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Wetmore and Perrygo Collecting in Panama

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution Archives  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2013-03-14T19:43:56Z
Topic:
Museum administration  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SIArchives
YouTube Channel:
SIArchives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_nqYSQaohp60

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steamboats [Ships, Boats, and Vessels]

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
10.22 Cubic feet (consisting of 20 boxes, 2 folders, 9 oversize folders, 3 map case folders, 3 flat boxes (2 full, 1 partial.))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Menus
Bills
Ships' passenger lists
Patents
Legislative documents
Photographs
Advertisements
Advertising mail
Advertising
Illustrations
Contracts
Trademarks
Inspections
Programs
Advertising cards
Advertising fliers
Print advertising
Legal documents
Travelogs
Souvenir programs
Business cards
Concert programs
Publications
Commercial correspondence
Correspondence
Receipts
Theater programs
Business records
Legal records
Business ephemera
Invoices
Bills of sale
Ships' logs
Technical reports
Reports
Letterheads
Ephemera
Design patents
Travel brochures
Legislation (legal concepts)
Business letters
Timetables
Travel diaries
Printed ephemera
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- Transportation
Hudson River
Date:
1777-1965
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Minimally covers the terminus of the wind-powered (sail) era and more fully documents the peak of the engine (steam) era of commercial cargo and passenger vesselsk, including freight and dockage services, maintenance and provisioning, ferry service, navigation (tug and tow) assistance, plus leisure cruising and touring. There is not a significant amount of material on battle or war ships. Includes both short distance routes such as lakes, rivers, and islets, and longer trans-oceanic crossings.

Documents within the collection consist of handbills, broadsides, leaflets, books, business cards, advertisements, insurance forms, wreck reports, passenger lists, baggage tags, freight manifests, rate cards, correspondence on letterhead stationery, booklets, newspaper clippings, postcards, menus, periodicals, manuals, photographs, engravings, woodcuts, sketches, bills of lading, receipts, catalogues, ledgers, journals, purchase orders, broadsides, brochures, custom forms, schedules, shipping and receiving documents, early steam guides, timetables, lithographs, announcements, etc. There are no navigational nautical maps. There is very little in the way of international import/export records. However, domestic and North American freight services are well-covered through invoices, bills of lading, manifests, and receipts for goods and services.

Some materials cover the history and development of steamships, particularly in the latter half of the nineteenth century with the iron screw replacing the wooden paddle steamer in the 1850s. The late 1860s brought the compound engine, which led to the steamship, previously used for the conveyance of mails and passengers, to compete with the sailing vessel in the carriage of cargo for long voyages. The 1870s brought improvements in accommodation for the passenger, with the midship saloon, conveniences in state-rooms, and covered access to smoke rooms and ladies cabins.

Ownership of specific lines and vessels was very fluid throughout shipping history, including the renaming of vessels. Mergers, dissolution, and absorption of fleets were frequent. Thus, researchers should independently seek out a more detailed history for any entity of particular interest.

The general maritime business series focuses on good and services related to maritime operations such as repair, shipbuilding, parts, ticket agents, chandlers, groceries, coal supply, dockage, wharfs/marinas, etc.

Operation records of named vessels contains primarily bills of lading and similar receipts for the movement of material goods or in-water services such as tow and tug assistance.

The largest series covering shipping lines and conglomerates offers a wide assortment of miscellaneous, nonexhaustive operation records for cargo and passenger lines and corporations, typically those with multiple holdings. These documents may include receipts, bills of lading, correspondence, and financial ledgers, plus promotional material for services and routes offered. Passenger sailings and luxury cruise documentation may contain menus, passenger lists, itineraries, shore excursion information, souveniers such as luggage tags, ticket stubs, and postcards. See also the subject category Menus, for additional examples of passenger and cruise ship menus.

When not associated with any of the above, general examples of materials related to the industry have been by arranged by their material type such as images, reports, and serial publications. More formal documentation, especially legal and reports, can be found here.

Narrative type materials related to lore, history, and building and design specifications have been sorted by subject. A scarce amount of material covers ships used for military service. Likewise, there are a few examples of maritime related material from the art world, mostly in the form of catalogues for exhibits or auction of paintings and scale models.

A note on vessel names: those used as contract carriers of mail and when in service, were entitled to unique prefix designations such as Royal Mail Ship (RMS.), otherwise, the ship name may be preceded by the more generic S.S. for single-screw steamer or steamship, SV for sailing vessel, PS for paddle steamer, RV for research vessel or similar type prefix. USS is the standard for the United States Navy commissioned ships while in commission, with HMS used for His/Her Majesty's Ship of the British Royal Navy.

