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International Salt Company Records

Creator:
International Salt Company  Search this
Costain, Harold Haliday  Search this
Rittase, William M., 1894-1968  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (11 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Slides (photographs)
Photographs
Transparencies
Time books
Scrapbooks
Cashbooks
Annual reports
Ledgers (account books)
Financial records
Patents
Letters
Newsletters
Date:
1881-1993
bulk 1920-1929
Summary:
The collection contains business records and photographic materials documenting the International Salt Company. The business records include correspondence, account and ledger books, a payroll book, patent and trademark information, print advertising and marketing materials, and a salesman salt display kit. The photographic materials include a series of photographs by William M. Rittase, a series of photographs by Harold Haliday Costain, a small photograph album, snapshots, and slides. The images cover all facets of the salt manufacturing and packaging operations, and include photographs taken in New York State, Michigan, and Louisiana.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains business records and photographic materials documenting the International Salt Company. The business records include correspondence, account and ledger books, a payroll book, patent and trademark information, print advertising and marketing materials, and a salesman salt display kit. The photographic materials include a series of photographs by William M. Rittase, a series of photographs by Harold Haliday Costain, a small photograph album, snapshots, and slides. The images cover all facets of the salt manufacturing and packaging operations, and include photographs taken in New York State, Michigan, and Louisiana.

The scrapbooks contain advertisements for the International Salt Company's Sterling Salt label and other leading salt companies, especially Morton's. Much of the ephemera consists of labels, but there are also small pamphlet cookbooks. The cookbooks, prepared and marketed by various salt companies, tout recipes for tasty dishes using specific salts and expound upon the merits of salt in general, especially the medical benefits. Other clever salt-related advertising appears in conjunction with maps, buttons, song books, calendars, and health exercises.

Series 1, Business Records, 1894-1937, consists primarily of financial materials--ledgers, cash books, monthly statements, timekeeping and payroll information--for the Avery Rock Salt Mining Company (A.R.S.M.Co.), Detroit Rock Salt Company, Detroit Salt Company, International Salt Company, and the Restof Mining Company. Additionally, there is one annual report for the International Salt Company (1957) and the newsletter Saltmaker, 1964.

There are two A.R.S.M.Co. ledgers, 1898-1907 and 1907-1922. The first ledger, 1898-1907, predates the founding of the International Salt Company, and it is likely that A.R.S.M.Co was absorbed by International Salt during a merger. Documentation recorded including inventories, merchandise, labor, surplus, insurance, office expenses, legal expenses, taxes, bills receivable, directors' committee fees, fuel, candles, oil, waste and packing, rental, repairs and maintenance, interest, labor, feed, outside salary account, Cuban consignment account, and loan account. Specific persons, such as superintendents F. Rundio and Sidney Bradford, are mentioned and specific companies including Restof Mining, Joy Morton Company, Havana Mill, G. Lawton Childs & Company, International Salt of New York and various others (pages 193-212), are listed with expenses.

The Detroit Salt Company (general ledger), 1911-1913, consists of one bound volume documenting the company's assets, liabilities, expenses, earnings, advance accounts, and old accounts.

Detroit Rock Salt Company (cash record), 1912 October-1913 January, consists of one bound volume documenting cash received and cash disbursed.

International Salt Company, Inc., Independent Salt Company Division (monthly statements), 1933 October-1937 December, consists of one bound volume of general ledger trial balance sheets organized chronologically. Detailed documentation includes general expenses, assets, capital assets, liabilities, special reserves, net worth, profit and loss statements, warehousing costs and tonnage purchased.

Restof Mining Company (time and payroll), 1894 July 1-1895 March 31, consists of one bound volume of 400 pages, documenting the time and payroll for employees. The volume contains the name of the employee, the number of days worked, hourly wage earned per day, the amount earned, advances, board due, store (supplies due), rent, and any balances due. A portion of the volume is severely water-damaged.

