Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
2835 documents - page 1 of 142

Donald J. Stubblebine Collection of Theater and Motion Picture Music and Ephemera

Donor:
Hauber, Joseph R.  Search this
Collector:
Stubblebine, Donald J., 1925-2010  Search this
Extent:
285 Cubic feet (600 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Playbills
Sheet music
Design drawings
Theater programs
Date:
1866-2009, undated
Scope and Contents:
One of the most comprehensive collections of material relating to musical stage and film productions, the collection consists of an assortment of material including sheet music written specifically for or included in stage and screen musicals, television programs, Big Band performances, and radio. Some productions may have been produced under more than one title, especially if the production was presented internationally.

The collection is arranged alphabetically by title of production or personality using proper name. Folders for each entry may include sheet music, ephemeral items related to that specific production or personality such as theater programs, reviews, and posters. There are a number of costume design drawings. Folders will rarely include full printed scores. Published scores were separated from this collection before donation.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Stage Musicals and Vaudeville, 1866-2007, undated

Subseries 1.1, United States Stage Musicals, 1866-2007, undated

Subseries 1.2, Ziegfeld Productions, 1911-1958, undated

Subseries 1.3, British Stage Musicals, 1890-1943, undated

Subseries 1.4, Assorted Countries Stage Musicals, 1896-1935, undated

Series 2, Motion Pictures, 1912-2007, undated

Subseries 2.1, United States Motion Pictures, 1919-2007, undated

Subseries 2.2, British Motion Pictures, 1912-1988, undated

Subseries 2.3, Foreign Motion Pictures, Assorted Countries, 1921-1985, undated

Subseries 2.4, Silent Motion Picture Cue Sheets, 1915-1930, undated

Series 3, Television, 1933-2003, undated

Series 4, Big Bands and Radio, 1925-1998,undated

Subseries 4.1, Big Bands, 1929-1998, undated

Subseries 4.2, Radio, 1925-1948, undated

Series 5, Personalities, 1875-2009, undated

Series 6, Ephemera and Single Sheet Music, 1908-2005, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Donald J. Stubblebine was born on February 4, 1925 in Reading, Pennsylvania, to Edgar W. and Emma Stubblebine. He had an older brother Edgar W. Stubblebine, Jr. His father was a sheet metal worker employed by the railroad in Reading. Stubblebine was first exposed to musicals through motion pictures. His mother attended "dish night" with her son twice a week. During the Great Depression, in order to draw an audience, theaters would give out dishes with each admission. He credited this with beginning his love of musicals. By the 1940 United States Census his mother is listed as a widow. Stubblebine attended the Wharton School of Business of the University of Pennsylvania. After graduation he was employed for forty years as controller by the Chilton Publishing Company. He retired in 1994.

As a lifelong film and theater fan, Stubblebine began collecting sheet music, programs, and ephemera from stage and film musicals in the early 1970s. As his collection grew, so did his expertise in the history of musical theatre and film. He eventually authored four reference books dealing with United States and British stage and film musicals as well as films from Canada and Australia. He became an often sought-after expert in stage and film music. His obsession with collecting eventually filled his Philadelphia apartment with one of the largest collections of material centered on music in the United States. He collected not only the sheet music and scores from musicals but often collected copies of reviews, programs, photographs, and costume sketches.

Stubblebine died on May 1, 2010 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smitsonian Institution by Joseph Regis Hauber in memory of Donald J. Stubblebine, in 2010.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research but is stored offsite. Arrangements must be made with the Archives Center staff two weeks prior to a scheduled research visit.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark.
Topic:
Silent films  Search this
Motion pictures  Search this
Vaudeville  Search this
Music -- United States  Search this
Motion pictures, British  Search this
Musical revue, comedy, etc  Search this
Music -- Performance  Search this
Musicals  Search this
Musical theater  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- 19th century  Search this
Revues -- 1900-1910  Search this
Theater  Search this
Silent films -- Musical accompaniment  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- 20th century
Playbills
Sheet music
Design drawings
Theater programs
Citation:
Donald J. Stubblebine Collection of Musical Theater and Motion Picture Music and Ephemera, 1866-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1211
See more items in:
Donald J. Stubblebine Collection of Theater and Motion Picture Music and Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1211

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records

Author:
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company  Search this
Names:
Alliance Coal Mining Company  Search this
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company  Search this
Extent:
72 Cubic feet (245 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Pennsylvania
Date:
1815-1966
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of records primarily of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. Additionally, there are records of the Lehigh Navigation Coal Company and subsidiary companies including the Alliance Coal Mining Company. These records mostly describe anthracite mining in the vicinity of Mauch Chuck and Summit Hill, Pennsylvania. Also included is a smaller amount of material on railroad, canal, and river navigation work of LCNC.

