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Oral history interview with Hans Namuth, 1971 Aug. 12-Sept. 14

Interviewee:
Namuth, Hans, 1915-1990  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Pollock, Jackson  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Photography -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Photographers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13000
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212024
AAA_collcode_namuth71
Theme:
Photography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212024
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Chaim Gross, 1981 May 26- 27

Interviewee:
Gross, Chaim, 1904-1991  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Milton Wolf, 1911-1998  Search this
Subject:
Gross, Renée  Search this
Soyer, Moses  Search this
Soyer, Raphael  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12754
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212287
AAA_collcode_gross81
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212287

Oral history interview with Chaim Gross

Interviewee:
Gross, Chaim, 1904-1991  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Milton W. (Milton Wolf), 1911-1998  Search this
Names:
Gross, Renée  Search this
Soyer, Moses, 1899-1974  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Extent:
2 Sound cassettes (Sounding recording )
49 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1981 May 26- 27
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Chaim Gross conducted 1981 May 26-27, by Milton Wolf Brown, for the Archives of American Art.
Gross speaks of his early background and youth in Austria; his family's experiences when the Russian Army invaded Austria in 1914; his experiences in a refugee camp; escaping to Vienna and to Budapest; being imprisoned in Budapest and sent back to Austria; immigrating to the United States in 1921; his education at the Educational Alliance and the Beaux Arts Institute; teaching himself wood carving; selling his first works; coming to work for the WPA and later for the Treasury Department's Section of Fine Arts; meeting and marrying his wife Renée; influences, and sculptors whose work he admires; Judaic themes in his work; his art collection; and the changes in American culture during Franklin Roosevelt's presidency.
Biographical / Historical:
Chaim Gross (1904-1991) was a sculptor from New York, N.Y.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.gross81
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gross81

Oral history interview with Hans Namuth

Interviewee:
Namuth, Hans  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956  Search this
Extent:
26 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1971 Aug. 12-Sept. 14
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Hans Namuth conducted 1971 Aug. 12-Sept. 8, by Paul Cummings, at the artist's studio in New York, N.Y., for the Archives of American Art. Namuth speaks of his youth in Germany; the effects of Nazism on him and his family; living in Paris and Spain after leaving Germany; his first involvement with photography; living in a refugee camp; moving to New York in 1941 and working as a photographer; his activities in military intelligence during World War II; meeting Jackson Pollock in 1949 and making a film about him; and working in architectural photography.
Biographical / Historical:
Hans Namuth (1915 -1990) was a photographer and a filmmaker from New York, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound tape reels. Reformatted in 2010 as 3 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hrs., 5 min.
Partially transcribed. August 12 and September 8 sessions are transcribed; September 14 session is not transcribed.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Photography -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Photographers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.namuth71
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-namuth71

Records of the Field Offices for the State of Louisiana, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1863–1872

Extent:
111 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1863–1872
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 111 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1905. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the staff officers of the Assistant Commissioner and the subordinate field offices of the Louisiana headquarters of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1863–1872. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records containing materials that include letters sent and received, monthly reports, registers of complaints, labor contracts, and other records relating to freedmen's claims and bounty payments.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by type of record and thereunder by volume number. All volumes were assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, press copies of letters sent, registers of letters received, letters and orders received, registers of freedmen court cases, special orders and circulars issued, registers of claimants, registers of complaints, marriage certificates, and monthly reports forwarded to the Assistant Commissioner. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, and general orders and circulars received. The unbound records also contain monthly reports, labor contracts, marriage certificates, and records relating to claims.

Some of the volumes contain more than one type of record, reflecting a common recording practice of clerks and staff officers of that period. On Roll 67, for example, the volume of applications for laborers for Bragg Home Colony also contains a register of complaints. Some other examples of additional series within volumes can be found in records on Rolls 72, 78, and others. Researchers should read carefully the records descriptions and arrangements in the table of contents to make full use of these documents.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1905.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self–sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents, or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts.

The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non-Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.

An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.

For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.

THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN LOUISIANA

ORGANIZATION

On June 13, 1865, Commissioner Oliver Otis Howard appointed Chaplain Thomas W. Conway as the Assistant Commissioner for Louisiana. At the time of his appointment, Conway headed the military's Louisiana Bureau of Free Labor, which managed the affairs of freedmen employed on "Abandoned" plantations. Conway transferred the Bureau of Free Labor to the newly established Freedmen's Bureau Louisiana headquarters at New Orleans. The parishes of Madison, Carroll, Concordia, and Tenasas in northeastern Louisiana were reassigned in January 1866 from the jurisdiction of the Assistant Commissioner for Mississippi to that of the Assistant Commissioner for Louisiana. The other Assistant Commissioners or Acting Assistant Commissioners in Louisiana and their terms of office were Gen. James S. Fullerton, October 4 – 18, 1865; Gen. Absalom Baird, October 19, 1865–September 1866; Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, October 5–November 27, 1866; Gen. Joseph A. Mower, November 28, 1866–December 4, 1867; Lt. Col. William H. Wood, December 5, 1867–January 2, 1868; Gen. R. C. Buchanan, January 3–August 24, 1868; and Gen. Edward Hatch, August 25, 1868–January 1, 1869.

When Conway took over as Assistant Commissioner, the state was divided into districts that were composed of one to three parishes and commanded by either an agent or superintendent. In April 1867, the state was reorganized into seven subdistricts headed by subassistant commissioners. Subassistant commissioners were required to file monthly inspection reports of their respective jurisdictions with the Assistant Commissioner. Agents or assistant subassistant commissioners, who were responsible for one to two parishes, received their instructions from and reported to subassistant commissioners. The major subordinate field offices for the Bureau in Louisiana included those with headquarters at Baton Rouge, Franklin, Monroe, Natchitoches, New Orleans, Shreveport, and Vidalia. For a list of known Louisiana subordinate field office personnel and their dates of service, see the appendix.

ACTIVITIES

The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau field office in Louisiana generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau provided various forms of relief to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts, assisted freedmen in the establishment of schools, administered justice, helped freedmen locate land, and assisted blacks with military claims for back pay, bounty payments, and pensions.

Between June and September 1865, the Bureau in Louisiana issued some 455,290 rations to destitute freedmen and 157,691 to white refugees. With no appropriated funds from Congress, the Bureau relied on several sources to carry out these activities: income from confiscated property, requisitioned supplies from the army, aid from benevolent societies, and a three–dollar tax on black adult laborers. Despite the Bureau's efforts, however, tens of thousands of freedmen and refugees remained in dire straits throughout the state. The lack of available funds, continuous flooding, crop failures, and disease severely hampered the Bureau's relief programs. On March 30, 1867, Congress appropriated monies for a "Special Relief Fund" (15 Stat. 28). The fund authorized the Secretary of War, through the Freedmen's Bureau, to issue provisions and rations to destitute persons in Southern states, including Louisiana.

In response to the act, Commissioner Howard issued a circular on April 3, 1867 (Circular Number 11), that set aside $500,000 for the purpose.1 The agency maintained homes for refugees and orphans. Hundreds of refugees were housed in two hotels in New Orleans (the Commercial and the Western Verandah) and later the Marine Hospital. While most of the residents were from Louisiana, some were from Texas, Florida, Kentucky, Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee. Beginning in 1865, the Bureau provided assistance to several privately run orphan asylums in New Orleans and other areas of the state until its work for orphans was discontinued in September 1865. The Bureau also provided medical aid to freedmen and white refugees. In 1866, to help combat such diseases as cholera, yellow fever, and smallpox, seven doctors, on average, served under the Bureau in Louisiana: five at the New Orleans hospital and one at both the Shreveport hospital and the Rost Home Colony. The Bureau also maintained numerous dispensaries throughout the state. In spite of the closure of the Rost Home Colony hospital and most of the Bureau's dispensaries by the end of 1867, the agency in 1868 treated more than 8,500 freedmen for various infectious diseases. At the Rost Home Colony—one of the most successful of the four "Home Colonies" established in Louisiana—Bureau officials also issued rations and clothing, established a school, provided employment, and compiled a variety of personal data about individuals who arrived and departed from the Colony. Both the New Orleans and the Shreveport hospitals maintained registers of patients and the sick and wounded.2

The regulation of written labor agreements between planters and freedmen was a major concern of the Freedmen's Bureau. In a circular issued on December 4, 1865 (Circular Number 29), Bureau officials in Louisiana outlined the rules governing the free labor system in the state. Freedmen could choose their employers, and all contracts were to be approved by a Bureau agent. Wages were not set, but the circular declared that it was the freedmen's "Duty" to "obtain the best terms they can for their labor." Freedmen were required to work 26 days per month, consisting of 10–hour days in the summer and 9–hour days in the winter. Any work time exceeding 6 hours beyond the normal workday would constitute an additional day's work. In addition to wages, freedmen were also entitled to receive rations, clothing, "Comfortable" living quarters, and medical attention, and each family was to receive a half–acre plot to maintain a garden. Five percent of the freedman's monthly wages was to be retained by the employer for the purpose of sustaining schools for the freedman's children. In cases where freedmen desired to work for a share of the crop, employers were required to have sufficient amounts of provisions available for freedmen and their families each month. Also, employers who entered into share agreements were obligated to pay Bureau agents 1/20 of the amount of the freedmen's share of the crop each month for the benefit of freedmen schools.3

In the two years following the April 1862 occupation of New Orleans by Union troops, various civilian and military organizations established schools to educate freedmen in Louisiana. Gen. Nathaniel Banks's order of March 22, 1864 (Department of the Gulf General Order 38), established a board of education to govern the organization of freedmen's schools. B. Rush Plumly was appointed head of the board, and Lt. Edwin M. Wheelock became supervisor. Schools under the board's jurisdiction were supported mainly by a tax on citizens recently disloyal to the Union. On June 29, 1865, Assistant Commissioner Conway took charge of the schools, and on July 5, 1865, replaced Plumly and Wheelock with Capt. H. R. Pease as superintendent of education. Pease's successors included Bvt. Maj. A. G. Studer, Lt. F. R. Chase, J. M. Lee, L. O. Parker, H. H. Pierce, and E. W. Mason.