Some of the major lines/companies represented in the collection include: American Line, American Steamship Company, Anchor Line, Compagnie Générale Transatlantique, Cunard-Anchor Line, Cunard Line, Cunard Steam Ship Company, Limited, Cunard White Star Line, Eastern Steamship Lines, Furness, Withy & Company, Hamburg American Line (HAPAG) / Hamburg Amerika Linie, Holland America Line (N.A.S.M. / HAL), Inman Line, International Mercantile Marine Company (IMM), International Navigation Company, North German Lloyd (Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen), Panama Pacific Line, Peninsular and Oriental, Red Star Line, Royal Mail Steam Packet, U.S. Mail Steamship Company, United States Lines, White Star Line.
Arrangement:
Ships, Boats, and Vessels is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material

General Maritime Businesses



Operation Records of Named Vessels



Shipping Lines/Conglomerates

Miscellaneous Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre

Keepsakes

Images

Ledger

Legal

News Clippings

Regulatory

Reports

Serial Publications

Stamps/Cigarette Cards

Associations and Societies

Images, Artwork, Racing, Technical Literature

Subject

Battleships, Warships

Destination Guides

Employment and Licensing

Insurance

Maritime History

Maritime Models and Art

Revue Generale Des Sciences

Warshaw Administrative Records
Related Materials:
Several other Warshaw Subject Categories may have closely related material such as Submarines and Transportation. For casual and recreational boating see Boats and Boating Equipment and Yachts. Other subject categories that may have related materials include: Canals, Dredging, Engines, Menus, Railroads (point of common transportation transfer), and Tours. .
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Steamboats [Ships, Boats, and Vessels] is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Passenger ships  Search this
Marine machinery  Search this
Ships  Search this
Shipbuilding industry  Search this
Ferries  Search this
Transportation -- Japan  Search this
River boats  Search this
Marine engines  Search this
Boats  Search this
Transportation -- Far Eastern  Search this
Ships -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Merchant Marine -- Manning of vessels -- United States  Search this
Docks  Search this
Health  Search this
Ocean liners  Search this
Merchant Marine -- United States  Search this
Ships -- Far Eastern  Search this
Rivers  Search this
Transportation -- river boat  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Merchant Marine  Search this
Harbors  Search this
Trade associations  Search this
Transportation -- 1900-1910  Search this
Boats and boating  Search this
Water transport -- 18th century  Search this
Boats -- Southeast Asia  Search this
Cargo  Search this
Local transit -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Sailboats  Search this
Waterways  Search this
Sailing  Search this
Transportation -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Local transit  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Water transfer  Search this
Transportation -- History  Search this
Wharves  Search this
Steamboats  Search this
Boats -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Public health  Search this
Marine engineers  Search this
Ocean travel  Search this
Seamen -- 1910-1920  Search this
Musical performances  Search this
Transportation -- Law and legislation -- United States  Search this
Merchant seamen  Search this
Marine engineering  Search this
Models and modelmaking  Search this
Navigation  Search this
Seamen -- 1940-1950  Search this
Travel  Search this
Importers  Search this
Shipping  Search this
Cruise ships  Search this
Ships -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Flags  Search this
Exports -- 19th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Menus -- Ships -- 1940-1950
Menus
Bills
Ships' passenger lists
Patents
Legislative documents
Photographs
Advertisements
Advertising mail
Advertising
Illustrations
Contracts
Trademarks
Inspections
Programs
Advertising cards
Advertising fliers
Print advertising
Legal documents
Travelogs
Souvenir programs
Business cards
Concert programs
Publications
Commercial correspondence
Correspondence
Receipts
Theater programs
Publications -- Business
Business records
Legal records
Business ephemera
Invoices
Bills of sale
Ships' logs
Technical reports
Reports
Letterheads
Ephemera
Design patents
Travel brochures
Legislation (legal concepts)
Business letters
Timetables
Travel diaries
Printed ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Ships, Boats, and Vessels, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Steamboats
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steamboats [Ships, Boats, and Vessels]
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-steamboats

Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899. J. B. Hatcher in charge. Edited by William B. Scott

Author:
Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899  Search this
Hatcher, J. B (John Bell) 1861-1904  Search this
Scott, William Berryman 1858-1947  Search this
Physical description:
8 v. in 13. illus. (part col.) maps (part fold., part col.) tables. 34 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
Patagonia (Argentina and Chile)
Date:
1901
1932
1901-32 [v. 1, 1903]
Topic:
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Birds  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Paleontology  Search this
Botany  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Call number:
Q115.P9X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_190035

Theodore Roosevelt

Artist:
Pirie MacDonald, 27 Jan 1867 - 22 Apr 1942  Search this
Sitter:
Theodore Roosevelt, 27 Oct 1858 - 6 Jan 1919  Search this
Medium:
Photogravure
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 44.9 x 30.4cm (17 11/16 x 11 15/16")
Mount: 45 x 32.6cm (17 11/16 x 12 13/16")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1915
Topic:
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Male  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Literature\Writer  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Military\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Natural Resources\Explorer  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Politics and Government\Governor\New York  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Humanities and Social Sciences\Historian  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Environmentalist  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Rancher  Search this
Theodore Roosevelt: Nobel Prize  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Milton and Ingrid Rose
Object number:
NPG.2002.376
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
America's Presidents (Reinstallation September 2017)
On View:
NPG, West Gallery 210
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4828b096d-dd02-40d3-b722-670005bf9674
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2002.376
Online Media:

Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of the new Continent during the years 1799-1804 by Alexander de Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland with maps, plans &c. written in French by Alexander de Humboldt ; and translated into English by Helen Maria Williams

