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Cleve Gray papers

Creator:
Gray, Cleve  Search this
Names:
Berry-Hill Galleries  Search this
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
Connecticut. Commission on Arts, Tourism, Culture, History and Film  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Neuberger Museum of Art  Search this
Pratt Institute  Search this
Princeton University  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design  Search this
Barzun, Jacques, 1907-  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Davis, Jim, 1901-1974  Search this
Dillenberger, Jane  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Ernst, Jimmy, 1920-1984  Search this
Gabo, Naum, 1890-1977  Search this
Grace, Louise N.  Search this
Gray, Francine du Plessix  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973  Search this
Marin, John, 1870-1953  Search this
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956  Search this
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Villon, Jacques, 1875-1963  Search this
Weber, Nicholas Fox, 1947-  Search this
Extent:
9.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Poems
Articles
Photographs
Reviews (documents)
Notes
Illustrations
Notebooks
Sketches
Drafts (documents)
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Interviews
Manuscripts
Paintings
Prints
Watercolors
Drawings
Lectures
Date:
1933-2005
Summary:
The Cleve Gray papers, 1933-2005, measure 9.2 linear feet. Papers include biographical material, alphabetical files, writings, artwork, audio/visual records, artifacts, printed material, and photographs. Extensive alphabetical files contain personal and professional correspondence as well as subject files relating to projects and interests. Especially well-documented are: Gray's involvement with the Vietnam protest movement; and Threnody, his best-known work composed of fourteen large panels lamenting the dead of both sides sides in Vietnam, commissioned by the Neuberger Museum of Art.
Scope and Content Note:
The Cleve Gray papers, 1933-2005, measure 9.2 linear feet. Papers include biographical material, alphabetical files, writings, artwork, audio/visual records, artifacts, printed material, and photographs. Extensive alphabetical files contain personal and professional correspondence as well as subject files relating to projects and interests. Especially well-documented are: Gray's involvement with the Vietnam movement; and Threnody, his best-known work composed of fourteen large panels lamenting the dead of both sides sides in Vietnam, commissioned by the Neuberger Museum of Art.

Among the biographical material are award and membership certificates, biographical notes, and personal documentation.

The alphabetical files contain Cleve Gray's personal and professional correspondence, as well as subject files relating to projects and interests. Correspondence is with friends and family, colleagues, publishers, museum curators and directors, art dealers, collectors, and fans. Among the correspondents of note are: Jacques Barzun, James E. Davis, Naum Gabo, Louise N. Grace, Hans and Fridel Richter, and Jacques and Gaby Villon. Other substantial correspondence includes: Berry-Hill Galleries, Betty Parsons Gallery, Connecticut Commission on the Arts, Jacques Seligmann and Co., Neuberger Museum of Art, Pratt Institute, Princeton University, and Rhode Island School of Design. Subject files mostly consist of correspondence, but include printed material and some photographs. Among the subject files are: Art Collection of Cleve and Francine Gray, Artist-Dealer Consignments and Visual Artists' Rights Act of 1989, Artists' Tax Equity Act of 1979, Promised Gifts to Museums, Threnody, Vestments, and Vietnam Protest. Of particular interest are files relating to the Estate of Hans Richter (Cleve Gray, executor), and Gray's research correspondence and illustrations for his Cosmopolitan article "Women-Leaders of Modern Art."

Writings are manuscripts and drafts, research materials, notes, and miscellaneous writings by Cleve Gray and other authors. Those by Gray include articles and catalog introductions on a wide range of art-related topics, as well as book and exhibition reviews. Also found are a book proposal, texts and notes for lectures and talks, miscellaneous notes, poems, political statements, and student papers. Of particular interest are autobiographical notes in the form of a chronology that his biographer, Nicholas Fox Weber, cited as an "autochronology."

Among the writings by other authors are pieces about Cleve Gray including Nicholas Fox Weber's manuscript Cleve Gray. A significant amount of material relates to three books edited by Gray: David Smith by David Smith: Sculpture and Writings, Hans Richter, and John Marin. Research material survives for an unpublished volume, Naum Gabo. Also included are notes relating to his translation of A l'Infinitif by Marcel Duchamp. Jane Daggett Dillenberger is represented by a lecture, "The Resurrection in Art." The remaining items by other authors are unsigned; of particular interest is a small notebook of reminiscences and notes about Jackson Pollock.

Artwork by Cleve Gray consists mostly drawings and sketches, and a small number of paintings, prints, and watercolors. Works by other artists consist are an unsigned mobile of paper cut-outs, possibly by Alexander Calder, and a pencil drawing signed Dick (probably Richard Avedon).

Audio recordings are a radio broadcast featuring Cleve Gray, several lectures by Gray on John Marin, and a lecture titled "Meaning in the Visual Arts." Other recordings are of Hans Richter and an interview with Jimmy Ernst conducted by Francine du Plessix Gray. Also found is a videocassette of "Glenville School Students at SUNY (Lincoln Center Activity)."

Artifacts are a Chinese scroll representative of those that hung in Cleve Gray's studio, two of his paintbrushes, Aberdeen-Angus Breeders' Association blue ribbon, and Neuberger Museum of Art Lifetime Achievement Award.

The vast majority of printed material - articles, clippings, exhibition catalogs and announcements, reproductions of art work, etc. - are about or by Cleve Gray. Miscellaneous items and publications mentioning Gray consist of annual reports, brochures, calendars, newsletters, programs, etc. Clippings about Vietnam and Vietnam protest memorabilia reflect his passionate involvement in the anti-war movement; a small number of these items mention Gray or were written by him.

Photographs are of artwork, events, people, places, and miscellaneous subjects. Most of the art work appearing in the photographs is by Cleve Gray and includes images of destroyed paintings. Also found is an original print of Photo Abstraction by Gray, circa 1934. Of particular note are photographs of Threnody, among them preparatory drawings and views of the work in progress. Photographs of artwork by other artists include Louise N. Grace, Jacques Lipchitz, John Marin, Hans Richter, and Jacques Villon.

Photographs of people are mainly portraits of Gray, and views of him with his wife and sons. Other individuals appearing in photographs are Hans Richter and some of Richter's descendants. Pictures of places consist of Gray's studio.

Events are an unidentified exhibition opening. Miscellaneous subjects are mostly exhibition installations. Illustrations consist of photographs published in David Smith by David Smith: Sculpture and Writings. Also found are small number of negatives and color transparencies.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1943-circa 2001 (Box 1; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 2: Alphabetical Files, 1936-2005 (Boxes 1-5, 9; 4.3 linear ft.)

Series 3: Writings, 1935-2000 (Boxes 5-6; 0.85 linear ft.)

Series 4: Artwork, circa 1933-1987 (Boxes 6, 9, OV 12; 0.45 linear ft.)

Series 5: Audio/Visual Records, 1971-1989 (Box 6; 0.25 linear ft.)

Series 6: Artifacts, 1957-1999 (Box 6, RD 11; 0.45 linear ft.)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1933-2005 (Boxes 7-8; 1.25 linear ft.)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1934-2002 (Boxes 8-10; 1.15 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Abstract Expressionist painter, sculptor, and writer Cleve Gray (1918-2004) lived and worked in Connecticut where he was politically active in the Vietnam protest movement and other liberal causes.

Born Cleve Ginsberg in New York City (the family changed its name to Gray in 1936), he attended the Ethical Culture School and at a young age developed a fascination with color and paint. At the urging of friends, Cleve's parents allowed him to accompany a school friend for lessons with George Bellows' student Antonia Nell. She encouraged and inspired the young artist, and a still life he painted in her class was shown at the National Academy of Design's 1932 annual exhibition. Miss Nell also introduced him to Louise N. Grace, an artist who became a good friend and had a lasting influence on him. While a student at Phillips Academy, Cleve studied painting with Bartlett Hayes and aspired to paint in France. Upon his graduation in 1936, he was awarded the Samuel F. B. Morse Prize for most promising art student.

Gray's mother was always supportive of his career choice. His businessman father, who didn't understand his son's desire to be an artist, insisted on a college education. Cleve chose Princeton, where he majored in art and archaeology, and studied painting with James E. Davis. His senior thesis was on Chinese landscape painting; both Eastern philosophy and art were long-term influences on Gray's work and outlook. He graduated summa cum laude in 1940, and then spent several months painting while living at the farm of a family friend in Mendham, New Jersey.

When a doctor suggeted that a dry climate might relieve sinus and asthma problems, Gray moved to Tucson, Arizona. Once settled in the desert, he contacted Louise N. Grace, whom he had met as a young teenager through his art instructor. Miss Grace, an artist and daughter of the founder of W. R. Grace and Co., was a highly cultured and independent woman older than his parents. The summer before Gray entered Phillips Academy, she had hired him to brush ground color onto canvases for murals she was painting for "Eleven Arches," her home in Tuscon then under construction. Miss Grace invited Gray to visit "Eleven Arches" to see the completed murals, and despite the substantial age difference, their friendship deepened; Gray found in her intellectual and spiritual guidance that was lacking in his own family. He remained in Tucson until enlisting in the U. S. Army in 1942, and they corresponded frequently during the the war. When a stroke in 1948 prevented Miss Grace from participating in the extensive tour of Europe she was arranging for a small group of friends, including Gray, she provided sufficient funds and insisted he make the trip on his own. Another stroke, suffered while Gray was traveling, left her in a coma; he was not permitted to see her again. Upon her death in 1954, Gray inherited "Eleven Arches."

Between 1943 and 1946, Gray was stationed in England, France, and Germany, serving in Army Signal Intelligence. Most of his work was performed at night, and he spent his free time drawing. While in London, Gray produced many colored pencil drawings of buildings that had been bombed. In France, a Red Cross volunteered to introduce him to Jacques Villon; although unfamiliar with the artist, Gray knew of Villon's brother, Marcel Duchamp, and accepted the invitation. Jacques and Gaby Villon lived near Gray's billet and he became a frequent visitor. Their friendship was important to his development as an artist. After being discharged from the Army in 1946, Gray remained in France to work with Villon who introduced him to the study of color and the concept of intellectual quality in painting. Gray also studied informally with André Lhote, Villon's former teacher. "American Painters in Paris," an exhibition presented in 1946 at Galerie Durand-Ruel, included work by Cleve Gray.

He returned to New York City in 1946. In the tight post-war rental market Gray managed to find a small room upstairs from a grocery store on East 106th Street for use as a studio. He commenced painting the London Ruins series based on drawings he had made during the war, and began thinking about exhibiting in New York. Gray secured introductions to Pierre Matisse, Curt Valentin, and Dorothy Miller. They encouraged him, but no opportunities came his way until Germain Seligmann, whose gallery was expanding its scope to include contemporary art, followed the advice of Curt Valentin and looked at Gray's work. Gary's first solo exhibition, held at Jacques Seligmann and Co., included selections from the London Ruins series, paintings done in Maine and Arizona, and a few portraits. The New York Times called it "an auspicious first," and one of the London Ruins series was selected by Edward Alden Jewell for the "Critic's Exhibition" at Grand Central Gallery.

Gray found New York City too frenetic. In 1949 he bought a large, old house in Warren, Connecticut, and lived and worked at "Graystones" for the remainder of his life. Half of a 6-car garage was converted to a studio; many years later, his studio moved to a barn, its renovation and design planned by sculptor and architect Tony Smith.

He married Francine du Plessix in 1957. Always interested in literature and philosophy, in the 1960s Francine du Plessix Gray began contributing articles to The New Yorker and is still affiliated with the magazine. Her reviews and articles appeared in prominent publications, and she wrote several award-winning novels and biographies. Their sons, Thaddeus and Luke (now a painter), were born in 1959 and 1961. Francine's mother, Tatiana du Plessix (the hat designer Tatiana of Saks), and step-father, the sculptor Alexander Liberman (also former art director of Vogue and later editorial director of Condé Nast publications) became Cleve Gray's closest friends.

The paintings and drawings of Cleve Gray - first consisting of figures and portraits, and then abstract compositions - were often produced in series. The earliest series, London Ruins, grew from the colored pencil drawings made while stationed in London during World War II. Travels to France, Italy, Greece, Morocco, Hawaii, Spain, Egypt, Japan, and Czechoslovakia, inspired many series, among them: Etruscan, Augury, Ceres, Demeter Landscape, Hera, Morocco, Hawaii, Ramses, Perne, Hatshepsut, Roman Walls, Zen, and Prague. His hometown, the Holocaust, and musicians inspired other series: Warren, Sleepers Awake!, Bela Bartok, and Four Heads of Anton Bruckner. Some series were works on paper, others were collage canvases, and a few series later spawned prints. Gray began using acrylics in the 1940s. Although the medium offered many benefits, he did not always like its appearance and frequently returned to oils. Around 1966 Gray was painting almost exclusively with acrylic, and eventually developed a technique of thinning the paint and applying successive layers of color (sometimes by pouring or with a sponge) on cotton duck rather than traditional canvas.

Gray was attracted to sculpture, too, working in that medium at different points in his career. His first sculpture, in plaster, was completed in 1959. In the early 1960s he visited a commercial sand-casting foundry and became excited about learning to cast in bronze. He made about a dozen sculptures to cast in sand, but due to too much undercutting, their casting became too difficult a problem. Lava flows seen while in Hawaii during 1970 and 1971 inspired a return to sculpture. This time, he used wood, papier maché, and metal. Gray then decided these pieces should be cast in bronze, and he was determined to do it himself. Friends taught him the lost wax process and he began working at the Tallix Foundry in Peekskill, New York where, over the next year, he cast about forty bronzes.

Gray's best known work is Threnody, a lament for the dead of both sides in Vietnam. In 1972, Gray received a commission to fill a very large gallery of the soon-to-open Neuberger Museum of Art (State University of New York, College at Purchase) designed by Philip Johnson. Friends of the Neuberger Museum paid his expenses and Gray, who was enormously excited about the project he considered a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity, donated his time. Developing plans for the execution of Threnody consumed most of his time during 1972 and 1973. Composed of a series of fourteen panels, each approximately twenty feet square, the piece presented a number of technical challenges. It was constructed and painted in situ during the summer and early fall of 1973. Since then, Threnody has been reinstalled at the Neuberger Museum of Art on several occasions.

Gray was commissioned to design liturgical vestments for two Episcopal churches in Connecticut in the 1970s. A chasuble, stoles, and a mitre were commissioned by the Episcopal Diocese of Connecticut in 1984.

He won the "Outdoor Art at the Station Competition," for Union Station, Hartford, Connecticut. His very large porcelain enamel tile mural, Movement in Space, was installed on the façade of the transportation center in 1988.

Gray began writing occasional articles and exhibition reviews in the late 1940s. His concern with rational structure in art led him to question Abstract Expressionism and write "Narcissus in Chaos." This article, published in 1959 by The American Scholar, drew considerable attention. In 1960, Cosmopolitan published "Women - Leaders of Modern Art" that featured Nell Blaine, Joan Brown, Elaine de Kooning, Helen Frankenthaler, Sonia Gretchoff, Grace Hartigan, Ethel Magafan, Louise Nevelson, and Georgia O'Keeffe. Between 1960 and 1970, Gray was a contributing editor of Art In America, producing numerous articles (a few co-authored with Francine) and reviews for the periodical. He edited three books, David Smith by David Smith: Scupture and Writings, Hans Richter, and John Marin, all published by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, and translated Marcel Duchamp's A l'Infinitif.

During the early 1960s, Gray became intensely focused on the situation in Vietnam. His first artistic response came in 1963 with Reverend Quan Duc, painted to commemorate a Buddhist monk who had immolated himself. Francine, too, felt strongly about the issue and over time the couple became increasingly active in the anti-war movement. They joined a number of organizations and helped to found a local chapter of Clergy and Laymen Concerned about Vietnam. The years 1968 and 1969 were an especially intense and active period for the Grays. They protested, wrote and spoke out against the war, raised funds to support anti-war political candidates, and on a few occasions were arrested and jailed. Writing for Art in America, editing the book series, and anti-war activities left little time for his art. In 1970 Gray refocused his attention on painting.

Beginning in 1947, Gray was always represented by a New York Gallery: Jacques Seligmann and Co. (1947-1959), Staempfli Gallery (1960-1965), Saidenberg Gallery (1965-1968), Betty Parsons Gallery (1968-1983), Armstrong Gallery (1984-1987), and Berry-Hill Galleries (1988-2003). He was represented by galleries in other cities, as well, but not as consistently or for such long periods.

He exhibited extensively in group and solo exhibitions throughout the United States and internationally. In addition to numerous solo exhibitions presented by the dealers who represented Gray, there were retrospective exhibitions at: Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Brooklyn Museum, Columbus Museum of Art, Krannert Art Museum (University of Illinois, Champaign), Princeton University Art Museum, Rhode Island School of Design, and Wadsworth Atheneum.

Many museums' permanent collections include the work of Cleve Gray, among them: Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Butler Institute of American Art, Columbus Museum of Art, Neuberger Museum of Art (SUNY, College at Purchase), the Museum of Modern Art (New York), Newark Museum, Oklahoma City Museum of Art, Phillips Collection, Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Smithsonian Institution, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Whitney Museum of American Art, and Yale University Art Gallery.

Cleve Gray served as artist-in-residence at the Oklahoma City Museum of Art in 1963 and at the Honolulu Academy of Arts in 1970, both sponsored by Ford Foundation programs. In 1980, he was appointed an artist-in-residence at the American Academy in Rome, where Francine concurrently served as a writer-in-residence; they returned for shorter periods during each of the subsequent seven years. Cleve Gray was presented the Connecticut Arts Award in 1987, and the Neuberger Museum of Art Lifetime Achievement Award in 1999. He was awarded an honorary degree by the University of Hartford in 1992, and was elected a member of The American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1998. In addition, he was a trustee of the Neuberger Museum of Art, New York Studio School, Rhode Island School of Design, and Wadsworth Atheneum.

Cleve Gray hit his head and suffered a massive subdural hematoma after falling on ice outside of his home. He died the following day, December 8, 2004.
Separated Material:
Exhibition catalogs and announcements and two scrapbooks donated to the Archives in 1967 and 1968 were microfilmed on reels D314-D315. Items on reel D315, transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum Library in 1975, are not described in this finding aid.
Provenance:
The Cleve Gray papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by Mr. Gray in 1967 and 1968. The bulk of the collection was given by his widow, Francine du Plessix Gray, in 2007 and 2008.
Restrictions:
Use of original material requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordigs with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters  Search this
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Women artists -- Photographs  Search this
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 -- Protest Movements -- United States  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Designers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Poems
Articles
Photographs
Reviews (documents)
Notes
Illustrations
Notebooks
Sketches
Drafts (documents)
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Interviews
Manuscripts
Paintings
Prints
Watercolors
Drawings
Lectures
Citation:
Cleve Gray papers, 1933-2005. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.grayclev
See more items in:
Cleve Gray papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-grayclev

Hans Theo Richter papers, [ca. 1914-1981]

Creator:
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Subject:
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Ernst, Max  Search this
Ray, Man  Search this
Topic:
Experimental films  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8333
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210505
AAA_collcode_richhans
Theme:
Art Movements and Schools
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210505

Interview with Hans Richter

Creator:
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Varian, Elayne H. (Elayne Hanley), 1913-1987  Search this
Type:
Sound Recording
Date:
circa 1968
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)12312
See more items in:
Exhibition records of the Contemporary Study Wing of the Finch College Museum of Art, 1943-1975, bulk 1964-1975
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_12312

Exhibition records of the Contemporary Study Wing of the Finch College Museum of Art

Creator:
Finch College. Museum of Art  Search this
Varian, Elayne H.  Search this
Names:
Acconci, Vito, 1940-  Search this
Anderson, David K., 1935-  Search this
Benglis, Lynda, 1941-  Search this
Benyon, Margaret, 1940-  Search this
Bochner, Mel, 1940-  Search this
Brooks, James, 1906-1992  Search this
Castelli, Leo  Search this
Chase, Doris, 1923-  Search this
Cross, Lloyd G.  Search this
Davis, Douglas  Search this
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Feigen, Richard L., 1930-  Search this
Glimcher, Arnold B.  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph, 1903-1974  Search this
Graham, Dan, 1942-  Search this
Hollander, Irwin  Search this
Insley, Will, 1929-2011  Search this
Jackson, Martha Kellogg  Search this
Janis, Sidney, 1896-1989  Search this
Kirby, Michael  Search this
Levine, Les, 1935-  Search this
Lichtenstein, Roy, 1923-1997  Search this
Mazur, Michael, 1935-2009  Search this
Meyer, Ursula, 1915-  Search this
Nauman, Bruce, 1941-  Search this
O'Doherty, Brian  Search this
Parsons, Betty  Search this
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Siegelaub, Seth, 1941-  Search this
Smith, Tony, 1912-1980  Search this
Sonfist, Alan  Search this
Weiner, Sam  Search this
Wise, Howard  Search this
Extent:
20.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Interviews
Photographs
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Museum records
Date:
1943-1975
bulk 1964-1975
Summary:
The exhibition records of the Contemporary Study Wing of the Finch College Museum of Art measure 20.9 linear feet and date from 1943 to 1975, with the bulk of records dating from the period its galleries were in operation, from 1964 to 1975. Over two-thirds of the collection consists of exhibition files, which contain a wide range of documentation including artist files, checklists, correspondence, writings, photographs, interviews, numerous films and videos, artist statements, printed materials, and other records. Also found within the collection are administrative records of the museum, artist files, and papers of the Contemporary Wing's director and curator, Elayne Varian, which were produced outside of her work at Finch College.
Scope and Contents:
The exhibition records of the Contemporary Study Wing of the Finch College Museum of Art measure 20.9 linear feet and date from 1943 to 1975, with the bulk of records dating from the period its galleries were in operation, from 1964 to 1975. Over two-thirds of the collection consists of exhibition files, which contain a wide range of documentation including artist files, checklists, correspondence, writings, photographs, interviews, numerous films and videos, artist statements, printed materials, and other records. Also found within the collection are administrative records of the museum, artist files, and papers of the Contemporary Wing's director and curator, Elayne Varian, which were produced outside of her work at Finch College.

Administrative records include records relating to the general operation of the Contemporary Wing concerning fundraising, professional associations, budget, contact information for artists, donors, and lenders to exhibitions. Also found are records of the permanent collection of artworks acquired by the museum between 1964 and 1975 from contemporary artists and collectors of contemporary art.

Artist files contain basic biographical information on over 150 contemporary artists, with scattered correspondence, photographs, technical information about artworks, artist statements, and other writings. Artist files also include an incomplete run of artist questionnaires gathered by the New York Arts Calendar Annual for 1964.

Elayne Varian's personal papers include curatorial records, a course schedule and syllabus related to her teaching activities, and various writings. Curatorial projects documented in Varian's papers include three programs produced outside of Finch College, including a juried show at the New York State Fair in 1967, a film series at Everson Museum of Syracuse University, and an exhibition at Guild Hall in East Hampton in 1973. Several of Varian's writing projects involved interviews, which are also found in this series in the form of sound recordings and transcripts. Interview-based writing projects include individual profiles on Brian O'Doherty and Babette Newberger, and interviews conducted for an article on the artist-dealer relationship published in Art in America (January 1970). Dealers interviewed for the latter project include Leo Castelli, Virginia Dwan, John Gibson, Richard Feigen, Arnold Glimcher, Fred Mueller, Martha Jackson, Sidney Janis, Betty Parsons, Seth Siegelaub, and Howard Wise. Artists interviewed include Roy Lichtenstein, Adolph Gottlieb, and Charles Ross.

Exhibition files, comprising the bulk of the collection, document exhibitions held in the Contemporary Wing during its existence from 1964 to 1975. Types of records found in the series include exhibition catalogs, correspondence, loan agreements, lists, contact information, insurance valuations of artworks, photographs, biographical information on artists, clippings, posters, press releases, and other publicity materials. In addition to the rich textual and photographic records found for exhibitions, numerous audiovisual recordings are also found, some of which were made in preparation for an exhibition, some document mounted exhibitions, and others are artworks themselves or components of artworks exhibited in the galleries. Interviews with artists, dealers, and others involved in exhibitions include Alan Sonfist, Mel Bochner, Hans Richter, Ruth Richards, James Brooks and Janet Katz, Margaret Benyon, Irwin Hollander (transcript only), David Anderson, Doris Chase, Will Insley, Michael Kirby, Les Levine, Ursula Meyer, Brian O'Doherty, Charles Ross, Tony Smith, Douglas Davis, Jane Davis, Russ Connor, Les Levine, Michael Mazur, Paul Gedeohn, and physicists Lloyd G. Cross, Allyn Z. Lite, and Gerald Thomas Bern Pethick. Video artworks, recordings of performances, or components of multimedia artworks are found by artists Vito Acconci, Kathy Dillon, Douglas Davis, Dan Graham, Les Levine, Bruce Nauman, Michael Netter, Eric Siegel, and Robert Whitman. A film of the Art in Process: The Visual Development of a Structure (1966) exhibition is found, and video recordings of artists Lynda Benglis, Michael Singer, and Sam Wiener form as part of the documentation for the Projected Art: Artists at Work (1971) exhibition.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 4 series.

Series 1: Administrative Records, 1950-1975 (2 linear feet; Boxes 1-2, 22, OV 23)

Series 2: Artist Files, 1958-1975 (2.4 linear feet; Boxes 3-4, 22, OV 23, FC 27-28)

Series 3: Elayne Varian Personal Papers, 1965-1970 (1.3 linear feet; Boxes 5-6)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1943-1975 (14.9 linear feet; Boxes 6-22, OV 24-25, FC 26)
Biographical / Historical:
The Contemporary Study Wing of the Finch College Museum of Art, later called simply the "Contemporary Wing," was established in 1964 by the president of Finch College, Roland De Marco, as an extension the Finch College Museum of Art in New York City.

Its mission was to educate art history students at the Manhattan women's college who were interested in working with contemporary art. DeMarco, himself an art collector, hired Elayne Varian as director and curator of the contemporary wing. DeMarco met Varian in the New York office of the prominent international art dealership Duveen Brothers, where she had worked since the mid-1940s, most recently as an art dealer. Varian received her art education in Chicago, where she studied art history and education at the University of Chicago, and took classes in film at the Bauhaus and in fine art the Art Institute of Chicago. Sensitive to emerging art movements in galleries and studios around the city of New York, as the contemporary wing's curator, Varian quickly established a reputation for thoughtfully conceived, cutting-edge exhibitions which were consistently well-received by the press.

Under Varian, the Contemporary Wing carried out a dual mission of showing work of living artists and educating students and the public about the artwork and museum work in general. Varian used the galleries to provide practical training to students interested in a gallery or museum career throughout its existence. For several years, she also maintained an assistantship position for post-graduate museum professionals to gain experience in the field, many of whom went on to careers in museums across New York State.

The Contemporary Wing's best-known exhibitions formed a series of six shows called Art in Process, held between 1965 and 1972. Each of the Art in Process shows took a different medium, including painting, sculpture, collage, conceptual art, installation art, and serial art, and brought the process of art-making into the gallery with the artworks in various ways. For example, for Art in Process V (1972), the show about installation art, the galleries were open to the public for the entire process of its installation, allowing visitors to watch the works take shape. Another show entitled Documentation (1968) exhibited artworks with documentation such as artist's notes, sales records, and conservation records, bringing to light the value of record-keeping in the visual arts. Two exhibitions entitled Projected Art were also innovative, with the first (1966-1967) bringing experimental films from the cinema to the galleries, and the second (1971) showing artists' processes via footage and slides of artists working. Another show, Artists' Videotape Performances (1971), involved both screening of and creation of works in the gallery using a range of experiments with recent video technology. The museum also participated in an experimental broadcast of an artwork entitled Talk Out! by Douglas Davis, in which a telephone in the gallery allowed visitors to participate in its creation while it was broadcast live from Syracuse, NY. Other exhibitions that showcased experimentation in art included N-Dimensional Space (1970), on holography in art, Destruction Art(1968), on destructive actions being incorporated into contemporary art-making, and Schemata 7 (1967), a show about the use of environments in contemporary art, whose working title was "Walk-in Sculpture."

Other popular exhibitions at the Contemporary Wing included shows on Art Deco (1970) and Art Nouveau (1969). Several shows mined the private collections of prominent contemporary art collectors including Martha Jackson, Betty Parsons, George Rickey, Paul Magriel, Jacques Kaplan, Josephine and Philip Bruno, and Carlo F. Bilotti. A number of exhibitions featured contemporary art from overseas including Art from Belgium (1965), Art from Finland (1973), Seven Swedish Painters (1965), and Art in Jewelry (1966), which featured mainly international jewelry artists. Retrospective exhibitions of Hans Richter, Hugo Weber, and James Brooks were also held.

Hundreds of contemporary artists were shown at the Contemporary Wing in the eleven years of its existence, including many who came to be leading figures in contemporary art, and some who already were, including Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Mel Bochner, Eva Hesse, Lynda Benglis, Bruce Nauman, Robert Morris, Lawrence Weiner, Robert Smithson, Sol Le Witt, Dan Flavin, Philip Pearlstein, and Yayoi Kusama, to name just a few.

The Contemporary Wing and the entire Finch College Museum of Art shut its doors in 1975, when Finch College closed due to lack of funds. The permanent collection was sold at that time, and the proceeds were used to pay Finch College employee salaries. Elayne Varian went on to the position of curator of contemporary art at the John and Mabel Ringling Museum in Sarasota, Florida. She died in 1987.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with curator Elayne Varian conducted by Paul Cummings, May 2, 1975.
Provenance:
The Archives of American Art acquired these records from the Finch College Museum of Art after it closed permanently in June 1975.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Video artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Museum administrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Museum curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Gallery directors  Search this
Gallery owners  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Interviews
Photographs
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Museum records
Citation:
Exhibition records of the Contemporary Study Wing of the Finch College Museum of Art, 1943-1975. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.finccoll
See more items in:
Exhibition records of the Contemporary Study Wing of the Finch College Museum of Art
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-finccoll
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Enrico Donati

Interviewee:
Donati, Enrico, 1909-2008  Search this
Interviewer:
Temkin, Ann  Search this
Names:
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
Brauner, Victor, 1903-1966  Search this
Breton, André, 1896-1966  Search this
Carone, Nicholas, 1917-2010  Search this
De Chirico, Giorgio, 1888-  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Ferren, John, 1905-1970  Search this
Gorky, Arshile, 1904-1948  Search this
Hare, David, 1917-1992  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
Martins, Maria, 1900-1973  Search this
Miró, Joan, 1893-  Search this
Parsons, Betty  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne, 1903-  Search this
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Ward, Eleanor, 1912-1984  Search this
Extent:
95 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Date:
1997 Jan. 7
Scope and Contents:
Transcript of an interview with Surrealist painter Enrico Donati conducted by Ann Temkin, 1997 Jan. 07 in preparation for an exhibition at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Temkin interviewed the nonagenarian Donati, who reminiscences about his involvement with Marcel Duchamp and other artists, including André Breton, David Hare, Julien Levy, Arshile Gorky, Victor Brauner, Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, John Ferren, Jeanne Reynal, Hans Richter, Giorgio di Chirico, Maria Martins, Eleanor Ward, Nicholas Carone, and Betty Parsons. The reminiscences are mostly anecdotal.
Biographical / Historical:
Donati is a painter and object maker, New York, N.Y. and Temkin, a curator of modern and comtemporary art at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Provenance:
Donated 2000 by Ann Temkin.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Surrealism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.donaenri
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-donaenri

The Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago records

Creator:
University of Chicago. Renaissance Society  Search this
Names:
Beisel, Frances Strain, 1898-1962  Search this
Bloch, Albert  Search this
Degas, Edgar, 1834-1917  Search this
Hammer, Victor Karl, 1882-  Search this
Léger, Fernand, 1881-1955  Search this
Orozco, José Clemente, 1883-1949  Search this
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Sloan, John, 1871-1951  Search this
Extent:
9.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1917-1981
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, exhibition files, printed material, photographs, and business records.
Files on exhibitions, lectures and special events including exhibitions of Edgar Degas, Victor Hammer, Fernand Leger, Jose Clemente Orozco, Hans Richter, John Sloan, Chicago artists, architects, and collectors. Files contain correspondence with director Frances Strain Beisel, museums, lenders, and artists; press releases, exhibition announcements and catalogs, reviews, checklists, photographs of artists and their work, loan records, and clippings; and files on "Artist Members" exhibitions and the Christmas exhibit and sale, "Contemporary Art for Young Collectors."
Correspondence; a record book, financial, membership, and administrative records, annual reports, and minutes from Board of Directors' meetings; photographs; clippings, press releases, exhibition announcements, brochures and newsletters; and one painting and a print by Albert Bloch.
A ledger, 1960-1964, containing brief entries for exhibitions and memberships.
Biographical / Historical:
The Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago (founded 1915) is an art society in Chicago, Illinois. Founded to advance understanding and appreciation of art in all forms. A non-profit organization presenting major shows by established and undiscovered artists.
Provenance:
Donated by the Rennaissance Society, 1979-1987.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Art -- Societies, etc. -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Function:
Art museums, University and college -- Illinois -- Chicago
Identifier:
AAA.univchic
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-univchic

Rose Fried Gallery Records

Creator:
Rose Fried Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Names:
Pinacotheca Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Baertling, Olle, 1911-1981  Search this
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Cunningham, Ben, 1904-1975  Search this
Delaunay, Sonia  Search this
Etrog, Sorel, 1933-  Search this
Ferren, John, 1905-1970  Search this
Fried, Rose  Search this
Hendler, Raymond, 1923-  Search this
Kandinsky, Wassily, 1866-1944  Search this
Macdonald-Wright, Stanton, 1890-1973  Search this
Mondrian, Piet, 1872-1944  Search this
Morgan, Russell  Search this
Picabia, Francis, 1879-1953  Search this
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Torres-García, Joaquín, 1874-1949  Search this
Xceron, Jean, 1890-1967  Search this
Extent:
8.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1936-1972
bulk 1945-1970
Summary:
The Rose Fried Gallery records measure 8.1 linear feet and date from 1936 to 1972 with the bulk of materials dating from 1945 to 1970. The majority of the collection consists of artists files documenting the gallery's relationship with abstract, modern, and Latin American artists; additional named subject files; and scattered administrative and financial files. Individual artists and subject files contain a wide variety of documentation, such as correspondence, photographs, financial records, and printed materials.
Scope and Contents:
The Rose Fried Gallery records measure 8.1 linear feet and date from 1936 to 1972 with the bulk of materials dating from 1945 to 1970. The majority of the collection consists of artists files documenting the gallery's relationship with abstract, modern, and Latin American artists; additional named subject files; and scattered administrative and financial files. Individual artists and subject files contain a wide variety of documentation, such as correspondence, photographs, financial records, and printed materials.

Scattered administrative records document the founding and history of the Rose Fried Gallery, biographical materials about Rose Fried, as well as scattered administrative correspondence, press releases, and gallery catalogs. There are two sound recordings of interviews with Rose Fried in which she discusses the origins of the Rose Fried Gallery and some of the gallery's shows.

The bulk of the records consist of alphabetical artists' and clients' files documenting the gallery's dealings with individual artists, clients, other galleries, museums, and universities. Contents of individual files vary but may include correspondence, contractual agreements, financial records, printed material, and photographs. A few of the artists represented in the files include Olle Baertling, Joseph Cornell, Ben Cunningham, Sonia Delaunay, Sorel Etrog, John Ferren, Raymond Hendler, Wassily Kandinsky, Stanton MacDonald-Wright, Piet Mondrian, Russell Morgan, Francis Picabia, Hans Richter, Joaquin Torres-Garcia, and Jean Xceron, among many others.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as two series.

Series 1: General Administrative Records, 1947-1970 (9 folders; Box 1)

Series 2: Artists' and Clients' Files, 1936-1972 (7.9 linear feet; Boxes 1-8, OV 9)
Historical Note:
Rose Fried established the Rose Fried Gallery in the 1940s in New York City, New York. Fried established the gallery when she took over the Pinacotheca Gallery owned by Dan Harris. The Gallery specialized in abstract and modern art, and represented cubists, futurists, Dadaists, and masters of Latin American art. The Rose Fried Gallery was instrumental in introducing the American public to many abstract painters, including Mondrian and Kandinsky. The Gallery remained operational until Fried's death in 1970.
Provenance:
The Rose Fried Gallery Records were donated by Rose Fried and her brother and executor Paul Fried in multiple accretions between 1968 and 1974.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy also requires advance notice. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Gallery owners  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Hispanic American artists  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, Abstract  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sound recordings
Interviews
Citation:
Rose Fried Gallery Records, 1936-1972, bulk 1945-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.rosefrig
See more items in:
Rose Fried Gallery Records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-rosefrig
Online Media:

Hans Theo Richter papers

Creator:
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Names:
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Ernst, Max, 1891-1976  Search this
Ray, Man, 1890-1976  Search this
Extent:
1 Reel (ca. 400 items (on 1 microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
[ca. 1914-1981]
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, ca. 1914-1981, including comments about Richter's films from Alexander Calder, Max Ernst, Man Ray, and others; exhibition catalogs, ca. 1946-1974; index to his films compiled by H.G. Weinberg, 1946 and revision; catalogs for films Dreams Money Can Buy, and 8 X 8; articles by and about Richter and his films; exhibition catalogs of other artists; writings; and newspaper clippings.
Biographical / Historical:
Filmmaker; New York, N.Y. First one-man show in 1916, the same year he joined the Dadaists. His interest in the movement of forms led him first to scroll painting and then to film. He produced his first movie in 1921 and then went on to create Dreams That Money Can Buy, with Duchamp, Ernst, Calder and Man Ray, and 8 X 8, among others.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming 1984 by Ursula Lawder, Richter's step-daughter.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Topic:
Experimental films  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.richhans
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-richhans

[Experimental films] [motion picture]

Creator:
Kofler, Anne  Search this
Names:
Moholy-Nagy, László, 1895-1946  Search this
Morris, Robert, 1931-2018  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Vanderbeek, Stan.  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (si., b&w, 8 mm.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Video recordings
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Contents: "Rhythm 21," by Hans Richter (1921); and excerpts from "Lightplay Black White Grey," by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1932); "Site," by Robert Morris and Stan Vanderbeek (1964); and "Linoleum," by Robert Rauschenberg (1967).
Provenance:
The films were acquired by Anne Kofler while taking a film class at Pratt Institute ca. 1970. The reel was donated by Kofler's mother, Jane Kofler in 1991, and subsequently transferred to video by AAA.
Occupation:
Filmmakers  Search this
Topic:
Experimental films -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Identifier:
AAA.koflanne
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-koflanne

Institute of Contemporary Arts records

Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Meridian House Foundation  Search this
People-to-People (Organization)  Search this
United States. Veterans Administration  Search this
Albers, Anni  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
Barr, Alfred H., Jr., 1902-1981  Search this
Copland, Aaron, 1900-1990  Search this
Cummings, E. E. (Edward Estlin), 1894-1962  Search this
Eliot, T. S. (Thomas Stearns), 1888-1965  Search this
Fangor, Wojciech, 1922-  Search this
Gabo, Naum, 1890-1977  Search this
Giampietro, Alexander  Search this
Gordimer, Nadine  Search this
Graves, Robert, 1895-1985  Search this
Gropius, Walter, 1883-1969  Search this
Hawkins, Erick  Search this
Huxley, Aldous, 1894-1963  Search this
Jahn, Janheinz  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Raine, Kathleen, 1908-2003  Search this
Read, Herbert Edward, Sir, 1893-1968  Search this
Richman, Robert  Search this
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Sage, Kay  Search this
Tanguy, Yves, 1900-1955  Search this
Williams, William Carlos, 1883-1963  Search this
Extent:
36 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
School records
Date:
1927-circa 1985
bulk 1947-1967
Summary:
The records of the Washington, D.C. arts and educational organization, Institute of Contemporary Arts, measure 36 linear feet and date from 1927-circa 1985, with the bulk of the material spanning the organization's active years, 1947-1967. The collection documents the arts and cultural programming organized by the ICA through correspondence, artists' files, program and exhibition files, administrative and financial records, printed materials and photographs. Also found are administrative, student, and teacher records of the ICA school; records of the Fine Arts Committee of the People-to-People Project; and some personal papers of the ICA's founder, Robert Richman.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Washington, D.C. arts and educational organization, Institute of Contemporary Arts, measure 36 linear feet and date from 1927-circa 1985, with the bulk of the material spanning the organization's active years, 1947-1967. The collection documents the arts and cultural programming organized by the ICA through correspondence, artists' files, program and exhibition files, administrative and financial records, printed materials and photographs. Also found are administrative, student, and teacher records of the ICA school; records of the Fine Arts Committee of the People-to-People Project; and some personal papers of the ICA's founder, Robert Richman.

Robert Richman's professional and personal relationships with numerous artists and writers which the ICA hosted in D.C. are documented in Correspondence and Artists' Files. Correspondence files include letters from Joseph and Anni Albers, Alfred Barr, e.e. cummings, Alexander Giampietro, Naum Gabo, Walter Gropius, Erick Hawkins, Duncan Phillips, Hans Richter, Kay Sage and Yves Tanguy, and William Carlos Williams. Also found is correspondence with benefactors, board members, and arts organizations regarding exhibitions and administrative details; and with teachers and the Veteran's Administration regarding school issues.

Artists' Files contains mostly incoming and outgoing correspondence, but also found are biographies, exhibition printed materials, handwritten notes, newspaper clippings and scattered portrait photographs. Of interest are files on Aaron Copland, e.e. cummings, T.S. Eliot, Wojciech Fangor, Nadine Gordimer, Robert Graves, Aldous Huxley, Janheinz Jahn, Kathleen Raine, and Sir Herbert Read.

In addition to Correspondence and Artists' Files, materials regarding ICA's programming, such as correspondence with artists and galleries, press releases, shipping records, financial records, printed materials, photographs, inventory and price lists, are found in ICA Program Files.

The ICA and Robert Richman collaborated with numerous arts and international exchange organizations to organize exhibitions, performances, symposium, and to host visiting artists. Materials regarding such collaborations are found in Organizations and includes correspondence, scattered financial records, notes, and printed materials such as bulletins, brochures, schedules, reports, and press releases. This series also includes substantial material related to the Fine Arts Committee of the People-to-People Program, an international exchange initiative of President Dwight D. Eisenhower begun in 1956.

The school's records include correspondence, notebooks (attendance books), teacher files documenting classes and grades, extensive student files and student enrollment cards, mailing lists, class cards, and notes for classes taught by Robert Richman.

Administrative and Financial Files include accounting and banking records, budgets, founding documents, fundraising records, grants records, mailing lists, membership lists, and Meridian House Foundation records.

ICA's programs are also documented by comprehensive printed materials arranged by ICA seasons, 1947-1967. Printed materials include program calendars, exhibition announcements, invitations, membership forms, and press releases. Also found are newspaper clippings and three oversized clippings scrapbooks.

Photographs include black and white photographs and negatives of people, most of whom are unidentified. Robert Richman's personal papers includes personal correspondence, correspondence related to "New Republic," handwritten and typed writings, some bills, and his curriculum vitae.

Unrepresented in this collection are records of ICA's ICONART Collection (Contemporary Arts Archives), an archive of films and tapes of artists' performances, lectures and events held by ICA.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 9 series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1937, 1944-1980 (2.7 linear feet; Boxes 1-3)

Series 2: Artists' Files, 1943-1967, 1970-1979 (4.9 linear feet; Boxes 3-8)

Series 3: ICA Program Files, circa 1947-1968 (5.2 linear feet; Boxes 8-13, 27)

Series 4: Organizations, 1927, 1940s-1967 (7.3 linear feet; Boxes 13-20, OV 39)

Series 5: ICA School Files, 1945-1953 (7.0 linear feet; Boxes 21-27)

Series 6: Administrative and Financial Files, 1945-1979, 1983 (5.2 linear feet; Boxes 28-33, 38)

Series 7: Printed Materials, 1945-1970 (2.9 linear feet; Boxes 33-35, 38)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1930s-1960s, circa 1985 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 35-36)

Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman, 1940s-1980 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 36-37)
Biographical / Historical:
The Washington, D.C. arts and educational organization, Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA), was founded by poet Robert Richman in 1947 to bring arts and culture to the nation's capital. The school, originally named the King-Smith School of Creative Arts, was redesigned and renamed Institute of Contemporary Arts by Richman in 1948. The school's philosophy was based on Sir Herbert Read's Education Through Art, and provided professional training in painting, sculpture, literature, music, and theater. In addition, the ICA operated an evening school and brought prominent artists and literary figures to the nation's capital for exhibitions, concerts, workshops, lectures, readings, and performances. Teachers at the school included potter Alexander Giampietro, sculptor David Aaron, designers Beatrice Takeuchi and Hubert Leckie, and painter Kenneth Noland.

The school closed in August 1951, but the ICA continued to provide an impressive roster of programs and performances held at the Corcoran Gallery of Art and other D.C. institutions, such as exhibitions by Naum Gabo, Bernard Leach, Isamu Noguchi, and Hans Richter; readings by W.H. Auden, T.S. Eliot, Katherine Anne Porter, and Dylan Thomas; lectures by Charles Eames, Aldous Huxley, Octavio Paz, and Frank Lloyd Wright; and performances by Aaron Copland, Paul Hindemith, José Limón Dance Company, and Ravi Shankar. The organization also sponsored visiting professorships for international artists and writers, such as Nadine Gordimer, and hosted an annual Congress of Artists and Writers from 1959-1964.

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the ICA was successful in securing some large grants to continue and expand its programming and to secure permanent space at the Meridian House Foundation. However, by the late 1960s the organization's programming declined.

ICA founder Robert Richman was a poet and literary editor at New Republic magazine in the early 1950s. He was active in the arts community in D.C. and in international exchange organizations, including the Fine Arts Committee of the People-to-People Project, an initiative started by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in the late 1950s. Robert Richman passed away in 1987.
Provenance:
The Institute of Contemporary Arts records were donated by Maida Richman, the wife of the ICA's founder, Robert Richman, in 1986.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Societies, etc. -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
School records
Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.instcona
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-instcona
Online Media:

Hans Richter's Stalingrad (Victory in the East) / Cynthia Jaffee McCabe

Author:
McCabe, Cynthia Jaffee  Search this
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Subject:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976  Search this
Richter, Hans 1888-1976 Stalingrad (Victory in the East)  Search this
Physical description:
[6] p. : ill., 28 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1980
C1980
Call number:
N6888.R5 A4 1980
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_700618

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Library audio archive collection, 1969-2004 [sound recording]

Author:
Smithsonian Institution Libraries  Search this
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Library  Search this
Subject:
Nevelson, Louise 1899-1988  Search this
Picasso, Pablo 1881-1973  Search this
Kiesler, Frederick  Search this
Rothko, Mark 1903-1970  Search this
Arakawa, Shūsaku 1936-2010  Search this
Neutra, Dion  Search this
Schindler, R. M (Rudolph M.) 1887-1953  Search this
Sommer, Frederick 1905-1999  Search this
Soleri, Paolo 1919-2013  Search this
Bolotowsky, Ilya 1907-1981  Search this
De Looper, Willem  Search this
Lozowick, Louis 1892-1973  Search this
Levine, David 1926-2009  Search this
Sert, José Luis 1902-1983  Search this
Soyer, Raphael 1899-1987  Search this
Eakins, Thomas 1844-1916  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart 1889-1975  Search this
Nadelman, Elie 1882-1946  Search this
Gillespie, Gregory  Search this
Noland, Kenneth 1924-2010  Search this
Louis, Morris 1912-1962  Search this
Richter, Hans 1888-1976  Search this
Appel, Karel 1921-2006  Search this
Siqueiros, David Alfaro  Search this
Orozco, José Clemente 1883-1949  Search this
Rivera, Diego 1886-1957  Search this
Warhol, Andy 1928-1987  Search this
Cavallon, Giorgio 1904-1989  Search this
Di Suvero, Mark 1933-  Search this
Moore, Henry 1898-1986  Search this
Steinberg, Saul  Search this
Estes, Richard 1932-  Search this
Botero, Fernando 1932-  Search this
Canaday, John 1907-1985  Search this
Calder, Alexander 1898-1976  Search this
Maurer, Alfred Henry 1868-1932  Search this
Rickey, George  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
González, Julio 1876-1942  Search this
Snelson, Kenneth 1927-2016-  Search this
Rivers, Larry 1925-2002  Search this
Hirshhorn, Joseph H  Search this
Harrison, Newton 1932-  Search this
Lassaw, Ibram 1913-2003  Search this
Grooms, Red  Search this
Burliuk, David 1882-1967  Search this
Lerner, Abram  Search this
Bunshaft, Gordon 1909-1990  Search this
Dzubas, Friedel 1915-1994  Search this
Clemente, Francesco 1952-  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Acconci, Vito 1940-  Search this
Haring, Keith  Search this
Holzer, Jenny 1950-  Search this
Salle, David 1952-  Search this
Neel, Alice 1900-1984  Search this
Nakian, Reuben 1897-1986  Search this
Bacon, Francis 1909-1992  Search this
Freud, Lucian  Search this
Giacometti, Alberto 1901-1966  Search this
Abrams, Dennis 1960-  Search this
Nasgaard, Roald  Search this
Buren, Daniel  Search this
Chin, Mel 1951-  Search this
Sonnier, Keith 1941-  Search this
Conwill, Houston 1947-  Search this
Kabakov, Ilʹia Iosifovich 1933-  Search this
Ireland, David 1930-2009  Search this
Oliveira, Nathan 1928-2010  Search this
Marclay, Christian  Search this
Baldessari, John 1931-  Search this
Weiner, Lawrence  Search this
Piper, Adrian 1948-  Search this
Polke, Sigmar  Search this
Puryear, Martin 1941-  Search this
Struth, Thomas 1954-  Search this
Torres-García, Joaquín 1874-1949  Search this
Lam, Wifredo  Search this
Matta 1912-2002  Search this
Kosuth, Joseph  Search this
Leirner, Jac 1961-  Search this
Saar, Alison  Search this
Rothenberg, Susan 1945-  Search this
Dubuffet, Jean 1901-1985  Search this
Hill, Gary 1951-  Search this
Murray, Elizabeth 1940-2007  Search this
Gilbert & George  Search this
Physical description:
306 audio files : digital
Type:
Sound recordings
Sources
Interviews
Broadcasts
Lectures
Symposia
Ceremonies
Date:
1969
1969-2004
20th century
21st century
Topic:
Art, Modern--History  Search this
Painting, Modern--History  Search this
Sculpture, Modern--History  Search this
Architecture, Modern--History  Search this
Artists  Search this
Emigration and immigration in art  Search this
Caricatures and cartoons  Search this
Country music  Search this
Art criticism  Search this
Earthworks (Art)  Search this
Visual perception  Search this
Conceptual art  Search this
Call number:
N6447 .H584
Restrictions & Rights:
Full access copies are available through the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Library, Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Information on who to contact for full access is available on the Hirshhorm Museum and Sculpture Gardern Library Audio Archive website.
Copyright restrictions may apply.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_956845

Hans Richter : activism, modernism, and the avant-garde / edited by Stephen C. Foster

Author:
Foster, Stephen C  Search this
Subject:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976 Criticism and interpretation  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 329 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1998
C1998
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_740572

Hans Richter (1888-1976) : early works from the estate : Janos Gat Gallery, September 21-November 6, 2004

Title:
Early works from the estate
Author:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976  Search this
Foster, Stephen C  Search this
Janos Gat Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976  Search this
Physical description:
12 p. : chiefly ill. (all col.) ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
2004
C2004
Call number:
N6888.R5 A4 2004
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_741619

Hans Richter : new living : architecture, film, space / Andres Janser and Arthur Rüegg ; [translation, Steven Lindberg]

Title:
New living
Author:
Janser, Andres  Search this
Rüegg, Arthur 1942-  Search this
Subject:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976 Criticism and interpretation  Search this
Richter, Hans 1888-1976 Neue Wohnung  Search this
Physical description:
125 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2001
C2001
Topic:
Architecture in motion pictures  Search this
Call number:
PN1998.3.R535 H36 2001
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_748140

The art of counterpoint : nineteen works by Hans Richter : 21 February-14 April 1988 : Neuberger Museum, State University of New York at Purchase

Author:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976  Search this
Neuberger Museum  Search this
Subject:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976 Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
[6] p. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1988
[1988]
Call number:
N6888.R5 A4 1988
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_773540

Hans Richter :[exposizione] 18 gennaio-5 febbraio 1972

Author:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976  Search this
Galleria Il Fauno (Turin, Italy)  Search this
Subject:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976 Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
[14] p. : col. ill. ; 21 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1971
Call number:
ND588.R487 A4 1971
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_637399

Hans Richter : 617a mostra del naviglio dal 23 marzo al 10 aprile, 1973

Author:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976  Search this
Galleria del naviglio (Milan, Italy)  Search this
Subject:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976 Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
[12]p. : ill., ports. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1973
Call number:
N6888.R5 A4 1973
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_637401

Hans Richter, 40 [i.e. quarante] ans de peintures-rouleaux : exposition, Mars 4 - Mars 31, 1960, Galerie Denise René Paris

Author:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976  Search this
Galerie Denise René  Search this
Subject:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976  Search this
Physical description:
[20] p. : ill., ports.; 20 x 22 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1960
Call number:
N6888.R5.A4.1960
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_642918

Hans Richter, dadaismo e astrazione (1909-1923) : dal 10 marzo al 7 aprile 1965 alla Galleria Schwarz, Milano

Author:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976  Search this
Ballo, Guido 1914-2010  Search this
Galleria Schwarz  Search this
Subject:
Richter, Hans 1888-1976 Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
[24] p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Date:
1965
[1965]
Topic:
Dadaism  Search this
Call number:
ND588.R487 A4 1965
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_642919

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