Included are annual reports, 1913-1949, and a few other reports, 1912-1953. There are numerous types of fiscal records such as revenue statements, 1913-1949; ledgers, 1874-1906; financial forecasts, 1949-1953; trial balance books, 1920-1942; journals, 1874-1945; records of vouchers, 1882-1906; records of bills payable, 1907-1948; and individual ledgers, 1904-1944. Also included are records of coal production, 1900-1906; records of cost of coal mining and preparation, 1890-1954; and comparative statistical and cost data on coal mining and preparation, 1920-1939. In addition to fiscal records and records relating to coal production, there are inventories, 1898-1947 and records of improvements and special projects, 1909-1926. Also, there is a large group of payroll records, 1894-1907, and other records relating to employee compensation, 1870-1954.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into twenty-two series.

Series 1: Annual Reports, 1826-1961

Series 2: Other Reports, 1912-1953

Series 3: Revenue Statements, 1913-1949

Series 4: Ledgers, 1874-1947

Series 5: Inventories, 1877-1945

Series 6: Financial Forecasts, 1949; 1951-1953

Series 7: Trial Balance Books, 1920-1942

Series 8: Journals, 1874-1945

Series 9: Record of Vouchers, 1882-1906

Series 10: Records of Bills Payable and Collectibles, 1907-1948

Series 11: Individual Ledgers, 1904-1908; 1919-1936; 1941-1945

Series 12: Records of Improvements and Special Projects, 1907-1913; 1920-1926

Series 13: Records of Coal Production, 1856-1952

Series 14: Records of Costs of Coal Mining and Preparation, 1890-1907; 1894-1954

Series 15: Comparative Statistical and Cost Data on Coal Mining and Preparation, 1873-1939

Series 16: Payroll Records, 1882-1951

Series 17: Employee Compensation, 1870-1954

Series 18: Contracts, Agreements and Leases, 1879-1931

Series 19: Printed Materials Relating to the Anthracite Industry, 1815-1954

Series 20: Miscellaneous Materials, 1874-1966

Series 21: Oversize Materials, 1829-1945

Series 22: Photographs, 1829, 1929, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company was formed on April 21, 1820 by the merger of the Lehigh Navigation Company and the Lehigh Coal Company. Both predecessor companies and the new company were organized by Josiah White, Erskine Hazard, and George F. Hauto. The LCNC was reorganized in 1821 and incorporated by the Pennsylvania legislature in 1822.

The company was involved in anthracite mining and transportation, initially, they made the Lehigh River navigable as a means of getting their coal to Easton and then to Philadelphia via the Delaware River. Later, through canal construction, railway construction and agreements with existing railroads, the company delivered its product to New York, New England, and elsewhere. In the 1820s, LCNC laid rails from its mines to the river landing at Mauch Chunk and also began its railroad from Summit Hill, in the late 1820s, construction of the Lehigh Canal was completed from Mauch Chunk to Easton. Between 1836 and 1838 the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad was completed from the northern anthracite field, connecting Wilkes Barre to White Haven.

In 1840, the first successful iron furnace blast was made with Lehigh coal, in 1844, the company began its first important underground mining. In the 1860s and 1870s, the company completed a railroad from Wilkes Barre to Easton, and the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad was leased to the Central Railroad of New Jersey, thereby guaranteeing LCNC access to New York. Early in the twentieth century, the New England area was opened to LCNC through railroad construction.

In 1930 the Lehigh Navigation Coal Company was founded essentially as a holding company for LCNC and other companies, and other organizational changes were made. The company went out of business in 1965.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Pennsylvania State Archives

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records, 1792-1978

Penn State University Libraries

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records, 1835-1913

Lehigh University Special Collections

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company collection, 1826-1913
Provenance:
Donated by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company,Pennsylvania.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Coal mines and mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mining and minerals industry  Search this
Mining equipment  Search this
Citation:
The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0071
See more items in:
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0071
Online Media:

Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records

Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Names:
American Society of Civil Engineers.  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (25 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Place:
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Date:
1884-1952 and undated
Scope and Contents:
The Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records consists primarily of correspondence and business records documenting Robert A. Cummings' firm, consulting work, and participation in professional associations, especially the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1892-1893, circa 1900-1939; technical data and publications on soils testing, 1900-1939; and drawings, blueprints, and photographs and glass negatives of construction projects.

