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Britain's black debt : reparations for Caribbean slavery and native genocide / Hilary McD. Beckles

Author:
Beckles, Hilary 1955-  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 292 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Caribbean Area
West Indies, British
Date:
2013
Topic:
Black people--Reparations  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Slavery--History  Search this
Slave trade--History  Search this
Slavery--Law and legislation  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1026151

Embodied reckonings "comfort women," performance, and transpacific redress Elizabeth W. Son

Author:
Son, Elizabeth W  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource color illustrations
Type:
Personal narratives, Korean
Electronic books
Personal narratives
Place:
Korea
Asia
Japan
Corée
Asie
Japon
Europe
Date:
2018
Topic:
Comfort women  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Atrocities  Search this
Service, Compulsory non-military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Women  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Women--Crimes against  Search this
Sexual abuse victims  Search this
Collective memory  Search this
Performance art--Social aspects  Search this
Arts--Political aspects  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Femmes de réconfort  Search this
Guerre mondiale, 1939-1945--Atrocités  Search this
Réquisitions civiles  Search this
Guerre mondiale, 1939-1945--Femmes  Search this
Réparations des crimes de l'histoire  Search this
Femmes--Crimes contre  Search this
Victimes d'abus sexuels  Search this
Mémoire collective  Search this
Arts--Aspect politique  Search this
Féminisme  Search this
HISTORY--Western  Search this
ART--General  Search this
Women  Search this
Atrocities  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1156437

Grayce Uyehara Papers

Topic:
Social Justice
Creator:
Uyehara, Grayce  Search this
Names:
Japanese American Citizens' League  Search this
Donor:
Uyehara, Paul M.  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (18 boxes)
Culture:
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Audio cassettes
Awards
Compact discs
Letters (correspondence)
Memoranda
Minutes
Newsclippings
Newsletters
Oral history
Pamphlets
Photographs
Reports
Slides
Speeches
Videocassettes
Date:
1929-2008
Summary:
The papers document the life and activism of Grayce Uyehara who was a pivotal figure within the Redress Movement and sought reparations for the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II.
Content Description:
The papers document the life and activism of Grayce Uyehara who was a pivotal figure within the Redress Movement and sought reparations for the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The collection materials span different social justice topics that Uyehara was involved with outside of Japanese American communities. Geographically, the materials are primarily from her time in Stockton, California; Rohwer, Arkansas; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Washington, D.C., as well as other places.

The papers include materials relating to Uyehara's own incarceration; her lobbying work with the Japanese American Citizens League; other activism and grass roots activities; speeches; campaign materials; articles; memos; financial reports; work journals; photographs of the Uyeharas; community newspapers; film slides of redress; personal letters; internal correspondence; leadership conference notes; educational materials; interviews; awards; student theses; pamphlets; booklets; oral histories; maps; meeting minutes; newsletters; directories; and congressional records.
Arrangement:
The collection is unarranged.
Biographical:
Grayce Uyehara was a social worker and pivotal Redress Movement activist who helped lead the reparations campaign for the wrongful incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. Uyehara was born Ritsuko Kaneda on July 4th, 1919, in Stockton, California. Her parents named her Ritsu, which roughly translates to notions of law and independence, informed by their understanding of the significance of Independence Day. Her father, Tsuyanoshi Kaneda, worked in agriculture and business and performed domestic tasks. Through this, he developed a reliable business working for lawyers, doctors, and school administrators. Her mother, Tome Kaneda, raised their children. Her mother was strict but also encouraged her children to excel at whatever they did. She enrolled them in Japanese and music classes and expected them to help out at church and in the community. Uyehara was the second of seven children, and as the eldest daughter was expected to be a role model for her younger siblings.

In high school, Uyehara belonged to a Japanese student club, excelled in her schoolwork, and was part of the marching band, playing the bassoon. She also played piano for Sunday school at church, which had both English and Japanese services. She became involved in the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), participating in its oratorical contests. Because of her community service, the elders and her peers in the Japanese American community respected Uyehara.

Uyehara majored in music at the University of the Pacific. She believed music would allow her to start a career as a local Japanese American piano teacher and church organist. She worked many jobs to pay for tuition while her parents helped cover her costs. While in college, she became involved in the Japanese American Young People's Christian Conference (YPCC) in Northern California. Uyehara continued to be recognized for her leadership and competence by becoming the chairperson of the Sacramento YPCC as a college senior.

In January 1942, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Uyehara was asked by the university president to become an instructor to teach Japanese to young men in military service at the local army base. Citing her patriotic duty, she accepted the position. She was able to finish school before being incarcerated, partly because her mother pushed her to do well and to stay in school. When the Uyehara family prepared to leave their home in April, one of her professors offered to hold their household belongings. Although she satisfied her graduation requirements, she received her degree in absentia. Two of her siblings were also in college when their academic careers were interrupted. She was very upset that her parents did not get to see her graduate because they had sacrificed so much.

The Kaneda family was forcibly relocated to the Stockton Temporary Detention Center in May 1942. At the Stockton Center, she put her service skills to work and assisted other Nisei inmates in organizing a makeshift school for Japanese American youth. Located on the site of the county fairgrounds, the school was forced to hold classes in the grandstands. Through one of her father's contacts, she was able to secure a donation of books, and she became the supervisor in charge of elementary education. Some of the young soldiers that she taught at the base also came to visit her. She spent four months there, and in September of 1942, her family was notified that they would be forcibly moved to Rohwer, Arkansas. While her family traveled ahead, she stayed behind to help close the Stockton Temporary Detention Center.

At Rohwer, Uyehara remained active and continued to hone her leadership and organizational skills. She helped create church services for young people, played the piano at various events, and taught music in junior high-level classes. During this time, she realized that her previous career path as a piano teacher was not realistic. She discovered that the Minnesota State Teachers College was offering scholarships to eligible camp inmates and decided to pursue the opportunity. She left the camp in January 1943 with three other young Nisei. She lived at a boarding house with another Nisei student from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. She had an active social life but found the classes to be unchallenging. During the summer in St. Paul, she stayed with a woman who was active with the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, a liberal group who spoke out against war. Unsure of what to do next, she then returned to Rohwer where she worked at the camp hospital, continually checking for jobs. She found a job listing in Virginia where one of her younger sisters was attending school, and she left Rohwer for the last time. In Virginia, she worked as an editorial secretary. She was grateful that it was not a service job, which was the norm for young Japanese American women. Uyehara's brother, Ben, was attending Temple University in Philadelphia during this time. He assured her that the Quakers would help the Kaneda family with moving from the camp. Convinced, she packed up again and moved further north.

In Philadelphia, Uyehara found an apartment in the Fellowship House, an organization providing workshops on race relations in the city. She began working for Family Services, a social service agency in the Germantown area of Philadelphia as a receptionist and typist, but she also conducted intake interviews with the clients of the agency. She further continued her role as a community leader by becoming involved with the International Institute which assisted immigrants settling in Philadelphia, and became concerned with the needs of the Japanese American population moving in. Working closely with the Institute, she helped form the Philadelphia Nisei Council, which coordinated with the War Relocation Authority. She was the Nikkei representative of the Philadelphia Committee of Social Service Agencies whose role was to assist with relocation problems. Uyehara developed a handbook that detailed practical issues such as the cost of living in the city, how to rent an apartment, and where to find jobs. The Council began a newsletter, so the community could be aware of new people moving in to the area and of community events. She also started youth groups to provide activities and social interaction for high school and college-age youth coming out of the camp experience.

In Philadelphia, Uyehara became re-acquainted with Hiroshi Uyehara, whose mother knew Grayce's mother. They briefly met in Rohwer. He worked at a nearby Westinghouse factory as a draftsman. He had to receive an Army and Navy clearance, and during the wait went on strike. He became a volunteer at the International Institute where they reconnected. They married in 1946. Later, she and her husband were among those who formed the Philadelphia Chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) to influence more people on social issues affecting Japanese Americans in a national context. Afterwards, the director of the International Institute arranged for the board to pay her graduate school tuition at the University of Pennsylvania while she worked as a social worker for the agency. She graduated in 1947 with a Masters in Social Work. Within two years of working in the community, she was asked to serve on the Philadelphia Fellowship Commission. She used this opportunity to highlight the perspectives of Japanese Americans.

The Uyehara's first son, Chris, was born in May of 1948. In 1950, they had a second child, Lisa. The International Institute asked her to return as a volunteer, and she started a program to help American servicemen and Japanese brides returning from Japan to adjust to a new life. She worked directly with Japanese women in teaching American customs, including etiquette and cooking lessons. She also provided individual counseling. She was very active with the local Parent Teacher Association (PTA) and became president, creating parent education programs and raising funds for the local school library. Uyehara was also very active in the National Association of Social Workers, the Cub Scouts, the local Presbyterian church, the West Chester Human Relationships Council, and the League of Women Voters. Later, she had two more children, Larry, in 1952, and Paul, in 1955. During this time, she was asked to help in establishing the first day care center for working mothers in West Chester. Despite the low pay, she was instrumental in establishing the center. In addition, she got involved in civil rights issues for African Americans, especially for school desegregation and upgrading placement rates for African American students.

In 1972, Uyehara served as the governor for the Eastern District Council of the JACL. She was on the National Board, and was the vice-president for General Operations, Chapter President, the National Civil Rights Committee, and the National Scholarship Committee. In 1974, Uyehara was the first woman to hold a JACL elected office. From 1973 to 1974, she was on the National Education Committee. She used her organizational skills to rearrange some existing educational programs so that the history of Japanese Americans could become more well known throughout the country. She also prioritized projects within the committee to make the programs more attractive to potential funders. Her ability to effectively organize with the JACL was influenced by the lessons learned in reading Years of Infamy by Michi Weglyn, and in the organizing lessons within African American communities after Brown v. Board of Education was passed.

In 1978, Uyehara was present at the 1978 Salt Lake City Convention when JACL decided to pursue redress, and was asked to be on the National Committee for Redress. Using her experience in improving school districts for African Americans, she worked hard to generate educational materials, bombard congressional offices and speak at various events and community organizations. She was also effective in gaining support from the Presbyterian Church and Jewish organizations. By 1985 she devised a plan to reach people on the East Coast, since there weren't many JACL chapters in major cities there. She retired from her job as a school social worker in order to help the JACL achieve redress. In the spring, she transferred to the Legislative Education Committee (LEC). Her philosophy was "If you're going to do it, you do it right. You just don't talk about it".

Uyehara did a lot of traveling between Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. Her husband was very supportive during this time. The leadership in Washington consisted of JACL officials and four Nikkei congressmen, who recognized Uyehara's work in coalition building and developing political relationships. Whenever a new member of Congress signed on to the Civil Liberties Act, she would send out a press statement, and any significant chapter events would be announced through her "Action Alerts." She also led congressional meetings with people like Senator Inouye, Ralph Neas, and Mike Masaoka because she was very familiar with the legislative process.

Uyehara sent information "vernaculars" to newspapers and newsletter organizations in New York and Los Angeles as well as the Pacific Citizen, so that people could see progress taking place within the redress effort. She urged people to initiate contacts in states like Florida and North Carolina to ensure votes were not lost. If an area had lower numbers of Japanese American constituents, she would ask different contacts to support the redress effort and lobby congress to vote for it. She also used her existing relationships with the American Friends Service Committee, American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), Jewish war veterans, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai B'irth and the American Jewish Committee. Greatly aided by her efforts, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 was passed. It issued a formal apology from the government and $20,000 to each surviving incarceree. This act also required monuments, museums, and classrooms to teach the history of Japanese American incarceration so similar discrimination would never happen again to others.

After redress was passed, Uyehara was still actively involved in community organizing. She chaired the JACL Legacy Fund campaign, which raised over $5 million to support other JACL programs. She engaged with the Japanese House and Garden in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, speaking at educational engagements about redress and organizing efforts for residents in her retirement community through the Diversity Committee and the Mental Health Committee. She was a passionate advocate for Japanese Canadian redress. She also helped coordinate the Philadelphia area fundraising effort for the National Japanese American Memorial Foundation. In addition, she enjoyed spending more time with family, gardening, and playing the piano.

In 2014, Uyehara was honored by Asian Americans United with its Standing Up for Justice Award. Uyehara passed away on June 22, 2014, at Virtual Memorial Hospital in Mount Holly, New Jersey. Japanese Americans remember Uyehara for her effectiveness and dedication as an activist, community leader, and the mother of Redress. Her experiences of being discriminated against and having to work to support the family at a young age sensitized her to the plight of working women and the economically disadvantaged. This greatly informed her service not only for Japanese Americans, but for all communities in America.

Sources

Susan Nakaoka. "Nisei Political Activists: The Stories of Five Japanese American Women Master of Arts., (University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 1999) found in Grayce Uyehara Papers, Box 1, Folder N, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.

