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Ben Shahn papers

Creator:
Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969  Search this
Names:
Baskin, Leonard, 1922-2000  Search this
Delano, Jack  Search this
Dugan, Alan  Search this
Evans, Walker, 1903-1975  Search this
Ferry, W. Hawkins  Search this
Francis, Arlene  Search this
Friendly, Fred W.  Search this
Gusten, Theodore, 1899-1978  Search this
Hirsch, Joseph, 1910-1981  Search this
Kingman, Dong, 1911-  Search this
Lange, Dorothea  Search this
Lee, Russell, 1903-1986  Search this
Lionni, Leo, 1910-  Search this
MacLeish, Archibald, 1892-1982  Search this
Martin, John Bartlow, 1915-1987  Search this
Mydans, Carl  Search this
Nakashima, George, 1905-  Search this
Nakashima, Marian  Search this
Odets, Clifford, 1906-1963  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley, 1904-1994  Search this
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Robbins, Jerome  Search this
Rodman, Selden, 1909-  Search this
Rothstein, Arthur, 1915-1985  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Soby, James Thrall, 1906-1979  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Vachon, John, 1914-1975  Search this
Williams, William Carlos, 1883-1963  Search this
Wolcott, Marion Post, 1910-1990  Search this
Zorach, William, 1887-1966  Search this
Extent:
24.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Awards
Sketches
Transcripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Drawings
Photographs
Prints
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1879-1990
bulk 1933-1970
Summary:
The papers of social realist painter, photographer, illustrator, printmaker, and teacher Ben Shahn (1898-1969) measure 24.8 linear feet and date from 1879-1990, with the bulk of the material dating from 1933-1970. The bulk of the collection consists of over 14 linear feet of incoming letters from artists, writers, colleagues, publishers, art organizations, galleries, and universities and colleges. Also found are biographical materials, project and source files, printed material, artwork by Shahn and others, photographs taken of and by Shahn, interview transcripts, sound recordings of interviews and a motion picture film.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of social realist painter, photographer, illustrator, printmaker, and teacher Ben Shahn (1898-1969) measure 24.8 linear feet and date from 1879-1990, with the bulk of the material dating from 1933-1970. The bulk of the collection consists of over 14 linear feet of incoming letters from artists, writers, colleagues, publishers, art organizations, galleries, and universities and colleges. Also found are biographical materials, project and source files, printed material, artwork by Shahn and others, photographs taken of and by Shahn, interview transcripts, sound recordings of interviews and a motion picture film.

Biographical material and family records include a 1924 passport for Shahn and his first wife, Tillie, biographical sketches of Shahn, and award certificates received by him.

Letters are primarily written to Shahn from family members, artists, writers, colleagues, publishers, art organizations, galleries, and universities and colleges. Notable correspondents include Leonard Baskin, Alexander Calder, Dorothea Lange, Walker Evans, Joseph Hirsch, Leo Lionni, John Bartlow Martin, George and Marian Nakashima, Clifford Odets, Charles Olson, Robert Osborn, Diego Rivera, Jerome Robbins, Selden Rodman, James Thrall Soby, Raphael Soyer, and William Carlos Williams. A small number of scattered letters from Shahn can also be found throughout the series.

Project files document approximately twenty-one of Shahn's commissions, including murals for the community center at Jersey Homesteads, the Bronx Central Annex Post Office, the Social Security Building in Washington D.C. , and the William E. Grady Vocational High School. The files also document his involvement in the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Roosevelt, in addition to projects for schools, temples and private homes.

Financial and legal records include consignment records, loan agreements, royalty statements and receipts for artwork sold.

Notes and writings are by Shahn and others including Alan Dugan, W. H. Ferry, Theodore Gusten, and John Bartlow Martin. They include lists of artwork, many of which are annotated.

Artwork includes a sketchbook and several unbound sketches and lettering by Shahn, in addition to drawings and prints by others including Shahn's children, Mario Casetta and Stefan Martin.