Series 1, Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated documents the professional life of Robert A. Cummings. There are three subseries within this series: Subseries 1, Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated; Subseries 2, Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated; and Subseries 3, Writings, 1908-1939 and undated. This series includes documents related to the Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, including patents, photographs, and advertisements. The series also includes documents relating to professional organizations such as the Allegheny County Authority, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the World Engineering Congress. Cummings was also a member of the Soils Committee for the American Society of Civil Engineers, and those documents are included in this series. Cummings wrote published and unpublished articles regarding concrete, soil, and construction methods. His writings are also included in this series.

Series 2, Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated consists of six subseries: Subseries 1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated; Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated; Subseries 3, Contracts (for projects), 1902-1930 and undated; Subseries 4, Legal Materials, 1907-1916; Subseries 5, Financial, 1894-1921 and undated; and Subseries 6, Personnel, 1918-1921. This series contains the bulk of the information about Cummings' concrete business. Within this series are administrative materials that document the running of the business, including daily reports, bond and insurance papers, specifications, supply notes, field requisitions, and design notebooks. Also included is correspondence to and from Cummings. Recipients of the correspondence include company employees and corporations that did business with the company. A portion of the correspondence is divided topically into subjects such as soil sampling apparatus and barge claims.

The bulk of this series consists of contracts for projects on which Cummings worked. The majority of the projects consist of bridges, water tanks, commercial buildings, and retaining walls. Materials include correspondence, receipts from vendors, hand-written notes, accident reports, blueprints, sketches, and laboratory test reports on materials. The contracts are arranged by contract number as assigned by Cummings. The unnumbered contracts are listed alphabetically. The legal materials consist of documentation that relate to legal matters Cummings dealt with, including the lawsuits Robert Cummings vs. William J. Stewart, Alexander Melville vs. Robert Cummings, andLock Joint Pipe Company vs. Frederick Melber and Electric Welding Company. This series also contains financial and personnel records, including account books, bills, receipts, proposals, estimates, and business journals, as well as applications for employment, correspondence, and weekly progress reports.

Series 3, Subject Files, 1891-1949 and undated consists of correspondence, pamphlets, printed materials, and drawings. The topics within the subject files include soil testing and standards, roads, railroads, minerals, electricity, and concrete barges.

Series 4, Publications, 1887-1955, includes published material related concrete. The series is divided into two subseries: publications by title and publications by subject. Included are booklets, articles of incorporations, charters and by-laws, journals, and government publications. Some of the materials are in German or French.

Series 5, Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated includes 3" x 5", 8" x 10" and other various sizes of photographic prints. The series contains black and white and sepia toned prints. Some of the prints have been mounted onto cardboard or cloth, and some prints have tape on the corners. Some of the prints are annotated on the back. Most of the images are of construction sites in various stages of progress, the interiors of buildings being constructed, manufacturing equipment, and laborers working. Some of these images document early twentieth century methods of manufacturing, such as the use of rope pulleys.

Series 6, Photograph Negatives, undated includes about 75 photograph film negatives. The images in these negatives are primarily of construction scenes, including workers, equipment and work sites.

Series 7, Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated includes 8" x 10", 5" x 8", and 3" x 4" glass plate negatives containing images of bridges, slabs of concrete, construction scenes, the interiors and exteriors of hotels, and the interiors and exteriors of railroad stations.

Series 8, Lantern Slides, undated includes images of the work of the Cummings Structural Concrete Company on 4.5" x 5" glass slides. The images are of industrial machinery, construction sites, and workers.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.1: Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated

Subseries 1.2: Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.3: Writings, 1908-1939 and undated

Series 2: Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated

Subseries 2.2: Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.3: Project Contracts, 1902-1930 and undated

Subseries 2.4: Legal Materials, 1907-1916

Subseries 2.5: Financial, 1894-1921 and undated

Series 3: Subject Files, 1891-1970 and undated

Subseries 3.1: Alphabetical, 1891-1970

Subseries 3.2: Testing, 1904-1916

Series 4: Publications, 1887-1955

Subseries 4.1: By title, 1887-1953

Subseries 4.2: By subject, 1902-1940 and undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated

Series 6: Photograph Negatives, undated

Series 7: Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated

Series 8: Lantern Slides, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Augustus Cummings (1866-1962) was a consulting civil engineer who worked primarily in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was born in Norfolk, England and attended the Gresham School at Holt in Norfolk. He trained as a civil engineer with William J. Brewster in his offices, located in Westminster, London, England. During his early career, he worked as a surveyor and field examiner at the Ordinance Survey of Great Britain and Ireland before he relocated to Canada to conduct engineering work on the Grand Trunk Railroad. During the late 1880s and early 1890s, Cummings was employed as a general draftsman for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in Philadelphia. He worked later as a designer of heavy dredging machinery for the Bucyrus (Ohio) Steam Shovel and Dredge Company and as an assistant engineer of the Norfolk and Western Railroad in Roanoke, Virginia. Cummings established a firm as a civil and consulting engineer in Philadelphia in 1893 before relocating to Pittsburgh in 1899. He founded the Cummings Structural Concrete Company and the Electric Welding Company in 1900, and in 1902 he founded the Lehigh Valley Testing Laboratory, all of which were located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1936, he partnered with his son in the consulting firm of Robert A. Cummings, Jr. and Associates.

