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Race to the Stratosphere Photograph Collection

Topic:
Race to the Stratosphere: Manned Scientific Ballooning in America
Creator:
DeVorkin, David H., 1944-  Search this
Names:
DeVorkin, David H., 1944-  Search this
Extent:
1.35 Cubic feet (3 legal document boxes)
1.26 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1930s-1960s
Summary:
This collection consists of the photographs used in Race to the Stratosphere: Manned Scientific Ballooning in America and collected by David DeVorkin for research. It also includes a few engineering drawings of balloon gondolas.
Scope and Contents:
David DeVorkin, a Space History Curator at the National Air and Space Museum, completed Race to the Stratosphere: Manned Scientific Ballooning in America in 1989. The book traces the history of manned scientific ballooning from the 1930's to the 1960's, beginning with the flights of Auguste Piccard, and proceeding through the manned flights by the Army Air Corps, up to the Apollo Space Missions.

This collection consists of the photographs used in the book and collected by David DeVorkin for research. The collection is organized by chapter. There are also a few engineering drawings of the gondola of balloons.

There are three series in this collection. Series 1 consists of the photographs actually used in the book, arranged by chapter. Series 2 consists of photographs collected for research by David DeVorkin, but not used in the book. They are arranged by chapter. Series 3 consists of two subseries: Miscellaneous and Duplicate Photographs, and Science Service Photographs.

There is one appendix to this collection. It is a list of all the Smithsonian Institution negative numbers from all the images that David DeVorkin used that came from the National Air and Space Museum's collections.
Arrangement:
There are three series in this collection. Series 1 consists of the photographs actually used in the book; it is arranged by chapter. Series 2 consists of photographs collected for research by David DeVorkin, but not used in the book; it is arranged by chapter. Series 3 consists of two subseries: Miscellaneous and Duplicate Photographs and Science Service Photographs.

There is one appendix to this collection. It is a list of all Smithsonian Institution negative numbers from all images that David DeVorkin used that came from the National Air and Space Museum's collections.
Biographical/Historical note:
David DeVorkin, a curator of Space History at the National Air and Space Museum, completed Race to the Stratosphere: Manned Scientific Ballooning in America in 1989. The book traces the history of manned scientific ballooning, beginning with the flights of Auguste Piccard, and proceeding through the manned flights by the Army Air Corps, up to the Apollo Space Missions.
Provenance:
David DeVorkin, Transfer, 1997
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airships  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Citation:
Race to the Stratosphere Photograph Collection, Acc. 1997-0034, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1997.0034
See more items in:
Race to the Stratosphere Photograph Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1997-0034
Online Media:

George V. Barton Reminiscences

Creator::
Barton, George V.  Search this
Extent:
18 audiotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Las Cruces (N.M.)
Olifantsfontein (South Africa)
San Fernando (Spain)
Villa Dolores (Córdoba, Argentina)
Naini Tal (India)
Date:
1982-1983
Descriptive Entry:
The Olga Zatorsky Hirshhorn Interviews were conducted during nine sessions between 1986 and 1998. Judith Zilzcer of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden and Pamela M. Henson of the Smithsonian Institution Archives conducted the first eight interviews between 1986 and 1988. An additional interview was conducted by Sidney S. Lawrence, III, Head of Public Affairs, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden and Judith K. Zilczer, Curator, Hirshhorn Museum in 1998. The interviews consist of approximately 13.5 hours of audiotape recordings, 474 pages of transcript, and occupy 1.00 cubic feet of shelf space.

These interviews of Olga Hirshhorn by Judith K. Zilczer, Curator, Hirshhorn Museum, and Pamela M. Henson, Smithsonian Institution Archives, discuss her youth; education; child-rearing years; careers in day care and business services; marriage to Joseph H. Hirshhorn; their travels; art collecting; meetings with S. Dillon Ripley; and the decision to donate the collection to the Smithsonian. Included are reminiscences of such art figures as Willem de Kooning, Henry Moore, Pablo Picasso, and Man Ray. The interview of Hirshhorn by Sidney S. Lawrence, III, Judith K. Zilczer, and Meghan Tierney, Intern, discusses a photograph collection of portraits collected by Olga Hishhorn and includes reminiscences of artists and other important figures in the art world. Appended to the interviews is Hirshhorn's 1986 lecture entitled, "My Life with Joe." Box 1 contains transcripts of the interviews and cassette copies of the original recordings, which are in security storage.
Topic:
Astrophysics  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Sputnik satellites  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Observatories  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9556, George V. Barton Reminiscences
Identifier:
Record Unit 9556
See more items in:
George V. Barton Reminiscences
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9566

The History of the Cell Sorter Videohistory Collection

Extent:
7 videotapes (Reference copies). 12 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1991
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), documented the history, development, commercialization and applications of fluorescence activated cell sorting instrumentation. Sessions were recorded January 30, 1991 at San Jose, California; February 1, 1991 at Palo Alto, California; April 19, 1991 at Washington, D.C.; and June 28, 1991 at Providence, Rhode Island.

Several participants were also interviewed on audiotape. They include Bach, Christiaanse, Fulwyler, Leonard Herzenberg, Leonore Herzenberg, Kudravcev, Mhatre, Recktenwald, Rotman, Shoor, and Van Dilla. The audiotapes and transcripts complement the videotape sessions and are available through the Division of Medical Sciences, National Museum of American History. Inventing the Cell Sorter, an edited program on the history of the machine, accompanies the collection as supplemental material. This tape, Inventing the Cell Sorter, may not be copied without the permission of Ramunas Kondratas.

This collection consists of four interview sessions, totalling approximately 10:20 hours of recordings and 203 pages of transcript.

Audiotapes: Several participants were also interviewed on audiotape. The audiotapes and transcripts complement the videotape session, and are available through the Division of Medical Sciences, National Museum of American History.
Historical Note:
The cell sorter, an instrument with sophisticated optics, lasers and electronic processors, automated the task of identifying and quantitatively analyzing individual cells, and of separating and rapidly sorting closely related cell populations. By measuring the physical and chemical properties of cells, such as fluorescence, then by physically separating cells while still alive, the cell sorter became an important tool for biomedical research and clinical medicine.

The first prototype sorter was built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1965 by physicist Mack J. Fulwyler by joining a Coulter volume sensor with the newly-invented ink jet printer. The first biologist who clearly saw uses for the Los Alamos instrument, especially for the study of immunological properties of cells, was Leonard Herzenberg of Stanford University. With Fulwyler's plans, Herzenberg obtained the cooperation of engineers in the Genetics Department's Instrumentation Research Laboratory at Stanford to build an instrument to sort live cells using fluorescence. Two successful prototypes were built -- a 1969 instrument that employed a mercury arc lamp as light source and a 1972 version which used an argon ion laser to detect cells tagged with fluorescent markers. Funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) allowed Herzenberg and the Stanford engineers to interest the medical products company Becton Dickinson (BD) to convert their prototypes into the first commercial instruments, the FACS (Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter) in 1975.

Interviewees included scientists, engineers, managers, and physicians from Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS), Stanford University, Brown University, and LANL. Bruce Allen Bach received his B.S. in biology and his M.A. in molecular biology from Stanford University in 1973 and 1974, respectively. He was awarded his Ph.D. in immunology from Harvard Medical School in 1979 and a M.D. from the Washington University School of Medicine in 1981. After completing his residency at the University of California Affiliated Hospitals, Bach accepted the position of Associate Scientific Member of the Howard Hughes Medical Research Institute in 1984. From 1985 to 1987 he served as a physician at two San Francisco area hospitals. In 1989, he was appointed Corporate Medical Director of BDIS, and held that position concurrently with his 1991 appointment as director of BD's worldwide clinical trials group.