Source files contain printed material and photographs relating to topics depicted by Shahn in his artwork such as children, dams, farming, houses, industry, mines and miners, slums, war and workers. These files also contain scattered photographic prints by FSA and OWI photographers including Shahn, Jack Delano, Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Russell Lee, Carl Mydans, Marion Post Wolcott, Arthur Rothstein, and John Vachon.

Printed material includes news clippings covering Shahn and his career as well as subjects of interest to Shahn. Also found are exhibition catalogs and announcements for exhibitions for Shahn and others, and reproductions of Shahn's artwork including publications illustrated by him.

Photographs are of Shahn, his family and friends and colleagues including Alexander Calder, Jerome Robbins, Charles Sheeler, David Smith and William Zorach. Also included are photographs taken by Shahn of New York City and for the FSA in the 1930s, as well as photographs of artwork by Shahn. Photographs by others include one photo each by Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Russell Lee and Arthur Rothstein.

The collection also contains transcripts of eight radio, television and motion picture interviews of Shahn and a reel of 16mm motion picture film from the BBC-TV program "Monitor," in addition to sound recordings of interviews of Shahn by Tony Schwartz and Arlene Francis. Artifacts include a Christmas greeting in the form of a sock.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged as 12 series:

Series 1: Biographical and Family Records, 1879-1984 (Box 1, OV 36; 0.2 linear ft.)

Series 2: Letters, 1929-1990 (Boxes 1-25, 35, OVs 36-38; 14.4 linear ft.)

Series 3: Project Files, 1933-1975 (Boxes 25-26; OVs 36-37; 1.03 linear ft.)

Series 4: Financial and Legal Records, 1934-1988 (Boxes 26-27, 35; 0.81 linear ft.)

Series 5: Notes and Writings, circa 1933-1988 (Boxes 27-28; 1.62 linear ft.)

Series 6: Artwork, circa 1930s-1965 (Boxes 28, 35; 11 folders)

Series 7: Source Files, circa 1900s-1960s (Boxes 28-30, 35; 1.81 linear ft.)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1912-1988 (Boxes 30-33, 35, OV 39; 3.22 linear ft.)

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1900-1969 (Boxes 33-35; 0.86 linear ft.)

Series 10: Interview Transcripts, 1943-1968 (Box 34; 0.25 linear ft.)

Series 11: Audio and Video Recordings, 1959-1968 (Box 34; 0.25 linear ft.)

Series 12: Artifacts, circa 1930s-circa 1960s (Box 34; 2 items)
Biographical/Historical note:
Ben Shahn (1898-1969) was a social realist painter, muralist, printmaker, photographer, illustrator, and teacher who worked primarily in Brooklyn, New York and New Jersey. He was most active in the 1930s through the 1950s and worked on several federally funded arts projects, including the Farm Security Administration's photographic documentation project of rural America during the Depression.

Ben Shahn was born in Kovno, Lithuania and immigrated with his family to the United States in 1906 where he settled in Brooklyn, and later Roosevelt, New Jersey, after becoming a naturalized citizen in 1918.

Following an apprenticeship as a lithographer from 1913-1917, Shahn studied at New York University, the City College of New York, and the National Academy of Design from 1919-1922. He married Tillie Goldstein in 1922 and they had two children, Judith and Ezra.

Two years after Shahn's first solo exhibition at the Downtown Gallery in 1930, his Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti, a series of 23 gouaches about the Sacco and Vanzetti trial of the 1920s, was exhibited at the Downtown Gallery to critical and public acclaim. The exhibition marked the beginning of Shahn's reputation as one of the most important social realist painters in America. Shahn's commitment to social and political justice found a natural outlet in mural painting when, in 1933, he was hired to assist Diego Rivera on the labor and industry mural Man at the Crossroads, for New York City's Rockefeller Center. The mural was destroyed amid controversy in 1933 before it was completed, but Shahn had learned much about the art of fresco painting during the project and was inspired by the potential of the mural as a unique art form for presenting life's struggles and stories to a large public audience. Between 1933 and 1937 Shahn worked on various murals for other buildings, including New York's Central Park Casino (circa 1934) and Riker's Island Prison (1934), none of which saw completion. In 1937, however, the Farm Security Administration (FSA) commissioned Shahn to execute a mural for the Community Center in the town of Jersey Homesteads, later Roosevelt, New Jersey, which Shahn completed in 1938. Shahn settled in Jersey Homesteads the following year and remained there for the rest of his life. Other important mural commissions followed for the Bronx Central Post office (1939) and the Social Security Building in Washington DC (1942).

One of Shahn's assistants on the Jersey Homesteads mural was Bernarda Bryson, whom he had met in 1933 when she came to New York to interview Rivera about the Rockefeller Center mural controversy for an Ohio newspaper. Shahn and Bryson became lifetime companions and had three children, Susanna, Jonathan and Abigail, although they did not marry until shortly before Shahn's death in 1969. Shahn and Tillie Goldstein were divorced in 1944.

Shahn had enrolled with the federal Public Works of Art Project in 1934, and between 1935 and 1938 he and Bryson travelled across country as Shahn photographed poverty-stricken areas and documented rural life for the Farm Security Administration (FSA) and the Resettlement Agency. Shahn's interest in photography developed in the early 1930s when, encouraged by his friendship with Walker Evans, he began photographing street scenes and people in New York City. He later used the images as the basis for many of his prints and paintings.

In 1942 Shahn began working for the Office of War Information (OWI) and was instructed to produce posters and pamphlets explaining to citizens the necessities of wartime, such as the need for secrecy and food rationing. Ultimately, only two of Shahn's posters were ever used; the rest were rejected as being too harsh for their intended audience. Shahn later worked for the Congress of Industrial Organization Political Action Committee (CIO-PAC), producing posters for the 1944 campaign to re-elect Roosevelt, who he believed in deeply. He was promoted to director of the CIO's Graphic Arts Division for the 1946 congressional campaign following Roosevelt's death, but that job ended when the election went poorly for the Democratic party.

Shahn returned increasingly to painting and a retrospective of his work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in 1947. He also became more active in academia as an accomplished writer, teacher and lecturer. He received honorary doctorates from Princeton University and Harvard University, and become the Charles Eliot Norton professor at Harvard in 1956. Shahn's Norton lectures were collected and published as the influential The Shape of Content in 1957. He also began to work as a commercial artist for a variety of companies and publications including CBS, Time, Harper's, and the Container Corporation of America. Shahn believed, however, that the artist's ideas and integrity must always be reflected in his commercial art. He refused to compromise on this point and was very selective in his choice of commercial commissions. Shahn illustrated many books and articles, designed sets for stage productions such as New York Export: Opus Jazz, choreographed by Jerome Robbins, and designed mural mosaics for synagogues, universities and private homes.

Since the 1930s Shahn had been represented by Edith Halpert at the Downtown Gallery, but his relationship with her was always contentious on the subject of payments Shahn received for commercial work, and became increasingly so as his income from such sources increased. Finally, in 1968, Shahn wrote to Halpert telling her that after ten years of "an accumulation of ill-feeling, discomfort and recrimination between us" he felt compelled to end their dealer-artist relationship.

By the time of Shahn's break with Halpert his health had begun to fail. He died of a heart attack following surgery in a New York City hospital on March 14, 1969.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Archives of American Art holds four oral history interviews with Ben Shahn: 1964 Apr. 14 interview conducted by Richard K. Doud for the Archives of American Art New Deal and the Arts Project in which Shahn speaks of his travels and work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA) and the American image as portrayed by FSA; 1965 Jan. 17 interview; 1965 Oct. 3. interview conducted by Harlan Phillips for the Archives of American Art New Deal and the Arts Project; and 1968 Sept. 27 interview conducted by Forrest Selvig. Most of these interviews have transcripts available online.