Author:
Humboldt, Alexander von 1769-1859 http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80051862  Search this
Author:
Bonpland, Aimé 1773-1858 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n50042217 http://viaf.org/viaf/51750221  Search this
William, Helen Maria 1762-1827 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n50015768  Search this
Physical description:
7 volume illustrations, maps 22 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Calf bindings (Binding)
Place:
South America
AMERICA DEL SUR
Great Britain
Date:
1818
1821
19th century
Topic:
Natural history  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Voyages and travels  Search this
EXPEDICIONES CIENTIFICAS  Search this
HISTORIA NATURAL  Search this
Travel  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
DESCRIPCIONES Y VIAJES  Search this
Call number:
F2216 .H919v E1814
F2216.H919v E1814
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_288130

Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of the new Continent during the years 1799-1804 by Alexander de Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland with maps, plans &c. written in French by Alexander de Humboldt ; and translated into English by Helen Maria Williams

Author:
Humboldt, Alexander von 1769-1859 http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80051862  Search this
Author:
Bonpland, Aimé 1773-1858 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n50042217 http://viaf.org/viaf/51750221  Search this
Williams, Helen Maria 1762-1827 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n50015768 http://viaf.org/viaf/44455306  Search this
Former owner:
Canal Zone Library-Museum http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/fmo DSI http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n50065124 http://viaf.org/viaf/134837527  Search this
Physical description:
7 volumes illustrations, maps 22 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Elevations (Orthographic projections)
Place:
South America
Date:
1818
1830
Topic:
Natural history  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Voyages and travels  Search this
Travel  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Call number:
F2216 .H919v E1822
F2216.H919v E1822
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_288131

Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of the new continent during the years 1799-1804 by Alexander de Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland with maps, plans, &c. written in French by Alexander de Humboldt, and translated into English by Helen Maria Williams ; vols. I. & II

Author:
Humboldt, Alexander von 1769-1859 http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80051862  Search this
Author:
Bonpland, Aimé 1773-1858 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n50042217 http://viaf.org/viaf/51750221  Search this
Williams, Helen Maria 1762-1827 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n50015768 http://viaf.org/viaf/44455306  Search this
Canal Zone Library-Museum DSI http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n50065124 http://viaf.org/viaf/134837527  Search this
Printer:
Pople, W (William) active 1806-1837 http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/prt http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/prt http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/nr99020826 http://viaf.org/viaf/73776111  Search this
Donor:
Burndy Library DSI http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n83827146 http://viaf.org/viaf/149783636  Search this
Physical description:
2 volumes in 1, I leaf of plates map 22 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
South America
Date:
1822
Topic:
Natural history  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Voyages and travels  Search this
Travel  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Call number:
F2216 .H919v E1822b
F2216.H919v E1822b
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_288138

L'Afrique centrale franćaise Récit du voyage de la mission par Auguste Chevalier ... Appendice par mm. Pellegrin, Germain, Courtet, Petit Bouvier, Lesnes, Du Buysson, Surcouf

Author:
Chevalier, Auguste 1873-1956 http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/no95031400 http://viaf.org/viaf/32031832  Search this
Author:
Mission scientifique Chari-Lac Tchad  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 776 pages color front., illustrations, VII pl., maps (part folded) 29 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
Africa, Central
Central African Republic
Chad
Chad, Lake
Central Africa
Date:
1907
20th Century
Topic:
Natural history  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Expeditions  Search this
Natural History  Search this
Travel  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Call number:
DT546.427 .C52 1907
DT546.427.C52 1907
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_288519
Online Media:

The Museum Director Who Defied the Nazis

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Lectures
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 26 May 2020 16:22:40 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_f10ce3a0ceed0c32aa03ae621622f4dc

Hammock (No image available)

Culture/People:
Yagua (Yahua)  Search this
Expedition:
Wenner-Gren Scientific Expedition to Hispanic America (1940-1941) (Wenner-Gren Peru Expedition)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Paul Fejos (Pál Fejös), Non-Indian, 1897-1963  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
Axel Wenner-Gren, Non-Indian, 1881-1961  Search this
Donor:
Viking Fund, Incorporated (The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.), 1941-  Search this
Object Name:
Hammock (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Vegetal Fiber
Techniques:
Netted
Object Type:
Furnishings (Home)
Native Term:
hnnãi
Place:
Río Amazonas (Amazon River) area near frontiers of Peru, Colombia, and Brazil; Río Ampiyacu; Maynas Province; Loreto Region; Peru
Catalog Number:
20/4746
Barcode:
204746.000
See related items:
Yagua (Yahua)
Furnishings (Home)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_218682

Trough (No image available)

Culture/People:
Yagua (Yahua)  Search this
Expedition:
Wenner-Gren Scientific Expedition to Hispanic America (1940-1941) (Wenner-Gren Peru Expedition)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Paul Fejos (Pál Fejös), Non-Indian, 1897-1963  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
Axel Wenner-Gren, Non-Indian, 1881-1961  Search this
Donor:
Viking Fund, Incorporated (The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.), 1941-  Search this
Object Name:
Trough (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Food Gathering and Preparation
Native Term:
tanta
Place:
Río Amazonas (Amazon River) area near frontiers of Peru, Colombia, and Brazil; Río Ampiyacu; Maynas Province; Loreto Region; Peru
Catalog Number:
20/4728
Barcode:
204728.000
See related items:
Yagua (Yahua)
Food Gathering and Preparation
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_218275

#103226 - #103500. Includes correspondence regarding an exchange of specimens between the USNM and The Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, 1928-1929. Correspondents include Neil M. Judd and C. T. Currelly (#103252). Also included is a report on the Am...