Mack Jett Fulwyler received his B.S. in physics from Idaho State College in 1961 and his Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of Colorado in 1969. From 1961 to 1967, Fulwyler worked at LANL where he developed particle separators and sorters. In 1971, he accepted the position of President of Particle Technology, Inc. In 1977, after completing a two year fellowship at the Max Planck Institute in Germany, Fulwyler returned to the U.S. to serve as Technical Director for BD FACS System Division. He retired from that position in 1982 and accepted a professorship at the University of California, San Francisco. Since 1990, Fulwyler served as Director of Technical Development for the Trancel Corporation.

After receiving his B.A. in biology and chemistry from Brooklyn College in 1952 and his Ph.D. in biochemistry and immunology from the California Institute of Technology in 1955, Leonard A. Herzenberg accepted a postdoctoral fellowship from the American Cancer Society to conduct research at the Pasteur Institute in France. Herzenberg returned to the U.S. in 1957 to serve as an officer for the Public Health Service at the National Institutes of Health. In 1959, he accepted the position of Assistant Professor in the Department of Genetics at Stanford University and was eventually appointed Professor of Genetics.

Leonore A. Herzenberg attended classes at Pomona College and the California Institute of Technology during the mid-1950s. In 1981, she was awarded the degree of Docteur des Sciences Naturelles from the Sorbonne University in Paris. During the 1950s, she served as a research assistant at the California Institute of Technology, the Pasteur Institute, and the National Institutes of Health. In 1959, she accepted the position of Research Assistant in the Department of Genetics and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Stanford University. Subsequently, she was appointed Senior Research Assistant in those departments in 1963 and Research Associate in 1967. From 1973 to 1989, she worked as a Research Associate and Senior Research Associate solely in the Department of Genetics. In 1989, she was appointed professor in the Genetics Department.

Mark A. Krasnow received his B.S. in biology and chemistry from the University of Illinois in 1978. He was awarded his Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1983, and his M.D. in 1985, from the University of Chicago. In 1988, he was appointed Assistant Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the Stanford University School of Medicine. His research interests include the biochemical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and cell to cell interactions in the development of Drosophila.

Nagesh S. Mhatre, president of BDIS, was awarded a B.S. from Bombay University, an M.S. from Oregon State University, and a Ph.D. in biochemistry-microbiology from Rutgers University. Before being appointed president in 1983, Mhatre held a variety of positions with Becton Dickinson & Company. Previously, he was with Miles Laboratory for seventeen years.

After receiving his B.S. in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1986, Monty Montano conducted research at the University of California, San Francisco on the use of recombinant DNA applied to clinical genetics. Montano began a doctoral program in genetics at Stanford University in 1988.

Wayne A. Moore received his B.S. in mathematics and science from Stanford University in 1976. From 1972, he worked as a lab assistant and programmer at the Stanford Department of Genetics and was later appointed Senior Scientific Programmer of that department.

From 1970 to 1974, Thomas Nozaki, Jr., served as an electronics engineer at the Stanford Computation Center. After receiving his B.S. in electrical engineering from California State University in 1974, Nozaki joined the Stanford Department of Genetics as a research and development electronics engineer.

Richard E. Owen, Director of Instrument Operations for BDIS, joined the company in 1988 as Manufacturing Engineering Manager. Prior to joining BDIS, he was Director of Thorn EMI Datatech Ltd. in England. He holds a Higher National Certificate in Applied Physics from Southeast London Technical College, a B.A. in Management from St. Marys College in Moraga, California, and is a graduate of the Institute of Electronic and Radio Engineers.

David R. Parks received his B.S. from Grinnell College in 1967, and his Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University in 1973. From 1973 to 1974 he worked as a Field Assistant and Project Manager in environmental studies at the Missouri Botanical Garden. In 1975, he returned to Stanford University as a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Genetics. In 1981, he accepted the position of Research Associate in that department and held that position concurrently with his appointment as director of the Shared Cell Sorter Facility in 1983.

In 1981 Diether J. Recktenwald joined BDIS as a Senior Research Scientist; he was appointed research group leader and later associate scientific director. Prior to BDIS, he was a visiting scientist at Stanford University and a senior research associate at the Max Planck Institute. He received a Ph.D. in biochemistry and biophysics from Ruhruniversitat Bochum in Germany, and an M.S. and B.S. from Universitat des Saarlandes Saarbrucken, also in Germany.

Marcos Boris Rotman received his M.S. in chemical engineering from the University F. Santa Maria in Chile in 1948, and his Ph.D. in microbiology, organic chemistry, and biochemistry from the University of Illinois in 1952. After completing his degree, he served a year as a research associate at the University of Illinois, and then moved to the University of Wisconsin to work in the laboratory of Joshua Lederberg from 1953 to 1956. In 1959, Rotman became Assistant Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the Albany Medical School, and in 1961 moved to the Department of Genetics at Stanford as a Research Associate. From 1961 to 1966, he served as head of the biochemistry section of the Syntex Institute for Molecular Biology, located at Stanford. In 1966, Rotman left Stanford to become professor of Medical Science at Brown University. In 1990, he was awarded the title of Professor Emeritus.

Bernie Shoor completed his B.A. in physics from New York University in 1946. After receiving his degree, he worked for the Army Signal Corps and subsequently the Sperry Gyroscope Company. In 1966, Shoor began working for Endevco Corporation, a small scientific instrument company which was eventually bought by BD. In 1970, Shoor became manager of BD's Mountain View, California, laboratory. In 1977, he accepted the position of Corporate Vice-President of Research and Design at BD's headquarters in New Jersey. In 1981, he returned to California to establish the BD Monoclonal Center. Shoor retired from BD in 1984 but has continued to serve as a consultant for the company.

After receiving his B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1965, and his M.S. in theoretical and applied mechanics in 1967 from Cornell University, Richard T. Stovel worked as a Research Engineer at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company analyzing the structural dynamics of missile systems. In 1972, he joined the Stanford University Department of Genetics as a Physical Science and Engineering Technician working on the operation and development of the prototype cell sorting machine. In 1976, he was appointed Research and Development Engineer of the Genetics Department where he continued his research in fluid jet behavior.

Richard G. Sweet received his B.S. in electrical engineering in 1947. From 1947 to 1951, he worked as a design engineer on telephone systems at the Southern California Edison Company. In 1951, he accepted the position of Senior Design Engineer at Gilfillan Bros. Inc., developing electronics equipment for radar systems. Sweet joined Stanford University Electronics Labs in 1956 as a research associate where he developed, most notably, high speed ink jet recording systems. After a decade at Stanford, Sweet accepted the position of Senior Engineer at Varian Associates in 1966 and worked on developing instrumentation for classifying and sorting small particles. In 1971, he travelled as a visiting scientist to the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center to conduct research on non-impact printing systems. Since 1986, Sweet has served as a consultant to both the Herzenberg Laboratory and to BDIS.

After receiving his B.S. from City College of New York in 1939 and his Ph.D. in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951, Marvin A. Van Dilla worked in the radiobiology laboratory at the University of Utah. In 1957, he joined the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory as the biophysics group leader. Van Dilla left Los Alamos in 1972 to become the cytophysics Section Leader of the Biomedical Sciences Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. In 1983, he was appointed Leader of the Gene Library Project at Livermore.