The Archives also holds the Bernarda Bryson Shahn papers, circa 1947-2005, and two oral history interviews with Bernarda Bryson Shahn: 1983 Apr. 29 and 1995 July 3.
Separated Materials note:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel N70-6) including addresses and essays by Shahn, seven royalty statements, and three letters from publishers. Many of the writings found on this reel were included in subsequent donations. All other lent material was returned to the lender and is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The Ben Shahn papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in several installments between 1967-1991 by Shahn's widow, Bernarda Bryson Shahn who also lent materials for microfilming in 1969. Jean Shahn, Ben Shahn's daughter-in-law and estate representative, donated one additional sketch in 2018.
Restrictions:
Access to original papers requires an appointment. Access to audiovisual recording with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Ben Shahn papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Printmakers -- United States  Search this
Illustrators -- United States  Search this
Photographers -- United States  Search this
Painters -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Awards
Sketches
Transcripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Drawings
Photographs
Prints
Sound recordings
Interviews
Citation:
Ben Shahn papers, 1879-1990, bulk 1933-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.shahben
See more items in:
Ben Shahn papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-shahben
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Peter Paone

Interviewee:
Paone, Peter, 1936-  Search this
Interviewer:
Veloric, Cynthia  Search this
Names:
Pratt Institute  Search this
Print Club (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Castellón, Federico, 1914-1971  Search this
Rodman, Selden, 1909-  Search this
Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969  Search this
Spruance, Benton, 1904-1967  Search this
Extent:
202 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1991 Sept. 27
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Peter Paone conducted 1991 Sept. 27, by Cynthia Veloric, for the Archives of American Art Philadelphia Project.
Paone discusses his family and early education; art classes at the Fleisher Art Memorial and the Philadelphia College of Art; studying with Benton Spruance; exhibiting at the Print Club of Philadelphia and the Philadelphia Museum of Art; teaching at Pratt Institute; working with Ben Shahn in the late 1950s as a studio assistant; being included in Selden Rodman's book "The Insiders"; his galleries in New York and Houston; receiving a Tiffany and Guggenheim grant to study in London; his relationship with Federico Castellon; and the development of his style, subject matter and technique.
Biographical / Historical:
Peter Paone (1936- ) is a printmaker from Philadelphia, Pa.
General:
Originally recorded on 4 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 8 digital wav files. Duration is 4 hrs., 56 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics, and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript: Patrons must microfilm copy.
Topic:
Prints -- Technique -- United States  Search this
Prints -- Technique  Search this
Printmakers -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.paone91
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-paone91

Horace Pippin, a Negro painter in America / by Selden Rodman

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Pippin, Horace 1888-1946  Search this
Subject:
Pippin, Horace 1888-1946  Search this
Physical description:
88 p., [5] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 31 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1947
Topic:
Painters  Search this
African American painters  Search this
Primitivism in art  Search this
Call number:
ND237.P65 R6 1947b
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_657054

The Peru traveler; a concise history and guide

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 189 pages illustrations, map (on lining papers), portraits 24 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
Peru
Date:
1967
[1967]
Topic:
History  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_929566

Haitian arts

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Type:
Juvenile literature
Date:
1992
Topic:
Art, Haitian  Search this
Call number:
GN301 .F138
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_665968

Genius in the backlands : popular artists of Brazil / Selden Rodman ; photographs by Manu Sassoonian, William Negron, and Marilyn Bridges

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Physical description:
148 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Brazil
Date:
1977
C1977
Topic:
Art, Brazilian  Search this
Primitivism in art  Search this
Artists--Biography  Search this
Call number:
N6655.5.P7R62X 1977
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_439406

Spirits of the night : the vaudun gods of Haiti / Selden Rodman and Carole Cleaver ; foreword by Jay Livernois

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Cleaver, Carole  Search this
Physical description:
xvi, 144 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Haiti
Date:
1992
C1992
Topic:
Voodooism  Search this
Religion  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_467289

Horace Pippin, a Negro painter in America

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Subject:
Pippin, Horace 1888-1946  Search this
Physical description:
88 p. illus., plates (some mounted col.) ports. 31 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1947
Call number:
N40.1.P657 R6h
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_310376

The Selden Rodman Collection of popular art : [exhibition held] June 13-30, 1983 and September 6-22, 1983

Author:
Ramapo College Art Gallery  Search this
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Subject:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002 Art collections  Search this
Physical description:
31 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Date:
1983
[1983?]
Topic:
Art, Mexican  Search this
Art, Haitian  Search this
Art, Brazilian  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Primitivism in art  Search this
Call number:
N5313 R16 1983
N5313.R16 1983
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_314603

The poetry of flight; an anthology

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Physical description:
190 p. 21 cm
Type:
Literary collections
Date:
1969
[1969, c1941]
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Call number:
PN6071.A4R6 1969X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_320365

Haiti: the Black Republic; the complete story and guide

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Physical description:
xvii, 168 p. illus., ports., map, music 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Haiti
Date:
1954
Call number:
F1915.R6X 1954
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_342741

Artists in tune with their world : popular artists of the Americas from the Selden Rodman collection

Author:
Yale University Art Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002 Art collections  Search this
Physical description:
32 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
United States
America
Haiti
Date:
1985
Topic:
Folk art--Private collections  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Art--Private collections  Search this
Primitivism in art  Search this
Call number:
N6501 .A795 1985
N6501.A795 1985
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_350423

Where art is joy : Haitian art : the first forty years / Selden Rodman

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Physical description:
236 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 31 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Haiti
Date:
1988
C1988
Topic:
Art, Haitian  Search this
Primitivism in art  Search this
Call number:
N6606.5.P74R64 1988X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_368439

Jon Serl, painter : the Art Galleries of Ramapo College / [text by Selden Rodman.]

Author:
Serl, Jon 1894-1993  Search this
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Hemphill, Herbert Waide  Search this
Ramapo College Art Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Serl, Jon 1894-1993 Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
1 v. (unpaged) : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1986
Call number:
N40.1.S4759 R69 1986
N40.1.S4759R69 1986
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_375766

Portrait of the artist as an American; Ben Shahn, a biography with pictures

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Subject:
Shahn, Ben 1898-1969  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 180 p. illus., ports., col. plates 26 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1951
[1951]
Call number:
N40.1.S52 R6 1951
N40.1.S52R6 1951
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_387158

Conversations with artists. Introd. by Alexander Eliot

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Physical description:
234 p. illus. 22 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1957
20th century
Topic:
Artists  Search this
Artists--Correspondence  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Call number:
N6536 .R6 1957X
N6536.R6 1957X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_393456

Three generations of Haitian art : Allentown Art Museum, July 18-September 26, 1982 / selected by Selden Rodman

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Allentown Art Museum  Search this
Physical description:
[28] p. : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Date:
1982
C1982
Topic:
Art, Haitian  Search this
Call number:
N6606.T48 1982X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_200636

Renaissance in Haiti; popular painters in the Black Republic

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Physical description:
134 p. illus. (part col.) map (on lining-papers) 26 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Haiti
Date:
1948
[1948]
Topic:
Painting  Search this
Painters  Search this
Call number:
ND306.R6X 1948
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_282055

Haitian art : exhibit held at the Americana Hotel, Nov. 5 through 16 [1973]

Author:
Streetworkers Incorporated  Search this
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Americana Hotel, New York  Search this
Physical description:
[32] p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Date:
1973
1973]
Topic:
Art, Haitian  Search this
Call number:
N6606 .S915
N6606.S915
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_117652

Artists in tune with their world : masters of popular art in the Americas and their relation to the folk tradition / by Selden Rodman

Author:
Rodman, Selden 1909-2002  Search this
Physical description:
222 p., [34] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
America
Date:
1982
C1982
Topic:
Art  Search this
Primitivism in art  Search this
Indian art  Search this
Ethnic art  Search this
Call number:
N6501 .R6 1982X
N6501.R6 1982X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_148436

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