Collection Creator::
United States National Museum  Search this
Container:
Box 355 of 672
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 192, United States National Museum, Permanent Administrative Files
See more items in:
Permanent Administrative Files
Permanent Administrative Files / Box 355
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0192-refidd1e7531

Records

Creator::
National Zoological Park  Search this
Extent:
147 cu. ft. (288 document boxes) (1 tall document box) (4 bound volumes) (71 microfilm reels)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Black-and-white photographs
Serials (publications)
Drawings
Clippings
Books
Manuscripts
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Pamphlets
Diaries
Plates (illustrations)
Letterpress copybooks
Picture postcards
Architectural drawings
Date:
1887-1966
Introduction:
The earliest records concerning the National Zoological Park date from 1887. They were kept by the Office of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution until 1890, when they were transferred to Holt House, the Park's administrative headquarters. During the late 1960's the records were transferred to the custody of the Smithsonian Institution Archives. The finding aid for these records was first written in 1972 and revised in 1989.

The Archives would like to thank Dr. Theodore H. Reed, former director of the National Zoological Park, and Sybil E. Hamlet, Public Information Officer, NZP, for their support and assistance in the transfer of the records to the Archives, and in providing historical information necessary for the processing of these records.
Descriptive Entry:
The records of the National Zoological Park document the development of the Park, from the site survey work begun by William T. Hornaday in 1888 through the beginnings of its modernization plans in 1965.

Several series of records are of particular importance. They include records of the National Zoological Park Commission, 1889-1891, and records created by William T. Hornaday, who had a significant part to play in the early development of the Park. Some of these records also demonstrate the important influence of Secretary Samuel P. Langley, who succeeded in persuading Congress to authorize the Park, and who kept it under his close personal supervision until he died in 1906. This material consists of minutes of the founding Commission, plats, maps, blueprints, photographs, and correspondence documenting acquisition of land for the Park, as well as records detailing the Park's changing boundaries, layouts of buildings and grounds, and construction of buildings. A more detailed description of the Park's correspondence system can be found in series 12 through 14. Additional information regarding the Commission's activities and Langley's close involvement with the Zoo may be found in Record Unit 31, the incoming correspondence of the Office of the Secretary (Samuel P. Langley), 1891-1906, and related records to 1908, and Record Unit 34, the Secretary's outgoing correspondence, 1887-1907.

Correspondence in these records embraces a number of other subjects as well. Acquisition of specimens is extensively documented. Animals were obtained from donors, from dealers in wild animals, from circuses, from American military and diplomatic personnel, from participation in various American expositions, and from expeditions abroad for the purpose of collecting animals for the Park. Collections gathered abroad came from the Smithsonian-Roosevelt African Expedition (1909), the Smithsonian-Chrysler Expedition (1926-1927), the Argentine Expedition (1938-1939), the Antarctic Expedition (1939-1940), and the Firestone-Smithsonian Expedition (1940-1941). In addition, the Park provided specimen exhibitions and built facilities for several expositions, including the Pan-American Exposition (1901-1902), the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904), the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition (1909), and the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1914-1917). Record Unit 70 documents the Smithsonian's participation in expositions in detail.

The records also document the more mundane aspects of Park administration. There is considerable correspondence between the Park's director and colleagues at other institutions at home and abroad, and with various federal agencies. There is particularly full documentation of dealings with federal offices in control of animal quarantine regulations and with the rebuilding of the Park by various New Deal agencies in the 1930's. There are daily diaries of the superintendents, directors, and assistant directors of the Park (1895-1930), as well as diaries and daily reports of various subordinate staff members.

Lastly, records of the Park document Samuel P. Langley's 1901-1903 research on the flight of birds, Frank Baker's survey of private and public zoological parks and his buffalo census, 1902-1905, and Baker's involvement on a subcommittee entrusted with recommending a site for a zoological park to the New York Zoological Society.
Historical Note:
In 1989 the National Zoological Park celebrated its centennial. However, as early as 1855 the Smithsonian had received gifts of live animals. In addition, the United States National Museum acquired living animals for life studies in order to create lifelike specimens for exhibit in the Museum. Since there were no facilities for caring for animals not used as specimens, those animals were either transferred to the Superintendent of the United States Insane Asylum (now St. Elizabeth's Hospital) for the amusement of its patients or else sent to the Philadelphia Zoological Garden.