Nicholas Veizades was awarded his B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1958, and his M.S. in engineering sciences from Stanford University in 1961. He joined the Stanford Department of Genetics in 1962 and worked in the Instrumentation Research Laboratory on biomedical instrumentation.
Rights:
Restricted. "Inventing the Cell Sorter" film cannot be reproduced. Contact SIHistory@si.edu for more details.
Topic:
Fluorescence activated cell sorter  Search this
AIDS (Disease)  Search this
Biology  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Bioengineering  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
Separation (Technology)  Search this
Flow cytometry  Search this
Cell separation  Search this
Cytometry  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9554, The History of the Cell Sorter Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9554
See more items in:
The History of the Cell Sorter Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9554

Exhibition Records

Creator::
National Museum of American History. Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
2.03 cu. ft. (2 record storage boxes) (1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Brochures
Digital versatile discs
Electronic records
Floor plans
Drawings
Ephemera
Color photographs
Color negatives
Date:
1960, 1981, 1998-2012
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of records that document planning, development and production activities for the exhibitions "On Time" and "Robots on the Road: Stanley," as well as the Halls of Timekeeping and Light Machinery at the National Museum of American History, and when the museum was known as the Museum of History and Technology. Earlier records date back to when the Division of Work and Industry was known as the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, the Division of Mechanisms, and the Division of the History of Technology. Staff represented in these records include curators Edwin A. Battison and Carlene E. Stephens. The exhibition "On Time" examined the ways Americans measured, used, and thought of time over the last 300 years, beginning with biological rhythms and environmental clues to our current reliance on clocks and watches. "Robots on the Road: Stanley," which was added to the exhibition "Science in American Life" in 2008, featured a robot car named "Stanley" that offered a glimpse into the future of smart cars.

Materials include correspondence; agreements; budget summaries; scripts; floor plans and drawings; visitor comments; a press kit; brochures; object lists; photographs; and ephemera. Some materials are in electronic format.
Oversize:
This collection contains oversize material.
Rights:
Restricted for 15 years. until Jan-01-2028; Transferring office; 2/1/2011 memorandum, Johnstone to Jones; Contact reference staff for details.
Topic:
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Clocks and watches  Search this
Autonomous vehicles  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Museum curators  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Brochures
Digital versatile discs
Electronic records
Floor plans
Drawings
Ephemera
Color photographs
Color negatives
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 18-140, National Museum of American History. Division of Work and Industry, Exhibition Records
Identifier:
Accession 18-140
See more items in:
Exhibition Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa18-140

History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews

Extent:
6 videotapes (reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Date:
1997
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera or digital recorder as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were videotape recorded in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the National Museum of American History, documented the history, development, commercialization and applications of diagnostic ultrasound. Session One was recorded between January 20 through January 24, 1997 at Acuson Corporation located at Mountain View, California. Interviewees included scientists, engineers, managers, and a patent attorney from Acuson. The session took place at several sites on the Acuson campus. Interviews focused on the history of the company, the development of ultrasound and transducer technologies, design and commercial development of the equipment, the manufacturing process, clinical applications, education of clinicians, and the patenting process.

Kondratas also interviewed several of the participants on audiotape. The tapes and transcripts complement the videotape sessions and are also available through the Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives.

This collection consists of one interview session, totaling approximately 12:00 hours of recording and 203 pages of transcript. There are three generations of tape for each session: originals, dubbing masters, and reference copies. In total, this collection is comprised of 24 original Betacam videotapes, 12 dubbing master U-matic videotapes, and 6 reference copy VHS videotapes. The collection has been remastered digitally, with 24 motion jpeg 2000 and 24 mpeg digital files for preservation, and 24 Windows Media Video and 24 Real Media Video digital files for reference.
Historical Note:
Medical diagnostic ultrasound systems use high-frequency sound waves to produce images of soft tissues and internal body organs. First introduced to the medical world in the 1950s, it is a widely used diagnostic imaging modality today. Ultrasound exams are non-invasive and generally considered safe at the power levels used for diagnostic exams. Ultrasound is used in obstetrical, abdominal, urological, vascular and cardiac applications.

Sonar - the technique of sending sound waves through water and observing the returning echoes to characterize submerged objects - inspired early ultrasound investigators to explore ways to apply the concept to medical diagnosis. Early on, ultrasound was used to detect gallstones, breast masses, and tumors. During the early 1970s, the technology advanced to gray scale ultrasound systems that produce static images of internal organs easily recognizable to physicians. Later in the 1970s, the development of real-time ultrasound imaging enabled physicians to see continuous live-action images of the area under investigation. The 1980s saw the introduction of spectral Doppler and later color Doppler which depicts blood flow in various colors to indicate speed of flow and direction.

In 1979, Samuel H. Maslak, Sc.D., began developing a new approach to medical ultrasound imaging. The scanners used in the existing ultrasound technology produced satisfactory diagnostic images from the returning echoes through sixty-four electrical channels, but the machines could not refine the images because computers for ultrasound imaging did not exist. Dr. Maslak's work in applying computer technology to ultrasound led to the founding, with Robert Younge and Amin Hanafy, of Acuson Corporation in 1982. Acuson introduced its first product in 1983, the Acuson 128 Computed Sonography System which applied computer technology to diagnostic ultrasound. The 128 channel software-controlled image formation process provided black-and-white and color ultrasound images with high resolution and clarity.

Acuson continued to develop ultrasound technology. The introduction of the Sequoia 512 system in 1996 provided clinicians with twice the amount of image information in half of the time. Acuson's development of a new way to form ultrasound images called Coherent Image Formation used both the phase and the amplitude information from ultrasound echoes to produce images. Conventional ultrasound systems produced images based only on the amplitude information. This discovery offered the user increased spatial and temporal image resolution.

Bradford C. Anker was educated at Purdue University receiving the B.S. degree in industrial engineering in 1968. Anker joined the Hewlett-Packard Automatic Measurement Systems Division in 1968. During his six years there, Anker progressed through the materials management function and was master scheduling manager when he left Hewlett-Packard to join Spectra-Physics, where he held several senior manufacturing and management positions during his ten years at the company. Anker was Vice President, manufacturing, for Margaux Controls before joining Acuson in 1983, as Vice President, manufacturing.

Corinne Augustine was educated at the University of Florida where she received the B.S.I.E. degree in 1980, and the M.B.A. degree in 1991 at Stanford University. Augustine joined Frito Lay Company in 1980 as the Industrial Engineering Department Manager. She then joined Intel Corporation in 1984 as the Industrial Engineering and Production Manager. From 1986 through 1989, Augustine was the New Products Project Manager at Sun Microsystems. In 1991, Augustine joined Acuson Corporation as a project manager and was promoted to Director of manufacturing in 1994.

Amin Hanafy, Sc.D., was educated at Alexandria University in Egypt where he received the bachelor's degree in electrical engineering in 1965. He attended the New Jersey Institute of Technology receiving the M.S. in electrical engineering in 1971 and the Sc.D. in acoustical optical imaging in 1977. His professional experience included four years with Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering, where he was an instructor in the electrical engineering department. He spent six years as a design engineer at L & R Manufacturing Company. He then joined Hewlett-Packard Company as Technical Director of transducer activity, from 1975 until 1981. Hanafy was one of the founders, with Robert Younge and Samuel Maslak, of Acuson Corporation in 1981. He was the transducer division director at Acuson until 1988, and continued his association as Principal Fellow.

Thomas Jedrzejewicz received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Northeastern University in 1958. After ten years as a field application engineer with Raytheon Company, Jedrzejewicz worked as product development specialist at Corning Glass Works and then as product manager at American Optical. From 1975 to 1978, he served as Marketing Manager for ultrasound for Picker Corporation. Then, following two years at SmithKline Instruments and one year at Technicare, Jedrzejewicz became Marketing Manager for ultrasound and nuclear medicine at Toshiba America Medical Systems. From 1983 to 1989, he performed various tasks for Acuson, including the commencement of Acuson's marketing and communications plans. He then worked as Director of ultrasound marketing for Toshiba America Medical Systems for two years before again joining Acuson as Director of technical programs in 1992.

Hugh G. Larsen received the B.S.E.E. degree from Brown University in 1965. He received the M.S.E.E. at the University of Cincinnati in 1971 and the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering at the University of Vermont in 1976. From 1976 to 1983, Larsen worked at Hewlett-Packard on their phased-array cardiac ultrasound system. In 1983, he joined Acuson working in a variety of technical and managerial roles to advance ultrasound technology. In 1991, he was promoted to Director of Imaging Technology on the Sequoia program and then served as Director of the Sequoia Engineering.