Gammage, Jeff. "Grayce Uyehara, fought for interned Japanese-Americans." The Philadelphia Inquirer, https://www.inquirer.com/philly/obituaries/20140624_Grayce_Uyehara fought_for_interned_Japanese-Americans.html June 23, 2014. Last Accessed March 18, 2019.
Provenance:
Collection donated to the Archives Center in 2019 by Paul M. Uyehara.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Civil rights movements  Search this
Concentration camps -- United States  Search this
Newspapers -- 20th century  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Audio cassettes
Awards
Compact discs
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Memoranda
Minutes
Newsclippings
Newsletters
Oral history
Pamphlets
Photographs
Reports -- 20th century
Slides
Speeches -- 20th century
Videocassettes
Citation:
Grayce Uyehara Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1480
See more items in:
Grayce Uyehara Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8cd36d3c8-cbfb-481d-ac04-3890beb7b807
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1480
Online Media:

Cold War Ruins : Transpacific Critique of American Justice and Japanese War Crimes / Lisa Yoneyama

Author:
Yoneyama, Lisa 1959-  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 320 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Japan
Reparations for historical injustices
Date:
2016
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945--Atrocities  Search this
Cold War  Search this
Nationalism and feminism  Search this
Decolonization  Search this
Transnationalism  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1090221

Colonialism, slavery, reparations and trade : remedying the past? / edited by Fernne Brennan and John Packer

Author:
Brennan, Fernne  Search this
Packer, John  Search this
Physical description:
xviii, 252 pages ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2013
©2013
Topic:
Slavery--Law and legislation  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Call number:
K3267 .C645 2012
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1109029

Reckoning with 1865 in 2015 : the Morant Bay war and the case of reparation / Verene Shepherd

Author:
Shepherd, Verene  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI  Search this
Type:
Articles
Place:
Jamaica
Date:
2016
19th century
Topic:
Morant Bay Rebellion, 1865  Search this
Insurgency  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Call number:
F1861 .J277
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1080856

Redress for historical injustices in the United States : on reparations for slavery, Jim Crow, and their legacies / edited by Michael T. Martin and Marilyn Yaquinto

Author:
Martin, Michael T  Search this
Yaquinto, Marilyn  Search this
Physical description:
xvii, 702 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Sources
Date:
2007
Topic:
African Americans--Reparations  Search this
African Americans--Reparations--History  Search this
African Americans--Legal status, laws, etc--History  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Social movements  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_826409

Reparations for indigenous peoples : international and comparative perspectives / edited by Federico Lenzerini

Author:
Lenzerini, Federico  Search this
Physical description:
xxvii, 650 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2008
Topic:
Indigenous peoples--Legal status, laws, etc  Search this
Indigenous peoples (International law)  Search this
Indigenous peoples--Reparations  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_897939

The age of apology : facing up to the past / edited by Mark Gibney ... [et al.]

Author:
Gibney, Mark  Search this
Physical description:
vii, 333 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2008
C2008
Topic:
Truth commissions  Search this
Apologizing--Political aspects  Search this
Civilization, Western--Historiography  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_899473

This benevolent experiment : Indigenous boarding schools, genocide, and redress in the Canada and the United States / Andrew Woolford

Author:
Woolford, Andrew John 1971-  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 431 pages ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Manitoba
New Mexico
United States
Canada
North America
Date:
2015
Topic:
Indian children--Education--History  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools--History  Search this
Education--Political aspects--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Cultural assimilation--History  Search this
Genocide--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Reparations--History  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1053562

The guilt of nations : restitution and negotiating historical injustices / Elazar Barkan

Author:
Barkan, Elazar  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 414 p. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2000
C2000
Topic:
Political ethics  Search this
Human rights--Moral and ethical aspects  Search this
International relations--Moral and ethical aspects  Search this
Restorative justice  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Minorities  Search this
Postcolonialism  Search this
History--Philosophy  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_916887

Heirs of oppression / J. Angelo Corlett

Author:
Corlett, J. Angelo 1958-  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 371 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2010
C2010
Topic:
African Americans--Reparations  Search this
Indians of North America--Reparations  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Race discrimination--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_962454

Reparations to Africa / Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann ; with Anthony P. Lombardo

Author:
Howard-Hassmann, Rhoda E. 1948-  Search this
Lombardo, Anthony P  Search this
Physical description:
[ix], 257 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Africa
Date:
2008
C2008
Topic:
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Africans--Reparations  Search this
Economic assistance  Search this
Slave trade  Search this
Colonies  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_966048

Reparations : interdisciplinary inquiries / edited by Jon Miller and Rahul Kumar

Author:
Miller, Jon 1970-  Search this
Kumar, Rahul 1967-  Search this
Physical description:
[xi], 342 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Date:
2007
Topic:
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
War reparations  Search this
Restorative justice  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_970692

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