However, parochial needs were not the only source for the idea of a national zoological park. During the last quarter of the nineteenth century there was growing concern that a number of animals would soon become extinct in their natural habitats, among them the American buffalo. William T. Hornaday, taxidermist at the Institution since 1882, had found the National Museum with only a few inferior specimens of the buffalo; and, with the support of Secretary Spencer F. Baird, he traveled to Montana in May and again in September of 1886 to collect specimens while they could still be had. Hornaday was able to collect numerous specimens. However, the state of the buffalo herds he observed during these trips evidently affected him deeply. In 1888, he published his The Extermination of the American Bison. Already, in March 1887 he had proposed to Secretary Baird that a zoological park be established in Washington under the Smithsonian's direction. Baird died before anything could be done; but in October 1887, with the consent of the new Secretary, Samuel P. Langley, a new Division of Living Animals was created in the U. S. National Museum and Hornaday was made its curator. In 1888 Hornaday had, at Secretary Langley's direction, undertaken a survey of land along Rock Creek in northwest Washington lying between the White House and Georgetown to determine its suitability as a zoo site.

The National Zoological Park was established by an Act of Congress in March 1889. The Secretary of the Smithsonian, the Secretary of the Interior, and the President of the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia, were constituted as Commissioners of a National Zoological Park in order to purchase land for a zoo in the District of Columbia, "...for the advancement of science and the instruction and recreation of the people." The commissioners ultimately acquired one hundred and sixty-four acres at this site, some by condemnation, most by purchase. In April 1890 Congress passed another act, placing the National Zoological Park under the direction of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Half its operating funds were to come from the federal government, half from the District of Columbia. The Board was authorized to expend funds, transfer and exchange specimens, accept gifts, and to generally oversee Zoo operations.

Secretary Langley wanted the best professional advice in planning the layout and design of the Park, and Frederick Law Olmsted, the noted landscape architect, was consulted about all aspects of the Park's layout and design, including pathways, animal enclosures, public access, and the like. Copies of Olmsted's drawings and sketches are at the National Zoological Park today. In practice, however, much of Olmsted's advice was ignored, either because the Park lacked funds to follow his plans or because Secretary Langley often chose to follow his own counsel.

Hornaday became the first Superintendent of the Park but soon resigned because of differences of opinion with Secretary Langley over the scope of the superintendent's authority to control Park operations. In 1890 Frank Baker, Assistant Superintendent of the Light House Service, was appointed Acting Manager in place of Hornaday. From 1893 to until his retirement in 1916 Baker served as superintendent. These early years were full of difficulties. While the Rock Creek site had much natural charm, it was necessary to balance the demands for building construction, park layout and roads, and acquisition of animals--all on an extremely tight budget. Still, as the more mundane affairs of the Park moved slowly forward, there were important "firsts" as well. In 1891 Dunk and Gold Dust, the Park's first elephants, arrived. They were great favorites at the Park, notwithstanding their reputations as troublemakers in the circus which sold them to their new owner. That same year came French, the first lion, then only a cub, who was sold to the Park after he began to alarm the neighbors of his owner in Alderson, West Virginia. During its early years the Park was also the site of Secretary Langley's efforts to study and film the flight of birds, work he undertook as part of his effort to produce a manned flying machine.

On Baker's retirement in 1916, Ned Hollister, an assistant curator of mammals in the U. S. National Museum, was appointed to succeed him. Hollister served until his death in 1924. During his tenure the Park continued to receive very modest appropriations. On that account, it was not possible to purchase much zoo stock; but gifts were numerous. In 1922, they ranged from an opossum given by President Harding to the 15 mammals, 50 birds, and 17 reptiles collected by William M. Mann while on expedition with the Mulford Biological Exploration of the Amazon Basin. Housing for the animals remained inadequate, and many old structures had to remain in use. In 1924 the Park did manage to construct its first restaurant for the use of visitors, who numbered more than 2.4 million people in that year. Superintendent Hollister died in 1924 and was succeeded by Alexander Wetmore, who served only five months before leaving to become Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

In 1925, Dr. William M. Mann became Superintendent (Director after 1926) of the National Zoological Park, a job he was to hold until his retirement in 1956. He hoped to build a zoo which housed a first-class collection in a first-class environment. As in the past, there was little money for purchase of animals, so he continued to rely on gifts. Mann was a good publicist, and he enlisted the sympathies of Walter P. Chrysler. On March 20, 1926, the Smithsonian-Chrysler Expedition set out, arriving at Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika, on May 5 of that year. The expedition was a splendid success and returned with 158 mammals, 584 birds, 56 snakes, 12 lizards, 393 tortoises, and 1 frog. Many specimens, like the giraffe, were quite new to the Park. The male and female impala obtained were the only ones in any zoo in the world at that time.

On his return, Mann finally succeeded in obtaining an appropriation for a new bird house to replace the one erected 37 years before. A reptile house followed in 1929. In 1935 some of the Zoo's remaining need for new buildings was finally met. The Public Works Administration, a New Deal relief program, allocated $680,000 for the construction of a Small Mammal and Great Ape House, a Pachyderm House, an addition to the Bird House, and several operations buildings. One of the New Deal's programs for the relief of artists, the Treasury Department's Section of Painting and Sculpture, furnished artists to decorate areas of the Zoo. In fact, the Park employed more artists than any other local institution.

