
Trade catalogs
Glass plate negatives
Citation:
James Leffel and Company Records, 1867-1957, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0960
See more items in:
James Leffel and Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b36140e4-0b0b-4f5c-8c2e-f3cfb0a2abf0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0960
Online Media:

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1463 boxes, 33 map-folders, 7 films)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8920ed035-d211-4a58-9047-b31fa79464bd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Erasmus D. Leavitt Papers

Creator:
Calumet and Hecla Mining Company.  Search this
Leavitt, Erasmus D., 1836-1916  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
20.4 Cubic feet (4 boxes, 82 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Account books
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Letterpress books
Notebooks
Scrapbooks
Place:
Upper Peninsula (Mich.)
Date:
1861-1955
Summary:
Papers document prominent nineteenth-century steam engineer Erasmus D. Leavitt.
Scope and Contents note:
The Leavitt Papers include a Civil War diary, personal account books, photographs, drawings, and engineering materials relating to steam engines.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1: Engineering Materials, 1861-1955

Series 2: Photographs, 1890s, undated

Series 3: Engineering Drawings, 1874-1906
Historical:
The Calumet and Hecla Company, which was formed in about 1866, was one of the largest mining operations in the Lake Superior region of Upper Michigan. Over 3 billion pounds of copper were removed from its extensive mines by the time operations ceased in 1939. To facilitate the work in both the mines and smelting plants, the company installed some the largest steam engines ever built. The aggregate amounted to over 55,000 horsepower.

Noted 19th century steam engineer Erasmus Darwin Leavitt was hired to design the series of huge multi-cylinder engines. Each had sufficient power to support several operations at one time. While an engine drove one of the hoists, it might also power pumping, conveying, and air compressing machinery. At the peak of operations there were at least 50 steam engines of all sizes providing power to Calumet and Hecla. Falling copper prices during the 1920s and the economic depression of the 1930s ultimately forced the mines to close. The engines were of no further use and their countless tons of cast iron and steel ended up in the scrap drives of World War II.
Biographical:
Erasmus Darwin Leavitt was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1836 and died in 1916 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was educated in the Lowell public schools, entered the machine shop of the Lowell Manufacturing Company in 1852, and served three years as an apprentice. He spent one year with Corliss and Nightingale and was later assistant foreman of the City Point works in South Boston, where he was in charge of building the engines for the flagship "Hartford." From 1859 to 1861 he was chief draftsman for Thurston, Gardiner & Co., of Providence, Rhode Island, leaving to enter the United States Navy in the summer of 1861.

Leavitt served during the Civil War and he was detailed to the Naval Academy at Annapolis as instructor in steam engineering. Resigning in 1867, he resumed the practice of mechanical engineering, making a specialty of pumping and mining machinery. He was consulting engineer of the Calumet and Hecla Mining compan from 1874 to 1904 during which time he designed the equipment. He was also consulting engineer for Henry R. Worthington, the Dickson Manufacturing Company, City of Boston and City of Cambridge, and designed the pumping engine for the City of Louisville, Kentucky. He was advisory engineer and designed machinery for the Bethlehem Steel Company and for South African mining companies. He was a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and formerly its president; the American Society of Civil Engineers, American Institute of Mining Engineers, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, American Society of Naval Engineers, an honorary member of the British Society for the Advancement of Science, life member of Franklin Institute, and member of Institution of Civil Engineers and of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers of Great Britain. He was also a fellow of American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

In 1884 Mr. Leavitt received the honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering from Stevens Institute of Technology of New Jersey. Leavitt retired from active practice in 1904. He married Annie Elisabeth Pettit in 1867, and had three daughters, Mary, Margaret and Annie.

Source

Cambridge Chronicle, March 18, 1916
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Michigan Technological University Archives and Copper Country Historical Collections

Calumet and Hecla Mining Company Collection
Provenance:
Collection materials donated by Calumet and Hecla, Inc. in 1960 and by Thomas E. P. Rice, 1977.

The collection came to the Smithsonian in 1960 from Calumet & Hecla, Inc. In the course of a reorganization in 1952 mining had been dropped from the company name as the emphasis was on chemicals, foundry work, and forest products. Its remaining mining activites in other areas of Michigan were phased out during the 1960s and in 1968 Calumet & Hecla merged with Universal Oil Products, Inc. Late in 1970 Universal Oil Products scrapped what was left of the Calumet & Hecla physical plant and its remaining assests were auctioned off.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engines  Search this
Hoisting and conveying  Search this
Mineral industries  Search this
Mining  Search this
Pumping  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Waterworks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Account books
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Letterpress books
Notebooks
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Erasmus D. Leavitt Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0966
See more items in:
Erasmus D. Leavitt Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c5e7ffde-5f5f-415c-ae48-45a3c941509b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0966

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Schools

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
11.39 Cubic feet (consisting of 25 boxes, 2 folders, 4 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Examinations (documents)
Speeches
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Reports
Sales records
Trade literature
Print advertising
Business cards
Programs
Training manuals
Invoices
Publications
Business records
Advertising cards
Advertising mail
Certificates
Business ephemera
Manuals
Sales letters
Awards
Dance cards
Business letters
Commercial correspondence
Ephemera
Illustrations
Photographs
Sermons
Letterheads
Advertising
Printed ephemera
Catalogues
Theater programs
Report cards
Receipts
Advertising fliers
Legal documents
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Lesson books
Periodicals
School records
Date:
1745-1973
bulk 1840-1930
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents note:
Most materials present are records and information related to specific schools and institutions and their operations. There are no complete records for any single organization. K-12 public, private schools are represented, as well as colleges, universities, vocational training, plus home study, correspondence courses, Sunday Schools and some religious instruction. HBCUs are not represented, though there may be a general item or two related to one or more of the HBCU schools. There is a sampling of teaching and learning tools such as workbooks, textbooks, and curriculum guides, plus publications for educators. A portion of the material focuses on administration and the profession of education. Student Services and Engagement covers the social aspects of higher education.
Arrangement note:
Schools is arranged in two subseries.

Institutions

By Name

Administration and Records

Genre

Advertisements

Images

Instruction and Learning: Tools and Resources

Post Family Education Records

Serial Publications for Educators and Administrators
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Schools is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
College administrators  Search this
Educators  Search this
Art teachers  Search this
Topic:
Student activities  Search this
Education, Higher  Search this
Colleges  Search this
College teachers  Search this
Teachers -- 1940-1950  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Musical productions  Search this
Students  Search this
Education  Search this
Home economics -- Study and teaching  Search this
Dance  Search this
College graduates -- 1840-1860  Search this
Education, Elementary  Search this
High schools -- Alumni and alumnae  Search this
College students -- 1900-1910  Search this
Art  Search this
Music  Search this
Primers  Search this
Vocational education  Search this
Schools  Search this
Teachers  Search this
Mathematics  Search this
Education -- 19th century  Search this
Kindergarten  Search this
Dances  Search this
Classrooms  Search this
Theater  Search this
High school student activities  Search this
Women -- Education  Search this
Universities and colleges  Search this
Lesson plans  Search this
Students -- 1940-1950  Search this
Universities and colleges -- Administration  Search this
Musical performances  Search this
Education -- school buildings  Search this
State universities and colleges  Search this
Students -- 19th century  Search this
Medical colleges -- Faculty  Search this
Commencement ceremonies  Search this
High school athletes  Search this
Cooking  Search this
Medical colleges  Search this
Musicals  Search this
Elementary schools  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Genre/Form:
Examinations (documents)
Speeches
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Reports
Sales records
Trade literature
Print advertising
Business cards
Programs -- Graduation ceremonies -- 1930-1940
Training manuals -- 20th century
Invoices
Publications
Business records
Advertising cards
Advertising mail
Certificates
Business ephemera
Manuals
Sales letters
Awards
Dance cards
Business letters
Commercial correspondence
Certificates -- School attendance -- 1930-1940 -- Illinois
Ephemera
Illustrations
Photographs
Sermons
Letterheads
Publications -- Business
Advertising
Printed ephemera
Catalogues
Theater programs
Report cards
Receipts
Advertising fliers
Legal documents
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Lesson books
Periodicals
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Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Schools, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Schools
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Schools
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8680d9cf8-955e-43fd-b70a-d3dd90a3f340
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-schools
Online Media:

Milch Gallery records

Creator:
Milch Gallery  Search this
Names:
E. & A. Milch, Inc.  Search this
Milch Galleries  Search this
Vonnoh, Robert William, 1858-1933  Search this
Acheson, Alice  Search this
Adams, Charles L., 19th cent  Search this
Adams, Wayman, 1883-1959  Search this
Aiken, Charles Avery, 1872-1965  Search this
Albee, Grace  Search this
Anderson, Karl, 1874-1956  Search this
Appel, Marianne, 1913-1988  Search this
Archipenko, Alexander, 1887-1964  Search this
Arms, John Taylor, 1887-1953  Search this
Ascher, Mary G. (Mary Goldman), b. 1900  Search this
Azzaretti, Faust  Search this
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Baer, Martin, 1895-1961  Search this
Ballin, Hugo, 1879-1956  Search this
Barlow, Myron, 1873-1937  Search this
Barmore, Charles  Search this
Barr, Charles H.  Search this
Barr, Norman, 1908-  Search this
Barrymore, Lionel, 1878-1954  Search this
Baumann, Gustave, 1881-1971  Search this
Beal, Reynolds, 1866-1951  Search this
Bellows, George, 1882-1925  Search this
Benson, Frank Weston, 1862-1951  Search this
Biddle, George, 1885-1973  Search this
Blackburn, Morris, 1902-1979  Search this
Blakelock, Ralph Albert, 1847-1919  Search this
Blanch, Arnold, 1896-1968  Search this
Blanch, Lucile, 1895-1981  Search this
Bluemner, Oscar, 1867-1938  Search this
Blumenschein, Ernest Leonard, 1874-1960  Search this
Bohm, Max, 1868-1923  Search this
Bohrod, Aaron  Search this
Bosa, Louis, 1905-  Search this
Breckenridge, Hugh H. (Hugh Henry), 1870-1937  Search this
Bridgman, Frederick Arthur, 1847-1928  Search this
Browne, George Elmer, 1871-1946  Search this
Bruce, Edward, 1879-1943  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Buck, Claude, 1890-1974  Search this
Burlin, Paul, 1886-1969  Search this
Burr, George Elbert, 1859-1939  Search this
Butler, Howard Russell, 1856-1934  Search this
Calder, Alexander Stirling, 1870-1945  Search this
Carroll, John, 1892-1959  Search this
Chamberlain, Samuel, 1895-1975  Search this
Cheffetz, Asa, 1896-1965  Search this
Christy, Howard Chandler, 1873-1952  Search this
Cole, Alphaeus Philemon, 1876-1988  Search this
Congdon, William, 1912-1998  Search this
Crane, Bruce, 1857-1937  Search this
Curran, Charles C. (Charles Courtney), 1861-1942  Search this
Daingerfield, Elliott, 1859-1932  Search this
Davey, Randall, 1887-1964  Search this
De Groot, Adelaide Milton, b. 1876  Search this
DeCamp, Joseph, 1858-1923  Search this
Dehn, Adolf, 1895-1968  Search this
Dessar, Louis Paul, 1867-1952  Search this
Dewing, Thomas Wilmer, 1851-1938  Search this
Diederich, William Hunt, 1884-1953  Search this
Dike, Phil, 1906-1990  Search this
Donoho, Gaines Ruger, 1857-1916  Search this
Duncan, Charles, b. 1892  Search this
Eakins, Susan Macdowell  Search this
Etnier, Stephen, 1903-1984  Search this
Farnsworth, Jerry, 1895-1982  Search this
Fenton, Beatrice, 1887-1983  Search this
Feshin, Nikolaĭ Ivanovich, 1881-1955  Search this
Fitzgerald, James, 1899-1971  Search this
Flagg, James Montgomery, 1877-1960  Search this
Fredenthal, David, 1914-1958  Search this
French, Daniel Chester, 1850-1931  Search this
Fuchs, Emil, 1866-1929  Search this
Gallagher, Sears, 1869-1955  Search this
Ganso, Emil, 1895-1941  Search this
Gaspard, Leon, 1882-1964  Search this
Genth, Lillian Mathilde, 1876-1953  Search this
Gonzalez, Xavier, 1898-1993  Search this
Greenwood, Marion, 1909-1970  Search this
Gregory, John, 1879-1958  Search this
Gregory, Waylande, 1905-1971  Search this
Grosz, George, 1893-1959  Search this
Halpert, Samuel, 1884-1930  Search this
Hart, George Overbury, 1868-1933  Search this
Hartmann, Sadakichi, 1867-1944  Search this
Haskell, Ernest, 1876-1925  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Heerman, Norbert Leo, b. 1891  Search this
Heinz, Charles, 1885-1955  Search this
Hennings, E. Martin, 1886-1956  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Hopkinson, Charles, 1869-1962  Search this
Ireland, Leroy, 1889-1970  Search this
Judson, Alice, d. 1948  Search this
Kalish, Max, 1891-1945  Search this
Katz, A. Raymond (Alexander Raymond), 1895-1974  Search this
Kingman, Dong, 1911-2000  Search this
Kroll, Leon, 1884-1974  Search this
Kronberg, Louis, 1872-1965  Search this
Kupferman, Lawrence Edward, 1909-1982  Search this
Laufman, Sidney, 1891-  Search this
Lawson, Ernest, 1873-1939  Search this
Lever, Hayley, 1876-1958  Search this
Lie, Jonas, 1880-1940  Search this
Linde, Ossip L.  Search this
Low, Will Hicok, 1853-1932  Search this
Lucioni, Luigi, 1900-  Search this
Lutz, Dan, 1906-  Search this
MacRae, Emma Fordyce, 1887-1974  Search this
Manship, Paul, 1885-1966  Search this
Melchers, Gari, 1860-1932  Search this
Metcalf, Willard Leroy, 1858-1925  Search this
Meyerowitz, William, 1887-1981  Search this
Milch, Albert, 1881-1951  Search this
Milch, Edward, 1865-1954  Search this
Moffett, Ross  Search this
Mora, F. Luis (Francis Luis), 1874-1940  Search this
Moran, Thomas, 1837-1926  Search this
Murphy, Hermann Dudley, 1867-1945  Search this
Murphy, John Francis, 1853-1921  Search this
Myers, Jerome, 1867-1940  Search this
Nagler, Edith Kroger, 1890-1986  Search this
Oberteuffer, Karl A. (Karl Amiard), 1908-1958  Search this
Ochtman, Leonard, 1854-1934  Search this
Parshall, DeWitt, 1864-1956  Search this
Pearson, Ralph M., 1883-1958  Search this
Perrine, Van Dearing, 1868 or 9-1955  Search this
Pittman, Hobson Lafayette, 1899 or 1900-1972  Search this
Pleissner, Ogden M.  Search this
Pollet, Joseph C., 1897-1979  Search this
Pousette-Dart, Nathaniel, 1886-1965  Search this
Pugh, Mabel, b. 1891  Search this
Pène Du Bois, Guy, 1884-1958  Search this
Redfield, Edward Willis, 1869-1965  Search this
Ritschel, William, 1864-1949  Search this
Romano, Umberto, 1906-  Search this
Rungius, Carl, 1869-1959  Search this
Ryder, Chauncey F., 1868-1949  Search this
Ryerson, Margery  Search this
Sample, Paul, 1896-1974  Search this
Sawyer, Wells, 1863-1960  Search this
Schofield, Walter Elmer, 1867-1944  Search this
Shapiro, David, 1916-  Search this
Sharp, Joseph Henry, 1859-1953  Search this
Sheets, Millard, 1907-1989  Search this
Shuster, Will  Search this
Speicher, Eugene Edward, 1883-1962  Search this
Speight, Francis, 1896-1989  Search this
Sterne, Maurice, 1878-1957  Search this
Sterner, Albert, 1863-1946  Search this
Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 1859-1937  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Trebilcock, Paul, 1902-1981  Search this
Tryon, Dwight William, 1849-1925  Search this
Twachtman, John Henry, 1853-1902  Search this
Ufer, Walter, 1876-1936  Search this
Varian, Dorothy, 1895-1985  Search this
Warneke, Heinz (Heinrich), 1895-1983  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault, 1894-1972  Search this
Waugh, Frederick Judd, 1861-1940  Search this
Weir, John F. (John Ferguson), 1841-1926  Search this
Weir, Julian Alden, 1852-1919  Search this
White, Henry Cooke, 1861-1952  Search this
Wickey, Harry  Search this
Wiggins, Carleton, 1848-1932  Search this
Wiles, Irving Ramsay, 1861-1948  Search this
Woodward, Robert Strong, 1885-1957  Search this
Woodward, Stanley Wingate, 1890-1970  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009  Search this
Zucker, Jacques, 1900-  Search this
Extent:
42.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gallery records
Photographs
Date:
1911-1995
Summary:
The records of Milch Gallery measure 42.5 linear feet and date from 1911-1995. Edward Milch (1865-1953) opened the Edward Milch Gallery in New York City. In 1916, he formed a partnership with his brother Albert Milch (1881-1951), a gilder and framer, creating E. & A. Milch, Inc., a gallery specializing in American art. Harold C. Milch (1904-1981), Albert's son, was appointed a partner in 1944 and continued the business until his death. Business records of Milch Gallery, 1911-1968, include correspondence, sales records, inventories, financial records, printed matter, photographs, and legal documents. Later additions to the records date from 1922-1995 and include correspondence; artists' files; financial, sales, and stock records; printed material; and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of Milch Gallery document the business transactions of the corporation and the professional and personal relationships of the Milch brothers with the artists they represented, as well as with the larger community of artists and art dealers between 1911 and 1995. Unfortunately, early correspondence is sparse. In a letter responding to a 1951 request for historical information, Milch replied: "Several years ago [1947] we had to give up our gallery at 108 West 57th Street, and move to smaller quarters here. Since we had no room for old records, we had to destroy most of them."

Alphabetical files are comprised mainly of incoming correspondence from 1911 to 1962. Correspondence concerns arrangements for exhibitions, sales and consignments, advice to collectors and executors of estates, and routine business matters. A number of the artists represented in these files were friends of the Milch brothers and some of their letters mention their personal lives as well as their formal business with the Gallery. Collectors who routinely dealt with Milch Galleries included John Gellatly, Mary Blair, Hersey Egginton, Carlton Palmer, and Edward Coykendell; a three volume manuscript catalogue of Coykendell's collection is included. Among the estates handled by Milch were Willard Metcalf, John Twachtman, Abbott H. Thayer, Maurice Fromkes, and Thomas Moran.

Also found are sales records and other financial records such as general ledgers, sales and purchase records, and tax information.

Printed matter consists of gallery exhibition catalogs, checklists, invitations, announcements, publications, and scrapbooks. Many catalogs and checklists are annotated with prices and other information. A complete run of Milch Galleries Art Notes, issued intermittently from 1918-1928/29 is preserved with the gallery records. as is a scrapbook relating to early exhibitions held at the Edward Milch Galleries and E. & A. Milch, Inc., and artists represented by them.

Photographs included with the records are less voluminous than might be expected, and pictures of works of art predominate. There are also a very small number of exterior and interior photographs of Milch Gallery, photographs of people including artists, Edward and Albert Milch, and photographs of groups such as Ten American Artists and the Associated Dealers in American Paintings.

The 1995 and 2014 additions measure 3 linear feet and date from 1922-1995. Milch Gallery activities are documented through correspondence; artists' files; financial, sales, and stock records; printed material; and photographs.

See Appendix for a list of Milch Gallery exhibitions and checklists
Arrangement:
Records of the Milch Gallery are organized into seven series. With the exception of the alphabetical files, records are arranged by record type and then chronologically. Photographs are categorized by subject, with pictures of individuals arranged alphabetically by name, and works of art arranged alphabetically by artist.

Missing Title

Series 1: Alphabetical Files, 1911-1962

Series 2: Sales Records and Inventories, 1911-1969, undated

Series 3: Financial Records, 1914-1980, undated

Series 4: Printed Matter, 1996, 1910-1967, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1903-circa 1944, undated

Series 6: Miscellaneous, 1916-1970, undated

Series 7: Addition to the Milch Gallery Records, 1922-1995 (Boxes 60-65, 3 linear feet)
Historical Note:
Between 1911 and 1916, prior to the establishment of the Milch Galleries, Austrian immigrant Edward Milch (1865-1953) operated the Edward Milch Galleries at 939 Madison Avenue 1911, mainly handling prints and providing framing services.

Albert Milch (1881-1951) was employed by a gilder and later a picture framer before becoming the business partner of his older brother. In 1916 they incorporated as E. & A. Milch (with Edward as President and Albert as Secretary of the corporation) and opened the Milch Galleries at 108 West 57th Street, New York City. During their partnership, Edward served as President and Albert as Secretary of the corporation. According to Joseph Gotlieb, a long-time employee, during this period Montross Gallery became inclined toward modern French art and the American artists associated with them began searching for galleries more sympathetic to their interests. "As Albert Milch was a framemaker to several of them, and as he was opening a new gallery in 1916 to specialize in American Art, some artists decided to let the Milch Galleries, and others, handle their work. It turned out to be a good arrangement for both sides, and a successful one" (letter from Joseph S. Gotleib to Susan Hobbs [National Museum of American Art], December 30, 1977).

From the beginning, Milch Galleries dealt in American art almost exclusively, representing living artists, handling the estates of recently deceased artists; in addition they acquired nineteenth century works for resale and accepted pieces on commission. Although framing and restoration services continued to be offered to customers, this aspect of the business soon diminished in importance.

Harold C. Milch (1904-1981), Albert's son, was affiliated with the business, and upon his father's retirement was appointed partner; after Albert died in 1951, Harold was sole proprietor, serving as both President and Secretary.

Milch Galleries moved to smaller quarters at 55 East 57th Street in 1947, and ten years later to 21 East 67th Street. In 1967, the name was changed to Milch Gallery and the business relocated to 1014 Madison Avenue. The gallery dissolved upon the death of Harold Milch. A third brother, David C. Milch, was also an art dealer, but was not associated with Milch Gallery.

Missing Title

1911 -- Edward Milch Galleries opens at 939 Madison Ave.

1912 -- First exhibition at Edward Milch Galleries

1916 -- Incorporation of E. & A. Milch; Edward Milch, President, and Albert Milch, Secretary; change of name to Milch Galleries and relocation to 108 West 57th St.

1918 -- Milch Galleries Art Notes begins publication

1944 -- Edward Milch retires; Albert Milch President, and Harold C. Milch [son of Albert], Secretary

1947 -- Milch Galleries moves to 55 East 57th St.

1951 -- Death of Albert Milch (1881-1951); Harold C. Milch, President and Secretary

1953 -- Death of Edward Milch (1865-1953)

1957 -- Milch Galleries moves to 21 East 67th St.

1966 -- Archives of American Art begins acquiring records of the Milch Galleries (gifts and loans from Milch Galleries)

1967 -- Relocation to 1014 Madison Ave., and name change to Milch Gallery

1981 -- Death of Harold C. Milch (1904-1981)

1986 -- Archives of American Art receives the bulk of Milch Gallery records (gift of Salander-O'Reilly Galleries)
Appendix: List of Milch Gallery Exhibitions and Checklists:
Items marked with an asterisk (*) are contained in the scrapbook rather than with the Milch Gallery exhibition catalogs.