During his career, Cummings worked on the design and construction of a variety of projects, including bridges, warehouses, filtration systems, private residences, machine shops, dry docks and piers, factories, dams, and locks. He additionally conducted railroad and land surveys, researched various types of cement, and designed rock, hydraulic, and elevator dredges. Cummings is best known for inventing the "Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete," in which iron or steel bars are embedded within a mixture of Portland cement, water, sand, and gravel or broken stone. As Cummings stated in a 1904 presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, reinforced concrete "makes an excellent paint for preserving iron or steel, adhering to the metal very firmly and protecting it thoroughly against corrosion. It can easily be made water tight, and its durability is beyond question. These properties of cement mortar can be utilized in re-enforced concrete. This material is well adapted for molding into a monolithic structure, which does not disintegrate when subjected to shocks such as are produced by railroad trains and vibrates much less for a given load than structural steel. Correctly designed re-enforced concrete structures are not liable to sudden failures, as is the case with ordinary concrete, but gives warning by the falling off of the surface concrete long before the point of failure is reached."

Cummings belonged to a number of professional organizations, including the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Engineering Societies Library Board, the American Railway Engineering Association, the American Society for Testing Materials, and the Institution of Civil Engineers of London, England. He married Mary Eloise Hood on December 14, 1892, and had two children, Robert Augustus Jr. and Eloise Hood. Robert A. Cummings died on October 21, 1962, in Pittsburgh.

References

Cummings, Robert A. Presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, Meeting of Structural Section. November 22, 1904.

Hool, George A. Concrete Engineers Handbook, Data for the Design and Construction of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Structures. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1918.
Provenance:
Unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0218
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0218
Online Media:

Charles B. Chaney Jr. Railroad Photographic Collection

Collector:
Chaney, Charles B.  Search this
Extent:
21 Cubic feet (92 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilms
Black-and-white negatives
Date:
1972
1850 - 1947
undated
Summary:
Approximately 20,000 negatives of railroad related subjects with an emphasis on the eastern lines, especially the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Besides locomotives, other subjects include freight trains, passenger cars, bridges and tracks, stations, yards, tunnels, shops and engine houses, and train wrecks.
Scope and Contents:
An extensive and detailed guide to this collection was created by the Division of Transportation, National Museum of American History in 1991 and published by the Smithsonian Institution which is available upon request in the Archives Center. The guide provides a name or number of the locomotive or railroad scene, builder, type, date built, negative number and a brief description or caption for each negative. The collection was also scanned to video disc.

The collection contains approximately 20,000 negatives of railroad-related subjects, with the vast majority of the images being various views of locomotives. Some of the photographs were taken by Mr. Chaney, although a large number are copy negatives made from existing photographs. Many are copies of builders' photographs. The emphasis is on the eastern lines, especially the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Besides locomotives, other subjects include freight trains, passenger cars, bridges and tracks, stations, yards, tunnels, shops and engine houses, and train wrecks. The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1: Negatives, circa 1850-1947, undated, consists primarily of film negatives which are copies from old prints dating from 1850-1900, and the remaining are those taken by Mr. Chaney between 1910-1947. The negatives vary greatly as to composition and quality. There are also one hundred glass plate negatives found among these materials. The negatives are arranged by number and are contained in sixty-eight boxes currently stored in an offsite facility.

Series 2: Microfilm, 1972, consists of thirty two reels of microfilm housed in six boxes. The microfilm reels were created by the Museum in May 1972 and contain approximately 16,156 images from series one. They are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the railroad line. An index was created for these materials by the Museum.

