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General Correspondence "R," 1975-1978. Correspondents include the staff of the Rochester Museum and Science Center and John Paul Remensnyder, donor of the Remensnyder Collection of American Stoneware

Container:
Box 2 of 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 331, National Museum of History and Technology. Department of Cultural History, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Series 1: CORRESPONDENCE, 1964-1979. / Box 2
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0331-refidd1e614

C. Malcolm Watkins Oral History Interviews

Extent:
15 audiotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1992, 1994-1995
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or student on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

C. Malcolm Watkins was interviewed for the Oral History Collection because of his long and distinguished career as curator in the Department of Cultural History, National Museum of American History, and his pioneering role in fields like historical archeology and material culture studies.
Descriptive Entry:
These interviews of Watkins by Pamela M. Henson, Historian for Smithsonian Institution Archives, and Susan H. Myers, Curator of Ceramics and Glass at the National Museum of American History, discuss his family, youth, and education; first job at Wells Historical Museum; curatorial career in the Division of Ethnology and Department of Cultural History; contributions to exhibits; research interests; role in the development of the fields of material culture studies and historical archeology; and reminiscences of such colleagues as Edna Muriel Hilburn Little Greenwood, Herbert W. Krieger, Frank A. Taylor, George H. Watson, and Albert Wells.

This collection is comprised of eight interview sessions, totaling approximately 13.0 hours of recordings and 235 pages of transcript.
Historical Note:
C. Malcolm Watkins (1911-2001), cultural historian, developed an early interest in American material culture through his parents, Charles H. and Lura Woodside Watkins, who collected glass and pottery. Watkins received the B.S. from Harvard College in 1934 and began his museum career as Curator for the Wells Historical Museum, predecessor of Old Sturbridge Village, in Massachusetts. In 1949, he was appointed Associate Curator in the Division of Ethnology, United States National Museum (USNM), where he was responsible for the collections documenting American technology and decorative arts. When a separate National Museum of History and Technology (NMHT) was created in 1958, Watkins assumed responsibility for a new Division of Cultural History in the Department of Civil History. In 1969, a separate Department of Cultural History was established, with Watkins as Chairman. In 1973, he was named Senior Curator in the Department, a position he held until his retirement in 1980; he continued his research as Curator Emeritus until 1984. In 1980, the National Museum of History and Technology was renamed the National Museum of American History (NMAH).

During his career at the USNM and NMHT, Watkins worked on numerous exhibits, including the Hall of Everyday Life in the American Past, Growth of the United States, and Nation of Nations. He was responsible for the acquisition of many significant collections, including the Arthur and Edna Greenwood Collection of Americana, the Remensnyder Collection of American Stoneware, and the Morgenstern Collection of early American material culture. His major research projects included the Marlborough and Jamestown, Virginia, archeological sites, North Devon pottery export to America, and early California history. Watkins was a pioneer in the fields of material culture studies and historical archeology.
Rights:
Restricted. Contact SIHistory@si.edu to request permission.
Topic:
History  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Archaeology -- History  Search this
Museum curators -- Interviews  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9586, C. Malcolm Watkins Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9586
See more items in:
C. Malcolm Watkins Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9586

The John Paul Remensnyder collection of American stoneware : [exhibit] National Museum of History and Technology, Nov. 1978--Nov. 1979

Author:
National Museum of History and Technology  Search this
Subject:
Remensnyder, John Paul Art collections  Search this
Physical description:
[13] p. : ill. ; 21 x 21 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
Middle Atlantic States
New England
Date:
1978
[1978]
Topic:
Pottery, American  Search this
Call number:
NK4010.5 .N37 1978X
NK4010.5.N37 1978X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_116198

C. Malcolm Watkins Papers

Creator::
Watkins, C. Malcolm  Search this
Extent:
12.59 cu. ft. (23 document boxes) (1 half document box) (1 16x20 box) (1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Illustrations
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
1935-1979 and undated
Descriptive Entry:
The papers of C. Malcolm Watkins provide comprehensive documentation of his professional career from 1934 to 1980. The collection documents his interest in early American culture; his research on ceramics, historic archeology, and early California history; his curatorial and administrative activities in the Department of Anthropology, USNM, and the Departments of Civil and Cultural History, NMHT; exhibits planning; and his role in professional societies

Series 1 consists of correspondence written and received by Watkins between 1941 and 1978. This large correspondence file documents his career at the Smithsonian, particularly his interest in American material culture, especially ceramics, glass, and artificial lighting; historic archeology; teaching; and his role in professional societies. Correspondence also documents exhibitions; restoration and identification of historic material; acquisitions; and museum administration. Correspondence files include magazine and newspaper articles, booklets, photographs, graphic illustrations, and brochures.