Missing Title

Nov. 16-Dec. 7, 1912* -- Exhibition of 300 Original Sketches in Oil by 100 Well Known American Artists

Feb. 15-March 8, 1913* -- Glimpses of Nature We Love to See, Feast, and Dwell On

April 28-May 7, 1913* -- Portraits of Children and Grown-Ups by Miss Susan Ricker Knox

Oct. 18-Nov. 1, 1913* -- Small Paintings and Bronzes

Oct. 18-Nov. 1, 1913* -- Exhibition of Paintings and Sculptures by Noted American Artists

Feb. 9-21, 1914* -- Paintings by W. Herbert Dunton of The Old West

Oct. 17-31, 1914* -- Portraits in Oil, Miniatures, and Sculpture

Feb. 20-March 7, 1915* -- Paintings and Etchings by Gordon Mallet McCouch

April 26-May 8, 1915* -- Paintings by Frew W. Kost, N.A.

Nov. 7-19, 1915 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Matilda Browne

Nov. 15-30, 1915* -- Views of the Panama California Exposition and Landscapes of Southern California

Jan. 31-Feb. 12, 1916 -- Paintings by Garber, Pearson, Lathrop, and Spencer

Feb. 14-26, 1916* -- Landscapes by Walter Clark, N.A.

Feb. 14-26, 1916* -- Paintings by Guy Wiggins

Nov. 4-18, 1916* -- Opening Exhibition

Nov. 25-Dec. 9, 1916* -- Works by the Late Louis Loeb

Jan. 15-27, 1917* -- Paintings by Helen M. Turner

Jan. 30-Feb. 10, 1917* -- Paintings by Leonard Ochtman, N.A.

Feb. 14-24, 1917* -- Recent Paintings by William V. Schevill

March 6-24, 1917 -- Ten American Painters

March 13-24, 1917* -- George Bellows

March 14-24, 1917* -- Paintings by Frederick J. Waugh

March 26-April 7, 1917* -- Paintings by Howard Russell Butler, N.A.

April 10-21, 1917 -- Paintings by Harry F. Waltman and Howard Giles, and Sculptures by Willard D. Paddock

April 15-27, 1917* -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

April 24-May 5, 1917* -- Paintings by Thalia Millet

Oct. 27-Nov. 17, 1917* -- William Jean Beauley

Jan. 15-Feb. 15, 1918* -- Etchings, Dry-Point and Lithographs by Ernest Haskell

Jan. 28-Feb. 4, 1918 -- Sketches and Paintings by the "Nova Scotia Group"

Feb. 25-March 16, 1918* -- Paintings by Robert Henri

March 13-24, 1918 -- George Bellows

March 22-April 4, 1918* -- Paintings by H. Gabrielle Levey

April 8-, 1918* -- Etchings by Allen Lewis

Nov. 25-Dec. 16, 1918* -- Paintings by Edward H. Potthast, N.A.

Dec. 18-Jan. 16, 1918 -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size by American Artists

Dec. 23-Jan. 10, 1919* -- Etchings and Dry-Points by Ernest Haskell

Jan. 13-25, 1919* -- Paintings by Mary Prindeville

Jan. 27-Feb. 13, 1919* -- With the A.E.F., Paintings and Drawings Made at the Front by S. J. Woolf

Feb. 14-26 [1919?]* -- Paintings by Arthur C. Goodwin

Feb. 18-March 1, 1919* -- Paintings by Jerome Myers

March 3-16, 1919* -- Recent Paintings of California by William Ritschel, N.A.

March 17-29, 1919 -- Recent Paintings by Lillian Genth, A.N.A.

March 28-April 9, 1919* -- Drawings of New York City by Peter Marcus

April 8-30*, 1919 -- Paintings by Leading American Artists

April 19-May 1*, 1919 -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

May 3-22, 1919 -- Recent American Sculpture

May 5-17*, 1919 -- Recent American Sculpture in Bronze, Wood, and Terra Cotta for the Town and Country House, the Grounds, and Garden

May 20-, 1919 -- Flag Pictures and Street Scenes by Childe Hassam

Nov. 16-Dec. 6, 1919 -- Childe Hassam

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1919 -- Exhibition of Works in the Various Mediums by Childe Hassam

Dec. 18-Jan. 16, 1920 -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size by American Artists

Dec. 29-Jan. 15, 1920* -- Portraits and Other Paintings by Royston Nave

Feb. 2-14, 1920 -- George Biddle

Feb. 2-14, 1920* -- Oil Paintings, Water Colors, Pastels, Monotypes, Silver-Points and Etchings by George Biddle

Feb. 16-28, 1920* -- Paintings by Ossip L. Linde

March 1-12, 1920 -- Bruce Crane

March 1-13, 1920 -- Bruce Crane, A.N.A.

March 15-April 3, 1920 -- Willard L. Metcalf

April 5-20, 1920 -- Paintings

April 8-30 [1920] -- Exhibition of Paintings by Leading American Artists

April 15-May 1, 1920 -- Valentino Molina

Oct. 18-30 [1920?]* -- Paintings of New England and Drawings of the Devastated Towns of Flanders by George Wharton Edwards

Nov. 1-13, 1920 -- Six American Painters [Clark, Potthast, Snell, Nichols, Olinsky, and Volkert

Nov. 1-15, 1920 -- Paintings by Theresa F. Bernstein

Nov. 15-27, 1920 -- Childe Hassam

Nov. 21-Dec. 3, 1920* -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky

Dec., 1920* -- Exhibition by George Biddle

Dec. 1-21, 1920 -- Etchings and Color Etchings by William Meyerowitz

Dec. 27-Jan. 28, 1921 -- Albert Delbert Smith

circa 1920 -- Ossip L. Linde

circa 1920 -- William Meyrowitz

circa 1920 -- Exhibition

Jan. 10-29, 1921 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Brush, Crane, Dewing, Metcalf, Hassam, and Murphy

Jan. 31-Feb. 12, 1921 -- American Art

Feb. 14-26, 1921 -- Guy Wiggins

Feb. 14-26, 1921 -- Arthur G. Goodwin

Feb. 28-March 12, 1921 -- Paintings by Robert Henri

March 14-April 9, 1921 -- Paintings by Gari Melchers

March 28-April 9, 1921 -- Peter Marcus

April 11-23, 1921* -- Portraits and Figure Paintings by Edith Catlin Phelps

April 11-30, 1921 -- Paintings by Willard Metcalf

May 2-30, 1921 -- American Sculpture for the Town and Country House, the Garden, and the Grounds

Oct. 18-30 [1921?]* -- Paintings and Drawings by George Wharton Edwards

Oct. 24-Nov. 5, 1921 -- Portraits and Paintings of Old New Orleans by Wayman Adams

Nov. 7-19, 1921 -- Flower Paintings and Sculpture by Mathilde Browne

Nov. 7-19, 1921 -- Paintings in Oil and Water Color by George H. Clements

Nov. 19-Dec. 3, 1921 -- Sculpture-Gleb Derujinsky

Dec. 5-31, 1921 -- Works by Abbott H. Thayer, Including Important Paintings, Water Colors, and Drawings

circa 1921 -- Exhibition

Jan. 9-21, 1922 -- Paintings by Katherine Langhorne Adams

Jan. 9-21, 1922 -- Paintings of California by Douglass Ewell Parshall

Feb. 13-March 4, 1922 -- Paintings of Cape Ann by Harry A. Vincent, A.N.A.

March 6-25, 1922* -- Pastels of the Cascapedia River, Canada, by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 6-25, 1922 -- Connecticut Landscape Paintings by Wilson Irvine

March 27-April 15, 1922* -- Moonlight Motifs: Garden of the Gods, Colorado and Other Paintings by Robert Reid, N.A.

Dec. 26-Jan. 13, 1923 -- Paintings and Pastels by Henry C. White

Jan. 15-27, 1923* -- Paintings of Spain by William J. Potter

Jan. 29-Feb. 10, 1923 -- Water Colors of the South Sea Islands by William Ritschel, N.A.

Feb. 12-March 3, 1923 -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 5-31, 1923 -- Paintings of the Far East by Leon Gaspard

March 19-31, 1923* -- Landscape Paintings by Guy Wiggins, A.N.A.

April 2-21, 1923* -- Portrait Drawings by Ercole Cartotto

April 19-May 6, 1923 -- Paintings by Leading American Artists

Oct. 1-20, 1923 -- Paintings by Sidney E. Dickinson, A.N.A.

Oct. 22- Nov. 3, 1923 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Mathilda Brown (Mrs. Frederick Van Wyck)

Nov. 5-17, 1923 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by William Gedney Bunce

Dec. 11-23, 1923* -- Water Colors by James Montgomery Flagg

Jan. 14-26, 1924 -- Exhibition of Nudes, Portraits, Landscapes and Genre by Eugene Paul Ullman

Feb. 18-March 8, 1924 -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 27-April 5, 1924 -- Connecticut Landscapes by Guy Wiggins, A.N.A.

Dec. 1-27, 1924 -- Maurice Fromkes

Jan. 5-17, 1925 -- Paintings of the Pacific Coast by Armin Hansen

Jan. 19-31, 1925 -- Martha Walter

Feb. 16-March 7, 1925 -- Willard L. Metcalf

March 9-21, 1925 -- John Noble

March 23-April 11, 1925 -- Bruce Crane

May 4-16, 1925 -- Brynjulf Strandenaes Exhibition of Portraits

May 18-30, 1925 -- Paintings by Robert Brackman

Dec. 7-31, 1925 -- Paintings by the Late Willard Metcalf

Dec. 7-21, 1925 -- Sketches by Dorothea A. Dreier,

Jan. 11-23, 1926 -- Recent Landscape Paintings by Frank V. Du Mond

Jan. 25-Feb. 13, 1926 -- Smaller Paintings by Max Bohm

Feb. 15-March 6, 1926 -- Paintings of the Sea by William Ritschel

April 13-May 2, 1926 -- Jonas Lie

April 26-May 15, 1926 -- Landscapes and Street Scenes by William Jean Beauley

Nov. 15-27, 1926 -- California Marine Paintings and Water Colors by Armin Hansen

Nov. 29-Dec. 18, 1926 -- Water Colors by Frank W. Benson

Nov. 29-Dec. 18, 1926 -- Silver-Point Drawings by Ercole Cartotto

Jan. 10-22, 1927 -- Portraits by Millie Bruhl Frederick (Mrs. Leopold Fredrick)

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1927 -- Paintings of Cornwall and Devonshire by W. Elmer Schofield

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1927 -- Etchings by Teresa Cerutti Simmons, Watercolors by Will Simmons

Feb. 14-March 5, 1927 -- Sculpture by Heinz Warneke

March 28-April 16, 1927 -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 18-30, 1927 -- Decorative Flower Paintings by Olin Howland

April 18-30, 1927 -- Recent Water Colors by John Whorf of Boston

Oct. 10-28, 1927 -- Decorative Embroideries by Georgiana Brown Harbeson

Nov. 14-26, 1927 -- Pastels and Etchings of Cambodia and China by Lucille Douglass

Nov. 28-Dec. 24, 1927 -- Works by Gari Melchers

Nov. 28-Dec. 24, 1927 -- Sculpture by Max Kalish

Dec. 26-Jan. 14, 1928 -- Water Color Exhibition of West African Native Types by Erick Berry; Also a Group of West African Pottery and Brass Figures Made by the Natives of Nigeria

Dec. 29-Jan. 14, 1928 -- Paintings by Joacb Dooyewaard

Jan. 14-26, 1928 -- Decorative Paintings by Jane Peterson

Feb. 7-April 29, 1928 -- Alfred Hutty

Feb. 13-25, 1928 -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

March 12-24, 1928 -- Etchings of Ancient Dances by Teresa Cerutti-Simmons and Wild Life by Will Simmons

March 12-24, 1928 -- An Important Exhibition of Paintings and Pastels by John H. Twachtman

March 12-24, 1928 -- Sculpture by Heinz Warnecke

March 26-April 14, 1928 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April, 1928 -- Water Colors by William Ritschel, N.A.