Pease divided the state into seven school districts, placing military and civilian personnel in charge. Under these officers were school directors responsible for each parish and "Canvassers" who collected the school tax for each district. At the time of his arrival, there were some 126 freedmen schools, with 230 teachers and approximately 19,000 students. However, with limited funds and intense opposition to the school tax, Circular Number 34, dated December 27, 1865, directed that all schools be "suspended until such time as it may be found practicable to re-establish them on a permanent and self–supporting basis."4

In February 1866, then–Assistant Commissioner Baird sought to make schools self–supporting through a tuition plan. Despite Baird's new plan and congressional appropriations of 1866 and 1867 for freedmen education in the South, the Freedmen's Bureau's educational programs in Louisiana continued to face financial difficulties. In June 1868, Congress authorized the Bureau to sell school buildings to private groups that were willing to maintain freedmen schools, and the Bureau entered into cooperative agreements with such groups as the American Missionary Society, the Methodist Freedmen's Aid Society, and the Free Mission Baptists. Under the agreements, the Bureau provided monies for construction of the school buildings, and the religious organizations maintained the schools. In 1870, the cooperation between the Bureau and religious groups led to significant progress in the establishment of numerous freedmen schools in Louisiana. Despite their efforts however, freedmen schools continued to suffer from the effects of limited resources, lack of competent teachers, and a segregated school system.5

Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen was of paramount concern to the Freedmen's Bureau. Following the Civil War, several Southern states enacted a series of laws, commonly known as "Black Codes," that restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes, and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard in state courts. Assistant Commissioners were directed to "adjudicate, either themselves or through officers of their appointment, all difficulties arising between Negroes themselves, or between Negroes and whites or Indians."6 Assistant Commissioner Conway issued Circular Number 15 (September 15, 1865), authorizing his subordinates to establish freedmen courts in cases where freedmen were not receiving just treatment. Conway's successors—Fullerton, Baird, and Sheridan—believed that civil officers in most parishes administered justice impartially in freedmen cases, and so abolished the special tribunals as unnecessary. Nevertheless, Bureau officers were still required to represent freedmen in court cases and refer the most extreme cases of injustice to United States courts. In the latter part of 1866, fearing that freedmen's rights were not being adequately protected, Assistant Commissioner Joseph Mower re–instituted some Bureau judicial functions that had been previously suspended by his predecessors. William H. Wood, who succeeded Mower, told Bureau agents during his tenure that only in cases where the evidence clearly showed the civil court's failure to administer justice, were they to become involved. Wood's replacement, Gen. Robert C. Buchanan, like Fullerton, Baird, and Sheridan, continued the policy of leaving matters of justice to civil authorities. By the time Gen. Edward Hatch assumed office as Assistant Commissioner in 1868, Louisiana had restored its constitutional relations with the Federal Government, and matters concerning justice were returned to the state.7

The Southern Homestead Act (14 Stat. 66), approved by Congress on June 21, 1866, made available for public settlement 46 million acres of public lands in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Six million acres of this Federal land was located in Louisiana. The act specifically prohibited discrimination against applicants due to race, and thus offered Louisiana freedmen and others an opportunity to become landowners. Only persons who headed households or were former United States soldiers were eligible to apply. A five–dollar application fee was required of all applicants, which allowed them to settle on an 80–acre tract and gain permanent possession after five years of cultivation. Generally, the Freedmen's Bureau, through "Locating Agents," assisted interested freedmen in finding plots, and provided them with one-month subsistence, free transportation to their prospective tracts of land, and seeds for initial planting. By January 1867, J. J. Saville, as locating agent, found homesteads for 87 freedmen, 73 whites, and 14 soldiers. However, because the New Orleans land office was closed, only 7 were able to file applications. While limited resources and the lack of suitable lands for settlement hindered freedmen in their effort to acquire land, freedmen also faced intense opposition from whites who opposed black land ownership. Freedmen were thus encouraged by Bureau officials in Louisiana to settle on land in large numbers in order to protect themselves from intense opposition by whites.8

An act of Congress on June 14, 1864, authorized the payment of bounties, not to exceed $100, to black soldiers who had entered the military after June 15, 1864, and who were free on April 19, 1861 (14 Stat. 126). Amendments in 1866 dropped the requirement of freedom at enlistment and offered additional bounties of $100 for those blacks who had signed on for three years, and $50 for individuals who enlisted for two years. To assist black soldiers and their heirs in filing bounty and other military claims against the Federal Government, a claims agency was initially established in the United States Sanitary Commission. On July 14, 1865, Commissioner Howard authorized Freedmen's Bureau officials to act as agents of the Commission and to assist it in filing for black military claims. However, freedmen often rejected the free services of the agency and paid fees to private claims agents, believing that they would receive their money quicker. In 1867, concerned about abuse and fraud in the settlement of black military claims, Congress passed a law making the Freedmen's Bureau the sole agent for payment of claims of black veterans (15 Stat. 26). From October 31, 1866, through September 30, 1867, the Bureau in Louisiana settled claims amounting to just $1,489.73. However, one year later, 240 veterans' claims amounting to $52,058 were settled, with 484 remaining to be resolved.9

ENDNOTES

1 Howard A. White, The Freedmen's Bureau in Louisiana (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1970), 64 – 76.

2 Ibid., 76 – 85; For a discussion of the establishment and activities at Rost Home Colony, see Michael F. Knight, "The Rost Home Colony: St. Charles Parish, Louisiana," Prologue 33, No. 1 (Fall 2001): 214 – 220; Records relating to the Freedmen's hospital at New Orleans have been reproduced on Records of the New Orleans Field Offices, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869 (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1483, Rolls 1 – 7); For Shreveport hospital records, see Roll 101 in this publication.

3 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess. Serial Vol. 1256, pp. 30 – 33.

4 White, The Freedmen's Bureau in Louisiana, pp. 166 – 175; See also House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1256, pp. 35 – 36.

5 White, The Freedmen's Bureau in Louisiana, 176 – 200.

6 House Ex. Doc. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1255, pp. 45 – 46.

7 White, The Freedmen's Bureau in Louisiana, 134 – 165.

8 Ibid., 59 – 63.

9 Howard A. White, The Freedmen's Bureau in Louisiana, pp. 160 – 162; See also, Annual Reports of the Assistant Commissioners, Louisiana, October 5, 1868 [pp. 19 – 20], Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Record Group 105, National Archives Building, Washington, DC.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Louisiana:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at the Plantation Department and selected subordinate field offices in Louisiana. Where noted, officers served at two locations. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment–related records.

PLANTATION DEPARTMENT

July 1865–May 1866 -- Superintendent Capt. Frank Bagley

May–Sept. 1866 -- Superintendent C. R. Stickney

Oct. 1866–June 1867 -- Assistant Quartermaster W. B. Armstrong

ABBEVILLE

Apr. 1867–June 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner A. N. Murtagh

ALEXANDRIA

June 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent S. G. Williams

May–Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner S. G. Williams

Nov. 1867–June 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George Buttrick

June–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner H. P. Hathaway

ALGIERS

May 1865–Apr. 1866 -- Provost Marshal of Freedmen William E. Dougherty

May 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent Richard Folles

Apr. 1867–Oct. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Richard Folles

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Isaac Stathem

AMITE

Sept.–Dec. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent H. H. Rouse

Dec. 1865–Feb. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Edward Ehrlich

Feb.–Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent W. K. Tillotson

Apr.–Nov. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent James Hough

Nov. 1866–May 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner James Hough

May–Nov. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George F. Austin

Nov.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Joseph D. Buckley

BATON ROUGE

May–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 2nd Subdistrict George F. Schager

July 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 2nd Subdistrict William H. Webster

Jan.–June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 2nd Subdistrict Frank D. Garretty

July–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 2nd Subdistrict Charles Hill

Feb.–Apr. 1866 -- Agent M. J. Sheridan

July 1866 -- Agent E. C. Phetteplace

Oct. 1866 -- Agent Abner Doane

Jan.–May 1867 -- Agent William H. Webster

July 1867-Jan.1869 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William H. Webster

Feb.–June 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George Inness

June–July 1968 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Charles Hill

July–Nov. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner S.H.B. Schoonmaker

Nov.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. Woods Coleman

BAYOU SARA

Dec. 1865 -- Agent C. W. Hawes

Jan. 1865–May 1866 -- Agent A. H. Nickerson

May–Sept. 1866 -- Agent G. M. Ebert

Sept.–Oct. 1866 -- Agent Richard M. Leake

Nov.–Dec. 1866 -- Agent Alexander M. Massie

Jan.–May 1867 -- Agent E. T. Lewis

May–June 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. T. Lewis

June–Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner A. Finch

Oct. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner A. Finch (also St. Francisville)

Mar.–May 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George C. Dunwell (also St. Francisville)

May–Oct. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Robert M. Davis

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner F. W. Gibson (also St. Francisville)

CARROLLTON

Apr.–May 1867 -- Agent Elijah Guion

May–Aug. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. J. Saville

Sept. 1867–May 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George Bruning

May–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Wright

CLINTON

Feb. 1866 -- Agent A. W. Hayes

May 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent James DeGrey

Apr. 1867–May 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner James DeGrey

May–July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George C. Dunwell

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner H. E. Barton

COLUMBIA

Feb.–Dec. 1866 -- Agent William H. Webster

Dec. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent William M. Todd

Apr.–July 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William M. Todd

Aug. 1867–June 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. J. Sullivan

June–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Charles De Lowenstrom

DONALDSONVILLE

Feb. 1866 -- Agent A. Milliken

Mar.–June 1866 -- Agent St. Clair Mandeville

June–July 1866 -- Agent Henry Krause

Aug.–Oct. 1866 -- Agent Alexander M. Massie

Mar. 1866 -- Agent J. D. Rich (also St. James)

Apr.–Oct. 1866 -- Agent John H. Brough (also St. James)

Nov. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent John H. Brough (also Donaldsonville)

Apr. 1867–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner John H. Brough

Sept.–Oct. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Victor Benthien

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner James H. Dobie

FRANKLIN

June–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 3rd Subdistrict S. W. Purchase

Dec. 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 3rd Subdistrict J. W. Keller

Jan.–Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 3rd Subdistrict W. F. Lynch

Feb.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 3rd Subdistrict William H. Webster

Nov.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 3rd Subdistrict Victor Benthien

Dec. 1864–July 1865 -- Provost Marshal Sidney E. Shepard (also Brashear City)

July–Sept. 1865 -- Provost Marshal Sidney E. Shepard (also Franklin)

Sept. 1865 -- Provost Marshal E. P. Bishop

Sept.1865–Jan 1866 -- Provost Marshal Charles E. Merrill

Jan.–Apr. 1866 -- Agent Charles E. Merrill

May 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent J. W. Keller

Apr.–Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. W. Keller

Jan.–Feb. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George C. Dunwell

Feb.–Oct. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner R. W. Mullen

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. F. Loan

HAMMOND STATION

May–July 1866 -- Agent James A. Hudson (also Springfield)