In 1937 the Park was once more the beneficiary of a collecting expedition, the National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Institution Expedition to the Dutch East Indies. Mann brought back with him 74 crates of mammals, 112 crates of birds, and 30 crates of reptiles. In 1940 Harvey Firestone, Jr., offered to finance a collecting expedition to Liberia. Again, the expedition supplied the Park with many specimens, including a female pygmy hippopotamus, Matilda, as companion for the lonely Billy, already at the Park.

When World War II began, the Zoo could not escape its effects. In fact, in 1942 for fear that poisonous snakes might be released from their cages if the Reptile House were struck by an air raid, all the Park's collection of cobras and other venomous snakes was traded to other locations less likely to undergo air attacks. Subsequently, the Park spent some time making repairs and resuming normal activities. In 1956 Dr. Mann retired and was succeeded by acting Director Theodore H. Reed, who was made Director in 1958. In 1958 the Friends of the National Zoo, a group dedicated to supporting the National Zoo and maintaining its reputation as one of the world's great zoos, was organized. In 1960 the Park's budget exceeded a million dollars for the first time. For many years the formula which charged half the Park's expenses to the budget of the District of Columbia had caused a great deal of difficulty. Local residents felt they were being taxed to pay for an institution national in character. Park officials argued that they needed more money than the existing formula could provide. Finally, in 1961, a compromise was reached. All costs for construction and repair of the Park would be carried in the appropriation for the Smithsonian Institution. The District of Columbia would contribute only to the Park's operating costs. As if to give the new arrangement a good send-off, in 1962 Congress appropriated four million dollars for the Park, more than half of it earmarked for a perimeter road around the Zoo and a tunnel to carry automobile traffic through the Zoo. In this way, it was at last possible to close the Park proper to through traffic and to devote the Park reservation solely to strengthening and improving the National Zoological Park's programs.
Chronology:
October 1887 -- Department of Living Animals created under the direction of the United States National Museum

1888 -- William T. Hornaday, curator of the Department of Living Animals, directed by Secretary Samuel P. Langley to draw up a preliminary plan for the Zoo

March 1889 -- Congress authorized the formation of a National Zoological Park Commission to select and purchase land for a zoological park

April 1890 -- Congress placed the National Zoological Park (NZP) under the Smithsonian Institution's Board of Regents

May 1890 -- Frederick Law Olmsted invited by Langley to consult on the layout of the Zoo

May 10, 1890 -- Hornaday appointed superintendent of the Zoo

June 1, 1890 -- Frank Baker appointed temporary acting manager of the NZP

June 9, 1890 -- Hornaday resigned

-- 1891 Buffalo and elk barn built

January 29, 1891 -- William H. Blackburne appointed first head keeper

April 30, 1891 -- First animals, two male Indian elephants, Dunk and Gold Dust, brought to Zoo grounds

June 27, 1891 -- First group of animals moved from Mall to NZP

1892 -- Authorization to purchase and transport animals revoked for six years

1892 -- First permanent building completed. Called the main animal house, it was later renamed the Lion House.

1893 -- Baker appointed superintendent

1894 -- First beaver arrived from Yellowstone National Park. They inhabited "Missouri Valley," later called "Beaver Valley."

1898 -- Antelope House built

1898 -- NZP given authorization by Congress to purchase animals

1899 -- Illustrated circular on animals desired by NZP distributed to United States officers stationed overseas

1900 -- As a result of the circular, animals were received from Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Panama, and the Philippine Islands

1900 -- New iron bridge constructed across the creek at Harvard Street (then called Quarry Road)

1901 -- Twenty-inch sundial purchased in London and installed on lawn near the Animal House

1902 -- A flying cage was completed

November 1902 -- Two fifty-foot towers erected in order to provide platforms for photographers to take pictures of flying vultures. Work was in conjunction with Langley's research on flight.

1903 -- New Elephant House completed

1903 -- NZP received its first Kodiak bear

November 24, 1904 -- President Theodore Roosevelt gives the Zoo an ostrich, the gift of King Menelik of Abyssinia

1908 -- Last of the bear cages were completed

1909 -- Theodore Roosevelt in British East Africa on a Smithsonian collecting expedition. Friend William Northrup Macmillan offered NZP his animal collection if transported by a Zoo official. Assistant superintendent A. B. Baker transferred the animals to the Park.

1913 -- Cook House used for food storage and preparation was built

1916 -- Estimated attendance reached over one and one-half million visitors

November 1, 1916 -- Baker retired. Ned Hollister appointed superintendent.

August 13, 1917 -- Zoo purchased first motor truck

October 1, 1920 -- Visitor attendance reached two million

1921 -- Two giant tortoises received from Albemarle and Indefatigable Islands

May 24, 1922 -- African Cape big-eared fox transported to the Zoo. First of its species to be exhibited alive in America.

November 3, 1924 -- Ned Hollister died. Alexander Wetmore appointed interim superintendent.

May 13, 1925 -- William M. Mann appointed superintendent

May-October 1926 -- Smithsonian-Chrysler Fund Expedition to Tanganyika (now Tanzania). 1,203 animals transferred to the Zoo.