April 15-May 5, 1928 -- Portrait Drawings in Pastel by Jessie Voss Lewis

Oct. 22-Nov. 3, 1928 -- Water Colors of France and Italy, and Etchings by Louis Wolchonok

Oct. 22-Nov. 3, 1928 -- Poetic Landscapes with Figures by Henry M. Rosenberg of Nova Scotia

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1928 -- Water Colors by Frank W. Benson

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1928 -- Water Colors of Architectural Subjects in France, Also Landscape and Figures by William de Leftwick Dodge

Dec. 1-28, 1928 -- Alfred Hutty

Dec. 3-24, 1928 -- Important Exhibition of Early and Recent Works by Childe Hassam of the American Academy of Arts and Letters

Dec. 3-24, 1928 -- Still Life Paintings by Ruth Payne Burgess

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1929 -- Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1929 -- Memorial Exhibition, Water Color Sketches by Thomas Moran, N.A.

Dec. 27-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Erick Berry

Dec. 27-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Helen K. McCarthy Memorial Exhibition

Dec. 29-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Paintings by Jacob Dooyewaard

circa 1928 -- Indian and Animal Pictures and Bronzes by Edwin Willard Deming

Jan. 28-Feb. 9, 1929 -- Painitings of Western Life by F. Tenney Johnson

Jan. 28-Feb. 9, 1929 -- Paintings and Water Colors by Alice Judson

Feb. 11-23, 1929 -- Paintings and Drawings by Max Bohm

Feb. 11-23, 1929 -- Landscapes and Marines by Jay Connaway

Feb. 25-March 9, 1929 -- Water-Colors by Harold Putnam Browne

Feb. 25-March 9, 1929 -- Paintings by Truman Fassett

March 11-23, 1929 -- Recent Water Colors by C.E. Polowetski

March 11-23, 1929 -- Louis Ritman

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Landscapes by Frank Vincent Du Mond

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Water Colors by Armin Hansen of California

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Sculptures by Roy Sheldon

April 8-20, 1929 -- Water Colors by John Whorf, Distinguished Young Boston Artist

Oct. 21-Nov. 2, 1929 -- Corners in Spain, An Exhibition of Paintings by Wells M. Sawyer

Nov. 4-17, 1929 -- Recent Sculpture by Heinz Warnecke

Nov. 4-16, 1929 -- Paintings of Ireland and Other Scenes by Power O'Malley

Nov. 18-30, 1929 -- Group of Recent Paintings by Hayley Lever

Nov. 18-30, 1929 -- Recent Water Colors and Etchings by Louis Wolchonok

Dec. 2-21, 1929 -- Paintings by Maurice Fromkes

Jan. 30-Feb. 11 [192?] -- Water Colors of Greek Temples in Sicily by Wm. De Leftwich Dodge

Feb. 2-15 [192?] -- Figure Paintings by Murray Bewley

March 15-April 3 [192?] -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 28-April 16 [192?] -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 2-21 [192?] -- Landscape Paintings by Bruce Crane, N.A

Oct. 17-29 [192?] -- Water Colors of the Rivera by Ferris Connah

Oct. 18-30 -- Paintings and Drawings by George Wharton Edwards

Oct. 25-Nov. 13 [192?] -- Recent Landscapes by John F. Carlson, N.A.

Oct. 25-Nov. 13 [192?] -- John F. Carlson

[192?] -- Indian and Animal Pictures and Bronzes by Edwin Willard Deming

Nov. 19-Dec. 1 [192?] -- Water Colors of Architectural Subjects in France, also Landscape and Figures by William De Leftwich Dodge

Jan. 20-Feb 1, 1930 -- West African Water Colors by Erick Berry

Jan. 20-Feb. 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Nelson C. White

Feb., 1930 -- Thelma Wood

Feb. 3-15, 1930 -- Paintings by Horace Brown

Feb. 17-March 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Francis Speight

Feb. 17-March 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Ruth Payne Burgess

March 3-15, 1930 -- Paintings by John Noble

March 17-29, 1930 -- Russian Paintings by Irwin D. Hoffman, Also a Group of Recent Watercolors

March 17-29, 1930 -- Alexander Warshawsky

March 31-April 12, 1930 -- Memorial Exhibition, Paintings and Watercolors of Sigurd Skou

March 31-April 12, 1930 -- Emmanuel Andrew Cavacos

April 14-26, 1930 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

Oct. 20-Nov. 1, 1930 -- Recent Paintings of Lake Como by Charles Warren Eaton

Nov. 3-15, 1930 -- Pastels and Etchings of Angkor and the Far East by Lucille Douglass

Nov. 17-29, 1930 -- Joseph Szekely

Nov. 17-29, 1930 -- Important Exhibiton of Paintings by a "Group of Americans"

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Diana Thorne and Canine Portraiture

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Recent Paintings of Ireland by Power O'Malley

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Paintings by Charles M. Cox of Boston

Jan. 19-31, 1931 -- Portraits by Jere R. Wickwire

Jan. 20-Feb. 1, 1931 -- Nelson C. White

Jan. 24-Feb. 7, 1931 -- Pastels and Etchings of Angkor and the Far East by Lucille Douglass

Feb. 2-24, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by Lillian Gentle

Feb. 2-24, 1931 -- Impressions of India and Palestine by Ruth Coleman

Feb. 16-28, 1931 -- Watercolors of Vermont Scenes and Other Views by Ruth Payne Burgess

Feb. 16-28, 1931 -- Martha Walter Recent Work in Oil and Watercolor

March 2-14, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by Alice Judson

March 2-28, 1931 -- Paintings & Drawings by Gari Melchers

March 16-28, 1931 -- Recent Watercolors by Harold Putnam Brown

March 30-April 11, 1931 -- Paintings by Louis Kronberg

March 30-April 11, 1931 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

April 13-25, 1931 -- Americans by American Artists, Exhibition of Portraits

April 13-25, 1931 -- Louis Kronberg

April 13-25, 1931 -- Portraits and Crayon Heads by Ferris Connah

April 13-May 2, 1931 -- Abbott H. Thayer

Sept. 22-Oct. 6, 1931 -- Water Colors by Gladys Brannigan, Alice Judson, Margery Ryerson

Oct. 19-30, 1931 -- Portraits by William Steene

Nov. 2-7, 1931 -- Portraits and Sketches by Maria Kammerer under the Patronage of Countess Laszlo Szechenyi

Nov. 9-21, 1931 -- Paintings by Bessie Lasky

Nov. 23-Dec. 5, 1931 -- Recent Oils, Water Colors and Etchings by Joseph Margulies

Dec. 7-21, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by George Wharton Edwards

Dec. 7-19, 1931 -- Paintings and Etchings of African and American Big Game by Major A. Radclyffe Dugmore

Dec. 7-19, 1931 -- Watercolors of Yucatan, "Land of the Mayas" by William de Leftwich Dodge

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1932 -- Water Colors of the Yellowstone and Mexican Series by Thomas Moran, N.A.

Jan. 11-23, 1932 -- Paintings, Watercolors and Etchings of Animals by Sybilla Mittell Weber

Jan. 25-Feb. 6, 1932 -- Paintings by George Oberteuffer, Member of the Salon d'Automne, Paris

Feb. 8-March 5, 1932 -- Important 19th and 20th Century American Painters

March 7-19, 1932 -- Paintings by Mrs. B. King Couper

March 7-19, 1932 -- Drawings by Maurice Sterne, Ernest Fiene, Alexander Brook, yasuo Kuniyoski, Bernard Karfiol, Peggy Bacon, and Leon Kroll

March 28-April 9, 1932 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

April 11-30, 1932 -- Forty Years of American Art

Oct. 3-15, 1932 -- New Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 19-Nov. 5, 1932 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Nov. 7-30, 1932 -- Paintings by Edward Bruce

circa 1932 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Jan.30-Feb. 25, 1933 -- Important Exhibition of Paintings by Thomas Eakins

March 6-25, 1933 -- 19th and 20th Century Watercolors

March 27-April 14, 1933 -- Paintings by Francis Speight

April 17-May 6, 1933 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

May 15-31, 1933 -- 19th Century American Landscape Artists

Nov. 27-Dec., 1933 -- Water Colors by Emil Holzhaur

Feb. 26-March 17, 1934 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

March 19-April 7, 1934 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April 16-May 5, 1934 -- Bali Studies by Maurice Sterne

June-Aug., 1934 -- Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1934 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 15-Nov. 3, 1934 -- New and Recent Paintings by American Artists

Nov. 5-21, 1934 -- Paintings by Sidney Laufman

Nov. 26-Dec., 1934 -- Recent Vermont Landscapes by Edward Bruce

circa 1934 -- American Figure Paintings of the 19th and 20th Century

Jan. 7-26, 1935 -- Paintings and Watercolors from the Samuel Halpert Estate

Feb. 4-28, 1935 -- Small Paintings by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

March 4-22, 1935 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etneir

March 25-April 13, 1935 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April 22-May 11, 1935 -- Figure and Landscape Studies by Leon Kroll

May 20-June, 1935 -- Group Exibhition of Paintings

Summer, 1935 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 1-26, 1935 -- Paintings by Childe Hassam

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1935 -- Watercolors by Millard Sheets

through Dec., 1935 -- Paintings by Americans

Jan. 1936 -- Paintings by Americans

Feb. 3-29, 1936 -- Important Exhibition of 19th and 20th Century American Painters

March 2-21, 1936 -- Stephen Etnier

March 30-April 19, 1936 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

May 18-June, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

September, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 12-31, 1936 -- Contemportary Viewpoint

through Nov. 30, 1936 -- 19th and 20th Century American Figure Paintings

circa 1936 -- Landscapes--Contemporary Viewpoint

Jan. 11-30, 1937 -- Selected Landscapes

Feb., 1937 -- Contemporary American Sculpture

March 15-April 3, 1937 -- Watercolors by Millard Sheets

April 12-30, 1937 -- John Whorf

April 27-May 16, 1937 -- Maurice Sterne

May, 1937 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1937 -- Paintings

Oct. 1-15, 1937 -- Recent Watercolors

Oct. 18-Nov. 6, 1937 -- Paintings by Lucille Blanche

Nov. 8-30, 1937 -- Paintings by American Artists

Dec. 6-24, 1937 -- Watercolors by Lester Field

Jan. 3-22, 1938 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Jan. 24-Feb. 5, 1938 -- Paintings by Margaret Cooper

Feb. 7-26, 1938 -- Colonial Portraits

March 7-26, 1938 -- Recent Oils and Watercolors by Millard Sheet

April 4-23, 1938 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

Summer, 1938 -- Paintings by American Artists

through Oct., 1938 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1938 -- Recent Watercolors by Karl Oberteuffer

Nov. 21-Dec. 17, 1938 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Jan. 16-Feb. 4, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by Floyd Clymer

Feb. 6-25, 1939 -- Harry Hering

March 6-31, 1939 -- Figure Paintings by American Artists

April 3-22, 1939 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May 15-June 3, 1939 -- Recent Watercolors by Millard Sheets

Summer, 1939 -- Selected Group of Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1939 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

through Oct. 13, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Oct. 16-Nov. 4, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by Saul Schary

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1939 -- Toreros and Dancers of Spain and Mexico by Carlos Ruano Llopis

Dec., 1939 -- Paintings for the Home

Nov. 5-17 [193?] -- Table Portraits by Eulabee Dix

[193?] -- Paintings by American Artists

Jan. 2-27, 1940 -- Stephen Etnier

Feb. 12-March 2, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by Robert Carson

March 11-30, 1940 -- Daniel Serra Paintings

April 8-27, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May 18, 1940 -- Rubin Recent Paintings

through June 29, 1940 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

through Sept. 28, 1940 -- Summer Exhibition of Paintings by a Selected Group of Early and Contemporary American Artists

Oct. 1-19, 1940 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 21-Nov. 9, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by Allen Ingles Palmer

Nov. 18-Dec. 7, 1940 -- Helen Sawyer

Dec., 1940 -- Selected Paintings for the Home, and A Group of Original Studies in Color by Maurice Sterne