June–Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Francis Garrett (also Hammond Station)

Nov. 1867–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner P. H. Murphy

HOMER

Dec. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Stokes

HOUMA

Dec. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent George H. Harris

Jan.–May 1866 -- Agent Henry S. Wadsworth

June 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent George A. Ludlow

Apr.–Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George A. Ludlow

Dec. 1867–July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Woods

July–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner M. W. Morris

JESUITS BEND

Jan.–Apr. 1863 -- Provost Marshal Silas Sawyer (also St. Bernard Parish)

Aug.–Oct. 1864 -- Provost Marshal William Bragg

Oct.–Nov. 1864 -- Provost Marshal Capt. George Breuning

May 1864–July 1865 -- Provost Marshal Lt. Charles Brooks

Sept.–Dec. 1865 -- Provost Marshal Charles W. Gardiner (also De Cros Station)

Feb.–June 1866 -- Agent Charles W. Gardiner

June 1866–Mar. 1867 -- Agent George F. Schayer (also Aliance Plantation)

Apr. 1867 -- Agent George F. Schayer

May–Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Theodore Jaques

Dec. 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Edward S. Wilson

Jan.–Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. H. Hosner

LAKE PROVIDENCE

Jan. 1866–May 1867 -- Agent George W. Rollins

May–Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George W. Rollins

Oct. 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas H. Hannon

Jan.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. H. Masters

MADISONVILLE

Oct. 1866 -- Agent A. J. Rose

Nov. 1866–May 1867 -- Agent W. H. R. Hangen

May 1867–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. H. R. Hangen

Sept.–Nov. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. H. R. Hangen (also Covington)

Nov.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas H. Jenks, Jr. (also Covington)

MANSFIELD

Mar. 1867–May 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. J. Walsh

May–Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Michael Cary

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Edward Henderson

MARKSVILLE

Mar–Aug. 1866 -- Agent Amos S. Collins (also Evergreen)

Aug. 1866–May 1867 -- Agent Amos S. Collins (also Marksville)

May 1867–May 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Amos S. Collins

May–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Cyrus H. Ross

MILLIKEN BEND

May 1864 -- Assistant Provost Marshal D. McCall

Nov.–Dec. 1864 -- Provost Marshal Benjamin F. Cheney

May–Sept. 1867 -- Assistant Subasistant Commissioner C. P. Varney

Sept.–Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subasistant Commissioner T. F. Cummins

Jan.–Feb. 1868 -- Assistant Subasistant Commissioner A. J. Baby

Feb.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subasistant Commissioner John S. Shaw

MONROE

Mar. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of 5th Subdistrict Samuel C. Gold

Mar. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of 5th Subdistrict W. W. Webb

Aug.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of 5th Subdistrict John H. Bowen

Sept.–Oct 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent Frank Morey

Feb.–Mar. 1866 -- Agent J. H. Wisner

Apr. 1866 -- Agent H. A. Pease

May 1866–Jan. 1867 -- Agent Joseph Burns

Feb.–June 1867 -- Agent Frank Morey

June–Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Charles C. Swenson

Nov. 1867–Apr. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. R. Wheyland

Apr.–Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Edward K. Russ

Aug.–Oct. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Edward K. Russ (also Trenton)

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner H. L. Irwin (also Trenton)

MONTGOMERY

June 1867–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner D. W. White

NAPOLEONVILLE

May–Nov. 1865 -- Provost Marshal J. W. Greene

Dec. 1865–Feb. 1866 -- Agent Francis S. Dodge

Feb. 1866–May 1867 -- Agent A. C. Ellis

May–Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner O. H. Hempstead, Jr.

Nov. 1867–May 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner John W. Sword

May–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Julius Lovell

NATCHITOCHES

June 1867–May 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 4th Subdistrict James Cromie

May–July 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 4th Subdistrict Isaac N. Walter

July 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 4th Subdistrict N. B. McLaughlin

July–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 4th Subdistrict G. A. Hewlett

Nov.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 4th Subdistrict Theodore W. De Klyne

Feb.–Apr. 1866 -- Agent W. H. Henderson

May 1866–May 1867 -- Agent James Comie

May 1867–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Charles Miller

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. H. Hosner

NEW IBERIA

Dec. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Agent Edmund C. Burt (also St. Martinsville)

Jan. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent William H. Cornelius (also St. Martinsville)

Apr.–July 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William H. Cornelius (also St. Martinsville)

Aug. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner I. W. Keller (and A. A. C. Leblanc, Clerk, St. Martinsville)

Sept.–Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner L. Jolissaint

Nov. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner John T. White

NEW ORLEANS

May 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner for Orleans Parish Left Bank A. N. Murtagh

June–Aug. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner for Orleans Parish Left Bank L. Jolissaint

Sept. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner for Orleans Parish Left Bank W. H. Cornelius

Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner for Orleans Parish Left Bank John T. White

Nov. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner for Orleans Parish Left Bank L. Jolissaint

Apr.–Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Comissioner for St. Bernard and Plaquemine Parishes Ira D. M. McClary (also Kenilworth Plantation)

Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Comissioner for St. Bernard and Plaquemine Parishes Oscare A. Rice (also Chofield Plantation)

Jan.–June 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Comissioner for St. Bernard and Plaquemine Parishes P. J. Smalley (also Chofield Plantation and P. O. Lock Box 841)

June–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Comissioner for St. Bernard and Plaquemine Parishes H. M. Whittmore (also Merritts Plantation)

NEW ROADS

Mar. 1866 -- Agent Thomas H. Hopwood (see Labatuts Landing)

Apr.–July 1866 -- Agent Thomas H. Hopwood

July 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent H. F. Wallace

Apr.–Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner H. F. Wallace

Nov. 1867–Feb. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner M. Basso (also Point Coupee)

Feb.–Apr. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner C. J. Lorigan (also Waterloo)

Apr.–June 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner C. J. Lorigan (also New Roads and Waterloo)

July–Oct. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Victor Benthien

PLAQUEMINE

Jan. 1865 -- Provost Marshal M. Masicot

Feb.–Oct. 1865 -- Provost Marshal Nelson Kenyon

Oct. 1865 -- Provost Marshal James M. Eddy

Dec. 1865 -- Agent A. R. Houston

Feb.–Apr. 1866 -- Agent J. C. Stimmell

May 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent F. A. Osbourn

Apr.–Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner F. A. Osbourn

Jan.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. Charles Merrill

ST. JOSEPH

Aug.–Oct. 1865 -- Agent David L. Jones

Nov. 1865 -- Agent A. Roberts

Nov.–Dec. 1865 -- Agent A. Hemingway

Jan.–Feb. 1866 -- Agent R. D. Mitchell

Feb. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent J. H. Hastings

Apr.–May 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Hastings

May 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Edward Henderson

SHREVEPORT

May 1867–July 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 7th Subdistrict Martin Flood

Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 7th Subdistrict Frank D. Garretty

Oct.–Dec. 1865 -- Assistant Superintendent D. H. Reese

Dec. 1865–Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent L. Horrigan

May–June 1866 -- Agent E. E. Williams

June 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent William P. Hagardon

June 1866–May 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Martin Flood

May 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas F. Monroe

Sept. 1869–Sept. 1870 -- Superintendent of Education James McCleery

SPARTA

Dec. 1866–Feb. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner E. W. Dewees

Feb.–June 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George Schayer

June–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Edward Newell Bean

THIBODEAUX

Aug. 1866 -- Agent C. P. M. Taggart

Feb.–Mar. 1867 -- Agent S. A. Kohly

Mar.–Apr. 1867 -- Agent J. D. Rich

May–June 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. D. Rich

June–Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. A. A. Robinson

Nov. 1867–Apr. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Francis Sternberg

Apr.–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Nelson Bronson

Sept.–Oct. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner I. H. Van Antwerp

Oct.–Nov. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William S. MacKenzie

Nov.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William Hollenback

TRINITY

May 1867–July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner M. Johnson Lemmon (also Prairie Landing)

Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. H. H. Camp (also Mossy Farm Plantation)

Sept.–Nov. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. H. H. Camp (also Trinity)

Nov.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Van R. K. Hilliard

VERMILLIONVILLE

Jan. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Agent S. W. Purchase

May 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner S. W. Purchase

May 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Edward Lindemann

Jan.–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Oscar A. Rice

VERNON

May 1867–Sept. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. Bishop

VIDALIA

May–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 6th Subdistrict J. H. Hastings (also St. Joseph)

June–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 6th Subdistrict J. H. Hastings (also Vidalia)

Nov. 1867–July 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 6th Subdistrict George W. Rollins

July–Aug 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 6th Subdistrict Frank D. Garretty

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner of the 6th Subdistrict George W. Rollins

Aug.–Sept. 1865 -- Agent J. H. West

Feb. 1868–Apr. 1867 -- Agent B. B. Brown

Apr.–June 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner B. B. Brown

June–Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner George H. Dunford

Sept. 1867–July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Christian Rush

July–Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Alexander Hamilton
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1905
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Louisiana, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1863–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1905
Online Media:

Records of the Field Offices of the Freedmen's Branch, Office of the Adjutant General, 1872–1878

Extent:
58 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1872–1878
Summary:
This collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 58 rolls of microfilm described in NARA publication M2029. These digital surrogates reproduced the field office records of the Freedmen's Branch in the Office of the Adjutant General, 1872–1878. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, including letters sent, letters received, registers of letters received, and registers of claims.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. All of the volumes of the Freedmen's Branch were at one time arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) after the records came into its custody. In the table of contents that follows, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there may be blank numbered pages that have not been filmed. It appears that about 40 volumes of Freedmen's Branch records listed by a clerk in the Adjutant General's Office in 1906 were not transferred to the National Archives; however the other Freedmen's Branch records are intact.

The records of field disbursing offices operating under thee Freedmen's Branch consist of the following series: letters sent, letters received, registers of letters received, and registers of claims. These records span various periods within the years 1872–78. The records are ordered by field office just as they were arranged when transferred by the Office of the Adjutant General to the National Archives as follows: Charleston, SC; Columbia, SC (see Charleston); Fort Johnston, NC; Louisville, KY; Fort Macon, NC; Fort Leavenworth, KS; Fort Monroe, VA; Memphis, TN; Nashville, TN; Natchez, MS; New Orleans, LA; St. Louis, MO; Savannah, GA; and Vicksburg, MS.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M2029.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Freedmen's Branch was established in the office of the Adjutant General in June 1872. It assumed and continued the unfinished business of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (the Freedmen's Bureau), which was ended by an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872.