Samuel H. Maslak, Sc.D., was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), receiving the degree of Sc.D. in 1975 and the degrees of E.E., S.M. and S.B. in electrical engineering in 1971. Maslak's dissertation was on ultrasound design. His professional experience included four years with Hewlett-Packard Company, where he was a member of the technical staff and project manager at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. While at Hewlett-Packard, Maslak invented a unique scanner architecture which was subsequently patented and assigned to Hewlett-Packard. In 1979, Dr. Maslak began developing a new and proprietary approach to medical ultrasound imaging. This work led to the founding, with Robert Younge and Amin Hanafy, of Acuson Corporation in 1982. Maslak served as President and Chief Executive Officer from the inception of the company until June 1995, when he was elected to Chairman of the Board. Maslak retained his position as Chief Executive Officer.

After receiving her law degree from Ohio State University in 1982, Liza K. Toth first worked in the Chicago patent law firm of Hume Clement. She helped start the Intellectual Property group in the San Jose, California, law firm of Hopkins & Carley. After July 1994, Toth served as Acuson's Chief Patent Counsel responsible for the patent, trademark and copyright portfolio of the company.

J. Nelson Wright received the B.S. in 1976 and the M.S. in 1978 in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to joining Acuson, Wright was a member of the technical staff at the MIT Lincoln Lab from 1976 to 1981. Wright joined Acuson as Project Manager during the development of the Acuson 128 ultrasound system. Beginning in 1987, Wright initiated and subsequently contributed to and managed the development of Sequoia ultrasound technology.

Additional interviewees included David Burris and Marketing Communication Manager Jackie Ferreira. Also included are Gelston Howell, Manager of transducer development, Alan Kirby, 128 XP Production Manager, Jon Knight, Production Manager of Sequoia manufacture, Vaughan Marian, Mechanical Engineering Senior Fellow, Rick Sperry, Process Engineer, and Worth Walters, New Products Development Engineer.
Topic:
Medicine  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
History of science and technology  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Bioengineering  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
History of Medicine.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9593, History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9593
See more items in:
History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9593

James W. Queen & Company Collection

Creator:
Leeds and Northrup Company  Search this
Gray Instrument Company  Search this
Queen, James W., & Company  Search this
Queen Gray Company  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Books
Catalogs
Date:
1850-1952
Summary:
Collection documents James W. Queen & Company and its successors Leeds and Northrup Company, Queen-Gray Company, and Gray Instrument Company, manufacturers of instruments for laboratory and industrial use. The collection contains catalogs, circulars, photographs, and miscellaneous publications and documents.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains catalogs, circulars, blueprints, and photographs describing equipment and supplies offered for sale by James W. Queen & Company and its successors, including the Leeds and Northrop Company, the Queen Gray Company, and the Gray Instrument Company.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1, Catalogs and Circulars, 1896-1952

Series 2, Photographs, circa 1907

Series 3, Miscellaneous Materials, 1850-1951
Biographical / Historical:
James W. Queen & Company of Philadelphia manufactured scientific instruments for laboratory and industrial use. The company was founded in 1853 by James W. Queen (1811-1890), and J.G. Gray became the president in the 1890s. The company won several awards, including the Franklin Institute's John Scott Medal for the invention of the self-regulating aspect of their x-ray tubes. In 1912 James W. Queen & Company was reorganized into the Queen-Gray Company. After J.G. Gray's death in 1825, it became the Gray Instrument Company.

Sources

Charles E. Smart, The Makers Of Surveying Instruments In America Since 1700, (Troy, New York: Regal Art Press, 1962) (accessed 6 August 2010).

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History, "Queen," Physical Sciences Collection- Surveying and Geodesy(accessed 6 August 2010).
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

AC0215, Instrument Society of America Collection, 1911-1969
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Function:
Scientific instruments manufacturing
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Books
Catalogs
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Citation:
James W. Queen & Company Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0015
See more items in:
James W. Queen & Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0015
Online Media:

Silvio A. Bedini Papers

Creator::
Bedini, Silvio A.  Search this
Extent:
13 cu. ft. (13 record storage boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Clippings
Drawings
Black-and-white photographs
Color photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Color negatives
Date:
1952-1993
Descriptive Entry:
This accession primarily consists of Bedini's correspondence and memoranda with Smithsonian colleagues, scholars, professional organizations, publishers, and the general public documenting his research activities for special projects and publications including research into scientific instruments. Also included are Bedini's publications; book reviews; research notes; photographs of scientific instruments, individuals, and exhibitions; copies of primary and secondary sources; and biographical information.
Historical Note:
Silvio A Bedini (b. 1917), an historian and author, attended Columbia University, 1935-1942, and received an L.L.D. from the University of Bridgeport in 1970. In 1961, he began his career at the Smithsonian Institution as Curator in the Museum of History and Technology (MHT), Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. By 1965, Bedini became Assistant Director of MHT, and in 1972 was appointed Deputy Director of the National Museum of History and Technology. Following his tenure as Deputy Director, he served as Keeper of the Rare Books at the Dibner Library from 1978 until his retirement in 1987. Bedini is currently Historian Emeritus at the Smithsonian, a title he has held since retiring. During his long association with the Institution he has authored more than twenty books and countless articles, particularly on the history of science, and is a leading authority on the life of Thomas Jefferson.
Topic:
Science -- History  Search this
Research  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Clippings
Drawings
Black-and-white photographs
Color photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Color negatives
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 02-221, Silvio A. Bedini Papers
Identifier:
Accession 02-221
See more items in:
Silvio A. Bedini Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa02-221

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Instruments

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
4.56 Cubic feet (consisting of 10 boxes, 1 folder, 1 oversize folder, 1 map case folder.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Printed ephemera
Sales letters
Business cards
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Sales catalogs
Sales records
Manufacturers' catalogs
Publications
Receipts
Commercial catalogs
Surveying instruments
Trade cards
Catalogs
Manuals
Invoices
Business ephemera
Advertisements
Mail order catalogs
Advertising cards
Advertising
Advertising mail
Business records
Print advertising
Business letters
Correspondence
Letterheads
Periodicals
Advertising fliers
Catalogues
Printed material
Date:
circa 1800-1965
bulk 1830-1930
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Instruments forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The Instrument category covers devices and tools used in arts and sciences, including but not limited to architecture, biology, medicine, geography, physics, chemistry and related laboratory investigation, navigation, in industry with machinery, astronomy, and a variety of optics including reading glasses. An emphasis on engineering and survey work is evident in the volume of Drawing and Surveying catalogues present.

Materials include a small sampling of business records, particular invoices and receipts, with also some advertisement, correspondence, financials, import/export documents. The bulk of material is comprised of product catalogues, many with detailed descriptions, specifications, and illustrations, plus pricing information. A number of catalogues are in German. A small portion of the catalogues are not instruments per se, but are accompaniments used with instruments. For example, specimen slides for microscopes. A few company publications are present as well. Several guides on the use of or history of some apparatus are present, as are a few stand-alone illustrations, though most catalogues are heavily illustrated.

No extensive runs or complete records exist for any single company, brand, and no particular depth is present for any singular subtopic though some publications may provide general and historical overviews of a person, company, or facet of industry. Separate folders were used for a few companies which have a small bulk of material. Companies of note: Bausch & Lomb, Sperry Corporation and Wheelco Instrument Company.

With the industries and trades represented in this category, there is overlap with Hardware, Tools, and Mensuration.
Arrangement:
Instruments is arranged in two subseries. Researchers are advised to look both under the company name and under the category of catalogue of products it produces.