Jan. 13-Feb. 8, 1941 -- Watercolors by American Artists

Feb. 17-March 15, 1941 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier, Sidney Laufman, and Francis Speight

April 7-26, 1941 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May 17, 1941 -- Remembrances of South America and British West Indies by Manicol

May 19-June 30, 1941 -- Group of Paintings by Selected Contemporary American Artists

Summer, 1941 -- Exhibition of Selected Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1941 -- A Selected Group of Paintings by Americna Artists

Oct. 6-25, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1941 -- Eliot O'Hara Watercolors

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Jay Connaway

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1941 -- Recent Watercolors by Richard A. Kimball

Dec. 8-27, 1941 -- Edith Blum Paintings

Jan. 5-24, 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

through Feb. 28, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by a Group of Contemporary American Artists

March 9-28, 1942 -- New Talents Presented by the Gloucester Society of Artists

April 6-25, 1942 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

June 2-13, 1942 -- Yun Gee

Summer, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by Early and Contemporary American Artists

Summer, 1942 -- Paintings by Selected American Artists

Oct. 5-31, 1942 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Nov. 9-30, 1942 -- Watercolors by American Artists

Jan. 18-Feb. 6, 1943 -- Paintings by Yovan Radenkovitch

April 4-24, 1943 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 26-May 15, 1943 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Childe Hassam

May 25-June 5, 1943 -- Exhibition by Gladys Irene Cook

June, 1943 -- Selected Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1943 -- Exhibition of Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1943 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 4-23, 1943 -- Paintings by Yun Gee

Nov., 1943 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1944 -- Recent Watercolors by James Fitzgerald

Feb. 14-March 4, 1944 -- Paintings by Sidney Laufman

March 6-25, 1944 -- Paintings by Jessie Ansbacher

April 3-22, 1944 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1944 -- Paintings by Important American Artists

Summer, 1944 -- Exhibition of Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Summer, 1944 -- Exhibition of Selected Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Oct. 2-21, 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Jay Connaway

Oct. 23-Nov. 11, 1944 -- Harry Hering

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1944 -- Paintings by Hobson Pittman

Dec., 1944 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Jan. 3-13, 1945 -- Paintings by Therese Steinhardt

Jan. 22-Feb. 10, 1945 -- Louis Ritman

Feb. 18-, 1945 -- Memorial Exhibition, Paintings and Pastels by William Henry Singer, Jr., N.A.

Feb. 19-March 10, 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by Eliot O'Hara, A.N.A. (Elect)

March, 1945 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of Contemporary Artists

April 9-28, 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1945 -- Paintings by American Artists, Late 19th and Early 20th Century

Summer, 1945 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of Contemporary American Artists

Oct., 1945 -- Paintings by a Group of Selected American Artists

Oct. 22-Nov. 10, 1945 -- Helen Sawyer

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1945 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Nov. 19-Dec. 8, 1945 -- Hilde Kayn

Dec., 1945 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Dec. 31-Jan. 19, 1946 -- Paintings by Stpehen Etnier

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, 1946 -- Paintings by Alexandra Pregel

Feb. 18-March 9, 1946 -- W.H. Singer

March 11-30, 1946 -- Paintings by American Artists

April 8-27, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

Summer, 1946 -- Paintings by 19th and 20th Century Americans

Oct. 7-26, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by Allen Ingles Palmer

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1946 -- Paintings by Ferdinand Warren

Nov. 18-Dec. 7, 1946 -- Louis Di Valentin

Dec. 9-29, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by Wm. F.C. Ewing and Richard A. Kimball

Jan., 1947 -- Paintings by Selected American Artists

Jan. 13-Feb. 1, 1947 -- Gerrit V. Sinclair Paintings

Feb. 3-21, 1947 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 24-March 15, 1947 -- Childe Hassam Paintings

March 31-April 19, 1947 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 21-May 10, 1947 -- Pastels of Charleston by Hobson Pittman

June 2-13, 1947 -- Yun Gee

Oct. 6-25, 1947 -- Special Exhibition of American Paintings Honoring the Great Artists Who Have Been Shown in Our Galleries

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1947 -- New Paintings, Oil Studies, and Drawings by Leon Kroll

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1947 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

Jan. 19-Feb. 7, 1948 -- Paintings by Alexandria Pregel

March 22-April 3, 1948 -- American Art

March 22-April 3, 1948 -- Paintings by Artists Equity Association Members

May, 1948 -- Paintings by a Group of Selected American Artists

May 24-June 5, 1948 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 16th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 5-23, 1948 -- Impressions of New York

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1948 -- Paintings by Ernest Lawson

Nov. 15-27, 1948 -- Sculpture by Eleanor M. Mellon

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1949 -- Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 10-29, 1949 -- Six Watercolorists [Greenbowie, Knauth, Newman, Palmer, Ricci and Whorf]

Jan. 31-Feb. 19, 1949 -- New Paintings by Ferdinand Warren

Feb. 21-March 12, 1949 -- Paintings by Louis Di Vanentin

April 4-23, 1949 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 25-May 7, 1949 -- Paintings by Mildred Hayward

May 9-21, 1949 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 17th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

June 17-July 5, 1949 -- Paintings by Guy Pene DuBois

Oct. 4-29, 1949 -- Opening Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1949 -- Recent Watercolors by Henry Edmiston

Nov. 14-Dec. 3, 1949 -- Paintings by John H. Twachtman

Dec. 5-24, 1949 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

[194?] -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

June [194?] -- 2-13Yun Gee

Jan. 9-28, 1950 -- Paintings by Gordon Samstag

Jan. 30-Feb. 18, 1950 -- George C. Ault Memorial Exhibition

Feb. 20-March 11, 1950 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

March 13-April 1, 1950 -- Paintings by Frank di Gioia

April 3-22, 1950 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 24-May 13, 1950 -- Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

May 15-27, 1950 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 18th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 2-21, 1950 -- Recent Paintings by Benjamin Kopman

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1950 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Dec. 4-30, 1950 -- Special Exhibition of American Paintings in Honor of the Philadelphia Museum of Art Diamond Jubilee

through Dec. 23, 1950 -- Watercolors and Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 8-27, 1951 -- New Gouaches of the Circus and Theatre by Walter Philipp

Jan. 29-Feb. 17, 1951 -- Louis Ritman Paintings

Feb. 19-March 10, 1951 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

March 12-31, 1951 -- Paintings, Panels, Figures of Africa, Belgian Congo, Bechuanaland, and Rhodesia by Jay Robinson

April 2-21, 1951 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 24-May 12, 1951 -- Sculpture and Drawings of Nicolaus Koni

May 21-June 1, 1951 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 19th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 22-Nov. 10, 1951 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

Nov. 12-Dec. 1, 1951 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

Dec., 1951 -- Group Exhibition

Jan. 7-26, 1952 -- Paintings of Italy and "Little Italy" by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, 1952 -- London to Algiers, Recent Watercolors by Eliot O'Hara, N.A.

Feb. 18-March 8, 1952 -- Recent Paintings by Jacques Zucker

April 7-26, 1952 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May. 10, 1952 -- Paintings by Alexandra Pregel

May 12-24, 1952 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 20th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 28-Nov. 15, 1952 -- Paintings by John Sharp

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1952 -- Stephen Etnier: Recent Paintings

Dec. 8-27, 1952 -- Childe Hassam Watercolors

Jan. 5-24, 1953 -- Jay Robinson

Jan. 26-Feb. 14, 1953 -- Iver Rose

Feb. 16-March 7, 1953 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

April 6-25, 1953 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May 18-29, 1953 -- Richard Whorf

May 18-29, 1953 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 21st Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

June, 1953 -- Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1953 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct. 26-Nov. 14, 1953 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1953 -- Ogden W. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 7-30, 1953 -- Recent Landscapes by Sidney Laufman

Jan. 4-23, 1954 -- Paintings of New York's "Little Italy" by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 25-Feb. 13, 1954 -- Round the World by Watercolor with Eliot O'Hara, N.A.

Feb. 15-March 6, 1954 -- Hobson Pittman

March 8-27, 1954 -- Jay Robinson: Kentucky, Part II

April 5-24, 1954 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May 17-28, 1954 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 22nd Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1954 -- Recent Watercolors by James Vance

Nov. 15-Dec. 4, 1954 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Dec. 6-24, 1954 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

Jan. 3-22, 1955 -- Recent Paintings by Jacques Zucker

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1955 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 14-March 5, 1955 -- Paintings of Spain and Her People by Maurice Fromkes

April 25-May 14, 1955 -- Gluckmann Recent Paintings

May 16-27, 1955 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 23rd Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1955 -- Paintings and Gouaches by John Taylor

Nov. 14-Dec. 3, 1955 -- Paintings and Panels by Jay Robinson of West and Central Africa

Dec. 5-30, 1955 -- Childe Hassam and American Impressionism

Jan., 1956 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Feb. 6-25, 1956 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

March, 1956 -- Group Exhibition

April 9-28, 1956 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May, 1956 -- Paintings by a Group of 18 American Artists

May 7-19, 1956 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 24th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Nov. 5-24, 1956 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Nov. 27-Dec. 15, 1956 -- Ogden M. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 1-Jan. 19, 1957 -- Jay Robinson Paintings in Fired Enamel on Copper

Feb. 11-March 2, 1957 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

March 4-23, 1957 -- Adolph Dehn

April 15-May 4, 1957 -- John Whorf Watercolors

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1957 -- Recent Still Life Paintings by Aaron Bohrod

Jan. 13-Feb. 8, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of Contemporary Americans

Feb. 10-March 8, 1958 -- Long Island Paintings by Childe Hassam

March 10-29, 1958 -- Paintings by Louis Di Valentin

March 31-April 19, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by Sidney Laufman

April 21-May 10, 1958 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May, 1958 -- Americans: 1865-1925

June, 1958 -- Exhibit to Benefit Friends of the Whitney Museum

June 3-27, 1958 -- American Paintings and Sculpture

Oct. 6-25, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by David Shapiro

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1958 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1958 -- Paul Sample Recent Paintings

Dec. 8-24, 1958 -- Recent Drawings and Watercolors of France, Italy, Spain, and North Africa by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 19-Feb. 7, 1959 -- Marion Greenwood Paintings

March 2-21, 1959 -- Leon Kroll Paintings and Drawings

March 23-April 18, 1959 -- Elmer L. Mac Rae Forgotten Artist of the 1913 Armory Show

May 4-23, 1959 -- Philip Visson

Oct., 1959 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 26-Nov. 14, 1959 -- Recent Painting by Aaron Bohrod

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1959 -- Ogden M. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 7-30, 1959 -- Recent Oils and Watercolors by Thomas Blagden

Jan. 18-Feb. 6, 1960 -- Elmer L. Mac Rae, Re-Discovered Artist of the 1913 Armory Show and a Founder of "The Pastellists"

through Jan. 15, 1960 -- Paintings by American Artists

March 14-April 2, 1960 -- Xavier Gonzalez Recent Paintings

April 4-23, 1960 -- Paintings by Louis Bosa

April 25-May 14, 1960 -- Grigory Gluckmann

May-June, 1960 -- Group of Contemporary Armerican Artists

Oct. 10-29, 1960 -- Adolf Dehn Caseins and Watercolors

Oct. 31-Nov. 19, 1960 -- Stephen Etnier

Dec., 1960 -- Paintings for the Home

Jan., 1961 -- Group Exhibition, 19th and 20th Century Americans

Jan. 30-Feb. 18, 1961 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 20-March 11, 1961 -- Frank di Gioia Recent Paintings

March 20-April 8, 1961 -- David Fredenthal Memorial Exhibition

April 10-29, 1961 -- Allen Tucker

May, 1961 -- Contemporary American Artists

June-July, 1961 -- 19th & 20th Century American Artists

Oct. 10-28, 1961 -- David Shapiro Recent Paintings

Oct. 31-Nov. 18, 1961 -- Aaron Bohrod

Nov. 21-Dec. 9, 1961 -- Thomas Fransioli

Feb. 6-24, 1962 -- Retrospective Exhibition, Maurice Sterne

March 6-24, 1962 -- Three Watercolorists: Childe Hassam, John Whorf, and David Fredenthal