The Freedmen's Bureau was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). Under the direction of Commissioner Oliver Otis Howard, it was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self–sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their families or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

An act of Congress approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered the Bureau to withdraw from the states in which it operated and to discontinue its work. Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers ended their field office activities. For the next year and a half, the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the state superintendents of education ceased to operate in the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. With the closing of the Bureau on June 30, 1872, its records and remaining functions, which consisted almost exclusively of the disposition of military–related claims, were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the War Department's Office of the Adjutant General.

When Assistant Adjutant General Thomas Vincent assumed office as head of the Freedmen's Branch on June 27, 1872, his charge was to supervise the transfer of the records of the unfinished business of the Freedmen's Bureau and to "look to the arrangement of the records and distribution of the duties, so that there will be the least delay in the future transaction of the business, with the view of completing and closing it." When the records of the Freedmen's Bureau began to arrive at his office, however, Vincent found them "in a state of much confusion." The records for several states and divisions were intermixed with others; some records were missing and presumed kept by Assistant Commissioner and local agents; many transactions relating to claims were never recorded, making it difficult to determine who had been paid; and there were a deficit in the amount of moneys due the some 4,858 unpaid claims and the amount transferred by the Freedmen's Bureau. These and other factors contributed to numerous complaints, accusations of fraud and embezzlement, and delays in the Freedmen's Branch's attempt to prepare and pay claims.1

Vincent established his headquarters and a chief disbursement office in Washington, DC. Capt. James McMillian served as the chief disbursing officer of the Freedmen's Branch from July 1872 to July 1877, until he was succeeded by Capt. G. G. Hunt, who served from July 1877 to February 1879. Field disbursing offices were established at Louisville, Kentucky; St. Louis; Missouri; Nashville and Memphis, Tennessee; Vicksburg and Natchez, Mississippi; and New Orleans, Louisiana. Payments to claimants in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia were made through the Washington office; in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, and states where slavery had not existed, disbursing officers were temporarily assigned.

The effort to organize, arrange, and make sense of the Freedmen's Bureau's records took the Freedmen's Branch almost a year and a half. Nevertheless, in accordance with Joint Resolution Number 25, approved Mach 29, 1867, which had governed the payment of black veterans' claims by the Freedmen's Bureau, the Freedmen's Branch received, acted upon, and paid claims of black soldiers, sailors, and marines and their heirs for bounty, pension, arrears of pay, commutation of rations, and prize money. Under the provisions of the resolution, the chief disbursement officer received all checks and certificates relating to the settlement of blacks soldiers' claims, and was responsible for paying claimants in the Washington, DC, area and for the accounting and disbursements of funds to the field disbursing officers located in the Border and former Confederate States. The Washington office also paid attorneys' fees and expenses, and after satisfactory identification, the balance of the claim was paid to individual claimants, heirs or representatives. To protect black claimants from fraud and "imposition," claimants were to receive payment in currency rather than checks or drafts. The transfer or assignment of power off attorney for the balance of a claim ("or any part thereof") was not allowed. The resolution made clear that it was the duty of the Freedmen's Branch and its officers "to facilitate as far as possible the discovery, identification, and payment of claimants."2

In December 1874, the Secretary of War reported that as of July 1872, the Freedmen's Branch had paid military claims amounting to more than $1 million. He also reported that, to meet the needs of claimants in Kansas and the northwestern areas of Missouri, a field office was opened at Fort Leavenworth. The disbursing office that had been established at Nashville in 1873 was consolidated with the Memphis, TN office and the office at Fort Macon, NC and Columbia, SC, were discontinued. One of the offices at New Orleans, LA, was consolidated with that at Vicksburg, MS. While the Secretary of War reported that payments of claims by means of postal orders were alleviating delays in remote areas, Freedmen's Branch officials still found it difficult to process unpaid bounty and pension claims transferred by the Freedmen's Bureau. In many of these claims, individuals had moved from their former residences and could not be located. Some had died, leaving no representative; others for one reason or another failed to apply for payments.3

By mid–fall 1875, the disbursing office established at Fort Leavenworth, KS was consolidated with that in St. Louis, MO. Because of increasing demand for services, the office at Nashville was reopened. The offices at Fort Monroe, VA and Charleston, SC were permanent closed. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1875, the Freedmen's Branch received more than 13,000 correspondences relating to the military claims of black veterans. Disbursing officers settled more than 3,700 of these claims, at a cost of nearly $390,000. Also, through the "diligent effort" of disbursing officers, the settlement of unpaid claims had increased, although allocating some claimants still remains a problem. To protect the interests of both the Federal Government and claimants, disbursing officers worked "vigorously" to investigate contested and fraudulent claims, which had increasingly become an important part of their duties. The Freedmen's Branch also continued to pursue matters relating to embezzlement.4

By October 1876, payment of military claims had fallen off dramatically. The number of claims paid during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, and July and August 1876, totaled less than 2,500. Most claimants who remained unpaid lived in remote locations thus making payment extremely difficult. Also, some claimants had changed their place of residence after filing claims. The periodic reduction of disbursing offices and clerical staff also greatly impacted the settlement process. The offices at St. Louis, MO and Nashville, TN were permanently closed. The disbursing responsibilities formerly assigned at Natchez and Vicksburg, MS were moved to the New Orleans, LA; Memphis, TN; Louisville, KY and the chief disbursing office at Washington, DC. Nonetheless, the Freedmen's Branch continued to settle unpaid claims, address complaints, institute measures to combat fraud, and when necessary, worked to rearrange records that had been transferred by the Freedmen's Bureau.5

In accordance with an act of December 15, 1877 (20 Stat. 11), the work of the Freedmen's Branch had to be completed by January 1, 1879. If not, the Freedmen's Branch would be closed and all of its papers would be turned over the Paymaster General. However, when the Freedmen's Branch was finally closed on June 30, 1879, its work relating to the claims of black veterans was assigned to the Colored Troops Division in the Office of the Adjutant General.

ENDNOTES

1 House Ex. Doc. 109, 42nd Cong., 3rd Sess., Serial Vol. 1566, pp. 1 – 4; see also George R. Bentley, A History of the Freedmen's Bureau (New York: Octagon Books, 1974), pp. 212 – 213.

2 House Ex. Doc. 109, Serial Vol. 1566, pp. 6 – 7.

3 House Ex. Doc. No. 59, 43rd Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1645, pp. 1 – 2.

4. See Annual Report of the Adjutant General on the Operations of the Freedmen's Branch, October 9, 1875, pp. 1 – 14, Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, Record Group (RG) 105, National Archives Building (NAB), Washington, DC.

5 See Annual Report of the Adjutant–General on the Operations of the Freedmen's Branch, October 10, 1876, pp. 1 – 7, RG 105, NAB.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Office of the Adjutant General:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Adjutant General's Office personnel at selected field offices of the Freedmen's Branch. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Freedmen's Branch's Washington Office Register of Employees, July 1872–June 1879.

CHARLESTON, SC

Dec. 1872–Jan. 1874 -- Disbursing Officer J. H. Counselman

Jan.–June 1874 and July 1874–Apr. 1875 -- Disbursing Officer J. K. Hyer, at Columbia (See Savannah, GA)

FORT JOHNSTON, NC

June 1872–May 1874 -- Disbursing Officer W. S. Starring

LOUISVILLE, KY

Oct. 1872–June 1876 -- Disbursing Officer A. P. Howe

June 1876–July 1878 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. H. S. Hawkins

FORT MACON, NC

Dec. 1872–Apr.1874 -- Disbursing Officer Edgar Dudley

FORT LEAVENWORTH, KS

Jan.–Mar. 1874 -- Disbursing Officer Quentin Campbell

Mar. 1874–May 1875 -- Disbursing Officer Capt. D. H. Brotherton

FORT MONROE, VA

Dec. 1872–Apr. 1875 -- Disbursing Officer James Curry

MEMPHIS, TN

Sept. 1872–June 1876 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. George Gibson

July 1876–June 1877 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. G. G. Hunt

NASHVILLE, TN

Sept. 1872–June 1874 -- Disbursing Officer R. G. LaMotte

June 1874–Apr. 1875 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. George Gibson

Apr. 1875–July 1876 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. H. S. Hawkins

NATCHEZ, MS

Oct. 1872–June 1874 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. G. G. Hunt (also, New Orleans, LA)

June 1874–June 1876 -- Disbursing Officer Maj. G. G. Hunt, at Vicksburg (also, New Orleans, LA)

NEW ORLEANS, LA

Sept. 1872–July 1878 -- Disbursing Officer A. K. Arnold

ST. LOUIS, MO

Sept. 1872–June 1876 -- Disbursing Officer P. T. Swain

SAVANNAH, GA

Nov. 1872–June 1874 -- Disbursing Officer J. W. Dillenback

July–Nov. 1874 -- Disbursing Officer J. W. Dillenback, at Charleston, SC

Nov. 1874–Apr.1875 -- Disbursing Officer E. H. Totten, at Charleston, SC

VICKSBURG, MS

Sept. 1872–Apr.1873 -- Disbursing Officer E. F. Townsend

Apr.1873–June 1874 -- Disbursing Officer Th. Anderson

June 1874–June 1876 -- Disbursing Officer (See Natchez, MS)
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M2029
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices of the Freedmen's Branch, Office of the Adjutant General, 1872–1878
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m2029
Online Media:

The Crisis, Vol. 4, No. 3

Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
The Crisis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Evaristo Estenoz Corominas, Cuban, 1872 - 1912  Search this
Written by:
Jessie Redmon Fauset, American, 1882 - 1961  Search this
Arturo Alfonso Schomburg, Puerto Rican, 1874 - 1938  Search this
Lafayette M. Hershaw, American, 1863 - 1945  Search this
Bertha Johnston, American, 1864 - 1953  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper with metal
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 7/8 × 6 7/8 in. (25.1 × 17.5 cm)
H x W (Open): 9 7/8 × 13 5/8 in. (25.1 × 34.6 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Cuba, Caribbean, Latin America, North and Central America
Missouri, United States, North and Central America
Hampton, Virginia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
July 1912
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Literature  Search this
Lynching  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Prisons  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
U.S. History, 1865-1921  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.97.14.4
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Movement:
Anti-Lynching Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd534363254-d746-4ad6-adcb-896037954478
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.97.14.4
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>The Crisis, Vol. 4, No. 3</I> digital asset number 1

Refugee Camp in Lafayette Square looking into city. Active no. 8716 : stereo photonegative