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Instruments is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Surgical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Surveying -- Instruments -- 1800-1810  Search this
Mail-order business -- Catalogs  Search this
Engineering instruments  Search this
Wild flowers -- Specimens  Search this
Magnetic instruments  Search this
Surveying -- Instruments -- 1870-1940  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Specimens -- list of  Search this
Mathematical instruments  Search this
Spectrum analysis -- Instruments  Search this
Retail trade  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Artists' materials  Search this
Microscopes  Search this
Scales (Weighing instruments)  Search this
advertising -- Specimens -- 1840-1950  Search this
Industrial productivity -- measurements  Search this
Drawing  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus -- 1880-1940  Search this
Laboratories  Search this
Optics  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus -- 1930-1970  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Zoological specimens -- Collection and preservation  Search this
Specimens -- catalog of  Search this
Measuring instruments industry  Search this
Measuring instruments  Search this
Plant specimens  Search this
Tools  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Chemistry -- 19th century  Search this
Chemistry -- Distillation  Search this
Medical Equipment  Search this
advertising -- Business ephemera  Search this
Medical supplies  Search this
Surveying and surveying instruments  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Function:
Scientific instruments manufacturing
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Printed ephemera
Sales letters
Business cards
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Sales catalogs
Sales records
Manufacturers' catalogs
Publications -- Business
Receipts
Commercial catalogs
Surveying instruments
Trade cards
Catalogs
Manuals
Invoices
Business ephemera
Advertisements
Mail order catalogs
Advertising cards
Advertising
Advertising mail
Business records
Print advertising
Business letters
Correspondence
Letterheads
Periodicals
Advertising fliers
Catalogues
Printed material
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Instruments, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Instruments
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Instruments
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-instruments

Roland C. Hawes Papers

Creator:
Cary Instruments.  Search this
Hawes, Roland C., 1908-1999  Search this
Applied Physics Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Applied Physics Corporation.  Search this
Aviv & Associates, Inc.  Search this
Beckman Instruments, Inc.  Search this
Cary Instruments.  Search this
National Technical Laboratories.  Search this
Varian Associates.  Search this
Beckman, Arnold O.  Search this
Cary, Howard  Search this
Duffield, Jack J.  Search this
George, Kenyon  Search this
Extent:
14.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Pencil works
Photographic prints
Photographs
Blueprints
Diazo prints
Drawings
Date:
1908-1997
Scope and Contents note:
Correspondence, handwritten notes and sketches, memorandum reports, catalogs, printed material, patent documents, drawings, blueprints (original and diazo copies), and photographs document Hawes's work in the field of immunnassay, spectrophotometry, scientific apparatus and instruments industry, and administrative duties at Applied Physics Corporation/Cary Instruments.
The bulk of the papers consist of materials found in Series 2: Research files A-Z, 1913 (1927-1990) (4.5 cubic feet). Series 5: Cary Instruments 1937-1992 (4 cubic feet) and Series 6: Consulting, 1908-(1939-1992) (3.5 cubic feet).
Arrangement:
Divided into 7 series: 1) Personal files, 1938-1997; 2) Research files, A-Z, 1913 (1927-1990); 3) Piness Laboratories, 1920-1979; 4) Beckman Instruments, Inc., 1939-1974; 5) Cary Instruments, 1937-1992; 6) Consulting work, 1908-(1939-1992); 7) Professional activities, 1949-1996. By series topical, chronological and alphabetical.
Biographical/Historical note:
The career of Roland C. Hawes, born Oct. 4, 1908, Riverside, California, began in chemical analysis and led him into the scientific apparatus and instruments industry, where he worked in the field of spectrophotometry. B.S., chemistry, California Institute of Technology, 1930. He died in 1999.
Related Archival Materials:
Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center for the History of Chemistry, Chemical Heritage Foundation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Beckman Arnold Orville: oral history, 1978 and papers 1954-1989, California Institute of Technology Archives.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Roland C. Hawes,1997, September 8.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
All rights tranferred to Museum in Deed of Gift.
Topic:
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry -- California  Search this
Spectrophotometry  Search this
Spectrum analysis  Search this
Engineers -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Pencil works
Photographic prints
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Blueprints
Diazo prints
Drawings -- 20th century
Citation:
Roland C. Hawes Papers, 1908-1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0617
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0617

William G. Elliott Spectra-Span Records

Creator:
SpectraMetrics (Burlington, Massachusetts)  Search this
Elliott Laboratories (Andover, Massachusetts)  Search this
Elliott, William G., 1932-2014  Search this
Donor:
Elliott, Mark  Search this
Extent:
6.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Black-and-white photographs
Financial records
Correspondence
Lantern slides
Laboratory notebooks
Patents
Manuals
Reports
Printed materials
Writings
Date:
circa 1958-1988
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Elliott's work in developing the SpectraSpan Spectrometer and related technologies including the use of echelle gratings and argon plasmas with the spectrometer. It also documents his companies, SpectraMetrics, and Elliott Laboratories. The collection contains correspondence; photographs, including lantern slides; business and financial records; writings; laboratory notes; internal company reports; user's manuals; patents and patent-related papers; and publications and printed materials.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
William G. Elliott was an engineer who, in 1966, founded SpectraMetrics, which developed and marketed the SpectraSpan echelle spectrometer. He later sold SpectraMetrics, and founded Elliott Laboratories in 1972.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mark Elliott.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Engineers -- 20th century  Search this
Spectrum analysis  Search this
Spectroscope  Search this
Spectrophotometry  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry  Search this
Spectrometer  Search this
Argon plasmas  Search this
Echelle gratings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1950-2000
Black-and-white photographs -- 1950-2000
Financial records -- 1050-2000
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Lantern slides
Laboratory notebooks -- 1950-2000
Patents -- 1950-2000
Manuals -- 1950-2000
Reports -- 1950-2000
Printed materials -- 1950-2000
Writings -- 1950-2000
Citation:
William G. Elliott Spctra-Span Records, ca. 1958-1988, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1361
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1361

[Bunsen burner detector, black-and-white photoprint.]

Collector:
Clark, George H.  Search this
Names:
De Forest, Lee, 1873-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 11.0" x 8.5".)
Container:
Box 442, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1936
Scope and Contents:
Alledgedly used by Lee DeForest in his "salt detector" tests.
Local Numbers:
AC0055-0000034.tif (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
George H. Clark Radioana Collection / Series B: George H. Clark Radioana Collection of Photographs By Class or Series / Class or Series 52, 53, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0055-ref3680

Instrument Society of America Collection

Source:
Mechanisms, Division of.  Search this
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Creator:
Instrument Society of America  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanisms, Division of.  Search this
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Extent:
36 Cubic feet (98 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1911-1972
Summary:
The collection documents the history of instrumentation through catalogs, bulletins, specification sheets, price lists, and other publications of companies that produce instrumentation.
Scope and Contents:
The Instrument Society of America Collection consists primarily of catalogs, bulletins, specification sheets, price lists, and other publications of companies that produce instrumentation. The collection is arranged into three series: Series 1, Instrument Society of America, 1947-1964; Series 2, Articles and Publications, 1914-1956; and Series 3, Trade Literature, 1911-1969, which comprises by far the larger portion of the collection.

Series 1, Instrument Society of America, 1947-1964, consists of proceedings and symposium documentation for the Society.

Series 2, Articles and Publications, 1914-1956, consists of articles, publications, papers, and reports arranged alphabetically.

Series 3, Trade Literature, 1911-1969 (bulk 1930s-1960s), is organized alphabetically by company. The companies represented are from the United States, England, Germany, Japan, and Holland. This material covers the time period of 1911 to 1969, with the bulk of it being from the 1930s and 1960s. Additionally, there is a set of Honeywell Brown advertising literature, 1952-1957, with associated job costs for printing and distribution. The bound volumes of Honeywell advertisements include samples of ads for scientific instruments and controls in industry publications such asBrick and Clay Record, Foundry, Iron and Steel Engineer, Petroleum Refiner, Product Engineer andTextile World.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series by type of material.

Series 1, Instrument Society of America, 1947-1964

Series 2, Articles and Publications, 1914-1956

Series 3, Trade Literature, 1911-1969
Biographical / Historical:
The Instrument Society of America (ISA) was founded in 1945 as an educational organization dedicated to advancing the knowledge and practice related to the theory, design, manufacture, and use of instruments and controls in the various sciences and technologies for the benefit of all mankind. Funds to carry on the purpose of the Society are provided primarily by membership dues, conferences and exhibits, journal advertising, educational materials, book publication sales and royalties, and registration fees from Society-sponsored educational short courses, conferences and symposia.[1]

1. 'Instrument Society of America Consolidated Financial statements for the years, ended December 31, 1999, 1998, and 1997, BNet Business Network, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3739/is_200007/ai_n8909806 (accessed August 28, 2008).
Provenance:
Donated to the National Museum of the History of Technology (now known as the National Museum of American History) by the Instrument Society of America Library. Date of acquisition is unknown.

Transferred to the Archives Center from the Division of Mechanisms, now known as the Division of Work and Industry on July 17, 1986.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Copyright status unknown. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply.
Topic:
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Physical sciences  Search this
Citation:
Instrument Society of America Collection, 1911-1972, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0215
See more items in:
Instrument Society of America Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0215

Clippings

Creator::
National Museum of American History. Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Extent:
1 cu. ft. (1 record storage box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Place:
United States -- History
Date:
1964-1990
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of records documenting science and technology curatorial staff, exhibitions, special events, and collections at the National Museum of American History, and when the museum was known as the National Museum of History and Technology and the Museum of History and Technology, respectively. Some records also document events around the Smithsonian Institution. Materials include newspaper and magazine clippings.
Topic:
Science -- History  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
Museum curators  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Museums -- Public relations  Search this
Special events  Search this
Publicity  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 18-139, National Museum of American History. Division of Medical Sciences, Clippings
Identifier:
Accession 18-139
See more items in:
Clippings
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa18-139

Exhibition Records

Creator::
National Museum of American History. Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Extent:
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Floor plans
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
1972-1980
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of the records of Jon B. Eklund, curator of chemistry, which document planning, development and production activities for the exhibitions "Henry Wurtz (1828-1910): An American Chemist," "Aspects of Art and Science," "Ceramics as Historical Evidence," and the Hall of American Science at the National Museum of American History, and when the museum was known as the National Museum of History and Technology. Also represented in these records are curators Susan Faye Cannon and Bernard S. Finn. Materials include correspondence, memoranda, and notes; proposals; floor plans; photographs; and meeting reports.
Topic:
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
Chemistry -- History  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Art and science  Search this
Museum curators  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Floor plans
Color photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 18-132, National Museum of American History. Division of Physical Sciences, Exhibition Records
Identifier:
Accession 18-132
See more items in:
Exhibition Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa18-132

History of the Ultracentrifuge Videohistory Interviews

Extent:
1 cu. ft. (1 record storage box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Place:
Fullerton (Calif.)
Palo Alto (Calif.)
Date:
2007
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, National Museum of American History, conducted videotaped interviews at Spinco to document the history of ultracentrifuge technology. Interviewees included Phyllis, M. Browning, Michael Cahn, Robert Stanley Carey, Robert E. Cunningham, Noli L. de la Cruz, James D. Duty, Giancarlo Ernoli, Jack Finney, Robert C. Franklin, Robert Frederito, Scott Gammon, Brian George, Dean Hanquist, Robert Indig, Kenneth C. Johnson, Eva T. Juhos, Benson Kwan, C. Richard McEwen, Frank Meze, Patrick O. Moore, James C. Osborne, Mehmet Pamukco, Fred J. Pisturino, Frank Richards, Ron Ridgeway, Louis T. Rosso, Howard K. Schachman, Karen F. Shore, Robert Slocum, Carol Smith, Paul Voelker, Eugene B. West, and James Woodall, at Beckman Coulter, Spinco Division, in Palo Alto and Fullerton, California. Participants discussed the history and development of ultracentrifuge technology, research and development, the commercial manufacture of the equipment, drive and heat-sink assembly, optics assembly, business and marketing. Visual documentation included tours of research and manufacturing facilities.

This collection is comprised of 24 interview sessions, totaling approximately 14 hours of recording. There are one or more original videotapes for each session. In total, this collection is comprised of 24 original analog and digital video tapes and transcripts. There are two generations of recordings for each session: analog and digital videotape originals and digital video reference copies.
Historical Note:
The Ultracentrifuge has played an important role in modern biotechnology. The ultracentrifuge is a centrifuge optimized for spinning a rotor at very high speeds, capable of generating acceleration as high as 2,000,000 G (approx 19,600 km/s2). There are two kinds of ultracentrifuges, the preparative and the analytical ultracentrifuge. Both classes of instruments find important uses in molecular biology, biochemistry, and polymer science. The analytical ultracentrifuge was invented in 1925 by Theodor Svedberg, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on colloids and proteins using the ultracentrifuge.

Edward Greydon Pickles developed the vacuum ultracentrifuge which allowed a reduction in friction generated at high speeds and enabled the maintenance of constant temperature. In 1946, Pickles cofounded Spinco (Specialized Instruments Corporation) and marketed a vacuum ultracentrifuge. The original machine design was complicated to operate, so he developed a more user-friendly version, but initial use of the technology remained low. Spinco almost went bankrupt, but Pickles persisted, and in 1947 Spinco was the first to commercially manufacture ultracentrifuges. In 1949, Spinco introduced the Model L, the first preparative ultracentrifuge to reach a maximum speed of 40,000 rpm. In 1954, Beckman Instruments (now Beckman Coulter) purchased the company, forming the basis of its Spinco centrifuge division, which has developed both preparative and analytical centrifuges.
Rights:
Restricted. Contact reference staff for details.
Topic:
Science -- History  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Centrifuges  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9625, History of the Ultracentrifuge Videohistory Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9625
See more items in:
History of the Ultracentrifuge Videohistory Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9625

American Scale and Service Company Records

Source:
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Creator:
American Scale and Service Company  Search this
Former owner:
Physical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, Smithsonian Institution).  Search this
Extent:
0.66 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sales records
Specifications
Invoices
Quantity surveys
Records
Place:
Kansas City (Mo.) -- 1910-1960
Date:
1912-1956
Scope and Contents note:
These records of this company, located in Kansas City, Missouri, include invoices; bills of material (quantity surveys); sales records with model name, number, date, customer; and promotional literature and specifications.
Arrangement:
1 series: 6 notebooks.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Scalemakers  Search this
Scales (Weighing instruments) -- 1910-1960  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Manufacturing -- 1910-1960  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sales records -- 1910-1960
Specifications
Invoices -- 20th century
Quantity surveys -- 1910-1960
Records -- 1910-1960
Citation:
American Scale and Service Company Records, 1912-1956, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0010
See more items in:
American Scale and Service Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0010

History of the Polymerase Chain Reaction Videohistory Collection

Extent:
11 videotapes.
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1992-1993
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), documented the discovery, development, commercialization, and applications of PCR technology. Three sessions were recorded May 14 and May 15, 1992 at Emeryville, California; September 25, 1992 at Alameda, California; and February 25, 1993 at Norwalk, Connecticut.

This collection consists of three interview sessions, totalling approximately 19:00 hours of recordings and 346 pages of transcript.

Several participants were also interviewed on audiotape. The audiotapes and transcripts complement the videotape sessions and are available through the Division of Medical Science, National Museum of American History.
Historical Note:
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique, invented in 1985 by Kary B. Mullis, allowed scientists to make millions of copies of a scarce sample of DNA. The technique has revolutionized many aspects of current research, including the diagnosis of genetic defects and the detection of the AIDS virus in human cells. The technique is also used by criminologists to link specific persons to samples of blood or hair via DNA comparison. PCR also affected evolutionary studies because large quantities of DNA can be manufactured from fossils containing but trace amounts.

Kary Mullis invented the PCR technique in 1985 while working as a chemist at the Cetus Corporation, a biotechnology firm in Emeryville, California. The procedure requires placing a small amount of the DNA containing the desired gene into a test tube. A large batch of loose nucleotides, which link into exact copies of the original gene, is also added to the tube. A pair of synthesized short DNA segments, that match segments on each side of the desired gene, is added. These "primers" find the right portion of the DNA, and serve as starting points for DNA copying. When the enzyme Taq DNA Polymeras from the bacterium, Thermus aquaticus is added, the loose nucleotides lock into a DNA sequence dictated by the sequence of that target gene located between the two primers.

The test tube is heated, and the DNA's double helix separates into two strands. The DNA sequence of each strand of the helix is thus exposed and as the temperature is lowered the primers automatically bind to their complementary portions of the DNA sample. At the same time, the enzyme links the loose nucleotides to the primer and to each of the separated DNA strands in the appropriate sequence. The complete reaction, which takes approximately five minutes, results in two double helices containing the desired portion of the original. The heating and cooling is repeated, doubling the number of DNA copies. After thirty to forty cycles are completed a single copy of a piece of DNA can be multiplied to hundreds of millions.

When completed manually, Mullis' PCR technique was slow and labor-intensive. Therefore, Cetus scientists began looking for ways in which to automate the process. Before the discovery of the thermostable Taq enzyme, scientists needed to add fresh enzyme to each cycle. The first thermocycling machine, "Mr. Cycle" was developed by Cetus engineers to address that need to add fresh enzyme to each test tube after the heating and cooling process. Purification of the Taq polymerase then resulted in the need for a machine to cycle more rapidly among different temperatures. In 1985, Cetus formed a joint venture with the Perkin-Elmer Corporation in Norwalk, Connecticut, and introduced the DNA Thermal Cycler. By 1988, Cetus was receiving numerous inquiries about licensing to perform PCR for commercial diagnostic purposes. On January 15, 1989, Cetus announced an agreement to collaborate with Hoffman-LaRoche on the development and commercialization of in vitro human diagnostic products and services based on PCR technology. Roche Molecular Systems eventually bought the PCR patent and associated technology from Cetus for $300,000,000.

Interviewees included scientists, engineers, and managers from Cetus Corporation, Roche Molecular Systems, and Perkin-Elmer Corporation. Norman Arnheim first became interested in the study of medicine in high school, as the result of a summer spent working at a hospital. He received his B.A. (1960) and M.A. (1962) from the University of Rochester, and his Ph.D. (1966) in Drosophila genetics from the University of California, Berkeley. A professor of molecular biology at the University of Southern California, Arnheim formerly worked at Cetus Corporation on PCR. John G. Atwood came to Perkin-Elmer Corporation in November 1948 with a masters' degree in electrical engineering from Columbia University (1948), and served as senior scientist for the biotechnology instrument group.

Peter Barrett received a B.S. in Chemistry from Lowell Technological Institute and a Ph.D. in Analytical Chemistry from Northeastern University. He joined Perkin-Elmer in 1970 as product specialist in the Instrument Division, was promoted to manager of the Applications Laboratory in 1982, and director of the Laboratory Robotics Department in 1985. In 1988, Barrett was named director of European Marketing and relocated to Italy. In 1989, he moved to Germany to set up the European Sales and Service Center. He returned to the U.S. in 1990 to serve as Division Vice-President of Instruments and was named Vice-President of the Life Sciences Division in 1991. In 1993, in conjunction with the merger with Applied Biosystems Incorporated, he moved to California to become Executive Vice-President, Applied Biosystems Division.

Joseph L. DiCesare received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of Rhode Island. In 1976, he accepted the position of Assistant Product Line Manager at Perkin-Elmer Corporation and was appointed Product Line Manager of the Gas Chromatography Division in 1983. In 1987, he was promoted to the position of Research and Development Applications Manager of the Biotechnology Division. Henry Anthony Erlich received his B.A. in biochemical sciences from Harvard University in 1965 and his Ph.D. in genetics from University of Washington in 1972. He served as a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biology at Princeton University from 1972 to 1975 and in the Department of Medicine at Stanford University from 1975 to 1979. He joined the Cetus Corporation in 1979 and was appointed Senior Scientist and Director of Human Genetics in 1981. After the dissolution of Cetus in 1991, Erlich transferred to Roche Molecular Systems to serve as director of Human Genetics.

A few years after graduating from high school, Fred Faloona began working as a research assistant under Kary B. Mullis at the Cetus Corporation, c. 1983. He assisted Mullis with the initial development and application of PCR. He followed Mullis to Xytronyx Incorporated in 1986 where he served as a Research associate working on DNA and RNA sequencing and further applications of PCR. In 1988, he returned to Cetus as a research assistant where he worked on the application of PCR to the discovery of new retroviruses and he further refined PCR detection techniques. In 1991, Faloona and a partner began Saddle Point System, a small company designing computer hardware and software.

David H. Gelfand completed his B.A. in Biology at Brandeis University in 1966. After receiving a Ph.D. in Biology from the University of California, San Diego in 1970, he began work as an assistant research biochemist at the University of California in San Francisco. He was offered the position of Director of Recombinant Molecular Research at Cetus in 1976 and was promoted to Vice-President of that division in 1979. He later accepted positions as Vice-President of Scientific Affairs and Director of Core Technology, PCR Division, in 1981 and 1988. In 1991, Gelfand also transferred to Roche Molecular Systems to serve as Director for the Program in Core Research.

Lawrence Allen Haff received his B.S. in Biochemistry from Michigan State University in 1969. After completing his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Cornell University in 1974, Haff served as a research fellow in the biological laboratories of Harvard University. In 1976, he accepted the position of Senior Research Scientist at Pharmacia. He transferred to Millipore Corporation in 1982 to serve as Technical Research Manager developing and supporting high performance separation techniques. He joined the Perkin-Elmer Corporation in 1985 as principal scientist and research manager to help develop the DNA Thermal Cycler.

After receiving his B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California-Davis in 1978, David C. Jones worked as a stress engineer for the Boeing Commercial Aircraft Company. In 1980, he joined the Bio-Rad Laboratories designing and developing chromatography instruments. He accepted the position of Mechanical Engineer at Cetus Corporation in 1986 to work on thermocycling instrumentation. He also completed an M.B.A. in management from Golden State University in 1988.

Elena D. Katz was awarded her M.S. degree in Chemistry from Moscow University, Russia. From 1969 to 1972, she studied in the Ph.D. program at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow. In 1973, she was appointed Associate Researcher in the physical chemistry department of Moscow University. After moving to the United States, Katz became Senior Staff Scientist at Perkin-Elmer in 1977 working on various multidisciplinary projects utilizing liquid and gas chromatography. After 1985, Katz concurrently pursued a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of London. Shirley Kwok began her career as a research associate with the Assay Department of Cetus Corporation after graduating from the University of California, Berkeley, with a degree in microbiology. Kwok was part of a group of researchers devoted to the use of PCR to detect HIV in human cells, and held the position of Research Investigator for Hoffman-La Roche at Roche Molecular Systems.

Richard Leath started with Cetus in 1980, after receiving a masters' degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University in 1974. Leath spent a decade developing machines like Mr. Cycle, and later worked as Senior Engineer at Maxwell Labs, Richmond, California, a firm which developed particle accelerators.

Kary B. Mullis received his B.S. in Chemistry from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1966 and his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of California-Berkeley in 1972. In 1973, he was awarded a post-doctoral fellowship in pediatric cardiology at the University of Kansas Medical School. He returned to California in 1977 and was awarded another fellowship in pharmaceutical chemistry from the University of California, San Francisco to research endorphins and the opiate receptor. He accepted the position of Scientist at Cetus in 1979 to work in the chemistry department researching oligonucleotide synthesis and chemistry. He transferred to the Department of Human Genetics in 1984 to conduct research on DNA technology. In 1986, Mullis accepted the position of Director of Molecular Biology at Xytronyx, Inc. researching DNA technology, photochemistry, and photobiology. He left Xytronyx in 1988 and then served as a private consultant to a variety of companies in the field of nucleic chemistry. Mullis won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1993 for his invention of the PCR technique.