Series 3: Nitrate Negatives 1850-1947, undated, consists of 11,185 images similar to those in series one. These negatives are contained in eighteen boxes and are stored at an offsite facility. The negatives are arranged by number.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1: Negatives, circa 1850-1947, undated

Series 2: Microfilm, 1972

Series 3: Nitrate Negatives, 1850-1947, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Charles B. Chaney Jr. was born February 7, 1875 in Baltimore, Maryland. He was the oldest of seven children born to Charles B. and Mary E. Chaney. At an early age he developed an interest in locomotives while playing in and around local railroad yards. His lifelong passion for locomotives resulted in photographing and collecting materials related to the subject. As a young man Chaney moved to New York, where he began a career as a draftsman in the Brooklyn Navy Yard. Charles B. Chaney Jr. retired in 1942 and returned to Baltimore, where he died on April 5, 1948.
Provenance:
The collection was originally collected for the Division of Engineering and Industries (now the Division of Work and Industry) in 1948.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. The negatives are stored at offsite facilities. Special arrangements are required to these view materials. Contact the Archives Center for information at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Microfilms
Black-and-white negatives
Citation:
Charles B. Chaney Jr. Railroad Photographic Collection, 1850-1947; 1972, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1167
See more items in:
Charles B. Chaney Jr. Railroad Photographic Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1167
Online Media:

Uriah A. Boyden Papers

Creator:
Boyden, Uriah A. (Uriah Atherton), 1804-1879  Search this
Francis, Joseph Sidney  Search this
Schultze, Bernhard  Search this
Names:
American Association for the Advancement of Science  Search this
Ames Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Amoskeag Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Atlantic Cotton Mills.  Search this
Boston and Lowell Railroad Corporation.  Search this
Boston and Roxbury Mill Corporation.  Search this
Boston and Worcester Railroad Corporation.  Search this
Hamilton Manufacturing Company (Lowell, Mass.).  Search this
Jackson Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Lawrence Company.  Search this
Lowell Appleton Company.  Search this
Lowell Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Manchester Printing Works.  Search this
Merrimack Manufacturing Company.  Search this
New England Glass Company.  Search this
Saco Water Power Company.  Search this
Salmon Falls Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Stark Mills  Search this
Suncook Mills Company.  Search this
Tilestons & Holllingsworth Upper Mill.  Search this
Boyden, Seth  Search this
Francis, James B. (James Bicheno), 1815-1892  Search this
Nobel, Alfred Bernhard, 1833-1896  Search this
Sawyer, Edward  Search this
Storrow, Charles S. (Charles Storer), 1809-1904  Search this
Straw, Ezekiel Albert, 1819-1882  Search this
Extent:
21 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Newspapers
Correspondence
Clippings
Articles
Drawings
Financial records
Legal documents
Notebooks
Place:
Nashua (N.H.)
Lowell (Mass.)—Industries
Manchester (N.H.)
Brookline (Mass.)
Brandon (Vt.)
Charlestown (Boston, Mass.)
Boston (Mass.)
Foxborough (Mass. : Town)
Date:
1806-1879
bulk 1830-1879
Summary:
Papers of Uriah A. Boyden (1804-1879), a Boston civil and mechanical engineer and the inventor of the Boyden turbine. Materials include correspondence, notes, calculations, articles, notebooks, legal documents, financial documents, patents and patent assignments, design drawings, newspaper clippings, pamphlets, business cards, and a print of a daguerreotype.
Scope and Content:
This collection documents the activities of Uriah Atherton Boyden (1804-1879), a Boston civil and mechanical engineer. The papers cover the span of Boyden's life, but the bulk of the papers date from between 1830 and 1879. The materials relate to his professional engineering life, including his work as an engineer for the Nashua and Lowell Railroad Corporation and his work with turbines at New England mills and manufacturing companies. The collection also contains papers that illustrate his scientific interests, including sound, meteorology, chemistry, and physics. Materials include correspondence, notes, calculations, articles, notebooks, legal documents, financial documents, patents and patent assignments, design drawings, newspaper clippings, pamphlets, business cards, and a print of a daguerreotype.

Series 1, Correspondence, 1823-1879, consists of three subseries: Subseries 1, Outgoing Correspondence, 1830-1879; Subseries 2, Incoming Correspondence, 1823-1879; and Subseries 3, Miscellaneous Correspondence, 1825-1879. The bulk of the series is comprised of letters, although some telegrams are included. The majority of Boyden's letters discuss his business dealings and scientific interests, but some correspondence is related to family matters. Family correspondents include his brothers Seth Boyden (1788-1870), William Pitts Boyden, Otis Boyden, Benjamin F. Boyden, and Alexander Boyden (1791-1881); his sisters Sarah Boyden (d. 1834) and Sabra Smith; and his parents Seth (1764-1840) and Susanna Boyden. He also corresponded with his niece Susan Boyden Burnet and sister-in-law Abigail Boyden. Subjects discussed include Seth Boyden's illness, death, and will in 1840 and Sarah Boyden's death in 1834.

Correspondence from the 1830s discusses the construction of the dry dock at the Charlestown Navy Yard, Massachusetts; experiments conducted at the Boston and Roxbury Mill Dam; Boyden's work as Chief Engineer for the Nashua and Lowell Railroad Corporation and his subsequent lawsuit against the Nashua and Lowell Railroad Corporation over a pay dispute; the employment of assistants; and the construction of a mill at the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company.