April 3-21, 1962 -- Thomas Blagden

April 24-May 12, 1962 -- Grigory Gluckmann

Summer, 1962 -- Gallery Group of Contemporary Americans

Sept., 1962 -- 19th & 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1962 -- Gallery Group of Contemporary Americans

Oct. 30-Nov. 17, 1962 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 21-Dec. 8, 1962 -- Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec., 1962 -- Group Exhibition

Jan. 22-Feb. 9, 1963 -- Paul Sample Recent Paintings

Feb. 11-March 2, 1963 -- Group of Contemporary Americans

March 5-23, 1963 -- Gouaches by John Taylor

March 26-April 13, 1963 -- Fletcher Martin Recent Paintings

April-May, 1963 -- Gallery Group-Contemporary Americans

Oct. 8-26, 1963 -- David Shapiro Recent Work

Oct. 30-Nov. 16, 1963 -- Xavier Gonzalez Recent Watercolors

Nov. 19-Dec. 7, 1963 -- New Paintings by Aaron Bohrod

April, 1964 -- Watercolors and Pastels

April 21-May 9, 1964 -- Grigory Gluckmann

May 13-29, 1964 -- Frank di Gioia Recent Paintings

Oct., 1964 -- Group Exhibition

Nov. 3-21, 1964 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 24-Dec. 12, 1964 -- Thomas Blagden

Jan., 1965 -- Comtemporary American Artists

Feb. 2-14, 1965 -- Figure Paintings by Murray Bewley

Feb. 2-14, 1965 -- Exhibition by George Biddle

Feb. 11-23, 1965 -- Paintings and Drawings by Max Bohm

Feb. 14-26, 1965 -- Paintings by Arthur C. Goodwin

Feb. 16-28, 1965 -- Water Colors by Matilda Browne

Feb. 16-March 6, 1965 -- Water Colors by Adolf Dehn

March, 1965 -- 19th and 20th Century American Artists

March 1-13, 1965 -- Bruce Crane, N.A.

March 6-25, 1965 -- Pastels of the Cascapedia River, Canada, by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 26-April 7, 1965 -- Paintings by Howard Russell Butler, N.A.

March 23-April 10, 1965 -- Paintings by Dan Lutz

March 28-April 16, 1965 -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 2-21, 1965 -- Landscape Paintings by Bruce Crane, N.A.

April 13-May 1, 1965 -- Paintings by Louis Bosa

April 16-28, 1965 -- Water Colors and Etchings by Adolphe W. Blondheim

May, 1965 -- Gallery Contemporaries

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1965 -- Recent Landscapes by John F. Carlson, N.A.

Oct. 26-Nov. 13, 1965 -- Twenty-Four New Paintings by Aaron Bohrod, Artist in Residence, University of Wisconsin

Nov. 2-14, 1965 -- Paintings by Ann Crane

Nov. 5-17, 1965 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings of Venice by Wm. Gedney Bunce, N.A.

Nov. 7-19, 1965 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Matilda Browne

Nov. 16-Dec. 4, 1965 -- Electra Bostwick

Dec. 7-30, 1965 -- Recent Drawings and Watercolors of European Countries and North Africa by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 11-29, 1966 -- Georges Schreiber Watercolors: 1963-1965

Jan.-Feb., 1966 -- 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Feb.-March, 1966 -- Group Exhibition

June, 1966 -- Group Exhibition

Oct. 11-29, 1966 -- Thomas Blagden

Nov. 1-19, 1966 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 22-Dec. 10, 1966 -- Pleissner

Jan. 24-Feb. 11, 1967 -- Xavier Gonzalez

April, 1967 -- Group Exhibition

April 18-May 6, 1967 -- Grigory Gluckmann

July, 1967 -- Group Exhibition

undated -- Etchings and Color-Etchings

undated -- Etchings of China and Cambodia by Lucille Douglass

undated -- Thomas Jefferson Bust in Bronze by Robert Aitken, N.A.

undated -- Paintings by Ossip L. Linde

undated -- Etchings by William Meyerowitz

undated -- Recent Screens and Panels by Roy Mac Nicol

undated -- Summer Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

undated -- Paintings by Clement

undated -- Important Works in Paintings and Sculpture by Leading American Artists

Jan. 3-14, undated -- Armin Hansen

Jan. 8-27, undated* -- Recent Etchings by William Meyerowitz

Jan. 8-31, undated -- Group of American Figure Paintings, 19th and 20th Century

Jan. 9-21, undated -- Paintings by Katherine Langhorne Adams

Jan. 16-28, undated -- Paintings by Dewitt Parshall, N.A., and Douglass Parshall, N.A.

Jan. 23-Feb. 11, undated -- Paintings by Bruce Crane, Elliott Daingerfield, Granville Smith, and F. Ballard Williams

Jan. 27-Feb. 11, undated -- Willam de Leftwick Dodge

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, undated -- Paintings by Gari Melchers

Jan. 29-Feb. 10, undated -- Paintings of the California Coast by Armin Hansen

Jan. 30-Feb. 11, undated -- Sigrud Skou

Feb. 13-25, undated -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

Feb. 13-25, undated -- Paintings by Guy Wiggins, N.A.

Feb. 13-March 11, undated -- Paintings by H.T. Keasbey

Feb. 15-March 5, undated -- Frederic James

Feb. 17-March 1, undated -- Silver Point Drawings by Thelma E. Wood

Feb. 18-March 6, undated -- Landcapes, Nature Moods Expressed in Terms of Light by Julie Mathilde Morrow

Feb. 18-March 8, undated -- Paintings of Venice, Rome and French Landscape, also Pastel Drawings of the Battle Sectors of the 26th Division, A.E.F. by J. Alden Twachtman

Feb. 27-March 10, undated -- Portrait Busts and Drawings by Alexander Portnoff

March 5-17, undated* -- Pastels of the Hudson River by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 7-16, undated -- Paintings of Africa and Spain by Lillian Genth

March 7-26, undated -- Sigurd Skou

March 8-20, undated -- Paintings by Sigurd Skou

March 10-22, undated -- MacDowell Club of New York City Annual Exhibition of Paintings

March 22-April 10, undated -- Paintings of the Cathedrals of France by Pieter Van Veen

March 26-April 12, undated -- Paintings by E. Martin Hennings

March 26-April 14, undated -- Recent Etchings by Elias M. Grossman

March 28-April 16, undated -- Martha Walter Water Colors of Spain and North Africa

April 5-17, undated -- Paintings by Ernest L. Blumenschein, Victor Huggins, Walter Ufer

April 7-19, undated -- Figure Paintings by Louis Ritman

April 12-23, undated -- Portraits and Figure Paintings by Edith Catlin Phelps

April 12-24, undated -- Paintings of American Gardens by Abbott Graves

April 16-28, undated -- Portrait Drawings in Pastel by Jessie Voss Lewis (Mrs. H.L. Daingerfield Lewis)

April 19-May 1, undated -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

April 21-May 3, undated -- Paintings of Tahiti and California by William Ritschel, N.A.

April 21-May 3, undated -- Leonard Lopp, Glacier Park Artist

April 22-May 15, undated -- Sculpture for House, Garden & Grounds by Leading American Artists, and Pottery by Clara L. Poillon

April 24-May 5, undated -- Paintings by Thalia Millett

April 26-May 15, undated -- Dan Lutz, Mighican Summer and Mexican Sojourn

April 26-May 15, undated -- William H. Singer

April 27-May 16, undated -- Recent Paintings by Gluckmann

May 3-28, undated -- Exhibition of Sculpture for Garden and Grounds by Leading Sculptors

May 5-17, undated -- Recent American Sculpture in Bronze, Wood and Terra Cotta for the Town and Country House, Grounds and Garden

Oct. 11-23, undated -- Paintings by Anna Heyward Taylor

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, undated -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, undated -- Paintings and Etchings by William Auerbach-Levy

Oct. 30-Nov. 11, undated* -- Connecticut Landscape Paintings by Robert Nisbet, A.N.A.

Oct. 31-Nov. 12, undated -- Paintings of China and Tibet by Alice Job

Oct. 31-Nov. 14, undated -- Drawings by James Wilkie

Nov. 5-17, undated -- Paintings of Venice

Nov. 15-27, undated* -- Water Colors by Childe Hassam

Nov. 16-Dec. 5, undated -- Recent Etchings by Alfred Hutty

Nov. 16-Dec. 5, undated -- Paintings by W. Elmer Schofield

Nov. 17-29, undated -- Paintings and Etchings by Power O'Malley

Nov. 18-30, undated -- Recent Work in Water Color and Etching by Louis Wolchonok

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, undated -- Winter Landscapes in Water Color by Walter Launt Palmer, N.A.

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, undated -- Painter Friends, Robert H. Nisbet, Guy C, Wiggins, Edward C. Volkert, Wilson Irvine, George M. Bruestle, and Carl J. Nordell

Nov. 23-, undated -- Landscapes by Ault, Brook, Coleman, Karfiol, Ritman, Speight, Sterne, and Weber

Nov. 23-Dec. 6, undated -- Portraits of America's Most Distinguished Women by Leon Gordon

Nov. 24-Dec. 3, undated -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky

Nov. 26-Dec., undated -- Exhibition of Recent Vermont Landscapes by Edward Bruce

Nov. 26-Dec. 5, undated -- Alfred Hutty

Nov. 27-Dec. 9, undated -- Paintings by Sigure Schou

Dec. 1-27, undated -- Works Painted in Spain by Maurice Fromkes

Dec. 1-25, undated -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size

Dec. 3-29, undated -- Recent Paintings, Water Colors, and Etchings by Hilde Hassam, N.A., of the American Academy of Arts and Letters

Dec. 6-30, undated -- Selected Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Dec. 14-Jan. 2, undated -- Recent Paintings by George Shillard

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, undated -- Selected Small Paintings for the Home

Dec. 27-Jan. 12, undated -- Helen K. McCarthy Memorial Exhibition

Dec. 30-Jan. 18, undated -- Paintings by Stewart McDermot

Dec. 31-Jan. 12, undated -- Second Annual Exhibition in Pure Water Color by The Aquarellists
Provenance:
Milch Gallery gave the Archives of American Art a small selection of correspondence, photographs, and printed matter, and loaned a few other items in 1966-1967; these records were microfilmed on reels D285, N730, and NM1-NM2. Records of the Milch Gallery were purchased from the estate of Harold C. Milch by Elliott Galleries of New York City, and subsequently acquired by Salander-O'Reilly Galleries, which donated them to the Archives in 1986. With the exception of the scrapbook about Thomas Moran (reel N730; present location of the original is unknown), prior loans and gifts from Milch Gallery were incorporated and refilmed with the 1986 gift.

Stuart Feld of Hirschl & Adler Galleries donated an additional .8 linear feet of records in 1995. Zachary Ross of Hirschl & Adler Galleries donated 2.2 linear feet in 2014.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Gallery owners  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Gallery records
Photographs
Citation:
Milch Gallery records, 1911-1995. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.milcgall
See more items in:
Milch Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw900ee3d8a-cabd-4224-9627-d7d8d8c4ae3d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-milcgall

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Gallery Records
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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Online Media:

John White Alexander papers, 1775-1968, bulk 1870-1915

Creator:
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Subject:
Abbey, Edwin Austin  Search this
Alexander, Elizabeth A.  Search this
Carnegie, Andrew  Search this
Chase, William Merritt  Search this
La Farge, John  Search this
James, Henry  Search this
Levy, Florence N. (Florence Nightingale)  Search this
Remington, Frederic  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis  Search this
Stevenson, Robert Louis  Search this
Whistler, James McNeill  Search this
Gibson, Charles Dana  Search this
MacDowell Club of New York  Search this
Type:
Awards
Interviews
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Scrapbooks
Medals
Citation:
John White Alexander papers, 1775-1968, bulk 1870-1915. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Portrait painting -- 20th century  Search this
Portrait painting -- 19th century  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painting, American  Search this
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8637
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210817
AAA_collcode_alexjohn
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210817
Online Media:

Weir family papers

Creator:
Weir family  Search this
Names:
McGuigan, John F., Jr. (John Fuller)  Search this
McGuigan, Mary K.  Search this
Perry, Edith Weir, 1875-  Search this
Weir, John F. (John Ferguson), 1841-1926  Search this
Weir, Julian Alden, 1852-1919  Search this
Weir, Robert Walter, 1803-1889  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1809-circa 1961
bulk 1830-1920
Summary:
The papers of the prominent New York and Connecticut Weir family of artists measure 0.8 linear feet and date from 1809-circa 1961, with the bulk of the material dating from 1830-1920. The papers are a collection of correspondence and photographs that constitute a small but vivid record of the influence and relationships of this family of Hudson River School, landscape, and miniature painters. Correspondence consists primarily of letters to painter John Ferguson Weir when he was director of the Yale School of Fine Arts, with scattered letters to his daughter Edith Weir (Perry), and a small amount of correspondence of Robert Weir, his daughter Carrie M. Mansfield, son-in-law Lewis William Mansfield, and Julia Bayard. Letters to John F. Weir are from many late-19th century artists, as well as actors, poets, lawyers, scholars, and clergymen, often concerning arrangements for visiting lectures at the school. Photographs are of Robert Walter Weir, Susan Bayard Weir, Julian Alden Weir, and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of the prominent New York and Connecticut Weir family of artists measure 0.8 linear feet and date from 1809-circa 1961, with the bulk of the material dating from 1830-1920. The papers are a collection of correspondence and photographs that constitute a small but vivid record of the influence and relationships of this family of Hudson River School, landscape, and miniature painters. Correspondence consists primarily of letters to painter John Ferguson Weir when he was director of the Yale School of Fine Arts, with scattered letters to his daughter Edith Weir (Perry), and a small amount of correspondence of Robert Weir, his daughter Carrie M. Mansfield, son-in-law Lewis William Mansfield, and Julia Bayard. Letters to John F. Weir are from many late-19th century artists, as well as actors, poets, lawyers, scholars, and clergymen, often concerning arrangements for visiting lectures at the school. Photographs are of Robert Walter Weir, Susan Bayard Weir, Julian Alden Weir, and artwork.

There are approximately 275 letters to John Ferguson Weir, some of which enclose sketches, photographs, and printed writings. The letters of Hudson River School artists including Frederic Edwin Church, Thomas Cole, Sanford Robinson Gifford, Jervis McEntee, and Worthington Whittredge, capture a sense of the intense ties those artists felt to the landscape and to each other. Often the correspondents mention their fellow artists in their letters in personal as well as professional terms, writing of family, friendships, visits to each other's homes, practical arrangements for delivering, retrieving, and exhibiting artwork, and their shared artistic aspirations, successes, and disappointments.

Many of the letters are responses from lawyers, scholars, clergymen, writers, and educators in reply to Weir's requests to speak at the Yale School of Fine Arts. Taken together the letters, which often go beyond routine matters to extend to more personal affairs, reveal the warm esteem in which Weir was held, not only in his capacity as director of the school but as an artist and a friend. The letters, such as those from Laura Hills, Lucia Fairchild Fuller, Adele Herter, and Candace and Dora Wheeler, also document the Weir family's friendships with and encouragement of women artists, at a time of limited support for women in the arts. Also of note are letters from actors Edwin Booth and Joseph Jefferson, who were both friends of John F. Weir.

Letters of Robert Weir and extended Bayard and Mansfield family members relate primarily to family affairs. Photographs of Julian Alden Weir, Robert W. Weir, and Susan Bayard Weir include professional portraits and candid family shots, as well as photographs of two sketches of Julian Alden Weir and two miscellaneous photos of artwork.
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of the collection, the Weir family papers are arranged as one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The New York and Connecticut Weir family of artists included painter and West Point professor Robert Walter Weir (1803-1889), his sons John Ferguson Weir (1841-1926) and Julian Alden Weir (1852-1919), and granddaughter Edith Weir (Perry) (1875-1955).

Julian Alden Weir was a renowned American Impressionist painter and a founding member of "The Ten," a loosely allied group of American artists dissatisfied with some of the established professional art organizations of the time who exhibited their work as a unified group. He also taught at the Women's Art School of the Cooper Union in New York.

John Ferguson Weir became acquainted with many of the rising young artists of his day when he took a room in the Tenth Street Studio in his early twenties and developed proficiency in landscape and still life painting. Like his brother, he then studied art abroad and returned to become director and later dean of the School of Fine Arts at Yale University from 1869-1913.

John Ferguson Weir married Mary Hannah French in 1866. Their daughter, Edith Weir Perry, was a noted miniature painter who studied under Lucy Fairchild Fuller.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds the microfilm (Reels 70-71, 125-126, 577) for the Julian Alden Weir papers, 1869-1966, including correspondence (mostly typed transcripts); scrapbooks; photographs; sketches; notebooks and scrapbooks and clippings compiled by Dorothy Weir Young in preparation for her book, The Life and Letters of J. Alden Weir (1960, Yale University Press).

Additional Weir family records are held by the Yale University Archives. The records form part of the material previously lent to the Archives of American Art for microfilming by Reverend DeWolf Perry, and described above as separated materials.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming by Reverend DeWolf Perry. Included on reels 529-531 are correspondence of John Ferguson Weir, much of it with his brother Julian Alden Weir, with his future wife which he wrote while serving in the Civil War, and with artists; 77 letters, 1823-1881, of Robert W. Weir with members of the Congress and War Dept. regarding commissions, and with artists and others, including Horatio Greenough, William Page, Thomas Cole, William Cullen Bryant, and George P. Morris; a pocket diary of John F. Weir, 1860, with occasional poems and sketches; 2 sketchbooks, and 71 drawings, watercolors, and oils by John F. Weir; 3 sketchbooks and 165 original drawings, lithographs, watercolors and oils by Robert Weir; 4 portraits of John F. by others; sheet music with words and lithograph on the cover by Robert; 81 photographs of John and Robert, family, and work; exhibition material of Robert; a list of John F. Weir's paintings with prices; drafts of Robert W. Weir, Artist by Irene Weir (1947); and a typescript of a biography of John F. Weir by his daughter, Edith Weir (Perry); genealogical material; and clippings. Reel 533 includes a typescript of "The Story of My Life: The Inner Life of a Human Soul," by Mary French Weir, ca. 1920 (94 p.), and a typescript of a biography of her mother, Clara Miller-French, ca. 1920 (28 p.). Reel 565 contains family correspondence, 1866-1927, of Mary French Weir; an excerpt from the French family genealogy; and an obituary of Mary French Weir written by her daughter Edith Weir Perry. Reel 936 contains a sketchbook, 1826, by Robert Weir, of figures, statues, and buildings in Rome done while a student. The drawings are in pencil, ink wash, and pen and ink. (111 p.); reel 949 contains three sketchbooks, 1869-1902, by John F. Weir, done in watercolor, pencil and ink wash. (69 p.), of landscapes, figures, and heads of individuals in Italy, Switzerland, Dordricht, Holland, and France.

Loaned materials were returned to the donor and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Photographs were given to the Archives of American Art in 2019 by Mary and John McGuigan, Jr. Letters to John Ferguson Weir were donated by Harold O. Love in 1961. Material on reels 529-531, 533, 565, 936 and 949 was lent for microfilming 1973-1975 by Rev. DeWolf Perry, grandson of John F. Weir. He also donated two photographs in 1975. The donor and date of acquisition of the manuscript draft of Julian Alden Weir's biography are unknown. The draft was transferred from the Julian Alden Weir papers in 2019 as it was assumed that it was donated by a relative of the family since Dorothy Weir Young was the author of Weir's biography.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Landscape painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Miniature painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Women painters  Search this
Hudson River school of landscape painting  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Citation:
Weir family papers, 1809-circa 1961. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.weirweir
See more items in:
Weir family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9ccba1ad3-1d32-4462-b119-2f2587caf3c0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-weirweir
Online Media:

William Merritt Chase papers

Creator:
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Names:
Art Club of Philadelphia  Search this
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.) -- Faculty  Search this
Shinnecock Summer School of Art -- Faculty  Search this
De Voll, F. Usher, 1873-1941  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
circa 1890-1964
Summary:
The papers of New York painter and art instructor, William Merritt Chase, measure 0.3 linear feet and date from circa 1890 to 1964. Papers include a resolution of the Art Club of Philadelphia on Chase's death, letters, writings by Chase consisting of typescripts of lectures and lecture notes, blank postcards primarily depicting reproductions of artwork, a scrapbook, and photographs of Chase, his family, homes, and studios, and photographs of works of art.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York painter and art instructor, William Merritt Chase, measure 0.3 linear feet and date from circa 1890 to 1964. Papers include a resolution of the Art Club of Philadelphia on Chase's death, letters, writings by Chase consisting of typescripts of lectures and lecture notes, blank postcards primarily depicting reproductions of artwork, a scrapbook, and photographs of Chase, his family, homes, and studios, and photographs of works of art.

Letters include a photocopy of a 1901 letter signed by 28 students of the Shinnecock Summer School thanking Chase for a painting; a 1903 postcard to Mr. Harold R. Shiffer from his aunt; a 1912 letter to Chase signed by 32 pupils of the Art Students League thanking him for his efforts on their behalf and acknowledging his "qualities of sympathy, interest, and an understanding of our individual needs;" a 1915 note from an unidentified writer; a 1920 letter to Chase's wife Alice, from Gertrude Abbey, wife of Edwin Austin Abbey, referencing a tile possibly created by Edwin Abbey that Mrs. Chase owns; a 1935 postcard to Chase's daughter Helen from an unidentified writer; and a 1964 letter to Helen Storm from Ala Story in which Story describes a Chase exhibition that he is organizing and apologizes for having given a sketchbook of drawings owned by Helen to the Morgan Library.

Writings include 4 sets of lecture notes (one labeled as being notes for a lecture at Shinnecock), which are a combination of annotated typescripts and handwritten pages, and a typescript of a 1906 "Talk on the Old Masters by Mr. Chase" for the New York School of Art. Also found is a notebook with handwritten notes on a talk Chase gave to students in Philadelphia, presumably at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.

Writings by others consist of a six-page typescript entitled "Reminiscences of a Student," by F. Usher De Voll, describing his experiences of Chase as a teacher.

Postcards (blank) include 3 reproductions of works of art by Chase, 8 reproductions of works of art by other artists, and 2 scenic views.

A Chase family scrapbook consists of mounted prints, primarily cyanotypes, that document Chase's travels to Rome, Milan, Gibraltar and the Loire Valley, and visits to major monuments, and also includes images of Chase and his family at leisure during their travels, as well as five family portraits.

Photographs of the Chase family include one of Chase with his son, Dana, and one of Chase with his wife, Alice, both undated. Other family members and friends are generally unidentified but do include Virginia Gerson and possibly Alice Gerson. Also found are four portraits of Chase, four photographs of Chase in his studio, a copy print of students at the Shinnecock Art School in circa 1895, and a copy print of an 1880 Tile Club trip up the Hudson River. In addition to circa 1960 copy prints, photographs include a variety of vintage prints such as albumen cabinet cards, silver gelatin prints, and a tintype.
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of the collection, the papers are arranged as 1 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: William Merritt Chase Papers, circa 1890-1964 (0.3 linear feet.; Box 1, OV 2)
Biographical / Historical:
William Merritt Chase (1849-1916) was one of America's most prominent painters and art instructors in New York, New York and Shinnecock, Long Island, during the late 19th century. One of the first Impressionist landscape painters in the U. S, Chase was also a highly accomplished portrait and still life painter.

Born in Indiana, Chase lived in New York and St. Louis, Missouri, before traveling to Europe and studying at the Royal Academy in Munich. After returning to New York in 1878, he taught at the Art Students League until 1896. His studio in the Tenth Street Studio building became an important gathering place for artists, students and patrons. Chase was also a member of the Tile Club whose members shared an interest in the decorative arts and sought to have their designs translated into ceramic tiles, from 1877-1887.

Chase became one of the most important teachers of American artists around the turn of the century. He opened the Shinnecock Hills Summer Art School in 1891 and taught there until 1902, living in a house at Shinnecock designed by Stanford White. In 1896 he opened the Chase School of Art and also taught at the Brooklyn Art Association in 1887, and 1891-1896, and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts from 1896-1909.

Chase was a member of the National Academy of Design, and was president of the Society of American Artists from 1885 to 1895.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming. Reel N69-115 includes an additional family scrapbook, undated, containing photographs of Chase, his wife and children, a notice of sale of the Chase house in Shinnecock Hills, N.Y. designed by Stanford White, and photographs of the house. Found on reel N69-119 are circa two hundred photographs of Chase at work, his wife, his studios in Philadelphia and on 5th Avenue and 10th Street New York City, and numerous snapshots of characters in a tableau vivant that include his family, friends, Mary S. Moore Cross, and others. Reel N69-137 contains letters from Chase to his wife during his travels abroad, one note from John Singer Sargent requesting the use of Chase's studio for the famous party Sargent gave for Isabella Stewart Gardner in 1890, and a six-page typescript, "Reminiscences of a Student," by F. Usher De Voll, and photographs of Chase's studio. Loaned materials were returned to the lenders and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The papers were received in a series of accessions between 1969 and 2010. A portion was loaned for microfilming by Robert S. Chase and Chapellier Galleries in 1969. Roger Storm, the widower of Chase's daughter Helen, donated lectures and speeches, a 1912 letter, and photocopies of a dinner menu and photos of artwork in 1969. Art collector Fred D. Bentley gave photographic copy prints of Chase's summer home, studio and art school. D. Frederick Baker, the author of the Chase catalogue raisonné, gave two letters, two postcards, the Chase family scrapbook, vintage photographs, and blank postcards in 2010. Baker received the material from Chase's estate via Chase's grandson, Jackson Case Storm.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art teachers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Function:
Artists' studios -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
William Merritt Chase papers, circa 1890-1964. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.chaswill
See more items in:
William Merritt Chase papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw91f0c3633-d5ca-45ef-ba0e-5da0c10a0b0e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-chaswill
Online Media:

Chester Dale papers

Creator:
Dale, Chester, b. 1883  Search this
Names:
Allentown Art Museum  Search this
Amherst College  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
National Gallery of Art (U.S.)  Search this
Parrish Art Museum  Search this
Batigne, Claire  Search this
Batigne, Renee  Search this
Braque, Georges, 1882-1963  Search this
Burkhardt, Rudy  Search this
Cantor, Irving  Search this
Cassatt, Mary, 1844-1926  Search this
Cooper, Maria  Search this
Cooper, Veronica  Search this
Cézanne, Paul, 1839-1906  Search this
Dale, Mary Towar Bullard, 1892-1984  Search this
Dale, Maud, 1875-1953  Search this
Dallas Museum of Art  Search this
Dalí, Gala  Search this
Dalí, Salvador, 1904-1989  Search this
Dmitri, Ivan, 1900-1968  Search this
Dufy, Raoul, 1877-1953  Search this
Elizabeth, Queen of Great Britain, II, 1926-  Search this
Frost, Robert, 1874-1963  Search this
Hamilton, Edith, 1867-1963  Search this
Ingersoll, R. Sturgis (Robert Sturgis), b. 1891  Search this
Kahlo, Frida  Search this
Kessel, Dmitri  Search this
MacNeil, Neil  Search this
Mayes, Herbert R., 1900-1987 (Herbert Raymond)  Search this
Mellon, Paul  Search this
Mellon, Timothy  Search this
Orozco, José Clemente, 1883-1949  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Salles, Georges  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009  Search this
Wyeth, Jamie, 1946-  Search this
Wyeth, Nicholas  Search this
Extent:
8.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Travel diaries
Place:
Europe -- description and travel
Date:
circa 1883-2003
bulk 1920-1970
Summary:
The papers of New York art collector Chester Dale measure 8.4 linear feet and date from circa 1883-2003. Dale amassed one of the world's most complete collections of nineteenth and twentieth century French art, was a collector of eighteenth century American portraitists, and a patron and collector of twentieth American artists including George Bellows and Mary Cassatt. The bulk of the collection dates from 1920 to 1970 and documents Dale's activities through biographical material, correspondence, memoirs and other writings, purchase, sales and estate records, printed material, scrapbooks, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York art collector Chester Dale measure 8.4 linear feet and date from circa 1883-2003. Dale amassed one of the world's most complete collections of nineteenth and twentieth century French art, was a collector of eighteenth century American portraitists, and a patron and collector of twentieth American artists including George Bellows and Mary Cassatt. The bulk of the collection dates from 1920 to 1970 and documents Dale's activities through biographical material, correspondence, memoirs and other writings, purchase, sales and estate records, printed material, scrapbooks, and photographs.

Biographical material comprises brief genealogical and biographical notes on Dale's father's side of the family; four pieces of miscellaneous artwork; several certificates, membership cards, and programs; circa six unidentified dictaphone recordings; and a home movie of an unidentified social event.

Correspondence provides scattered documentation of Dale's activities as a collector and benefactor, including correspondence relating to gifts to various museums such as the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, as well as posthumous gifts to the Allentown Art Museum and Amherst College. Also documented is Dale's election as president of the National Gallery of Art in 1955. There are several letters to and from Salvador and Gala Dali, copies of two letters from Diego Rivera, and letters from other friends and business associates, including historian Georges Salles. Over one third of the correspondence consists of condolence telegrams and letters sent to Mary Dale following Dale's death. Other correspondence documents Mary Dale's work as exhibition chairman for the Parrish Museum of Art, and includes letters from Andrew, Jamie, and Nicholas Wyeth.

Writings include typed drafts of Dale's memoirs which recall the beginning of his career in banking, and include stories of his early experiences in buying art. Dale credits the highly discerning and influential eye of his first wife, Maud Dale, for guiding him in his early selections, and his memoirs recall his unconventionally direct way of doing business with the Paris art dealers. Two travel diaries record a 1904 trip to Europe, and five trips to Europe and the Caribbean between 1949 and 1953. Writings by others include several essays on Dale by various authors, several essays on art by Maud Dale, and a typed draft of a manuscript on Dale's life by Neil MacNeil.

Extensive inventories, estate appraisals, and will disbursement records document the contents of the Chester Dale collection in Series 4. Also found here are receipts for specific purchases of works by Cezanne, Cassatt, Dali, Dufy, Picasso, and others.

Printed material includes catalogs for auction sales annotated with sales prices and other purchase information; catalogs of Dale's collection; and exhibition catalogs and announcements for the Parrish Museum of Art during Mary Dale's tenure as exhibition chairman. Some of the catalogs include essays by Maud Dale. News clippings and magazine articles document press coverage of Dale's activities at home and abroad.

Scrapbooks contain additional printed material, primarily news clippings, documenting press coverage of Chester Dale's life from the 1920s until his death. One of the scrapbooks includes multiple photographs of Dale and others, including a photo of Frida Kahlo and Jose Orozco. An additional scrapbook of photographs and clippings documents Mary Dale's life before and after her marriage to Dale.

Photographs are of Dale, Mary Dale, Maud Dale, family, friends, and colleagues. There are photographs of Dale and Mary Dale with artists including George Braques, Salvador and Gala Dali, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, and Jamie and Nicholas Wyeth; and friends and associates Renee and Claire Batigne, Veronica "Rocky" Cooper and Maria Cooper, Robert Sturgis Ingersoll, Edith Hamilton with Robert Frost, Neil MacNeil, Herbert Mayes, and Paul and Timothy Mellon. There are individual photos and three photograph albums of Dale's various residences and his collection, including photographs taken shortly before his death at his Plaza Hotel apartment showing some of his favorite pictures. Photographers include Rudolph Burkhardt, Irving Cantor, Ivan Dmitri, and Dmitri Kessel. There are also many photographs of exhibition openings and museum events, especially events at the National Gallery of Art, including the presentation of Dale's gift of Dali's The Sacrament of the Last Supper to the museum in 1956, and the occasion of Queen Elizabeth II of England's visit to the museum in 1957. Photographs also include photographs of artwork in Dale's collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as seven series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1897-circa 1960, 2003 (Boxes 1, 7-8; FC 20; 0.45 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1911-1984 (Box 1; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1904-1963 (Boxes 2, 8; 0.55 linear feet)

Series 4: Chester Dale Collection, circa 1930-1968 (Boxes 2-3; 1 linear foot)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1925-circa 1972 (Boxes 3-4, 8, OV 9; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, circa 1920s-1963 (Box 4, BVs 10-14; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1883-1972 (Boxes 4-6, 19, BVs 15-17, OV 18; 3.3 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
New York art patron and collector of French and American art Chester Dale (1883-1962), made his fortune as a banker who pioneered the sale of public utility securities. He began purchasing French paintings in the mid-1920s and retired from the investment security business in 1935 in order to focus full time on the acquisition of art.

Dale was encouraged to begin collecting art by his first wife, Maud Dale, who was an artist, a writer, and a former chairman of the Exhibition Committee of the Museum of French Art. With the benefit of his wife's knowledge, passion, and perception, Dale began to lay the foundation of his collection in 1926, and amassed circa seven hundred pictures within ten years. His collection is considered to be one of the most complete collections of nineteenth and twentieth century French art in the world, and includes some of the finest examples of works by Braque, Corot, Delacroix, Degas, Derain, Dufy, Leger, Matisse, and Renoir, as well as by artists representative of the French tradition in art including Modigliani, Picasso, Rivera, and Van Gogh.

Although primarily interested in French art, Dale also collected and encouraged American artists. He was a patron of George Bellows and Salvador Dali, and had his portrait painted by both artists. Dale presented the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the National Gallery of Art with their first Dali paintings, the latter being The Sacrament of the Last Supper. Dale also purchased works by Mary Cassatt, representative works by "the Eight," and examples of eighteenth century American portraitists John Smibert, Gilbert Stuart and Thomas Sully. In the early 1940s he visited Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo in Mexico, and Rivera subsequently completed a portrait of Dale in 1945.

Dale served as a trustee to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Chicago Art Institute, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. He made the first of a series of gifts to the National Gallery of Art when it opened in 1941. In 1955 he was elected president of the museum, by which time his collection occupied ten of its galleries. Dale bequeathed the bulk of his remaining collection to the National Gallery in his will. This final gift included eighty of his favorite pictures, which had been located in his Manhattan apartment at the Plaza Hotel up until his death.

A year after the death of Maud Dale in 1953, Dale married Mary Towar Bullard, whom he had employed as his secretary for twenty-five years. Mary Dale oversaw the disbursement of her husband's estate, following Dale's death from a heart attack in 1962.
Related Materials:
Holdings at the Archives of American Art also include the Chester Dale papers concerning George Bellows, 1919-1956, comprising correspondence, a photograph, and invoices relating to Chester Dale's relationship with George Bellows and Dale's interest in artwork by Bellows; and the Chester Dale eulogy, consisting of one 35 minute, 9 second sound tape reel of a eulogy delivered by an unidentified speaker.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 1972 by Mary Dale, Chester Dale's second wife, and in 1985 by Mary Dale's estate.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D. C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, French--19th century  Search this
Art, French--20th century  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, Modern--19th century--Collectors and collecting  Search this
Motion pictures (visual works)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Travel diaries
Citation:
Chester Dale papers, circa 1883-2003, bulk 1920-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.daleches
See more items in:
Chester Dale papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw97b399200-a24e-48c3-83e9-5cfd2ec5892c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-daleches
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