Series 2, Trademarks, 1881-1935, consists of copies of issued trademark declarations from the United States Patent Office. The trademarks are for company names, logos, salt containers and packages, and various salt products. The trademarks are arranged alphabetically by the name of the trademark. For example, Amaessa, a trademark for baking powder and salt is filed with other trademarks beginning with the letter "A." Additional materials consist of one file folder of correspondence and printed materials about patents, trademarks and copyright laws. The correspondence relates specifically to the ownership of certain trademarks by International Salt Company, and there is correspondence from John L. Ryon, assistant sales manager and W.T. Chisolm, vice-president of International Salt Company. There are compiled lists of brand names, trademarks, and package designs for which International Salt registered at the United States Patent Office, 1926-1927. There are two examples of small cloth bags branded with "Ideal Salt" and some packaging, such as "White Lily High Grade Salt" and labels such as "Purex Free Running Table Salt." The Peter J.L. Searing trademark for salt (No. 52,963) and Chicago Sawed Salt-Block Company (No. 15,174) provide examples of ethnic imagery. A trademark is a brand name. A trademark or service mark includes any word, name, symbol, device, or any combination used or intended to be used to identify and distinguish the goods/services of one seller or provider from those of others, and to indicate the source of the goods/services. Although federal registration of a mark is not mandatory, it has several advantages, including notice to the public of the registrant's claim of ownership of the mark, legal presumption of ownership nationwide, and exclusive right to use the mark on or in connection with the goods/services listed in the registration.

Series 3, Photographs, 1934-1993, is divided into five subseries: Subseries 1, Harold Haliday Costain, 1934; Subseries 2, William Ritasse, circa 1934; Subseries 3, Loose Photographs, 1969-1993; Subseries 4, Slides, circa 1970s; and Subseries 5, Album (unidentified), undated.

Subseries 1, Harold Haliday Costain, circa 1934, consists of three photographs (approximately 10 1/2" x 13") black-and-white prints mounted to 16" x 20" boards. The prints are numbered #6, #42, and #44 and depict a salt mine and equipment used in salt manufacturing located in Avery Island, Louisiana.

Subseries 2, William Ritasse, circa 1934, consists of black-and-white prints (10" x 14") signed by Ritasse which are mounted on 18 1/2" x 20" boards. The photographs are arranged numerically from #350 to #480. Many of the photographs are captioned. American photographer William Rittase (1887-1968), active in the 1920s-1930s, is known for his industrial photography. Rittase's images provide insight into International Salt Company activities such as salt manufacturing, packaging operations, general factory processes, printing salt bags, can labeling, brine storage, exteriors of buildings, crushing salt, men in the salt mines, machine shop views, and equipment.

Subseries 3, Loose Photographs, 1969-1993, consists of black-and-white and color prints, as well as transparencies depicting salt mines and related activities. Some of the photographs document a visit by International Salt Company executives to the Jefferson Island, Louisiana salt plant.

Subseries 4, Slides, circa 1970s, consists of seventeen color slides documenting salt plants, equipment and salt miners.

Subseries 5, Album (damaged mine), undated, consists of twenty-two 4" x 6 1/2" black-and-white photographs documenting the damage to a salt manufacturing plant. The photographs are captioned, but there is no indication of the geographic location of the salt plant.

Series 4, Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1920-1948, consists of two scrapbooks (14" x 17" and 11" x 16") that contain primarily tear sheets, unbound periodical pages showing an advertisement as printed, or as a proof, newspaper clippings, magazine clippings, correspondence, pamphlets, price lists, recipes, labels, periodicals, and other ephemera.

The scrapbook, 1920-1931, consists primarily of advertisements and newspaper clippings related to advertising salt products, especially for Morton's Salt and Diamond Crystal Salt. Other companies represented include Colonial Salt Company, Carey Salt Company, Jefferson Island Salt Company, Kerr Salt Company, Mulkey Salt Company, Myles Salt Company, Ohio Salt Company, Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company, Remington Salt Company, Star Salt Corporation, Union Salt Company, Worcester Salt Company, and Watkins Salt Company.

The scrapbook from 1945-1948 is devoted to advertisements for the International Salt Company and Sterling Salt, which promoted salt uses for the home (table salt, curing meats, and brines), industry (rock salt for winter weather) and agriculture (killing weeds). Many of the advertisements were part of the "Pass the Salt" campaign and were featured in publications such as Woman's Day, National Provisioner, Food Industries, Hide, Leather and Shoes, Chemical Previews, and Public Works. The scrapbook is divided into three sections: institutional, weed prevention, and Lixate, a process developed by the International Salt Research Laboratory for making brine. Many of the advertisements were prepared by J.M. Mathes Incorporated.