1928 -- First breeding of an American white pelican on record

June 1928 -- New Bird House opened

February 27, 1931 -- Reptile House opened. Voted by the American Institute of Architects as the outstanding brick building in the east.

October 7, 1932 -- Eagle Cage completed

November 23, 1933 -- The only maned wolf from South America to be exhibited in a zoo was received by the NZP

June 21, 1934 -- Zoo received its first Komodo dragon

January 16, 1935 -- NZP received a $680,000 Public Works Administration appropriation. Funds would provide for the construction of a Small Mammal and Great Ape House, Elephant House, addition to the Bird House, two shops, and a central heating plant.

January 12, 1937 -- Lucile and William Mann depart on the National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Institution Expedition to the East Indies

September 27, 1938 -- 879 specimens from the East Indies Expedition are received at the Zoo

April 6, 1939 -- Lucile and William Mann leave for a collecting trip in Argentina

June 27, 1939 -- 316 specimens are received at the Zoo from the trip to Argentina

November 11, 1939 -- Zoo keeper Malcolm Davis sailed with Admiral Richard E. Byrd to establish bases during the Antarctica Expedition.

February 17, 1940 -- Lucile and William Mann leave on the Smithsonian Institution-Firestone Expedition to Liberia

March 5, 1940 -- Zoo received first emperor penguin collected by Davis while on Antarctica expedition

August 6, 1940 -- Zoo received 195 specimens collected in Liberia

December 31, 1943 -- Blackburne retired from Zoo at 87, after fifty-two years of service

June 29, 1950 -- Smokey Bear, a four-month old cub, arrived at the Zoo

November 5, 1953 -- Two Philippine macaques, Pat and Mike, launched by an Aerobee rocket to an altitude of 200,000 feet, were transferred to the Zoo by the United States Air Force

July 15, 1955 -- Theodore H. Reed became the Zoo's first full-time veterinarian

October 31, 1956 -- Mann retired. Theodore H. Reed appointed acting director.

1957 -- The Zoo was the first to use the Cap-Chur gun for the immobilization and/or treatment of animals

March/April 1957 -- United States Signal Corps transferred two hero pigeons to NZP. Anzio Boy and Global Girl completed sixty-one missions between them.

March 12, 1958 -- Reed appointed director of the Zoo

April 10, 1958 -- Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ) organized

April 16, 1958 -- Female banded linsang received as a gift from a staff officer stationed in Kuala Lampur, Malaya. The species had never been exhibited at the Zoo, and was the only one in captivity.

May 16, 1958 -- Julie Ann Vogt, two-and-a-half years old, was killed by one of the Zoo's lions

May 18, 1958 -- First birth of a female snow leopard in the Western Hemisphere

September 1958 -- First wisent born in this country

July 1, 1960 -- Davis retired after spending thirty-three years at the Zoo

December 5, 1960 -- Female white tiger, Mohini, received as a gift from the chairman of the board of Metropolitan Broadcasting Corporation

December 16, 1960 -- A master plan for the development of the Zoo was presented to the Smithsonian by the president of FONZ

September 9, 1961 -- A male gorilla, Tomoka, was born, the second born in captivity in the world

1962 -- An appropriation of 1.3 million dollars was approved by the Senate Appropriations Committee as an initial investment on a ten-year capital improvement program

April 17, 1962 -- The Zoo hired its first zoologist

April 5, 1963 -- Ham, the chimponaut, was formally transferred to the Zoo by the United States Air Force. On January 31, 1961, Ham handled the controls on a Redstone rocket. Traveling up to a speed of 5,887 miles per hour, Ham was on-board the rocket for a 16.5 minute flight. Three months later, Commander Alan B. Shepard operated Mercury 3, the United States' first manned space mission.

1964 -- Several construction projects, including reconstruction of the Bird House, a new Great Flight Cage, parking lots and roads were going on at the same time

January 6, 1964 -- Mohini gave birth to three cubs, one of which was white

September 1, 1965 -- Zoo hired first resident scientist to supervise the Scientific Research Department
Topic:
Zoos  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Zoo exhibits  Search this
Zoo directors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Black-and-white photographs
Serials (publications)
Drawings
Clippings
Books
Manuscripts
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Pamphlets
Diaries
Plates (illustrations)
Letterpress copybooks
Picture postcards
Architectural drawings
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 74, National Zoological Park, Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 74
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0074

Figure (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Witoto  Search this
Expedition:
Wenner-Gren Scientific Expedition to Hispanic America (1940-1941) (Wenner-Gren Peru Expedition)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Paul Fejos (Pál Fejös), Non-Indian, 1897-1963  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
Axel Wenner-Gren, Non-Indian, 1881-1961  Search this
Donor:
Viking Fund, Incorporated (The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.), 1941-  Search this
Object Name:
Figure (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood, human hair, paint
Techniques:
Carved, painted
Dimensions:
74 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Native Term:
hánnáre
Place:
Río Amazonas (Amazon River) area near frontiers of Peru, Colombia, and Brazil; Río Ampiyacu; Maynas Province; Loreto Region; Peru
Catalog Number:
20/4781
Barcode:
204781.000
See related items:
Witoto
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_218718