Frequent correspondents include William Livingston, who was deposed in Boyden's lawsuit of the Nashua and Lowell Railroad Company; F. George Stark of Amoskeag Village; John Jacques of Worcester, Massachusetts; R. Read of Amoskeag Manufacuring Company; and Ezekial Albert Straw (1819-1882), a civil engineer and agent for the Amoskeag Manufacuring Company and the governor of New Hampshire from 1872-1874. Correspondence from the 1840s is primarily about turbines. Subjects include the development of the Boyden Turbine at the Lowell Appleton Company and Boyden's patents (US Patents 5,068, 5,090, 5,114, 10,026, and 10,027).

Other topics include the Merrimack Manufacturing Company's new mill; the Stark Company's turbine; turbine pits for the Merrimack Company's Picking House; Boyden's design for a turbine built at the Lowell Machine Shop and used at Tilestons & Hollingsworth Upper Mill; and requests for books. During this period, Boyden sent letters to various manufacturing companies and mills, informing them he would be willing to sell his patent rights for turbine improvements and provide plans and specifications, although he would not oversee the construction of turbines. Recipients of these letters include hydraulic engineer James B. Francis, P. T. Jackson, treasurer of the Proprietors of Locks and Canals; T. G. Cary, treasurer of the Appleton Company; John Avery, agent of the Hamilton Manufacturing Company; Alexander Wright, agent of the Lowell Manufacturing Company; Charles T. Storrow, treasurer of the Essex Company and the Atlantic Cotton Mills; R. Read, agent of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company; Amos A. Lawrence, treasurer of Salmon Falls Manufacturing Company; John Mixer, treasurer of the Suncook Manufacturing Company; and William Dwight, treasurer of the Saco Water Power Company.

Letters relating to the Atlantic Cotton Mills turbine design, testing, and lawsuit comprise a portion of the correspondence from the late 1840s and 1850s. Other correspondence from the 1850s includes letters to and from Boyden's employee Norman W. Stearns, who traveled to California and Australia; discussion of the testing of a turbine at the Hamilton Manufacturing Company Mills at Lowell; an extract from a report on the power derived from the tides at the Boston and Roxbury Mill Dam; a letter from the Smithsonian Institution encouraging Boyden to publish his research on turbines; and the difficulties with turbine experiments at the Nashua Manufacturing Company's mills. Boyden continued to offer his patent rights to various companies, including James T. Ames, agent of the Ames Manufacturing Company, and Ezekial Albert Straw, agent of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company.

Some letters were written by assistant Edward Sawyer on behalf of Uriah Boyden. Letters from the 1860s include Boyden's correspondence with the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia concerning the prize he created for any resident of North America who could determine by experiment whether all rays of light are transmitted at the same velocity. Common subjects include turbines; physics; Henri Giffard's invention of the injector; an apparatus for atmospheric electrical experiments; expanding gas; and the purchase of chemical substances.

There are many letters to the Bailliere Brothers, importers of periodicals; and E. G. Wallis, the Assistant Assessor of the third district of Boston for taxes. In 1862, Boyden wrote a letter to Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew offering a letter of recommendation for hydraulic engineer James B. Francis. Boyden also paid for a lecture in 1862 given by George Boutwell on liberating some Southern slaves. Letters from the 1870s discuss a variety of topics, including patents, the New England Glass Company, and the purchase of books. Finally, a folder of miscellaneous materials includes several letters of recommendation and introduction for Boyden, and a few letters neither to nor from Boyden.

Series 2, Notes on Turbines, 1833-1870, contains primarily Boyden's notes and calculations relating to the design, development, construction, and testing of turbines. There are also drawings of turbines, excerpts from scholarly journals about turbines, and the manuscript article about turbines for American Cabinet authored by Boyden. A published copy of this article is located in Series 10, Printed Material, 1835-1879. Some materials are in French.

A large portion of the papers are the calculations and results of experiments on Turbine No. 3 of the Atlantic Cotton Mills. More information on these experiments can be found in the Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867, and Series 6, Lawsuits, 1836-1864. Experiments conducted at the Appleton Company, where Boyden developed the Boyden turbine, appear in this series.

The turbine notes also contain measurements and computations for turbines for the Chicopee Manufacturing Company; designs and calculations for the Tileston and Hollingsworth's turbine in Dorchester, Massachusetts; an estimate for installing turbines for the Jackson Company; and a report to the Boston Water Power Company on the estimate of power from the Boston and Roxbury Mill Dam. Boyden was assisted in his calculations and experiments by Maximilian L. G. Wilde, Edward Sawyer, [Neil?], W. Mertz, David Dows, and James Emerson. The series contains an oversize miscellaneous folder comprised of calculations and tables.

Series 3, Subject Files, circa 1827-1875, contains groups of papers that Boyden assembled into packets and numbered and labeled with topical categories. The papers cover a wide range of topics. A large portion of the materials are excerpts or notes from published sources, although some packets contain Boyden's own calculations, tables, and surveys. Some materials are in French, German, and Greek and some have been translated from French and German into English.

One subject Boyden explores in depth is tobacco, including the tobacco trade, taxes on tobacco, consumption statistics from the United States and Europe, different varieties of plants, and tobacco's effect on health, including whether or not it contributes to mental illness. In addition, he discusses alcohol's effect on health; whether crime is connected with drinking alcohol, liquor licensing laws, and the option of prohibition in Massachusetts. He was also interested in the early history of the Bible, including how it was translated from the original Hebrew and how Egyptian connects to Old Testament history. Boyden compares different religious practices, including Islam, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and ancient Greek and Egyptian religion.

Boyden collected a great deal of information from census data in the United States and Great Britain. In the Boston area, he looks at the number of births among Irish immigrants compared to native born Americans, and in particular explores whether tobacco use increases or decreases births among Irish immigrants. He also utilizes population statistics to discuss mental illness in both Europe and the United States. Like Series 4, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879, the Subject Files contain statistics on the cause of and response to fires in Boston.

Finally, the Subject Files include information on a variety of scientific subjects. For instance, a portion of materials discuss hydraulic lime, atomic theory and molecules, chemistry, thermoelectricity, meteorology, astronomy, batteries, and water pressure through pipes. Boyden quotes from Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species in his explorations of natural history. Several packets are comprised of surveys of property lots in Brookline, Massachusetts and the Longwood area of Boston. Sources Boyden utilized include publications such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Bible, the New York Herald, The Boston Daily Advertiser, L'Annales des Ponts et Chaussées (The Annals of the Department of Civil Engineering), Brockhaus's Encyclopaedia, Annals of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Les Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (The Proceedings of the French Academy of Sciences), Annales de Chimie et de Physique (Annals of Chemistry and Physics), Annales d'Hygiène (Annals of Hygiene), Appleton's Cyclopaedia, Hunt's Merchant's Magazine, Esquirol's Treatise on Mental Maladies, The London Times, and Poggendorff's Annals. The packets also contain call slips from the Boston Athenaeum and the Boston Public Library.

Series 4, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879, consists of a wide range of material. Some papers are in French and German, or translated from published French and German into English. The series encompasses notes from Boyden's scientific experiments and observations. One subject Boyden studied indepth was meteorology, and the series contains weather observations, recordings of temperature and air pressure, and eyewitness accounts of unusual weather.

In addition, Boyden conducted experiments on the effect of a dam in the Merrimack River, the specific heat of steam, electricity, the effects of rays on bisulphide of carbon, glass making, and oils. Five notebooks document experiments on the chemical combination of oxygen with liquids at atmospheric temperatures. Furthermore, the series contains information on sound experiments made at Chelsea, Massachusetts, and at the Charlestown, Massachusetts aqueduct, which are also discussed in Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867, and Series 9, Drawings, circa 1835-1872. Boyden conducted surveys of various industrial projects, including the Jackson Manufacturing Company's mill work and dam; the sewers of Lowell, Massachusetts; the Nashua Mills; the aqueduct, cistern and pumping apparatus for the Boston Iron Company; the Lewiston Water Power Company; the bursting of a locomotive for the Boston and Lowell Railroad; and the cold well at Brandon, Vermont.

The series consists of several folders of drawings, including sketches of an apparatus for making signal sounds, and a design for a mercurial pump, and various scientific instruments. There are also copies of drawings of a differential galvanometer, dynamometer, pneumatic apparatus, and pneumatic glasses. The originals are located in Series 9, Drawings, circa 1835-1872. A significant portion of the series consists of Boyden's investigations of the causes of fires in Boston, including statistics and eyewitness accounts. The series also contains Boyden's computations and design for a chronometer.

Boyden is the author of several published papers found in this series, including "Researches in Meteorology," "Paper on Mechanical force," "An Essay on Caloric's Repulsing Caloric and its Attracting Ponderable Matter," and "Paper on Sound." "Explosions produced by Niter in Burning Buildings" appeared in The Boston Post May 9, 1862. Boyden also wrote Researches in Physics, which was printed in 1863. The series also contains translations and copies of papers and articles on various scientific subjects, including magnetism, electricity, heat, light, meteorology, and physics. These include articles from the Annales de Chimie et de Physique (Annals of Chemistry and Physics), the Bulletin des Sciences Mathématiques (Bulletin of the Mathematical Sciences), the Annalen der Physik und Chemie (Annals of Physics and Chemistry), Mémoires de l'Academie Royale (Imperial) des Sciences de l'Institut de France, and Les Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (The Proceedings of the French Academy of Sciences). Boyden also collected single works, including A Treatise on the Heat of Permanent Gases by John Plana, New Branch of Physics, or Studies Concerning Bodies in the Spheroidal State by P. H. Boutigny, and Thermochrosis, or Calorific Coloration by Macedoine Melloni.

Nine miscellaneous folders contain citations from encyclopedias, notes from scientific articles and newspapers, calculations, notes on laws, notes from experiments, a tide table, accounts of the weather, directions for experiments, specifications for a section of a canal built in Lowell by the Proprietors of the Locks and Canals, and a description of a heliostat. One oversize miscellaneous folder contains a legal document concerning lease from the Boston and Roxbury Mill Corporation to Horace Gray, a plan of a screwdriver, a table of experiments made in grinding rye at the City Mills, and experiments on the flow of water over dams made at the Lower Locks in Lowell, Massachusetts.

Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867, consists of bound notebooks ranging in size from 5" x 7" to 7" x 8". The notebooks demonstrate Boyden's wide-ranging scientific interests. They contain primarily technical information, such as experiments on sound, electromagnetism, and thermometers and include drawings and tables with data. His notebooks include excerpts from scientific journals on physics and chemistry, including some materials in French.

The personal memoranda feature notes from his travels around New England and the Mid-Atlantic States, including descriptions of railroads, dams, and mills; bridges in Georgetown, Washington, District of Columbia; a smelting furnace in Pottsville, Pennsylvania; and the Baltimore Water Works aqueduct. Several additional personal notebooks document Boyden's property and expenditures. Many notebooks were written or corrected by others, presumably Boyden's assistants, including Edward Sawyer, Levi York, Maximilian S. G. Wilde, Charles Leonard, Charles Mason, Jeremiah Dickson, L.W. Cushing, and A. Neill. One common subject is Boyden's work with turbines and water-wheels at New England mills and manufacturing companies. Many notebooks record turbine experiments at the Lowell Appleton Company, where Boyden developed the Boyden turbine, and at the Atlantic Cotton Mills. For more information on Boyden's work at the Atlantic Cotton Mills, see Series 6, Lawsuits, 1836-1864 and Series 2, Notes on Turbines, 1833-1870.

Other notebooks document Boyden's involvement in the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester, New Hampshire, where he developed a hydraulic power system. Other mills Boyden studied include the Stark Mills, the Lawrence Company's mills, and the Boston and Roxbury Mill Dam. Boyden was interested in the construction of canals and locks, including the Weston Canal near Lowell, Massachusetts. Railroad surveys comprise a significant portion of the notebooks' content and include his work with railroad companies, including the Boston and Lowell Railroad Corporation and the Boston and Worcester Railroad Corporation. Boyden conducted a survey of a cold well at Brandon, Vermont. More information about that well can be found in Series 3, Subject Files, circa 1827-1875, and Series 3, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879.

Series 6, Lawsuits, 1836-1864, consists of legal materials related to lawsuits Boyden was involved in, both as a plaintiff and as a witness. The majority of the series is comprised of documents relating to Boyden's Atlantic Cotton Mills lawsuit, a conflict over whether Boyden had a right to conduct tests on turbines built from his design at the Atlantic Cotton Mills. The suit also involved a dispute over Boyden's patent rights to his turbine improvements used at the Atlantic Cotton Mills. On February 14, 1856, the court decided in favor of Boyden, and required the Atlantic Cotton Mills to award him reparations.

The series contains copies of correspondence related to Boyden's dealings with the Atlantic Cotton Mills, including letters to and from Charles S. Storrow and William Gray, treasurers of the Atlantic Cotton Mills. Also included are depositions; replies to allegations; Boyden's drafts of his answers to interrogatories; and calculations, notes, and drawings, presumably used as evidence in court. Bernhard Schultze (see Series 12, Bernhard Schultze Materials, 1837-1857) compared and corrected Boyden's November 21, 1855 reply to the answer of the Atlantic Cotton Mills and a statement of some expenses in measuring the power expended in actuating turbine No. 3 of the Atlantic Cotton Mills.

Also included are letters of reference for Boyden, probably related to his lawsuit of the Nashua and Lowell Railroad; Boyden's answers to interrogatories filed by the Boston Water Power Company in the case of Boston Water Power Company v. