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Passerpromenade Gardens, Meran: a flower bed with ornamental palm.

Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Extent:
1 Lantern slide (col., 3.25 x 4 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Passerpromenade Gardens (Meran, Tyrol, Austria)
Austria -- South Tyrol -- Meran
Date:
[between 1910 and 1920]
General note:
At the time this lantern slide was made the town of Meran was still located in Austria in the German-speaking South Tyrol. After World War I, under the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy. Place names were Italianized, changing Meran into Merano. A sign in German in the image reads "Julius Scheibein, Zeitungen Kiosk," confirming the estimated date.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Austria -- Meran  Search this
Palms  Search this
Edging (inorganic)  Search this
Flower beds  Search this
Benches  Search this
Signs and signboards  Search this
Fences  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, Item AUS001001
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / Foreign / Austria / South Tyrol -- Meran / AUS001: Passerpromenade Gardens, Meran
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref15323

[Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew]: herbaceous perennials.

Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print ((mounted on cardboard), black and white, mount 8.5 x 10.5 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United Kingdom -- England -- London Region -- London
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (London, England)
Date:
1912 Jul.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Perennials  Search this
Summer  Search this
Garden borders  Search this
Gardens -- England -- London  Search this
People  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, Item ENG019001
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / Foreign / England / ENG019: London -- Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref15344

[Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew]: two little girls and herbaceous perennials.

Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print ((mounted on cardboard), black and white, mount 8.5 x 10.5 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (London, England)
United Kingdom -- England -- London Region -- London
Date:
[between 1905 and 1915]
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- England -- London  Search this
Summer  Search this
Children  Search this
People  Search this
Perennials  Search this
Garden borders  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, Item ENG019002
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / Foreign / England / ENG019: London -- Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref15346

In search of population policy; views from the developing world

Author:
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) International Steering Committee for the Seminars on Population Policy  Search this
National Research Council (U.S.) Commission on International Relations  Search this
United States Agency for International Development Office of Population  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 108 p. 23 cm
Type:
Books
Congresses
Place:
Developing countries
Date:
1974
Topic:
Population  Search this
Call number:
HB849 .N35 1974X
HB849.N35 1974X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_48454

As Brood X Numbers Grow, Cicadas Interfere With Cars, Planes and Radar

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 11 Jun 2021 18:13:43 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_d61c49d83ceaa672045cb4d3f0463268

Pentagon column reinforcement bar

Title:
Pentagon column reinforcement bar
Measurements:
overall: 21 in x 13 3/4 in x 11 1/4 in; 53.34 cm x 34.925 cm x 28.575 cm
Object Name:
Metal rebar piece
Recovered:
United States: Virginia, Pentagon
Subject:
September 11 Terrorist Attacks  Search this
Related event:
September 11th Attacks  Search this
ID Number:
2002.0289.02
Accession number:
2002.0289
Catalog number:
2002.0289.02
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, 9/11
September 11
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-ecb8-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1194232
Online Media:

Dale-Patterson Family collection

Creator:
Dale, Dianne  Search this
P.H. Polk, 1898-1984  Search this
Names:
Barry, Marion, 1936-2014  Search this
Dale, Almore M., 1911-1984  Search this
Dale, Dianne  Search this
Dale, John Henry, Jr., 1888-1973  Search this
Dale, Lucille Emma Patterson, 1889-1973  Search this
Dale, Marie Howard, 1914-2011  Search this
Dale, Norman Edward, 1908-1991  Search this
Garner, Araminta Dale, 1913-1987  Search this
Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
Patterson, Wilhelmina Bessie, 1888-1962  Search this
Extent:
6 Linear feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Programs
Clippings
Correspondence
Ephemera
Postcards
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1866 - 1990.
Summary:
The Dale-Patterson family papers, which date from 1866 to 2010 and measure 6 linear feet, document the personal and professional lives of the Dale-Patterson family who came to live in Hillsdale, Anacostia, area of Washington, D.C., in 1892.
Scope and Contents note:
The Dale-Patterson family papers, which date from 1866 to 1990 and measure 6 linear feet, document the personal and professional lives of the Dale-Patterson family who came to live in Hillsdale, Anacostia, area of Washington, D.C., in 1892. The collection is comprised of correspondence, photographs, clippings, and ephemera.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged in four series:

Series 1: Dale-Patterson Family papers Series 2: Charles Qualls papers Series 3: Community Organizations Series 4: Subject Files
Biographical/Historical note:
The Dale family came to Washington, DC in 1886 when John Henry Dale, Sr., a gifted self-taught man, obtained a position as clerk in the newly contracted Pension Bureau building at 5th and G Streets, NW. First they lived near 13th Street and Florida Avenue, NW, then moved to Howard Road in Anacostia. Dale built a house at 2619 Nichols Avenue, now Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue, drawing the plans and supervising the construction. The Dales and only one other family lived in this solidly built house for 100 years before it was sold to a church group and demolished.
General Note:
Finding Aid Note: This finding aid is associated with a MARC collection-level record.361883
Provenance:
The Dale-Patterson Family collection was donated to the Anacostia Community Museum on April 07, 2013.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
The Dale-Patterson Family collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American families  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Programs
Clippings
Correspondence
Ephemera
Postcards
Citation:
Dale-Patterson Family collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Dianne Dale.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-074
See more items in:
Dale-Patterson Family collection
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-074
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Online Media:

Oral history interview with Rosamund Felsen

Interviewee:
Felsen, Rosamund, 1934-  Search this
Interviewer:
Ayres, Anne, 1936-  Search this
Extent:
5 Sound discs (Sound recording, master (5 hrs.), digital, 2 5/8 in.)
104 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound discs
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2004 Oct. 10-11
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Rosamund Felsen conducted 2004 October 10-11, by Anne Ayres, for the Archives of American Art, in Los Angeles, Calif.
Felsen discusses developing her gallery's stable of artists; forming a creative consciousness while working at Gemini GEL and being involved in high school theater; being unable to start a career because of the demand of raising four children; the influences of her older siblings; her marriages to Vern Hinderer and Sidney Felsen; engaging in the nascent 1960s Los Angeles art world; the founding of Gemini GEL with her husband, Sidney, and Stanley and Elyse Grinstein; her involvement with "political" artists like Jeffrey Vallance; working in the now defunct Pasadena Art Museum; that museum's downfall; starting a gallery with Timothea Stewart; her thoughts on other Los Angeles galleries of the 1970s; the influence of the Beatnik movement on L.A. art; the financial difficulties of exhibiting conceptual art; and the importance of art schools in forming a regional art scene. Felsen also mentions her ambivalent opinions of Feminist art; the exodus of a major portion of her gallery's artists; the importance of lawyers aiding artists; the characteristics of retrospective exhibitions on the Los Angeles art world; the differences between high art and design; her relationships with various collectors; socializing in the L.A. art world; the definitions of the terms "art world" and "taste"; the public's restricted access, because of admission prices and tastes, to contemporary art; how she splits funds after selling an artwork; the problems of dealing with artist's estates; the importance of her relationships with museum curators; and how she still retains enthusiasm for her work. Felsen also recalls Patrick Hogan, Lari Pittman, Michael Kelley, Man Ray, Tom Hanks, Jeffrey Vallance, Thomas Kincade, Laura Owens, Meg Cranston, Keith Sklar, Ralph Rugoff, Tim Ebner, Virginia Dwan, George Wanlass, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Rosamund Felsen (1934- ) is a gallery owner in Los Angeles, Calif. Anne Ayres (1936- ) is a curator from Los Angeles, Calif.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Occupation:
Gallery owners -- California  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art -- Political aspects  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.felsen04
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-felsen04

Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers

Creator:
Parsons, Betty  Search this
Names:
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
Bess, Forrest, 1911-1977  Search this
Congdon, William, 1912-1998  Search this
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad, 1913-1967  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Extent:
61.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Interviews
Video recordings
Drawings
Date:
1916-1991
bulk 1946-1983
Summary:
The Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers measure 61.1 linear feet and date from 1916 to 1991, with the bulk of the material dating from 1946-1983. Records provide extensive documentation of the gallery's operations from its inception in 1946 to its closing in 1983 and of the activities of Betty Parsons as one the leading art dealers of contemporary American Art in the latter half of the twentieth century, particularly the work of the Abstract Expressionists. Over one third of the of the collection is comprised of artists files containing correspondence, price lists, and printed materials. Additional correspondence is with galleries, dealers, art institutions, private collectors, and the media. Also found are exhibition files, exhibition catalogs and announcements, sales records, stock inventories, personal financial records, and photographs. Betty Parsons's personal papers consist of early curatorial files, pocket diaries, personal correspondence, and evidence of her own artwork, including sketchbooks, and files documenting her personal art collection.
Scope and Content Note:
The Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers measure 61.1 linear feet and date from 1916 to 1991, with the bulk of the material dating from 1946-1983. Records provide extensive documentation of the gallery's operations from its inception in 1946 to its closing in 1983 and of the activities of Betty Parsons as one the leading art dealers of contemporary American Art in the latter half of the twentieth century, particularly the work of the Abstract Expressionists. Over one third of the of the collection is comprised of artists files containing correspondence, price lists, and printed materials. Additional correspondence is with galleries, dealers, art institutions, private collectors, and the media. Also found are exhibition files, exhibition catalogs and announcements, sales records, stock inventories, personal financial records, and photographs. Betty Parsons's personal papers consist of early curatorial files, pocket diaries, personal correspondence, and evidence of her own artwork, including sketchbooks, and files documenting her personal art collection. Personal papers also include personal photographs.

Artists files, the largest and most extensive series, consist of a wide variety of documents, including biographical materials, correspondence with or related to the artist, exhibition catalogs and announcements, sales and expense invoices, clippings, price lists, and photographs of the artist, exhibitions, and artwork. The files reflect Parsons's close personal relationships with certain artists, particularly Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Clyfford Still, and Barnett Newman. Extensive documentation is also found for Forrest Bess, William Congdon, Paul Feeley, Thomas George, Alexander Liberman, Seymour Lipton, Richard Pousette-Dart, Jesse Reichek, and Jack Youngerman. Historians and researchers will find these files to be an invaluable resource both in tracing Betty Parsons's role in promoting Abstract Expressionism and researching individual artists.

Exhibition files primarily document the gallery's infrequent group or themed exhibitions. Of particular note are the files on The Ideographic Picture, which was organized by Barnett Newman and included his work, as well as that of Pietro Lazzari, Boris Margo, Ad Reinhardt, Mark Rothko, Theodoros Stamos, and Clyfford Still. Price lists, artist biographies and exhibition schedules are housed in the general exhibition files. Loan exhibition files provide documentation of artwork borrowed by other galleries or institutions for exhibitions, as well as shows outside of the gallery that were organized by Betty Parsons. Also found are gallery exhibition guest books, and announcements and catalogs.

Gallery correspondence is primarily with galleries and dealers, museums, arts organizations, and collectors. Scattered letters from artists are also found, although the bulk of the artists' correspondence is filed in the Artists Files. Also found here are memoranda and letters between Betty Parsons and her staff that contain detailed information concerning Parsons's schedule and gallery activities. Similar correspondence is found amongst the correspondence files within the series Betty Parsons papers.

Appraisal and conservation files include correspondence, appraisal invoices, forms, and appraisal requests and other information from the Art Dealers Association of America, and conservation invoices and reports. The majority of the appraisal records contain information about the specific works of art, including artist, title, date, current owner and the estimated value at the time of the request. Conservation records document conservation treatments undertaken by outside conservators to gallery stock.

Sales, purchases, stock and inventory are well documented in the sales and inventory records. The records provide detailed information about individual sales, prices of individual pieces of artwork, consignments, and loans. Most sales records also include detailed information about the buyer and are a valuable resource for provenance research. Files documenting the general administration, routine business operations, and financial transactions (not individual sales) of the gallery are housed in the general business and financial records. These records include ledgers, receipts, tax records, and banking records. There is some limited information about works of art scattered amongst the receipts and in the "in/out slips" files. Legal records house general legal documents and those concerning specific lawsuits. Of particular note is the file detailing the lawsuit between Betty Parsons and Sidney Janis over the fifth floor of 24 West 57th Street.

The remainder of the collection consists of Betty Parsons's personal papers which document her career prior to opening her own gallery, her work as an artist, and her personal art collection.

Some information about Parsons's work prior to opening her own gallery is found in the early curatorial files she retained from her curatorial and administrative work at the Wakefield Gallery and the Mortimer Brandt Gallery. Clippings, correspondence, announcements, exhibition lists and exhibition files are found. For both positions, she kept only the exhibition files for a small group of exhibitions organized around a specific theme, the most notable being the exhibition of Pre-Columbian Sculpture at the Wakefield Gallery.

Biographical materials include copies of her biography, family genealogies, photographs of Parsons, interviews with Colette Roberts and WYNC radio, memberships, photographs, and ephemera, including a collection of programs and invitations from events that she attended. Throughout her life Parsons gave generously of her time to various cultural and charitable institutions and was awarded for her contributions. There are also a number of files that document her speaking engagements, her participation as a juror in numerous juried exhibitions, charitable work, and awards that she received.

Parsons's personal correspondence files reflect how deeply Parsons's life was intertwined with the gallery. There are letters from museum directors, dealers, artists seeking representation, and personal letters from artists with whom she had close personal relationships, most notably Larry Bigelow, Alexander Calder, William Condon, and Ad Reinhardt. There are also letters from the English artist Adge Baker, with whom Parsons was romantically involved. Correspondence also includes several files of postcards and Christmas cards.

Pocket diaries and engagement calendars, spanning from 1933-1981, record social engagements, meetings, vacations, and telephone numbers. Also found are circa two linear feet of notebooks and sketchbooks, many of which are annotated with addresses, poetry, journal entries, and other observations of people, places, and travels. Writings by others include writings about Betty Parsons or the Betty Parsons Gallery, such as Lawrence Alloway's unpublished typescript titled "An American Gallery" and other topics.

Printed material consists of exhibition announcements and catalogs, art magazines, and newspaper and magazine clippings about Betty Parsons, her family and acquaintances, artists, and other art related topics, coupled with a miscellaneous selection of clippings, and a video recording, on topics that presumably captured Parsons's attention.

Personal art work records document Betty Parsons's career as an artist through inventories, group and solo exhibitions files, price lists, appraisals, sales and consignment invoices. Photographs are primarily reproductions of her works of art, although there are scattered photographs of exhibition installations.

Betty Parsons's private art collection files document her extensive personal collection of art that included works by Jackson Pollock, Agnes Martin, Romare Bearden, Barnett Newman, and Mark Rothko, in addition to Amlash sculpture from ancient Persia and primitive sculpture from New Hebrides. These files include inventories, lists, exhibition records, sales and purchase invoices, and photographs. There are also files for donations and loans from Parsons's personal collection to museums and fund raising auctions for several non-profit institutions.

Finally, the personal financial records provide information about the Parsons's family finances and her personal financial success as an art dealer. In addition to her own investments, Parsons inherited shares in family investments through the estates of her parents, J. Fred Pierson, Jr. and Suzanne Miles Pierson, and younger sister, Emily Rayner. Real estate files include correspondence, utility bills, receipts, area maps, and land plots for houses in Sheepscot, Maine and St. Maartens, Netherlands Antilles. Tax returns, ledger worksheets, receipts, banking statements, deposit slips, and cancelled checks are among the other financial records.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as seven series. Many of the series are further divided into subseries.

Series 1: Artists Files, 1935-1983 (19.4 linear feet; Boxes 1-18, 51, 55-56, OVs 53, 65)

Series 2: Exhibition Files, 1941-1983 (2.9 linear feet; Boxes 18-21, 51, 55, OVs 54, 66)

Series 3: Correspondence Files, 1941-1983 (3.9 linear feet; Boxes 21-24, 52, 56)

Series 4: Appraisal Files, 1954-1983 (0.7 linear feet; Box 24)

Series 5: Sales and Inventory Records, 1946-1983 (3.9 linear feet; Boxes 25-28, 51)

Series 6: General Business and Financial Records, 1946-1983 (9.3 linear feet; Boxes 28-38, 51, 56)

Series 7: Betty Parsons Personal Papers, 1916-1991 (21 linear feet; Boxes 38-51, 55-64, OVs 65-67)
Historical Note:
Betty Parsons (1900-1982) was one of the leading art dealers in New York City specializing in modern art, particularly the work of the Abstract Expressionists, and an abstract painter and sculptor in her own right. She opened Betty Parsons Gallery in 1946 at 15 E. 57th St., later moving to 24 W. 57th St.

The history of the Betty Parsons Gallery is inextricably bound to the life and experiences of its founder. Betty Parsons was born Betty Bierne Pierson on January 31, 1900 in New York City. She enjoyed a privileged childhood, which included vacation homes in Newport and Palm Beach. Her only formal education was a five-year stint at the prestigious Chapin School from 1910-1915, where she met many of the women who would become life-long friends and supporters. In the spring of 1920, she married Schuyler Livingston Parsons from one of New York's oldest families. The marriage ended after only three years and the couple traveled to Paris where they could obtain a divorce on the grounds of incompatibility. She retained her married surname and purchased a house on the rue Boulard in Paris, where she remained for ten years, pursuing studies in painting and sculpture.

Financial constraints forced Parsons to return to the United States in 1933. She first traveled west to California, but it was her return to New York in 1935 that marked the start of her career as an art dealer. Her first opportunity to connect with the New York art world came after a successful exhibition of her watercolors at the Midtown Galleries where the owner, Alan Gruskin, noted Parson's faithful and wealthy group of supporters and offered her work installing exhibitions and selling paintings on commission. Her work for the Midtown Galleries led to a second position in the Park Avenue gallery of Mary Sullivan, one of the founders of the Museum of Modern Art. Here, Parsons learned the business of running a gallery. By 1940 Parsons was ready to take on more independent responsibility and agreed to manage a gallery within the Wakefield Bookshop. In this job, she exercised full curatorial control by selecting artists and organizing exhibitions. She championed then unknown contemporary American artists and the gallery's roster soon included Saul Steinberg, Hedda Sterne, Alfonso Ossorio, Joseph Cornell, Walter Murch, and Theodore Stamos. Although the majority of the exhibitions were solo shows, there were a few group shows and themed exhibitions, such as Love in Art (1941) and Ballet in Art (1942). Under Parson's direction, the gallery hosted an important exhibition of Pre-Columbian sculpture, curated by Barnett Newman.

When the owners of the Wakefield Bookshop decided to close the gallery late in 1944, Mortimer Brandt, a dealer who specialized in Old Master paintings and drawings, offered her a position as head of the newly created contemporary section of his gallery. Many of the artists who had shown with Parsons at the Wakefield Gallery followed her to her new gallery, where they were joined by Ad Reinhardt, Boris Mango, and Hans Hofmann. While the exhibitions garnered attention from the press and the interest of contemporary artists, the contemporary section was not a financial success and Brandt opted to close his gallery in 1946.

Using $1000 of her own money and an additional borrowed $4000, Parsons sublet the space that previously housed Mortimer Brandt's contemporary section, on the fifth floor of 15 East 57th Street, and opened the Betty Parsons Gallery.

In many respects the early years of the Betty Parsons Gallery were the most vital, as it was during the period of 1947-1951 that the gallery became linked with the Abstract Expressionists and the history of post-WWII American Art. In an unpublished history of the gallery, noted art critic Lawrence Alloway stated that the significance of the gallery's early exhibitions ranks with Durand-Ruel's Impressionists exhibitions or Kahnweiler's shows of the Cubists. Betty Parsons Gallery quickly became one of the most prestigious galleries in New York City associated with new American Art of all styles. Her close friend Barnett Newman organized the gallery's inaugural exhibition of Northwest Coast Indian Art and he soon began to exhibit his own work at the gallery. When Peggy Guggenheim's Art of This Century Gallery closed, Jackson Pollock, Clyfford Still, and Mark Rothko joined Parsons' growing stable of artists. Although Parsons continued to promote and exhibit many of the artists whom she had previously discovered, these four artists dominated this period. Newman, Pollock, Still, and Rothko worked closely together, holding themselves apart from the other artists somewhat. They were actively involved in the curatorial process and often hung their own shows. For these artists, the exhibition itself was an artistic act of creation.

Parsons provided a supportive environment and allowed her artists enormous freedom in planning and designing their exhibitions. She was not, however, an aggressive salesperson. During this early period the gallery ledgers document sales to an impressive array of museums including the Museum of Modern Art, the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the Art Institute of Chicago, as well as important collectors such as Edward Root and Duncan Phillips. Nevertheless, the art that the gallery promoted was not yet widely accepted. Sales were few, prices were low and the business would not turn a profit for several years. Meanwhile, there was mounting pressure from Pollock, Newman, Still, and Rothko to drop some of the other artists from Parsons' stable and focus all resources on them. They wanted to be promoted to a larger audience and have their work sold at higher prices, but Parsons enjoyed discovering new artists and did not want to be restricted in this endeavor. The year 1951 marks the last time that Pollock's drip paintings or the monumental works of Newman, Rothko or Still were shown at the Betty Parsons Gallery.

In the following years the Betty Parsons Gallery continued to attract a diverse group of talented artists. Ellsworth Kelly, Richard Tuttle, Robert Rauschenberg, and Jack Youngerman had their first New York exhibitions at the Betty Parsons Gallery. Parsons opened Section Eleven in 1958, a short-lived annex to the main gallery, so that she could promote younger, less well-known artists. It closed in 1960 due to the administrative difficulties in running two essentially separate galleries.

In 1962, Sidney Janis, another prominent art dealer, started proceedings to evict Parsons from the floor that they shared on 15 East 57th Street. The Betty Parsons Gallery moved to 24 West 57th Street in 1963, where it remained until it closed in 1983, following Parsons' death the preceding year. Throughout the gallery's history, Parsons continued to promote faithful artists such as Hedda Sterne and Saul Steinberg, who had been with her from the beginning and to seek out new talent, both for her main gallery and for other venues, such as the short-lived Parsons-Truman Gallery, which she opened in 1974 with former Parsons Gallery director Jock Truman to show works on paper by emerging artists.

In addition to being an art dealer, Betty Parsons was a respected artist and collector. With her connoisseur's eye and connections, Parsons amassed an impressive private collection of art. She bought her first piece while an art student in Paris in the 1920s, a small gouache by Zadkine, but did not begin acquiring works in earnest until she was established as an art dealer. Partial inventories of her personal collection show that the majority of her collection contained works by artists associated with the gallery. Mark Rothko, Hans Hofmann, Ad Reinhardt, Agnes Martin, and Kenzo Okada were among the artists represented. Many were gifts from the artists, such as an ink drawing by Jackson Pollock, inscribed "For Betty." Selections from her collection appeared in small museums across the United States, including a traveling exhibition organized by Fitch College, New York, in 1968. In her role as a promoter of contemporary American art, Parsons lent generously from her collection, particularly to the federal Art in the Embassies Program. Throughout her life she also donated works to a variety of museums, most notably, the Whitney Museum of American Art, Museum of Modern Art, New York, and the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Denmark.

Parsons frequently claimed that her desire to pursue a career as an artist stemmed from a visit to the Armory Show when she was thirteen. In her late teens, after pressuring her father for art lessons, she studied with the sculptor Gutzon Burglum of Mount Rushmore fame. In Paris, she continued her studies first with Antoine Bourdelle, whose sculptures she had admired at the Armory Show, and later with Ossip Zadkine. The first exhibition of her work, figurative watercolors and sculptures, took place in Paris in 1927. As she matured as an artist, her art became more abstract. Her late works were painted wood sculptures that she pieced together from wood that she found near her studio in Long Island. Parsons's work was exhibited in more than thirty solo exhibitions, including, Betty Parsons; Paintings, Gouaches and Sculpture, 1955-1968, at the Whitechapel Gallery in London. During her lifetime, she would not allow her works to be shown in her own gallery. Shortly after she died of a stroke in 1982, In Memoriam, Betty Parsons: Late Sculptures, opened at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
Related Material:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are oral history interviews with Betty Parsons, June 4-9, 1969, by Paul Cummings, and June 11, 1981 by Gerald Silk.
Separated Material:
Some of the material originally loaned for microfilming in 1968 and 1969 was not included in later donations and can be viewed on microfilm reels N68/62-N68/74 and N69/105-N69/106. Loaned materials are not described in the container listing in this finding aid.
Provenance:
The gallery donated some records in 1974, many of which had been loaned earlier for microfilming. The bulk of the collection was donated in 1984 and 1986 by William Rayner and Christopher Schwabacher, executors of the Estate of Betty Parsons. Additional material was donated by William Rayner in 1998 and Christopher Schwabacher in 2017. Additional material was donated in 2018 by the Lee Hall estate via Carolyn Crozier and Deborah Jacobson, co-executors. Hall was Parsons's biographer and had the material in her possession at the time of Parsons's death. An additional photograph of Parons and Marie Carr Taylor by Henri Cartier-Bresson was donated in 2021 by Mary Carpenter, who inherited the photograph from her mother, Nan Thorton Jones, who received it as a gift from Taylor.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Gallery owners -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Women art dealers  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Abstract expressionist  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Interviews
Video recordings
Drawings
Citation:
Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers, 1916-1991. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.parsbett
See more items in:
Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-parsbett
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Online Media:

Ancient Crossroads: Influences from the Silk Road Regions of Asia, Africa, and Europe (1994)

Collection Creator:
Parish Gallery  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 29
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1991-1994
Scope and Contents:
This group show was curated by Camellia A. Blackwell, PhD, of the International Center for Artistic Development (ICAD). It includes works by Askar Yesenbayev, Erkin Mergenov, Tokbolat Togizbayev, Adbrashid Sydykhanov, and Uristanbek Shigaev.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of electronic records with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Parish Gallery records, 1940-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Parish Gallery records
Parish Gallery records / Series 1: Exhibition Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-parigall-ref32

Anna Walinska papers

Creator:
Walinska, Anna  Search this
Names:
Guild Art Gallery  Search this
Avery, Milton, 1885-1965  Search this
Beata, Welsing  Search this
Hacohen, Bracha  Search this
Littlefield, William Horace, 1902-1969  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Walinsky, Louis Joseph, 1908-2001  Search this
Extent:
2.1 Linear feet
2.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Interviews
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Transcripts
Travel diaries
Place:
Europe -- description and travel
Israel -- Description and Travel
Date:
1927-2002
bulk 1935-1980
1927-2002
bulk 1935-1980
Summary:
The papers of New York-based painter, teacher and art director Anna Walinska measure 2.1 linear feet and date from 1927 to 2002, with the bulk of material from 1935 to 1980. The papers include biographical material, correspondence, writings, travel diaries, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork, sketchbooks, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York-based painter, teacher and art director Anna Walinska measure 2.1 linear feet and date from 1927 to 2002, with the bulk of material from 1935 to 1980. The papers include biographical material, correspondence, writings, travel diaries, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork, sketchbooks, and photographs.

Biographical material consists of awards, certificates, curriculum vitae, biographical outlines, exhibition lists, passports and other material. There is a partial transcript from a radio interview of Anna Walinska. Also included are limited financial records.

Correspondence includes Anna Walinska's letters to her family from her 1954-1955 trip abroad to multiple countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. There is personal and professional correspondence with friends, artists and art institutions. Notable correspondents include Milton Avery, Louise Nevelson, Beata Welsing, Bracha Hacohen, William Littlefield, and Walinska's brother Louis Walinsky.

Writings consist of Walinska's notes, notebooks, lectures, essays, and a handwritten prospectus for Guild Art Gallery. There is one folder of writings by others about Walinska at the end of the series. There are four travel diaries that describe Walinska's trip around the world from 1954-1955, during which she traveled to many countries, and later trips to locations such as Israel and Trinidad.

Printed Material include clippings about Anna Walinska, group and solo exhibition catalogs, announcements, event invitations, and course catalogs for the Master Institute of United Art in New York City, where Walinska taught painting and drawing classes.

There are three scrapbooks: one scrapbook is about Guild Art Gallery, the second scrapbook is about the Holocaust exhibition, the third oversized scrapbook documents Walinska's career and activities overall.

Artwork consists of two bound sketchbooks as well as drawings and sketches in a variety of mediums from pencil and ink to watercolors and oils.

Photographs are of Walinska, friends, family, artists, artwork, exhibition installations, and other subjects. One album includes photos of Anna Walinska and her travels, along with images of friends and colleagues. The second album includes photographs of Walinska's solo exhibition at Sunken Meadow Gallery (1959). There is also one folder of photocopies of photos of assorted artwork by Walinska.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1927-2002 (Box 1; 11 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1949-1995 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1935-circa 1983 (Box 1; 8 folders)

Series 4: Travel Diaries, 1954-1973 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1942-2002 (Boxes 1-2; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, circa 1929-1980 (Boxes 2, 4; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1929-1963 (Box 3; 5 folders)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1932-1980 (Box 3; 0.3 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Anna Walinska (1906-1997) was a New York artist, teacher and gallery director who traveled widely and is most well known for her paintings related to the subject of the Holocaust.

Anna Walinska was born in London, England in 1906 to labor organization leader Ossip Walinsky and poet Rosa Newman Walinska. She had two siblings, Emily and Louis. The family immigrated to New York City in 1914, and Anna Walinska began studying at the Art Students League in 1918. In 1926, she travelled to Paris and studied art at the Academie de Grande Chaumier with Andre L'Hote. France was her primary residence until 1930.

In 1935, Walinska and artist Margaret Lefranc co-founded the Guild Art Gallery at West 57th Street in New York and gave Arshile Gorky his first solo exhibition in the city. The gallery closed its doors in 1937. In 1939, Walinska was the Assistant Creative Director of the Contemporary Art Pavilion at the New York World's Fair. During this time, Walinska also pursued her own art and exhibited work in numerous group shows.

From 1954 to 1955, Walinska traveled around the world, visiting the capitals and major cities of many countries in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Places she went included Japan, Burma (now known as Myanmar), Pakistan, Greece, Italy, France and Spain. During her four month stay in Burma, she painted a portrait of Prime Minister U Nu and she later became a highly respected portrait artist who painted numerous illustrious subjects such as First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, artists Louise Nevelson and Mark Rothko, and many others.

In 1957, Walinska became the artist-in-residence at the Riverside Museum where she also taught and exhibited with other artists. That same year, she had her first retrospective at the Jewish Museum in New York City.

Walinska exhibited widely and often. Holocaust: Paintings and Drawings, 1953-1978, which opened at the Museum of Religious Art at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City, is probably the most well-known of her exhibitions and it traveled across the country to several other sites such as the War Memorial Building in Baltimore and Mercy College of Detroit. Works from this exhibition were acquired by multiple museums to become part of their permanent collections.

Walinkska died on December 19, 1997 at the age of 91 in New York City. In 1999, there was a retrospective of her work titled Echoes of the Holocaust: Paintings, Drawings, and Collage, 1940-1989 held at Clark University's Center for Holocaust Studies. The Onisaburo Gallery at New York's Interfaith Center also held a solo exhibition titled Portraits of Faith (2000). Her art is part of the collections at the Denver Art Museum, National Portrait Gallery, National Museum of Women in the Arts, the Rose Art Museum, and other museums.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also has the Guild Art Gallery records, which consists of material related to the gallery that was co-founded by Anna Walinska.
Provenance:
The papers were donated by Anna Walinska in two installations in 1976 and 1981. Rosina Rubin, Anna Walinska's niece, made a third donation of material in 2017.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., research center.
Occupation:
Gallery directors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Drawing--Study and teaching  Search this
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945), in art  Search this
Painting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Asia--Description and travel  Search this
Middle East--Description and travel  Search this
Trinidad and Tobago--Description and travel  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Interviews
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Transcripts
Travel diaries
Citation:
Anna Walinska papers, 1927-2002, bulk 1935-1980. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.walianna
See more items in:
Anna Walinska papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-walianna
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Online Media:

North Eastern Regional Pride (NERP), butterflies, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 100, Folder 6
Box 102, Folder 35
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Negatives
Date:
1998
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 15: Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York / 15.1: Photographs, Photographic Negatives, and Slides
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref1349

Northeast Regional Pride Coordinators, Philadelphia Welcome Packet, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Series Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Container:
Box 106, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1998
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 15: Barna, Joseph T. and Heritage of Pride (HOP), New York, New York / 15.3: Barna, Joseph T.
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref1447

5th Eastern Regional Conference, Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity

Series Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Container:
Box 74, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1968
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Series Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Series 1: Black and White Photographs
Scurlock Studio Records, Series 1: Black and White Photographs / 1.1: Clients Black and White Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s01-ref16

Arthur Taussig "The Museum Project" Photoprints

Donor:
Taussig, H. Arthur  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1995-2015
Scope and Contents:
Arthur Taussig created "The Museum Project" to document what he terms "vernacular" museums in America, on offbeat or esoteric subjects. The collection contains color photoprints, organized regionally, of the interiors and exteriors of the museums he documented, and a hard drive containing all the images from the project.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series

Series 1: Photoprints, 2033-2055
Biographical / Historical:
An artist and photographer, Taussig has conducted several documentary photographic projects, in addition to being a recording artist and book illustrator.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Arthur Taussig, 2016
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Museums -- United States  Search this
Vernacular museums  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Color photoprints -- 21st century
Photographs -- Color photoprints -- 1990-2000
Citation:
Arthur Taussig "The Museum Project" Photoprints, circa 1995-2015, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1396
See more items in:
Arthur Taussig "The Museum Project" Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1396

George Allison Linebacker II Photograph Collection

Topic:
Linebacker II: A View from the Rock
Creator:
Allison, George B., Lt. Col.  Search this
Names:
Allison, George B., Lt. Col.  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic Feet ((8 folders))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1972-1973
bulk December 1972
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 183 photographs gathered by Lt. Col. George B. Allison for his book Linebacker II: A View from the Rock. These photos (8x10," B&W) document the arrival, preparation (maintenance, refueling, bomb loading), takeoff and landing of Boeing B-52 Stratofortress aircraft at Andersen AFB. A small number of photographs also show the U-Tapao AB in Thailand. Other aircraft pictured in the collection are: the McDonnell Douglas F4 and Phantom II, the Boeing KC-135A Stratotanker, and the Republic F-105. Also included are photos of ground, maintenance, and flight crew members. Aerial photographs in the collection give views of the area around Hanoi, before and after bombing (including the "Hanoi Hilton" prison). In addition, there are photographs of maps of S.E. Asia showing targeted areas, South Vietnamese propaganda leaflets, and two "gag" photos of B-52s. Finally, there are seven photographs taken through an aircraft radarscope of an attack on a pair of B-52 bombers by a SAM.
Biographical / Historical:
Operation Linebacker II, the first strategic bombing attack by the U.S. after World War II, was the heaviest bombing campaign in history. Also known as the "Eleven-Day War," the attack set forth a continuous barrage of air raids that targeted various strategic points around Hanoi and Haiphong between December 18 and 29, 1972. Sites bombed included power plants, warehouses, and rail and ship yards. Surrounded by a defense of SAM-2 missile sites, the Hanoi and Haiphong areas were among the most heavily defended regions in the entire world at that time. The U.S. aircraft bomber employed during this attack was the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, a long-range heavy bomber. Departing from both Andersen Air Force Base in Guam and U-Tapao Air Base in Thailand, the bombers succeeded in destroying eighty percent of North Vietnam's electrical power production. Following the attacks, reconnaissance aircraft were dispatched to gather information on damage that had resulted from the mission. Lt. Col. George B. Allison is a master navigator with more than 4,200 hours flying time, some 2,100 of which were in the B-52. He has nine years crew experience in bombardment aircraft and seven years staff experience in planning and instructing SAC bombing and navigation operations. He flew 76 B-52D combat missions in Southeast Asia from both U-Tapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield, Thailand, and Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. More than one-half of these were as a crew radar navigator during the last three months of 1972. They included 20 missions against targets in North Vietnam, two of which were LINEBACKER II missions from Guam against Hanoi.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
George Allison, XXXX-0568
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 -- Aerial operations, American  Search this
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 -- Aerial operations  Search this
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress Family (Model 464)  Search this
McDonnell F-4 (F4H) Phantom II Family  Search this
Boeing KC-135A Stratotanker  Search this
Republic F-105 Thunderchief Family  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975  Search this
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 -- Operation Linebacker II  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0568
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0568

The Garden Club of America collection

Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Names:
New York Flower Show  Search this
Extent:
37,000 Slides (35mm slides)
33 Linear feet ((garden files))
3,000 Lantern slides
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides
Lantern slides
Plans (drawings)
Brochures
Articles
Correspondence
Clippings
Slides (photographs)
Date:
circa 1920-present
Summary:
This collection contains over 37,000 35mm slides, 3,000 glass lantern slides and garden files that may include descriptive information, photocopied articles (from journals, newspapers, or books), planting lists, correspondence, brochures, landscape plans and drawings. Garden files were compiled by Garden Club of America (GCA) members for most of the gardens included in the collection. Some gardens have been photographed over the course of several decades; others only have images from a single point in time. In addition to images of American gardens, there are glass lantern slides of the New York Flower Show (1941-1951) and trips that GCA members took to other countries, including Mexico (1937), Italy, Spain, Japan (1935), France (1936), England (1929), and Scotland.

A number of the slides are copies of historic images from outside repositories including horticultural and historical societies or from horticultural books and publications. The GCA made a concerted effort in the mid-1980s to acquire these images in order to increase its documentation of American garden history. Because of copyright considerations, use of these particular images may be restricted.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Garden Club of America was established in 1913 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when the Garden Club of Philadelphia and eleven other garden clubs met to create a national garden club. Its purpose is to foster the knowledge and love of gardening and to restore and protect the quality of the environment through educational programs and gardening and conservation efforts. The GCA was incorporated in Delaware in 1923, with its headquarters established in New York City. Today, local clubs are organized under twelve regional zones. The GCA continues its tradition of hosting flower shows and publishing material related to gardening in the United States.

The GCA's glass lantern slides were used by The GCA for presentations and lectures about notable gardens throughout the United States dating back to colonial times. An effort was made in the late 1980s, in preparation of the 75th anniversary of the Garden Club of America's founding, to collect the disbursed slides. These slides were to eventually form the Slide Library of Notable American Parks and Gardens. The informational value of this collection is extensive since a number of images of the more than 4,500 gardens represented show garden designs that have changed over time or no longer exist. While the majority of images document a range of designed upper and upper-middle class gardens throughout the U.S., the scope of the collection is expanding as volunteers photograph and document contemporary gardens including community and vernacular gardens.

The gardens illustrate the design work of dozens of landscape architects including Marian Coffin, Beatrix Farrand, Lawrence Halprin, Hare & Hare, Umberto Innocenti, Gertrude Jekyll, Jens Jensen, Warren Manning, the Olmsted Brothers, Charles Platt, Ellen Biddle Shipman, and Fletcher Steele. Because of their proximity to the gardens, works of notable architects and sculptors may also be featured in the images.
Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- France  Search this
Gardens -- Italy  Search this
Gardens -- Japan  Search this
Gardens -- Mexico  Search this
Flower shows  Search this
Gardening -- United States -- societies, etc  Search this
Gardens -- England  Search this
Landscape architecture  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- Spain  Search this
Gardens -- Scotland  Search this
Genre/Form:
Plans (drawings)
Brochures
Articles
Correspondence
Clippings
Lantern slides
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-gca
Online Media:

Norwich -- Garden of Bill Noble

Former owner:
McKenzie, Betty  Search this
McKenzie, Robert  Search this
Provenance:
Connecticut Valley Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Garden of Bill Noble (Norwich, Vermont)
United States of America -- Vermont -- Windsor County -- Norwich
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, site plans, and additional information, including some plant names.
General:
Located on a 19th-century Vermont farmstead, this garden has been under development since 1991 and is centered around a Greek Revival farmhouse, barn, and barn foundations on 22 acres of terraced lawns, field and woodland. The garden is focused on two acres and possesses a variety of plants not commonly encountered in Vermont gardens, including old-fashioned varieties collected from historic gardens and newer plants from other regions of the country being assessed for garden worthiness in Vermont. The main flower garden consists of four rectangular beds planted as a mixed border with deciduous shrubs, roses, herbaceous perennials, and self-sown annuals. This flower garden opens up westerly onto a lawn bordered by a 70-foot-long stone foundation wall. This border is planted for foliage interest to contrast with the floral display of the main flower garden. A rock garden with troughs is situated on the terrace above the walls in the remains of a former dairy barn, with the deteriorated cement floors providing ideal growing space for a variety of rock and alpine plants. A moss garden lies next to the former dairy in the footprint of a former stable, while the Silver and Gold border, named for the eponymous shrubby dogwood, is a transition from the foundation gardens to a field, with paths mowed into the tall grass. Other areas of interest include a vegetable garden east of the flower garden, borders of shade loving plants, an aster border, banks of native roses; and a slope of fall and winter interest with conifers, evergreen groundcovers and grasses.
March 1, 2008, is the only date indicated for all of the slides, although they appear to have been taken at various times of the year, possibly during 2007.
Persons associated with the site include Betty and Robert McKenzie (former owners, 1924-1990).
Related Materials:
Garden of Bill Noble related holdings consist of 1 folder (15 35 mm. slides (photographs))
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Vermont -- Norwich  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VT011
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Vermont
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref11358

Westminster West -- Hayward Garden

Gardener:
O'Donnell, Helen  Search this
Owner:
Hayward, Mary  Search this
Hayward, Gordon  Search this
Provenance:
Garden Club of Dublin (New Hampshire)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Hayward Garden (Westminster West, Vermont)
United States of America -- Vermont -- Windham -- Westminster West
Scope and Contents:
Hayward Garden includes 63 digital images and a folder that includes worksheets, photocopies of articles and additional images including a pamphlet about a musical program created for and perfomed in the garden in 2014 as a the Yellow Barn summer program.
General:
The owners describe their one and one-half acre ornamental garden as a new garden in an old place, with its 200 year-old colonial farmhouse and attached barn, low stone walls, and old farm building foundations that have been repurposed as distinctive garden rooms within surrounding meadows and woods. They purchased the property in 1983 and spent about one year clearing the land of scrap metal and other debris, brambles and weed trees, a rotting barn, dead trees, and an old Nash Metropolitan automobile. The garden style is English, with a rectilinear format from south to north softened by lush growth in season and more evident in the long Vermont winter. The design began by drawing a straight line from the front door of the house to a 75-year-old apple tree. There is a crab apple orchard along that main axis that can be seen from the house. Brick and pea stone gravel walks, 90-foot long mixed borders, and an herb garden laid out in formal parterres are either parallel or perpendicular to the central axis of the garden. The 14 garden rooms are delineated by clipped hedges of varying heights, many of yew but also other plant materials for variation. There are four places to sit within the garden: a gazebo at the far end reached through a tunnel of pleached copper beech, an outdoor dining room on pavers under tall trees, a bench slightly above and overlooking their spring garden, and another bench next to a shed near the herb garden.
Creating a garden in harmony with the rural location was important to the owners, who subsequently purchased 19 adjacent acres and preserved the meadows and woods with the Vermont Land Trust. To instill harmony in the diverse garden rooms the owners adhere to three themes: hedges for structure, black locust posts and terra cotta containers for materials, and burgundy and other reds for the color that recurs throughout the garden rooms. Since the entire garden is unified it is possible to add variations without muddling the design. Honoring the long gone dairy farms they have turned the foundations of a milking parlor into a garden room that has low, drought tolerant plants growing among the stone flooring and three rusted milk cans. The cracked cement foundation of a former silo was turned into a pond with a fountain built into a stone wellhead and a statue of Buddha on the shore.
Gordon Hayward has written many articles for Horticulture, Taunton's Fine Gardening, and regional magazines using his own garden to teach design aesthetics and their practical application. Topics include the effective placement of planted and unplanted containers and other garden ornaments, how to build a small fountain, the importance of proportions to design, how to set vertical posts, and tips on outdoor seating and dining rooms. Good design is illustrated by reshaping lawns to complement planted borders or trees, through consistent choices of decorative materials, through applying the principles of theme and variation when choosing what to put in the garden, and through planning for the winter garden with berries and crab apples for birds and good "bones" that become evident in winter.
Persons associated with the garden include: Gordon Hayward (owner, garden designer, and gardener, 1983- ), Mary Hayward (owner, garden designer, and gardener, 1983- ), Ephraim and Lydia Johnson Ranney, and their descendants in the Buxton and Reed families (former owners, circa 1790-1983); Helen O'Donnell (gardener, 2008-2015).
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Vermont -- Westminster West  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VT019
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Vermont
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref11360

Seattle -- Miller Garden

Architect:
Lament, David  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Miller Garden (Seattle, Washington)
United States of America -- Washington -- King County -- Seattle
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, site plans, photo copies of articles about the project, and other information.
Varying Form:
Elisabeth C. Miller Botanical Garden.
General:
Located on a four-acre site purchased in 1948, this garden is situated on a bluff edging the Puget sound within view of the Olympic Mountain Range. The property descends two hundred feet from woodland to an open arid area at the top of the bluff. The garden was developed in 1950 as a collector's garden. In 1977, it held over 5,000 different species endemic to thirty-five countries from the arctic to subtropical region. Of interest are the ericaceae and evergreen oak collections and heavy use of Northwest native plantings. In 1994 the Elisabeth Carey Miller Trust was established to preserve and continue the Miller Garden, now referred to as the Elisabeth C. Miller Botanical Garden.
Elizabeth Carey Miller was born in Montana and attended the University of Washington. A word-renowned horticulturist, she was a member of twenty-five horticultural organizations and was instrumental in the creation of the Center for Urban Horticulture and the Elisabeth C. Miller Library at the University of Washington Botanical Gardens as well as the Seattle Chinese Garden. Miller was a founder of the Northwest Horticultural Society and an active member of the Garden Club of America and served on numerous boards and as a facilitator of civic projects.
Persons associated with the property include Elizabeth C. Miller (horticulturist and former owner, 1948-), John W. Fieker (sp?) (landscape designer, 1950-1907), Steven Blint (sp?) (landscape designer, 1958-1987), Daniel E. Lament (architect, date unknown).
Related Materials:
Miller Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (31 photographs (slides))
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Botanical gardens  Search this
Woodland gardens  Search this
Native plant gardens  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File WA013
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Washington
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref11420

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