Also included is a traveling salt kit for Sterling Salt Company salesmen, undated, featuring small glass vials of sterling salt from mines in Detroit, Avery Island, Louisiana, and Restof, New York. Each vial notes the types of salts--purified, softener, iodized, medium flake, coarse flake, granular flour, and meat.

Series 5, Posters, circa 1920s, consists of oversize advertising posters for Worcester Salt Company. There is one set of labels from an exhibit titled "I Eat Rocks! Salt of the Earth."
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1, Business Records, 1894-1937

Series 2, Trademarks, 1881-1935

Series 3, Photographs, 1934-1993

Subseries 1, Harold Haliday Costain, circa 1934

Subseries 2, William Ritasse, circa 1934

Subseries 3, Loose Photographs, 1969-1993

Subseries 4, Slides, circa 1970s

Subseries 5, Album (damaged mine), undated

Series 4, Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1920-1948

Series 5, Posters, circa 1920s
Biographical / Historical:
The International Salt Company incorporated on August 22, 1901, and in 1902, the company purchased the stock and assets of the National Salt Company, which had failed. By 1934, International Salt was a holding company for six subsidiaries: Avery Salt Company (West Virginia), Detroit Rock Salt Company (Michigan), Eastern Salt Company (Massachusetts), Independent Salt Company (New York), International Salt Company, Inc. (New York), and Retsof Mining Company (New York). All of the subsidiaries operated rock salt mines and evaporated salt plants and distributed salt. In 1940, the International Salt Company decided to sell four of its subsidiaries--Avery Salt Company, Detroit Rock Salt Company, International Salt Company, Inc., and Retsof Mining Company.

John M. Avery discovered rock salt at Petite Anse, Louisiana in 1862. Petite Anse Island was renamed Avery Island in the late 19th century. Ownership and mining of salt at Petite Anse involved numerous parties until 1886, when New Iberia Salt Company took over operations. In 1896, the Avery family began operating the mine, and they founded the Avery Rock Salt Mining Company. In 1899, the International Salt Company leased the mine.

The Detroit Salt and Manufacturing Company was founded in 1906. The company quickly went bankrupt during construction of a shaft and was acquired in 1910 by the Watkins Salt Company, which incorporated the new organization under the name Detroit Rock Salt Company. The company experienced success and the International Salt Company purchased the mine circa 1914. In 1983, International Salt closed the mine's operations and in 1985, Crystal Mines, Inc., purchased the mine as a potential storage site.

In 1885 the Empire Salt Company of New York was renamed the Retsof Mine Company, and the Village of Retsof was founded near the mine shaft. During the next 110 years, the mine grew to become the largest salt-producing mine in the United States and the second largest in the world. Before the initial collapse in March 1994, the mine encompassed an underground area of more than 6,000 acres, and the mine footprint (outer edge of mined area) extended over an area of nearly ten square miles. At the time of the collapse, the Retsof Mine was owned by Akzo-Nobel Salt Incorporated (ANSI) and, during the winter of 1993--994 operated at full capacity to meet demands for road salt throughout the northeastern United States. The Retsof Mine ceased operations on September 2, 1995, and by December, twenty-one months after the initial collapse, the mine was completely flooded.
Related Materials:
Materials held at the Smithsonian Institution

Smithsonian Institution Libraries, National Museum of American History

Trade catalogs from International Salt Company Inc., 1900s

Materials held at Other Organizations

Harvard University Archives

Ritasse, William M., 1894-1968. Photographs of Hardvard University campus and environs taken by William M. Ritasse, circa 1930.

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs

Avery Rock Salt Mining Company, Plan. June 16, 1924 (AKZO No. 7-77-02) - Avery Island Salt Works, Akzo Salt Incorporated, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

Salt Mine Village, Salt Workers' Houses No. 6, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

Avery Island Sugarhouse, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

State Library of Louisiana

Historic Photograph Collection contains images of salt mining at Avery Island, Louisiana.