Figure (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Witoto  Search this
Expedition:
Wenner-Gren Scientific Expedition to Hispanic America (1940-1941) (Wenner-Gren Peru Expedition)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Paul Fejos (Pál Fejös), Non-Indian, 1897-1963  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
Axel Wenner-Gren, Non-Indian, 1881-1961  Search this
Donor:
Viking Fund, Incorporated (The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.), 1941-  Search this
Object Name:
Figure (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Balsa wood, human hair, paint, chalk
Techniques:
Carved, painted
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Native Term:
hánnáre
Place:
Río Amazonas (Amazon River) area near frontiers of Peru, Colombia, and Brazil; Río Ampiyacu; Maynas Province; Loreto Region; Peru
Catalog Number:
20/4783
Barcode:
204783.000
See related items:
Witoto
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_218720

Shaman's mask (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Witoto  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Yaviri, Witoto  Search this
Expedition:
Wenner-Gren Scientific Expedition to Hispanic America (1940-1941) (Wenner-Gren Peru Expedition)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Paul Fejos (Pál Fejös), Non-Indian, 1897-1963  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
Axel Wenner-Gren, Non-Indian, 1881-1961  Search this
Donor:
Viking Fund, Incorporated (The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.), 1941-  Search this
Object Name:
Shaman's mask (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Bark cloth, fruit rind/peel, asphaltum/bitumen, paint, mirror
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Shamanic objects
Native Term:
higa
Place:
Río Amazonas (Amazon River) area near frontiers of Peru, Colombia, and Brazil; Río Ampiyacu; Maynas Province; Loreto Region; Peru
Catalog Number:
20/4817
Barcode:
204817.000
See related items:
Witoto
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Shamanic objects
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_218755

Shaman's apron (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Witoto  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Yaviri, Witoto  Search this
Expedition:
Wenner-Gren Scientific Expedition to Hispanic America (1940-1941) (Wenner-Gren Peru Expedition)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Paul Fejos (Pál Fejös), Non-Indian, 1897-1963  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
Axel Wenner-Gren, Non-Indian, 1881-1961  Search this
Donor:
Viking Fund, Incorporated (The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.), 1941-  Search this
Object Name:
Shaman's apron (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Leaf/leaves
Techniques:
Wrapped, fringed
Dimensions:
77 x 48 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Shamanic objects
Native Term:
högafe
Place:
Río Amazonas (Amazon River) area near frontiers of Peru, Colombia, and Brazil; Río Ampiyacu; Maynas Province; Loreto Region; Peru
Catalog Number:
20/4799
Barcode:
204799.000
See related items:
Witoto
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Shamanic objects
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_218736

Figure (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Witoto  Search this
Expedition:
Wenner-Gren Scientific Expedition to Hispanic America (1940-1941) (Wenner-Gren Peru Expedition)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Paul Fejos (Pál Fejös), Non-Indian, 1897-1963  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
Axel Wenner-Gren, Non-Indian, 1881-1961  Search this
Donor:
Viking Fund, Incorporated (The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.), 1941-  Search this
Object Name:
Figure (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Balsa wood, paint, chalk, beetle wings
Techniques:
Carved, painted
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Native Term:
hánnáre
Place:
Río Amazonas (Amazon River) area near frontiers of Peru, Colombia, and Brazil; Río Ampiyacu; Maynas Province; Loreto Region; Peru
Catalog Number:
20/4786
Barcode:
204786.000
See related items:
Witoto
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_218723
Online Media:

Medicine bundle (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Kareneri  Search this
Expedition:
Wenner-Gren Scientific Expedition to Hispanic America (1940-1941) (Wenner-Gren Peru Expedition)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Paul Fejos (Pál Fejös), Non-Indian, 1897-1963  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
Axel Wenner-Gren, Non-Indian, 1881-1961  Search this
Donor:
Viking Fund, Incorporated (The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.), 1941-  Search this
Object Name:
Medicine bundle (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Bark cloth, tree pitch/gum, leaf/leaves, pigment/pigments
Techniques:
Wrapped
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Place:
Upper Río Colorado; Manú Province; Madre de Dios Region; Peru
Catalog Number:
20/5135
Barcode:
205135.000
See related items:
Kareneri
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_219092

Shaman's wig (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Witoto  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Yaviri, Witoto  Search this
Expedition:
Wenner-Gren Scientific Expedition to Hispanic America (1940-1941) (Wenner-Gren Peru Expedition)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Paul Fejos (Pál Fejös), Non-Indian, 1897-1963  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
Axel Wenner-Gren, Non-Indian, 1881-1961  Search this
Donor:
Viking Fund, Incorporated (The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.), 1941-  Search this
Object Name:
Shaman's wig (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Monkey skin/fur, cordage
Techniques:
Tied
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Shamanic objects
Place:
Río Amazonas (Amazon River) area near frontiers of Peru, Colombia, and Brazil; Río Ampiyacu; Maynas Province; Loreto Region; Peru
Catalog Number:
20/4842
Barcode:
204842.000
See related items:
Witoto
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Shamanic objects
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_218780

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