Series 2 contains subject files, 1949-1979, documenting his research, exhibits planning, and professional society activities including his role in founding the Society for Historical Archeology. These research files and those found in Series 5, 6, 7, and 8 document Watkins' work on early American culture, including the Marlborough and Jamestown, Virginia, excavations; California early history and California Kitchen projects; North Devon pottery; Yorktown pottery; decorative arts; and American imports. Research files include notes, correspondence, graphic illustrations, articles, photographs, site drawings, seminar and conference literature, and exhibit scripts.

Series 2 also contains information compiled by Watkins on historic sites, institutions dedicated to historic preservation and historic archeology, museums, and museum practices. Museology files in Series 3 contain correspondence, brochures and pamphlets, newsclippings, and articles, reports, procedures manuals, proposals, and lecture notes.

Throughout his years at the USNM and NMHT, Watkins amassed a variety of material on the Smithsonian. The files in Series 4 document administrative policies; acquisitions; ideas for departmental reorganization and future planning; Smithsonian Council meetings; the Smithson Bicentennial; exhibits including "Everyday Life in the American Past," "Artificial Lighting in America," and "A Nation of Nations"; symposia and seminars; Watkins' sabbatical; and general information on travel, teaching, and the Smithsonian Research Foundation. Smithsonian files include memoranda, copies of reports, correspondence, notes, scripts, proposals, newsclippings, name and address lists, and articles. Series 9 documents his work on the "A Nation of Nations" exhibit.

The collection also includes a Series (10) on historical archeology mainly comprising the files of Marilyn Sara Cohen, a museum specialist working on the Historical Archeology Project in the Division of Cultural History. It contains conference information, an interview with Watkins, correspondence, research notes, memoranda, and reports.
Historical Note:
C. Malcolm Watkins (1911- ) was born in Malden, Massachusetts, and developed an interest in early American material culture at a young age through the work of his parents and grandfather. His mother, Lura Woodside Watkins, collected glass and pottery and published Cambridge Glass, 1818-1888 on the history of the New England Glass Company. She later donated her extensive collection of kiln site pottery to the Smithsonian. Watkins' father, Charles H. Watkins, was interested in pottery as well. He participated in the excavation of a site at Newburyport, Massachusetts, and collected potsherds. In addition, the inheritance of his grandfather's collection of lighting devices served as an impetus for Watkins' research in artificial lighting techniques.

Watkins received his B.S. from Harvard College in 1934 and began his museum career as curator for the Wells Historical Museum (Southbridge, Massachusetts), the predecessor of Old Sturbridge village (Sturbridge, Massachusetts). Watkins was its first curator, working there from 1936 to 1948, except for a leave of absence from 1942-1946 to serve in the United States Air Force during World War II. In 1949, he began his career at the Smithsonian as an associate curator in the Division of Ethnology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum (USNM). Watkins was responsible for the collections of American technology and decorative arts. When a separate Museum of History and Technology was created in 1958, Watkins assumed responsibility for the new Division of Cultural History in the Department of Civil History, as curator (1958, 1960-1966) and supervisor and curator (1967-1968). In this position, Watkins developed the national collections of American material culture, especially ceramics and glass. He also built the staff of the Division and in 1969 achieved departmental status for Cultural History. He was appointed its first chairman, in addition to his duties as curator of Pre-Industrial History and Ethnic and Western History. In 1973, he became senior curator of the Department of Cultural History, the position he held until his retirement in 1980. He continued research as curator emeritus until 1984.

Watkins' wife, Joan Pearson Watkins, collaborated with him. From 1964 to 1977, she held the position of honorary curator, and from 1978 to 1979 she was an honorary research associate. In 1980, she became a collaborator in the Division of Ceramics and Glass, a position she held until 1983.

During his career at the Smithsonian, Watkins worked on numerous exhibits. In 1955, he prepared an exhibition on "Folk Pottery of Early New England," which contained the redware and stoneware from his mother's collection. The first large exhibition hall devoted to the history of everyday life in colonial and federal America was developed by Watkins and opened in 1957 as part of the Exhibits Modernization Program. In 1964, a revised version of the hall opened in the new History and Technology Building as the "Hall of Everyday Life in the American Past." Watkins was also involved in the construction of the "Growth of the United States" exhibit in the new museum, which represented the material culture of the developing nation. The California Kitchen, found by Watkins and Pearson Watkins, was added to the exhibits in the History and Technology Building in 1965. In celebration of the Bicentennial of the American Revolution, Watkins contributed to the colonial section of the exhibition, "A Nation of Nations," which opened in 1976.

In addition to working on exhibits, Watkins spent much of his time acquiring and developing collections. His most important acquisition was the Arthur and Edna Greenwood Collection of some 2,000 objects of Americana documenting everyday life in colonial America. Other major acquisitions during his tenure included the Remensnyder Collection of American Stoneware and the Morgenstern Collection of early American material culture.

In addition to his curatorial duties, Watkins devoted much of his time to lecturing and writing scholarly and popular articles. His major publications include The Cultural History of Marlborough, Virginia, North Devon Pottery and its Export to America in the 17th Century, and The "Poor Potter" of Yorktown, which he wrote with Ivor Noel Hume.

Watkins was a pioneer in the field of historic archeology. He began his excavations of a colonial plantation at Marlborough, Virginia, with Frank M. Setzler in 1953 and continued through 1969. Watkins also began excavations at the Jamestown, Virginia, site in 1955. In addition, he wrote and lectured extensively on historic archeology, served as a consultant to numerous historic archeology projects, and was an active member of the Society for Historic Archeology, which he helped found.

In 1960, Watkins began his research on North Devon pottery imported to the United States in the 17th century, which led to a monograph on that topic. In 1965, he and Pearson Watkins collaborated on an oral history project in Moore County, North Carolina, researching folk pottery traditions. In addition to Watkins' interest in ceramics, he also spent considerable time researching early California history. Publications on this topic include James Johnston's White House in Half Moon Bay: An Example of Early Anglo-American Reminiscent Architecture in California and New England in El Dorado: The Letters and Narrative Accounts of Robert and Caroline Batchelder Thompson, California Pioneers.

Watkins was active in numerous associations and societies including the Early American Industries Association, the Society of Architectural Historians, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, the Western History Association, the California Historical Society, and the American Association of Museums. During the 1960s, Watkins also taught for the American Studies Program at George Washington University.

For additional information on Watkins, see Record Unit 331, Department of Cultural History, 1954-1979, and undated, Records, and the C. Malcolm Watkins Interviews in the Smithsonian Archives.
Chronology:
1911 -- Born in Malden, Massachusetts

1934 -- Bachelor of Science, Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts

1934-1935 -- Self employed as a free-lance writer on antiques

1936 -- Studied Fine Arts at Harvard University

1936-1948 -- Curator, Wells Historical Museum, Southbridge, Massachusetts

1942-1946 -- United States Air Force, World War II

1948 -- Consultant in Furnishing, Dana Palmer House, Harvard University

1949-1957 -- Associate Curator, Division of Ethnology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum

1951 -- Negotiated donation of the Arthur and Edna Greenwood collection of colonial American material culture

1952 -- Published "Artificial Lighting in America: 1830-1860" in the Smithsonian Annual Report for 1951

1953-1969 -- Conducted excavations of a colonial plantation at Marlborough, Virginia

1955 -- Organized exhibition on "Folk Pottery of Early New England"

1958-1969 -- Curator, Division of Cultural History, Department of Civil History, National Museum of History and Technology (NMHT)

1960 -- Published North Devon Pottery and its Export to America in the 17th century

1964-1977 -- Joan Jockwig Pearson appointed Honorary Curator, Department of Civil History, NMHT

1964 -- Opening of the National Museum of History and Technology

-- Installation of "Hall of Everyday Life in the American Past"

1965 -- Married Joan Jockwig Pearson ; With Joan Pearson Watkins, located California Kitchen for exhibition in NMHT

1966-1967 -- Sabbatical

1967 -- Published with Ivor Noel Hume, The "Poor Potter" of Yorktown

1967-1968 -- Supervisor and curator, Division of Cultural History, Department of Civil History, NMHT

1968 -- Published The Cultural History of Marlborough, Virginia

1969-1972 -- Curator, Pre-Industrial and Ethnic and Western History, and chairman, Department of Cultural History, NMHT

1969 -- Began historic archeology excavations at Alexandria, Virginia

1972 -- Published James Johnston's White House in Half Moon Bay: An Example of Early Anglo-American Reminiscent Architecture in California

1973-1979 -- Senior Curator, Department of Cultural History, NMHT

1976 -- Opening of "A Nation of Nations" exhibition

1978-1979 -- Joan Pearson Watkins appointed research associate, Department of Cultural History, NMHT

1980-1983 -- Joan Pearson Watkins appointed collaborator, Department of Cultural History, NMHT

1980-1984 -- Retired and appointed curator emeritus, Department of Cultural History, NMHT

1981 -- National Museum of History and Technology renamed National Museum of American History
Oversize:
This collection contains oversize material.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Civilization -- History  Search this
Museum techniques  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Illustrations
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7322, C. Malcolm Watkins Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7322
See more items in:
C. Malcolm Watkins Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7322

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