University of North Carolina, Southern Historical Collection at the Louis Round Wilson Library

Papers for the Avery Family of Louisiana, 1796-1951
Provenance:
Tom Maeder donated the collection on June 13, 2009.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Salt  Search this
Salt workers  Search this
Salt mines and mining -- Michigan  Search this
Salt mines and mining -- New York  Search this
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Salt mines and mining -- Louisiana  Search this
advertising  Search this
Industrial photography -- 1990-2000 -- Texas  Search this
Mines and mineral resources -- Louisiana  Search this
Mines and mineral resources -- New York  Search this
Mines and mineral resources -- Michigan  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Transparencies
Time books
Scrapbooks
Cashbooks
Annual reports
Ledgers (account books)
Financial records
Patents
Letters
Newsletters
Citation:
International Salt Company Records, 1881-1993, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1158
See more items in:
International Salt Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8fb5589f8-c9ba-4e1d-ac7d-1ce2b4585c34
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1158
Online Media:

The Sahara sand and bead trade prior to 1875 : some queries / Mark Milburn and R. Schneider

Author:
Milburn, Mark  Search this
Schneider, R  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Physical description:
p. 241-244
Type:
Books
Place:
Africa, West
Sahara
Date:
1986
Topic:
Beads  Search this
Trade beads  Search this
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Commerce  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
VF-- Beads and Beadwork
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_758073

The last saltmakers of Nexquipayac, Mexico : an archaeological ethnography / Jeffrey R. Parsons

Author:
Parsons, Jeffrey R  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 341 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Mexico
Nexquipayac
Mexico, Valley of
Mexico, Valley of (Mexico)
Nexquipayac (Mexico)
Date:
2001
Topic:
Industries  Search this
Nahuas--Industries  Search this
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Ethnoarchaeology  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Economic conditions  Search this
Call number:
F1219.1.N54 P37 2001
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_728578

Kinsei kōki Setouchi engyōshi no kenkyū / Yamashita Yasushi cho

Title:
近世後期瀬戶内塩業史の研究 / 山下恭著
Author:
Yamashita, Yasushi 1953-  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 296, xiv p. : ill. ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Japan
Inland Sea
Date:
2006
18th century
19th century
Topic:
Salt industry and trade--History  Search this
Call number:
HD9213.J33 I53 2006
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_869379

Les sauniers de la savane orientale : approche ethnographique de l'industrie du sel chez les Luba, Bemba et populations apparentées (Congo, Zambie) / par Pierre Petit

Author:
Petit, Pierre 1966-  Search this
Académie royale des sciences d'outre-mer  Search this
Physical description:
141 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Zambia
Date:
2000
Topic:
Salt industry and trade--History  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
DT641 .A27 n. s., t. 52, fasc. 4
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_917958

Ming Qing Hui shang yu Huai Yang she hui bian qian / Wang Zhenzhong zhu

Title:
明清徽商与淮扬社会变迁 / 王振忠著
Author:
Wang, Zhenzhong  Search this
Physical description:
10, 218 p. : maps ; 21 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
China
Huai River Valley
Anhui Sheng
Huai River Valley (China)
Date:
1996
Topic:
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Merchants--History  Search this
Economic conditions  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Call number:
HF3839.A54 W33
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_891920

Salt resources of the United States, by W.C. Phalen

Author:
Phalen, William Clifton 1877-  Search this
Physical description:
284 p., 17 leaves of plates (some folded) ill., maps 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1919
Topic:
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Call number:
TN902.A1 P53 1919
TN902.A1P53 1919
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_389761

Tobacco & Salt Museum

Author:
Japan Tobacco Foundation  Search this
Physical description:
72 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 26 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Japan
Date:
1988
1988]
Topic:
Museums  Search this
Tobacco industry  Search this
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Call number:
AM78.T65 .T63 1988
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_713765

Salt production techniques in ancient China : the Aobo tu / Yoshida Tora ; translated and revised by Hans Ulrich Vogel

Author:
Yoshida, Tora 1926-  Search this
Physical description:
xxv, 309 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
China
Date:
1993
Topic:
Salt mines and mining--History  Search this
Salt industry and trade--History  Search this
Call number:
TN903.C5 Y67 1993
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_879477

Salt : white gold of the ancient Maya / Heather McKillop

Author:
McKillop, Heather Irene 1953-  Search this
Physical description:
xxii, 222 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Belize
Date:
2002
Topic:
Mayas--Economic conditions  Search this
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Mayas--Antiquities  Search this
Mayas--Commerce  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Mayas--Belice--Condiciones económicas  Search this
Sal--Industria--Belice  Search this
Mayas--Belice--Restos arqueológicos  Search this
Mayas--Comercio  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_715267

Zhongguo yan ye kao gu : Chang Jiang shang you gu dai yan ye yu jing guan kao gu de chu bu yan jiu / zhu bian Li Shuicheng, Luo Tai = Salt archaeology in China : ancient salt production and landscape archaeology in the upper Yangzi basin : preliminary studies / edited by Shuicheng Li and Lothar von Falkenhausen

Title:
中国盐业考古 : 长江上游古代盐业与景观考古的初步研究 / 主编李水城, 罗泰 = Salt archaeology in China : ancient salt production and landscape archaeology in the upper Yangzi basin : preliminary studies / edited by Shuicheng Li and Lothar von Falkenhausen
Chang Jiang shang you gu dai yan ye yu jing guan kao gu de chu bu yan jiu
长江上游古代盐业与景观考古的初步研究
Salt archaeology in China : ancient salt production and landscape archaeology in the upper Yangzi basin : preliminary studies
Ancient salt production and landscape archaeology in the upper Yangzi basin : preliminary studies
Author:
Li, Shuicheng 1953-  Search this
Falkenhausen, Lothar von  Search this
Physical description:
2 v. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
China
Yangtze River
Yangtze River Region
Yangtze River Region (China)
Date:
2006
2010
2006-2010
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Salt industry and trade--History  Search this
Salt mines and mining--History  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Call number:
CC101.C6 Z466
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_869572

Discourses on salt and iron ... : a debate on state control of commerce and industry in ancient China, chapters I-XIX / translated from the Chinese of Huan Kʻuan, with introduction and notes, by Esson M. Gale

Author:
Huan, Kuan 1st cent. B.C  Search this
Gale, Esson McDowell  Search this
Physical description:
lvi p., 1 l., 165 p. 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
China
Date:
1931
Topic:
Government monopolies  Search this
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Iron industry and trade  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_885761

Salt : the story of Kenya's soda lake at Magadi

Author:
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Type:
Articles
Place:
Kenya
Magadi, Lake (Kenya)
Date:
1952
Topic:
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Call number:
DT421 .E135
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_914487

Der Karawanenweg nach Bilma bei S.W. Koelle und H. Barth in der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts : ein historischer Beispiel zur Problematik der Informantenbefragung

Author:
Ritter, Hans 1944-  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Subject:
Koelle, S. W (Sigismund Wilhelm)  Search this
Barth, Heinrich 1821-1865  Search this
Type:
Articles
Place:
Sahara
Niger
Bilma Oasis (Niger)
Date:
1992
Topic:
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Oases  Search this
Commerce  Search this
Call number:
CB3 .P142
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_497052

Salt-production at Kibiro / Graham Connah, Ephraim Kamuhangire & Andrew Piper

Author:
Connah, Graham  Search this
Kamuhangire, Ephraim  Search this
Piper, Andrew  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Type:
Articles
Place:
Uganda
Kibiro
Date:
1990
Topic:
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Call number:
DT365 .A992
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_495341

Kibiro : the salt of Bunyoro, past and present / by Graham Connah with contributions from Christine Burke ... [et. al.]

Author:
Connah, Graham  Search this
British Institute in Eastern Africa  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 224 p. : ill., maps ; 31 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Uganda
Kibiro
Date:
1996
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Call number:
DT433.265 .C66 1996
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_498337

The Antebellum Kanawha salt business and western markets / John E. Stealey III

Author:
Stealey, John E. 1941-  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 261 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
West Virginia
Kanawha River Valley
Date:
1993
C1993
19th century
Topic:
Salt industry and trade--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_471621

Salt and civilization / S.A.M. Adshead

Author:
Adshead, Samuel Adrian M (Samuel Adrian Miles)  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 417 p. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1992
Topic:
Salt industry and trade--History  Search this
Salt--Taxation--History  Search this
Call number:
HD9213.A2A33 1991X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_430859

Neue Vorschläge und Erfindungen zur Verbesserung der Wasserkünfte beym Bergbau und Salinenwesen [microform] / von Joseph Baader

Author:
Baader, Joseph  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 98 p., 16 folded leaves of plates : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Microforms
Date:
1968
1800
Topic:
Hydraulic mining--Early works to 1800  Search this
Salt industry and trade--Early works to 1800  Search this
Call number:
mfm 2280
mfm2280
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_419864

The salt of Bunyoro : seeking the origins of an African kingdom

Author:
Connah, Graham  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Type:
Articles
Place:
Uganda
Kibiro
Date:
1991
Topic:
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Pottery, Prehistoric  Search this
Nyoro roulette impressed pottery  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
CC1 .A7X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_487650

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