Topic:
SAN FRANCISCO DISASTER
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
H.C. White Co.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3-3/4" x 7".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
California
Date:
1906
Local Numbers:
RSN 5254
General:
Currently stored in box 1.1.29 [160B], moved from [156]. Orig. no. 45-A.
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Disasters -- California -- San Francisco -- 1900-1910.  Search this
Architecture -- California  Search this
Earthquakes -- California  Search this
Streets -- California.  Search this
Tents -- California  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 1: H. C. White glass plates / 1.1: H.C. White Negatives / RSN Numbers 5242-5348
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref5228

Distributing clothes to poor and homeless, Refugee Camp, Lafayette Square. Caption no. 8732 : stereoscopic photonegative

Topic:
SAN FRANCISCO DISASTER
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
H.C. White Co.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3-3/4" x 7".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
California -- 1900-1910
San Francisco (Calif.) -- 1900-1910
Date:
1906
Local Numbers:
RSN 5266
General:
Currently stored in box 1.1.29 [160B], moved from [156].
Copy and Version Identification Note:
46-A
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Disasters -- California -- San Francisco -- 1900-1910.  Search this
Earthquakes -- 1900-1910 -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Refugees -- California  Search this
Tents -- California  Search this
Homeless persons -- 1900-1910 -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 1: H. C. White glass plates / 1.1: H.C. White Negatives / RSN Numbers 5242-5348
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref5240

Refugee's Camp, Fort de France. Copyright 1902 by R. Y. Young. 1245 photonegative

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
American Stereoscopic Co.  Search this
Photographer:
Young, R.Y.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3 3/4" x 7")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
Fort-de-France (Martinique)
Martinique
Local Numbers:
RSN 9805

Video number 09077
General:
Company catalog card included.
"Duplicate of 50604"
Currently stored in box 2.1.9 [63], moved from [71]
Copy and Version Identification Note:
40182
Collection Restrictions:
The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Refugees -- Martinique  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 2: American Stereoscpopic Co. glass plates / 2.1: American Stereoscopic Negatives / RSN Numbers 9791-9809, Cards AS 1084-AS 1248
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref6483

Delegate

Subject of:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Lou Rawls, American, 1933 - 2006  Search this
United Negro College Fund, American, founded 1944  Search this
President Jimmy Carter, American, born 1924  Search this
Wilma Rudolph, American, 1940 - 1994  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
American Association of Blacks in Energy, American, founded 1977  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, American, founded 1821  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
The Girl Friends, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Sears, Roebuck & Co., American, founded 1893  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
Charms, Inc., American, founded 1952  Search this
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, founded 1908  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
National Association of University Women, American, founded 1910  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
American Tennis Association, American, founded 1916  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
CBS Broadcasting, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
A. Philip Randolph, American, 1889 - 1979  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Benjamin Hooks, American, 1925 - 2010  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Alliance for Women in Media, American, founded 1951  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 7/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1980
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Television  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.14
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd533a4aa5f-52b1-4ee7-8dd0-1df51498bd61
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.14
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Catherine Hann Papers

Creator:
Hann, Catherine (Huynh bach Thuy)  Search this
Names:
United Nations. Office of the High Commissioner for Human RIghts.  Search this
United States Catholic Conference. Migration and Refugee Services  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Interviews
Oral histories (document genres)
Correspondence
Identity cards
Diaries
Audiotapes
Checkbooks
Date:
1953-2006
Summary:
Papers relating to Catherine Hann's life in Vietnam (1953-1981), her flight by boat to Malaysia and stay at Pulau Bidong refugee camp (February --September 1981), her immigration to the United States (September 1981), and her work in Maryland as a circuit board assembler, manicurist and esthetician.
Scope and Contents:
The Catherine Hann Papers are divided into five series: Life in Vietnam, pre-1981; Stay in Malaysia, 1981; United States, 1981-2006; Oral History Interviews, 2002, 2006; and Photographs, 1955-2005.

Series 1 consists of four documents from Hann's life in Vietnam: an official copy of Hann's 1953 birth certificate, her college student ID, her Gia Long High School student ID and her 1974 South Vietnamese identity card.

Series 2 documents Hann's stay in the Pulau Bidong refugee camp off the coast of Malaysia and her family's medical processing in Kuala Lumpur. Especially interesting is a small diary Hann kept in 1981 documenting the building of the fishing boat, the voyage in the Gulf of Thailand, the stay at Pulau Bidong and Kuala Lumpur, and the family's first few months in the United States. There is an English translation of the diary. Other materials in this series include letters sent by relatives and friends to Hann in the refugee camp, papers documenting a family member's attempt to sponsor the family in the U.S., and hand-made Certificates of Commendation awarded to Hann's husband for his work in the refugee camp. The original letter with attached photographs from the U.S. Embassy in Kuala Lumpur granting permission for the family to immigrate is included.

Series 3 describes Hann's life in the United States as she transitioned from refugee to financially successful American citizen. Uncommon pieces of ephemera are cancelled checks repaying a loan from the United States Catholic Conference for the purchase of plane tickets from Malaysia to the United States. Also included are papers from Hann's seventeen years in the electronics industry, textbooks for manicurist training, a ledger and checkbook from Hann's short-lived Nails & Beauty Spa, Inc., and daily schedules with earnings from her current job at Totally Polished.

Series 4 consists of the original audiocassettes, reference CDs and typed transcript of an oral history conducted by Susan B. Strange, associate curator, with Hann on March 7, 2006, as well as a typed transcript of a December 14, 2002, interview with Hann conducted by Daniel Ekman, a student at St. Andrew's Episcopal School in Potomac, Maryland.

Original photographs in Series 5 document Hann's life in Vietnam, her husband's work in the refugee camp, the family's departure from Pulau Bidong, and Hann at work at Fairchild Space Co. Also in Series 5 is a folder with photocopies of seven photographs taken in 2005 by a Smithsonian staff member of Hann working at her manicure table. Smithsonian negative numbers are included with the photocopies; releases from the photographer, Hann, and the woman having a manicure, are in the Archives Center's control file for this collection. In the same folder are photocopies of five photographs (originals retained by Hann) showing Hann's life in Vietnam; the Archives Center scan number is printed on each photocopy. Hann granted copyright in these five photographs to the National Museum of American History on April 22, 2006; the release form is in the Archives Center's control file.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series with chronological arrangement.

Series 1: Life in Vietnam, 1953-1981

Series 2: Stay in Malaysia, 1981

Series 3: United States, 1981-2006

Series 4: Oral History Interviews, 2002, 2006

Series 5: Photographs, 1955-2005
Biographical / Historical:
Catherine Hann was born in Saigon, State of Vietnam, on November 14, 1953 as Huynh bach Thuy. (She changed her name to Catherine Hann when she became a naturalized American citizen on June 19, 1987.) Hann, her parents and younger siblings lived in Saigon where her father worked as an instructor at Truong Quan Y, a South Vietnamese Army medical school. In 1968 Hann's family moved further south to Rach-Gia in Kien Giang province to care for Hann's recently-widowed paternal grandmother. Hann, the eldest of twelve children, stayed behind in Saigon, living with a great-uncle, so that she could continue attending Gia Long High School, one of the most prestigious and academically challenging public schools for girls in the country.

After graduation from Gia Long in 1973, Hann attended the University of Science in Saigon where she studied to become a biologist. In 1975, Hann's father, who had worked in a South Vietnamese military hospital in Rach-Gia since his arrival there in 1968, was sent to a "re-education camp." Hann returned to Rach-Gia to be with her mother and to help support the family. She then began attending a teacher training program in Rach-Gia where she trained as a biology teacher. At the training program, Hann met Han Huu Vinh who became her husband in 1976. After graduation, Hann taught biology in a high school in Rach-Gia while her husband taught mathematics in the same school. Their son, Kinh, was born in 1977.

In addition to supplementing the family income with her teacher salary, she also purchased unprocessed rice or "rough rice," had it milled, and sold the resulting white rice. To make a little more money for the family, the hulls and other residue from the milling process were sold as hog food. The future looked bleak, and Hann and her husband decided to take their young son and flee the country.

After two failed attempts to escape by boat, the Hanns were luckier the third time. A family friend obtained permission to build a fishing boat, a small wooden craft only 11.5 meters by 2.1 meters. Hann's family, one of the initiators and organizers of the scheme to use the fishing boat as a means of escape, hired a man who had served in the South Vietnamese Navy to navigate. At 2:05 a.m. on the morning of February 14, 1981, ninety-two people left Rach-Gia on the overloaded boat and headed southwest. Three days later the fishing vessel, towing another boat found stranded after being attacked by pirates, docked at Pulau Bidong, an island off the coast of Malaysia. After five months in the United Nations refugee camp on Pulau Bidong, Hann, husband, son, brother, and husband's nephew were taken to Kuala Lumpur for processing in preparation for immigration to the United States.

Hann's husband's sister, a naturalized American living in Rockville, Maryland, was their sponsor, and on September 11, 1981, the five-member family group arrived in the United States. The five continued to live together for about four years before Hann's brother and her husband's nephew went out on their own. After being on welfare and receiving intensive English-language training, Hann and her husband gradually became self-sufficient. Hann's first job was working in the cafeteria at Montgomery College in Rockville which she left to work at Denro Labs doing electronic assembly. Hann's husband's first job was at Solarex testing solar panels.

After almost ten years in the electronic assembly field, a Vietnamese friend encouraged Hann to train as a manicurist, and in 1992 Hann graduated from the Aesthetics Institute of Cosmetology in Gaithersburg, Maryland. At first she only manicured her own nails, but a year or so later Hann began working on Saturdays at a busy nail salon while continuing to work full-time in the electronics industry. When she learned that doing facials and waxing was faster and more profitable than doing manicures, Hann obtained training and a license to become an esthetician. After her week-day employer, Orbital Science Corp., moved to Sterling, Virginia, in 2000, a long commute for Hann, she started working full-time as an esthetician and manicurist at Totally Polished in Potomac, Maryland.

Hann works six days a week at Totally Polished, and on her day off she spends the morning doing manicures and waxing for private clients in their homes. This hard work has enabled Hann and her husband to pay off the mortgage on their single-family house in Gaithersburg and purchase a rental house in Florida. Their only child, Kinh, also has done well, earning a Master's Degree from the University of Maryland and now (2006) working on his PhD in biomedical engineering. Kinh is employed by Digene Corporation; he bought a house three years ago; and, as his mother proudly states, he drives a brand new BMW. Hann's stated reason for fleeing her country was "for my son's future;" the family's hard work and sacrifices seem to have made her hopes come true.
Separated Materials:
In 2005, the Division of Work and Industry collected manicure tools and soldering test equipment from Hann; in 2006 the division collected facial and waxing-related objects from Hann. Clothing worn on the boat fleeing Vietnam was donated in 2006 to the Division of Home and Community Life, along with tweezers Hann purchased in Saigon and carried throughout her immigration experience. The wedding of Kinh Hann to Leila Poursedehi in 2008 is documented in the Archives Center Weddings Documentation Collection, collection number 1131. The Vietnamese wedding dress that Leila Poursedehi wore at their wedding dinner was donated to the costume collection in the Division of Home and Community Life in 2008.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Catherine Hann, March 18, 2006.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Manicuring  Search this
Naturalization  Search this
Emigration and immigration  Search this
Refugees  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975  Search this
Vietnamese Americans -- Biography  Search this
Small business  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Interviews
Oral histories (document genres)
Correspondence
Identity cards
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Diaries -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Checkbooks
Citation:
Catherine Hann Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0921
See more items in:
Catherine Hann Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0921
Online Media:

Massachusetts Fieldwork: Khmer Tradition, Painting

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Massachusetts Program 1988 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Moorish, Elizabeth (field worker)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (compact audio cassette)
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Khmer (Asian people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Massachusetts
Cambodia
Date:
1987 October 20
Local Numbers:
FP-1988-CT-0098
General:
YON SEANG. REFUGEE ARTS GROUP INTERVIEW. TALKS OF REFUGEE CAMPS, TRADITIONAL MURAL PAINTING, SYMBOLS USED IN PAINTING.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Massachusetts, United States, October 20, 1987.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Painting  Search this
Art & architecture  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1988, Item FP-1988-CT-0098
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: Ingenuity and Tradition: The Common Wealth of Massachusetts / 4.1: Fieldwork
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1988-ref1102

Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
69,244 Digital files
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Digital files
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 78 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1909. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the North Carolina Assistant Commissioner, staff officers, and field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters and endorsements sent and received, orders and circulars, monthly reports, and other records relating to freedmen's complaints and claims.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by the Freedmen's Bureau by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes include letters and endorsements sent and received, registers of letters received, unregistered letters received, general and special orders and circulars received, registers of claimants for bounties and pay arrearages, and registers of complaints of illegal apprenticeships. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters received and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, and general and special orders and circulars received. Note: The document titled "Tax List for Persons County, 1867," part of the records of the Hillsboro agent on roll 27, is missing.

A few series were created in 1863–64, prior to formation of the Bureau, by Union military commanders and U. S. Treasury agents, and included in the Bureau records. Some of the volumes contain more than one type of record, reflecting a common recording practice of clerks and staff officers in that period. On roll 15, for example, the Register of Complaints also contains a register of contracts. Researchers should read carefully the records descriptions and arrangements in the table of contents to make full use of these records.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1909.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self–sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts.

The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.

An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.

For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870 the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.

THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN NORTH CAROLINA

ORGANIZATION

Col. Eliphalet Whittlesey, the first Assistant Commissioner of North Carolina, established his headquarters at Raleigh in June 1865. Whittlesey divided the state into four districts and thereunder into subdistricts. The districts included Newberne, Raleigh, Wilmington, and Goldsboro. The officers in charge of districts were designated superintendents, and those in charge of subdistricts were given the title of assistant superintendents. On July 1, 1867, the basic unit of organization for North Carolina was changed to the subdistrict. Eleven subdistricts were established, each containing from two to four subdivisions. The officers in charge of the subdistricts were designated subassistant commissioners, and those who administered smaller segments of the subdistrict were titled assistant subassistant commissioners. Each of the subassistant commissioners reported directly to the Assistant Commissioner.

March 1, 1868, marked the last change in the organization of the North Carolina Bureau. The state was divided into the four subdistricts of Morganton, Wilmington, Raleigh, and Goldsboro, but there were provisions for smaller subdivisions in each subdistrict. This new subdivision of the state resembled the first organizational structure, although titles for the various officers remained the same as those of the second. By May 1869 all of the Bureau offices and functions except education, were phased out in North Carolina, and the Assistant Commissioner closed his office the first week of that month.

The following officers succeeded Col. Eliphalet Whittlesey as Assistant Commissioner of North Carolina: Bvt. Maj. Gen. Thomas H. Ruger, May–June 1866; Bvt. Maj. Gen. John C. Robinson, June–November 1866; Col. James V. Bomford, November 1866–April 1867 (acting assistant commissioner); Bvt. Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles, April 1867–October 1868; Bvt. Lt. Col. Jacob F. Chur, October 1868–January 1869; and Bvt. Lt. Col. Charles E. Compton, April–May 1869.

ACTIVITIES

The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in North Carolina generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations and provided medical relief to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, and worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools.

When Col. E. Whittlesey assumed office as Assistant Commissioner for North Carolina in June 1865, he found large numbers of both freedmen and white refugees in desperate need of relief. To prevent widespread starvation and destitution in the state, the Freedmen's Bureau issued more than 500,000 rations from July through September. A large percentage of rations were issued to the families of white Confederate soldiers who died during military service. Despite a population of more than 300,000 by September 1865, only 5,000 freedpeople had received aid from the Bureau, mostly women and children. By January 1866, with aid being refused to those persons able to work, the number of rations issued to white refugees and freedmen diminished. However, because of crop failures and other emergencies, the Bureau at various periods between 1867 and 1868 issued food and clothing to those in dire need.1

To further aid and provide medical relief to the nearly 14,000 freedmen scattered in camps, settlements, and large towns, the Freedmen's Bureau in North Carolina provided physicians and medical supplies, and opened hospitals. The Bureau established hospitals at Raleigh, Newberne, Beaufort, Roanoke Island, Kinston, Wilmington, Salisbury, and Charlotte. To protect against the spread of smallpox throughout the state, special hospitals were opened at Beaufort, Newberne, Raleigh, Greensboro, and Wilmington. Thousands of freedmen were vaccinated, and the vaccine was distributed to plantation owners. Also, routine inspections were made at freedmen camps and settlements by assistant superintendents and medical officers, and Bureau subdistrict officers were instructed to work closely with civil authorities in matters concerning public health and safety.2

The regulation of written labor agreements between planters and freedmen was a major concern of the Bureau in North Carolina. In a circular issued July 5, 1865 (Circular Number 2), Assistant Commissioner Whittlesey told his subordinates that freedmen should be free to bargain with their prospective employers, and both parties should sign written agreements in the presence of a Bureau official. Freedmen who failed to adhere to signed agreements were subject to forfeit all or part of their wages. Employers who dismissed employees without just cause and failed to pay them were required to either make payment or provisions for laborers and their families for the remainder of the contract. If necessary, requirements were to be enforced by military authorities. The average wage for employees was $10 per month for men and $6 per month for women. Although the less restrictive system of crop sharing was popular among freedmen, it was the subject of numerous complaints, and the Bureau advised against it because of such abuses as high costs for provisions charged by employers during the season.3

Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen was also a priority of the Bureau in North Carolina. Following the Civil War, several Southern states, including North Carolina, enacted a series of laws commonly known as "Black Codes," which restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes, and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard in state courts. In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard on May 30, 1865 (Circular Number 5), Assistant Commissioners were authorized, in places where civil law had been interrupted and blacks' rights to justice were being denied, to adjudicate cases between blacks themselves and between blacks and whites.4

On July 13, 1866, after receiving notice from the Governor of North Carolina that "there now exists under the laws of this State no discrimination in the administration of justice to the prejudice of free persons of color," then–Assistant Commissioner John C. Robinson issued General Orders Number 3. The orders directed Bureau officers and agents to refer all cases involving freedmen, with the exception of those concerning labor agreements witnessed or approved by Bureau officials, to the appropriate state or county court. Bureau officers were further ordered (General Orders Number 5, August 3, 1866) to attend trials held by state authorities involving labor contracts not approved by the Bureau, to insure fair treatment of freedmen. Cases determined to be unjust could be resumed under the jurisdiction of the Bureau. If civil authorities failed or neglected to arrest persons who committed crimes, regardless of color, Bureau officers were authorized to make arrests and hold such individuals for the appropriate court.5

Discriminatory clauses in the laws regarding the apprenticing of black children by North Carolina courts seriously hindered the Freedmen's Bureau's efforts to obtain justice for freedmen. Under North Carolina law, as part of the black codes, thousands of black children were bound out to their former owners without their parents' consent. Also, unlike white females who were apprenticed until the age of 18, black females were bound until age 21. Those black children whose parents were not considered by county courts to be regularly employed in "some honest, industrious occupation" could be bound out. The Bureau saw the North Carolina laws as a subtle attempt to re–enslave freedmen. In November 1866, with pressure from the Bureau, the clauses in the laws were removed and many of the apprenticeship agreements were cancelled. However, the practice of illegally apprenticing black children remained a major problem in many counties in North Carolina. Not until the North Carolina Supreme Court in January 1867 ruled "Null and Void" any apprenticeship contracts, whether the child was black or white, were black parents able to get significant relief regarding the illegal apprenticeship of their children.6

The Freedmen's Bureau's educational activities in North Carolina officially began with the appointment of F. A. Fiske as superintendent of schools on August 9, 1865 (Special Orders Number 21). The Bureau, for the most part, offered advice, protection, and financial assistance to local citizens interested in starting schools. Fiske frequently acted as an intermediary between freedmen and members of the benevolent societies that offered to provide teachers and aid for schools. He corresponded routinely with state and local authorities, members of benevolent societies, and with Bureau officers stationed in the subdistricts. In addition, he collected information about the schools and about the attitudes of the white populace toward the education of freedmen and reported his findings to Bureau headquarters at Washington. In November 1865, Fiske reported that there were some 61 schools and 97 teachers providing instruction for over 5,000 students. At the end of February 1866, there were 115 schools and 151 teachers providing education for more than 11,000 pupils. While the bulk of the aid for freedmen schools came largely from northern benevolent societies, freedmen themselves contributed significantly in the establishment and maintenance of their own schools.7

On July 31, 1868, Fiske resigned and H. C. Vogell succeeded him. The office of the Assistant Commissioner was terminated in the first week of May 1869, but the superintendent of education remained, and it was not until August 31, 1870 that Vogell's appointment was withdrawn.

ENDNOTES

1 House Ex. Doc. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1255, p. 25; Annual Reports of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina, October 9, 1867, pp. 3 – 4, October 20, 1868 [pp. 2 – 3], Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Record Group (RG) 105, NARA.

2 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 107 – 108.

3 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1256, p. 4; Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, p. 104; For a discussion of wage and share contracts relating to the Freedmen's Bureau's activities in North Carolina, see Roberta Sue Alexander, North Carolina Faces the Freedmen; Race Relations During Presidential Reconstruction, 1865–67 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1985), pp. 96 – 112.

4 House Ex. Doc. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess. Serial Vol. 1255, p. 45.

5 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 101 – 102.

6 Alexander, North Carolina Faces the Freedmen, pp.112 – 119; See also, Rebecca Scott, "The Battle Over the Child: Child Apprenticeship and the Freedmen's Bureau in North Carolina," Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives 10, No. 2 ( Summer 1978): 101 – 113.

7 Senate Ex. Doc. 6, 39th Cong., 2nd Sess., Serial Vol. 1276, pp. 104 – 105.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in North Carolina:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices for North Carolina. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment-related records.

NORTH CAROLINA HEADQUARTERS

June 1865—May 1866 -- Assistant Commissioner Col. Elipahalet Whittlesey

May—June 1866 -- Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Maj. Gen. Thomas H. Ruger

June—November 1866 -- Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Maj. Gen. John C. Robinson

November 1866—April 1867 -- Acting Assistant Commissioner Col. James V. Bomford

April 1867—October 1868 -- Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Maj. Gen. Nelson A Miles

October 1868—January 1869 -- Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Lt. Col. Jacob F. Chur

April—May 1869 -- Assistant Commissioner Bvt. Lt. Col. Charles E. Compton

ASHEVILLE

May-Nov. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Patrick E. Murphy

July 1867-Sept. 1868 -- Agent Oscar Eastmond

BEAUFORT

Dec. 1865-June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Richard Dillon

June 1867-Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Richard Dillon

Mar.-June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner, Owen Jay Sweet

July-Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner, E. C. Gaskill

Sept.-Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Louis E. Granger

CHARLOTTE

May—Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A.W. Shaffer

Sept.—Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner H.M. Lazalel

Oct. 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner T.O. McAlpine

Jan.—Nov. 1868 -- Agent T.O. McAlpine

EDENTON

July 1867—May 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner C.W. Dodge

June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner E.C. Gaskill

July—Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner C.W. Dodge

Sept.—Nov. 1868 -- Agent C.W. Dodge

ELIZABETH CITY

Jan.—July 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent William H. Doherty

July 1867—Dec. 1868 -- Agent William H. Doherty

FAYETTEVILLE

Nov. 1865 -- Assistant Commissioner Nicholas Yeager

Dec. 1865—Mar. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent H. C. Laurence

Aug.—Sept. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Justin Hadger

May—Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner M. Gogswell

Jan.—Mar. 1868 -- Agent Manchester W. Weld

Mar.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent Richard Dillon

FRANKLIN

Sept.—Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner George S. Hawley

Jan.-Aug. 1868 -- Agent George S. Hawley

FRANKLINTON

July 1866—July1867 -- Assistant Commissioner Thomas H. Hay

GOLDSBORO

July—Aug. 1865 -- Superintendent J. Murray Hoag

Dec. 1865—May 1866 -- Superintendent G. O. Glavis

May—Aug. 1866 -- Superintendent J. W. Stickney

Feb.—May 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Hannibal D. Norton

May 1867—Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner C. E. Compton

July—Sept. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. F. Allison

GRAHAM

Mar.—May 1868 -- Agent Manchester W. Weld

May—Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Frederick W. Liedtke

GREENSBORO

July 1865—Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Asa Teal

Aug. 1866—May 1867 -- Agent A. Dilsworth

Jan.—Nov. 1868 -- Agent Hugo Hillebrandt

June—Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. W. Bolenius

Oct. 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Hugo Hillebrandt

HALIFAX

Apr. 1866—Apr. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent John M. Foote

HENDERSON

July 1867—Mar. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas H. Hay

Mar.—July 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Frank A. Page

Aug.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent E. T. Lamberton

HILSSBORO

May 1866—Sept.1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Issac Porter

June—Dec. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Thomas H. Hay

Feb. 1868 -- Agent James Carle

Mar.—May 1868 -- Agent Charles B. Whittemore

May—June 1868 -- Agent Manchester W. Weld

JEFFERSON

July—Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William N. Thompson

Jan.—July 1868 -- Agent William N. Thompson

KINSTON

May—Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner H. Hillebrandt

Aug. 1866—Jan. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner William F. Cox

Mar.—Sept. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner H. H. Foster

Dec. 1867—Jan. 1867 -- Agent J. D. Black

Mar.—Sept. 1868 -- Agent J. D. Black (also Goldsboro)

Sept.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent George S. Hawley (also Godlsboro)

LEXINGTON

Aug.—Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. F. Henderson

Jan.—Mar. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Austin W. Fuller

Mar.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent W. F. Henderson

LINCOLNTON

July—Oct. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. O. McAlpine

Mar.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent William Birnie

LUMBERTON

Apr. 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Agent William Birnie

Feb.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent Alfred Thomas

MAGNOLIA

Jan.—Dec. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent H. H. Foster

July—Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner L. Echelberry

Mar.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent J. H. Curren

MORGANTON

May 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Hannibal D. Norton

Jan.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent Hannibal D. Norton

NEWBERNE (Eastern District)

Aug.—Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent Horace James

Jan.—May 1866 -- Superintendent F.A. Seely

June 1866 -- Superintendent A. Brady

June—Aug. 1866 -- Superintendent William H. Wieget

Aug. 1866—July 1867 -- Superintendent Stephen Moore

July 1867—Mar. 1868 -- Assistant Commissioner Stephen Moore (Subdistrict of Newberne)

Mar.—Oct. 1868 -- Agent Stephen Moore (Subdistrict of Newberne)

Oct.—Dec. 1868 -- Bureau Officer Stephen Moore (Subdistrict of Newberne)

NEWBERNE (Subdistrict)

Oct. 1865—Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Isaac A. Rosekrans

Apr. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent A. W. McKillip

Jan.—Mar. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Andrew Coats

Jan.—Mar. 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent A. W. Bolenius

NEWBERNE (Claims Division)

July—Aug. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Andrew Coats

Sept.—Oct. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent William H. Doherty

Nov. 1866—Mar. 1871 -- Assistant Superintendent Andrew Coats

Mar. 1871—Aug. 1872 -- Cashier C. A. Nelson

OXFORD

July 1866—June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent William Jones

PLYMOUTH

May 1866—June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent C. W. Dodge

July 1867—Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner John M. Foote

Oct.—Dec. 1868 -- Bureau Officer John M. Foote

RALEIGH

July 1865—Jan. 1866 -- Superintendent Dexter E. Clapp

Jan.—Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent Aquila Wiley

Apr.—Dec. 1866 -- Superintendent A. G. Bready

Jan.—May 1867 -- Superintendent M. Cogswell

May—July 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Asa Bird Gardner

Aug. 1866—May 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent T. D. McAlpine

June 1867—Aug. 1868 -- Agent H. C. Vogell

Aug.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent C. B. Whittemore

ROCKINGHAM

June—July 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner T. D. McAlpine

July 1867—Mar. 1868 -- Agent William MacFarland

Mar.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent William MacFarland (also Wadesboro)

ROCKY MOUNT

Dec. 1865—Jan. 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent Thomas Richards

Jan.—July 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent William F. Cox

July 1866—June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent J.F. Allison

July 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Agent William A. Cutter

Feb.—Mar. 1868 -- Agent Gardiner Marriam

Mar.—June 1868 -- Agent A. W. Fuller

June—Aug. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Robert G. Heiner

SALISBURY (Western District)

Feb.—May 1866 -- Superintendent Clinton A. Cilley

May—July 1866 -- Superintendent Stephen Moore

Aug. 1866—Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent John R. Edie

Jan.—Oct 1868 -- Superintendent William A. Cutter

SMITHFIELD

May 1866—June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent J. F. Curren

STATESVILLE

July 1867—Jan. 1868 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner W. W. Jones

Jan.—Nov. 1868 -- Agent W. W. Jones

Nov.—Dec. 1868 -- Bureau Officer W. W. Jones

TRENT RIVER SETTLEMENT (James City, Newberne Subdistrict)

July 1866—May 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent and Assistant Quartermaster A. W. McKillip

WASHINGTON

Jan.—June 1867 -- Assistant Superintendent Austin W. Fuller

July—Nov. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Austin W. Fuller

Feb.—Dec. 1868 -- Agent Isaac A. Rosekrans

WHITEVILLE

Jan.—May 1866 -- Assistant Superintendent E. H. McQuigg

June 1866—Feb. 1 -- Assistant Superintendent L. Echelberry

WILKESBORO

Sept.—Dec. 1867 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner J. F. Allison

Mar.—June 1868 -- Agent James Carle

WILMINGTON (Southern District)

Sept. 1865—Jan. 1866 -- Superintendent Charles J. Wickersham

Feb.—Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent William Beadle

Mar.—Apr. 1866 -- Superintendent Charles J. Wickersham

Apr. 1866—June 1867 -- Superintendent Allan Rutherford

June—Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Allan Rutherford

Sept. 1867—Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Allan Rutherford (4th Subdistrict)

Mar. 1868—June 1869 -- Assistant Subassistant Commissioner Allan Rutherford

June 1869—Mar. 1870 -- Agent Allan Rutherford
Related Archival Materials note:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commerical use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
American South  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1909
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1909
Online Media:

Dreams Soar: The Inspirational Story That Took This Woman Around the World

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
Lectures
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-10-18T15:29:03.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_lTjP9zemP0k

Records of the Texas Field Offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870

Extent:
28 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1870
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 28 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1912. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Texas Field Offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870, including previous unfilmed records of the Office of the Assistant Commissioner, and records of the office of staff officers and subordinate field offices. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, including letters received and endorsements, monthly school reports, and other records relating to freedmen's complaints and contracts.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by the Freedmen's Bureau by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes consist of endorsements sent and received, registers of letters received, press copies of letters sent, letters sent, special orders issued, registers of complaints, and registers of contracts. The unbound documents consist of letters received, registered letters received, receipts, accounts, affidavits and settlements, reports of persons and articles hired, and miscellaneous records. Note: The single letter comprising the series Letters Received from Houston, for January 1865, is missing.

Some of the volumes contain more than one type of record, reflecting a common recording practice of clerks and staff officers in that period. For example, 4.36.2.1, Endorsements Sent from Richmond, vol. 1 (146), also contains a register of complaints and a register of contracts. Researchers should read carefully the records descriptions and arrangements in the finding aid to make full use of these records.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Texas:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices for Texas. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment–related records.

AUSTIN

Oct. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Byron Porter

Feb. 1867–Apr. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Oakes

Apr.–June 1868 and Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Clarence Mauck

June–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Ebenezer Gay

BASTROP

Feb. 1867–Apr. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Byron Porter

May–Aug. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Horton

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner David S. Beath

BEAUMONT

June 1867–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Archer

BELTON

July–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Mathew Young

Oct.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles C. Stiles

BOSTON

July 1867–Oct. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner William G. Kirkman

BRENHAM

Apr.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner F. P. Wood

BROWNSVILLE

Apr.–Aug. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles H. Morse

Aug. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Joseph J. Reynolds

Oct.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner R. S. Mackenzie

BRYAN

June–Dec. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner N. H. Handlett (at Courtney)

Feb. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner De Witt Brown (at Navasota)

May 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner N. H. Handlett (at Anderson)

Mar.–May 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner N. H. Handlett

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Gillette

CENTERVILLE

Mar.–July 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Fred W. Reinhard

July 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. H. Bradford

Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Edwin Turnock

CLARKSVILLE

Dec. 1867–July 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner (See Marlin)

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner George Sharkley

CLINTON

Apr. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Hiram Clark

COLUMBIA

Jan. 1866–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Hutchison

May–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner John F. Stokes

June–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner P. F. Duggan

Oct.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. F. N. Rolfe

Jan.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Arthur B. Honer

COLUMBUS

Apr.–July 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. Ernest Goodman

Nov. 1866 and Jan. 1867–Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Enon M. Harris

Feb.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Louis W. Stevenson

COTTON GIN

Apr.–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. F. Manning

June–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles E. Culver

Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner James T. Hill

Jan.–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Robert P. Wilson

Aug.–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner David S. Beath

Oct.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. M. K. Smith

CROCKETT

May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Louis H. Jacobs

Aug.–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner F. W. Reinhard

Sept.–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner D. S. Hunsaker

Sept.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Henry C. Lacy

Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Gilchrist

GALVESTON

Jan.–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. Doubleday

June–July 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Henry Norton

Aug. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. J. Kratz

Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner E. M. Wheelock

Nov. 1867–Apr. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner G. M. Bascom

May–Aug. and Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner George H. Cram

HALLETTSVILLE

May–June 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. Albert Saylor

Oct. 1866–Apr. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Hiestand

May 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Phineas Stevens

HOUSTON

Oct.–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Provost Marshal I. C. De Gress

Dec. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner George Gladwin

Jan.–Sept. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Byron Porter

Sept. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner H. H. Edlefron

Oct.–Dec. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner I. C. De Gress

Jan.–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Walter B. Pease

June–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. D. O'Connell

Oct.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner William M. Van Horn

Jan.–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Walter B. Pease

Mar.–June 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner William M. Van Horn

June–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner M. E. Davis

HUNTSVILLE

Oct. 1866–June 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner James C. Devine

June 1867–May 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner James P. Butler

LIBERTY

Aug. 1866–Feb. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. H. Mayer

Mar.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. H. Cox

LOCKHART

June–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Thomas H. Baker

MARLIN

Jan.–Nov. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner F. B. Sturgis

Aug.–Dec. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Rand (at Gilmer)

Dec. 1867–July 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Rand (at Clarksville)

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Rand

MARSHAL

Dec. 1866–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Rand

May 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Adam G. Malloy

Apr.–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. M. K. Smith

Sept.–Oct. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner H. Sweeney

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner E. C. Henshaw

MATAGORDA

May–Sept. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner William Garretson

MERIDIAN

Jan. 1866–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Philip Howard

NACOGDOCHES

Oct.–Nov. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner T. M. K. Smith

May–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Alex Ferguson

PALESTINE

Dec. 1868–Jan. 1869 -- Subassistant Commissioner Alfred Hedberg

RICHMOND

Jan.–July 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Sam C. Sloan

Oct.–Nov. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles C. Hardenbrook

Aug.–Oct. 1866 and Dec. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner William H. Rock

SAN ANTONIO

June–Sept. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Joseph Ferguson

Nov. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner F. B. Sturgis

Mar.–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Edward W. Whittemore

May 1867–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner John S. Mason

Sept.–Oct. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. W. Eckles

Oct.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. R. Fitch

SEGUIN

Jan.–Oct. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner George W. Smith

Oct. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner E. W. Whittemore

June–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner C. C. Raymond

STERLING

Sept. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Lemuel K. Morton

Apr. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. L. Randall

SUMPTER

Sept.–Nov. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner H. S. Johnson

Apr.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles Schmidt

TYLER

Mar. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner David L. Montgomery

Mar.–Sept. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Gregory Barrett, Jr.

Oct.–Nov. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner W. T. Hartz

Nov.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Horace Jewett

WACO

Jan.–Feb. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. F. Manning

Feb.–Mar. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner Edwin Mauck

Mar.–Apr. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner A. W. Evans

Apr.–Nov. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner James Jay

Dec. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Emerson D. F. Stiles

Mar.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles Haughn

WHARTON

Jan.–July 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner J. W. McConaughy

Nov. 1866 -- Subassistant Commissioner Charles F. Rand

Dec. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner W. H. Horton

Apr.–May 1867 -- Subassistant Commissioner De Witt Brown

June 1867–Jan. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Ira H. Evans

Feb.–Dec. 1868 -- Subassistant Commissioner Nesbit B. Jenkins
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1912
See more items in:
Records of the Texas Field Offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1870
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1912
Online Media:

Refugees from Eastern Congo's rebellions, Wanie Rukula, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1967
Scope and Contents:
"Since Independence, the Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced a number of rebellions. The Popular Liberation Army, under Antoine Gizenga, waged an armed struggle against the central government during the eastern rebellions of 1960-67. More popularly known as "Simbas", the fighting force was composed of often drugged adolescents. Ten of thousands of Congolese and hundreds of foreigners were killed during their reign of terror and the military campaign to end it. In April 1964, Pierre Mulele, former lieutenant of Gizenga, launched a rebellion in Kwilu Province. They destroyed many administrative and missionary institutions. That rebellion was ended in 1965." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press, Inc.]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited a refugee camp at Wanie Rukula, south of Stanleyville (now Kisangani). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from early December 1966 to early February 1967.
Local Numbers:
A 3 ZAI 43 EE
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
068
Frame value is 0.
Slide No. A 3 ZAI 43 EE
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Armed Forces  Search this
Refugees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 500
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Wanie Rukula, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref21551

Food distribution in a camp with refugees from Eastern Congo's rebellions, Wanie Rukula, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1967
Scope and Contents:
"Since Independence, the Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced a number of rebellions. The Popular Liberation Army, under Antoine Gizenga, waged an armed struggle against the central government during the eastern rebellions of 1960-67. More popularly known as "Simbas", the fighting force was composed of often drugged adolescents. Ten of thousands of Congolese and hundreds of foreigners were killed during their reign of terror and the military campaign to end it. In April 1964, Pierre Mulele, former lieutenant of Gizenga, launched a rebellion in Kwilu Province. They destroyed many administrative and missionary institutions. That rebellion was ended in 1965." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press, Inc.]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited a refugee camp at Wanie Rukula, south of Stanleyville (now Kisangani). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from early December 1966 to early February 1967.
Local Numbers:
A 3 ZAI 43.1 EE
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
Frame value is 0.
Slide No. A 3 ZAI 43.1 EE
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Children  Search this
Refugees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 501
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Wanie Rukula, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref21562

Refugee camp from Eastern Congo's rebellions, Wanie Rukula, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1967
Scope and Contents:
"Since Independence, the Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced a number of rebellions. The Popular Liberation Army, under Antoine Gizenga, waged an armed struggle against the central government during the eastern rebellions of 1960-67. More popularly known as "Simbas", the fighting force was composed of often drugged adolescents. Ten of thousands of Congolese and hundreds of foreigners were killed during their reign of terror and the military campaign to end it. In April 1964, Pierre Mulele, former lieutenant of Gizenga, launched a rebellion in Kwilu Province. They destroyed many administrative and missionary institutions. That rebellion was ended in 1965." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press, Inc.]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited a refugee camp at Wanie Rukula, south of Stanleyville (now Kisangani). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from early December 1966 to early February 1967.
Local Numbers:
A 3 ZAI 43.3 EE
General:
Title is provided by EEPA staff based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
061
Frame value is 19.
Slide No. A 3 ZAI 43.3 EE
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Refugees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EECL 503
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EECL / Wanie Rukula, Congo (Democratic Republic)
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref21585

Refugee from Eastern Congo's rebellions. Wanie Rukula, Congo (Democratic Republic)

Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic) (b&w, 35mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
1967
Scope and Contents:
"Since Independence, the Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced a number of rebellions. The Popular Liberation Army, under Antoine Gizenga, waged an armed struggle against the central government during the eastern rebellions of 1960-67. More popularly known as "Simbas", the fighting force was composed of often drugged adolescents. Ten of thousands of Congolese and hundreds of foreigners were killed during their reign of terror and the military campaign to end it. In April 1964, Pierre Mulele, former lieutenant of Gizenga, launched a rebellion in Kwilu Province. They destroyed many administrative and missionary institutions. That rebellion was ended in 1965." [F. Scott Bobb, 1999: Historical Dictionary of Democratic Republic of Congo, The Scarecrow Press, Inc.]. During his trip to Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Elisofon visited a refugee camp at Wanie Rukula, south of Stanleyville (now Kisangani). This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for American Broadcasting Company and traveled to Africa from early December 1966 to early February 1967, visiting Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo).
Local Numbers:
Negative number OA 69478, 7C-24, 28.
General:
Title source: Index card based on photographer's notes.
Local Note:
Typed index card reads, "A 3 Zai. Zaire. Wanie Rukula. Refugees from Simba (Mulele) rebellion. 1/1967. EE. neg.no. OA 69478, 7C-24, 28." The card was written in 1977-79 by Archives staff using source provided by photographer.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Refugees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Negatives
Collection Citation:
Eliot Elisofon Field Collection, EEPA 1973-001, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
EEPA.1973-001, Item EEPA EENG 00405
See more items in:
Eliot Elisofon Field collection
Eliot Elisofon Field collection / Congo (Democratic Republic) / EENG / 1967
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1973-001-ref27499

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