Lynn H. Pasahow graduated from Stanford University in 1969 and received his law degree from the University of California at Berkeley School of Law in 1972. He joined the firm of McCutchen, Doyle, Brown, and Enersen in 1973, where he chaired the firm's intellectual property group. He had advised clients and handled complex litigation involving patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret, licensing, export-import, noncompetition, and trade regulation disputes, most involving biotechnology, computer hardware and software and other advanced technology products. He led the group of lawyers which successfully obtained a jury verdict upholding Cetus' landmark polymerase chain reaction patents against the Dupont Company challenge. Enrico Picozza began work with Perkin-Elmer in June 1985, shortly after receiving his degree from the University of Connecticut. He was a Senior Technical Specialist, devoted to specifying, developing, testing and evaluating instrumentation primarily for the PCR market.

Riccardo Pigliucci earned his degree in chemistry in Milan, Italy and graduated from the Management Program at the Northeastern University. He joined Perkin-Elmer in 1966 and held numerous management positions in analytical instrument operations in Europe as well as in the U.S. He was appointed General Manager of the U.S. Instrument Division in 1989 after serving as director of Worldwide Instrument Marketing since 1985. In 1988, Pigliucci was appointed a sector Vice-President in Connecticut Operations. The following year, he was elected corporate Vice-President of Perkin-Elmer Instruments. He became President of the Instrument Group in 1991 and was named Senior Vice-President of Perkin-Elmer Corporation in 1992. In 1993, he was elected President and Chief Operating Officer and also served as a Director of the Corporation.

After receiving his bachelors degree in Chemistry and Biology from the University of Washington in 1978, Randall K. Saiki served one year as a laboratory technician in their Department of Microbiology. In 1979, he transferred to Washington University to serve as a lab technician in the Biology Department. He joined the Cetus Corporation in late 1979 as a research assistant in the Recombinant DNA Group. In 1981, he was promoted to Research Associate in the Department of Human Genetics and was named Scientist in that department in 1989. Saiki transferred to Roche Molecular Systems in 1991 to serve as Research Investigator in the Department of Human Genetics. Stephen Scharf received a degree in bacteriology from University of California, Davis. He worked there as a biochemist for four and a half years until 1980, when he came to Cetus. Scharf was a Research Associate in the Department of Human Genetics at Cetus at the time PCR was developed and later served as Senior Scientist at Roche Molecular Systems.

Donna Marie Seyfried graduated from Lehigh University with a B.S. in Microbiology. Her professional career began as a microbiologist for the E.I. Dupont de Nemours Company. Seyfried joined Perkin-Elmer in 1985. From 1990 to 1993, she served as Business Director for Biotechnology Instrument Systems. In 1994, she was appointed Director of Corporate Business Development and Strategic Planning. She was responsible for managing the development, commercialization, and marketing of the PCR business as part of the Perkin-Elmer Cetus JointVenture, and the subsequent strategic alliance with Hoffman-LaRoche. She was also instrumental in the Perkin-Elmer Applied Biosystems merger.

After receiving his B.S. from Bates College in 1972 and his Ph.D. from Purdue University in 1976, John J. Sninsky accepted a postdoctoral fellowship from the Departments of Genetics and Medicine at the Stanford University School of Medicine. In 1981, he accepted an assistant professorship at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He joined the Cetus Corporation in 1984 as a Senior Scientist in the Department of Microbial Genetics. In 1985, he was appointed Director of the Diagnostics Program and of the Department of Infectious Diseases. In 1988, he was promoted to Senior Director of both of those departments. Sninsky transferred to Roche Molecular Systems in 1991 to serve as Senior Director for Research. Robert Watson, who joined Cetus in 1977, was a Research Investigator with Roche Molecular Systems, working on nucleic acid-based diagnostics.

Thomas J. White graduated from John Hopkins University in 1967 with a B.A. in Chemistry. After serving for four years as a Peace Corps volunteer in Liberia, he received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1976. In 1978, he joined the Cetus Corporation as a scientist, and was promoted to Director of Molecular and Biological Research and Associate Director of Research and Development in 1981. He was appointed Vice-President of Research in 1984. He transferred to Roche Diagnostics Research in 1989 to serve as Senior Director and in 1991 was appointed Vice-President of Research and Development of Roche Molecular Systems and Associate Vice-President of Hoffman-LaRoche, Incorporated. Joseph Widunas, who graduated from the University of Illinois with a degree in engineering in 1975, came to Cetus in 1981 as a sound engineer. Later, as Director of new product development for Colestech Corporation, Hayward, California, he was instrumental in the development of the second Mr. Cycle prototype, "Son of Mr. Cycle."

Timothy M. Woudenberg received his B.S. in Chemistry from Purdue University in 1980. He worked as an electronics design engineer for Mulab Incorporated from 1980 to 1982. He served as a teaching and research assistant at Tufts University from 1982 to 1987 and there completed his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry in 1988. He joined Perkin-Elmer in 1987 as an engineer in the Instrument Division of the Biotechnology Department.

Also interviewed were Perkin-Elmer's Robert P. Regusa, biotechnology systems engineering manager for the biotechnology group responsible for the development of the thermocycler instrumentation; Robert L. Grossman, an engineer at Perkin-Elmer, involved with the design and manufacture of the thermocycler line; Senior Marketing Specialist Leslie S. Kelley; as well as Cetus' Senior Scientist, Richard Respess.
Topic:
DNA thermal cycler  Search this
Polymerase chain reaction  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
Patents  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Bioengineering  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9577, History of the Polymerase Chain Reaction Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9577
See more items in:
History of the Polymerase Chain Reaction Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9577

Harmonic Motion of Rotation Apparatus

Measurements:
overall: 17 in x 12 1/2 in x 12 in; 43.18 cm x 31.75 cm x 30.48 cm
Object Name:
harmonic motion apparatus
Date made:
ca 1910
Subject:
Science & Scientific Instruments  Search this
ID Number:
PH.315749
Catalog number:
315749
Accession number:
217544
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Physical Sciences
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b2-58ff-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1817220
Online Media:

Microscope

Maker:
Leitz, Ernst  Search this
Physical Description:
brown (overall color)
yellow (overall color)
black (overall color)
Measurements:
average spatial: 34.4 cm x 17.5 cm x 19.8 cm; 13 9/16 in x 6 7/8 in x 7 13/16 in
average spatial: 30 cm x 11.5 cm x 15.9 cm; 11 13/16 in x 4 1/2 in x 6 1/4 in
Object Name:
microscope
Other Terms:
microscope; Monocular; Compound
Place made:
Germany: Hesse, Wetzlar
Associated place:
United States: Maryland, Edgewater
Date made:
ca 1911
Subject:
Science & Scientific Instruments  Search this
Credit Line:
Clyde P. Reeves
ID Number:
MG.M-14737
Catalog number:
M-14737
Accession number:
300971
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Microscopes
Science & Mathematics
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-f85b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1059765
Online Media:

Microscope

Maker:
Leitz, Ernst  Search this
Physical Description:
brass (overall material)
glass (overall material)
steel (overall material)
wood (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 33.6 cm x 19.5 cm x 17 cm; 13 7/32 in x 7 11/16 in x 6 11/16 in
overall: 30.4 cm x 10 cm x 16 cm; 11 31/32 in x 3 15/16 in x 6 5/16 in
Object Name:
microscope
Other Terms:
microscope; Monocular; Compound
Place made:
Germany: Hesse, Wetzlar
Date made:
ca 1909
Subject:
Science & Scientific Instruments  Search this
Credit Line:
Dr. & Mrs. R. Massie Page
ID Number:
MG.M-12148.01
Accession number:
270772
Catalog number:
M-12148.01
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Microscopes
Science & Mathematics
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-fa77-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1059770
Online Media:

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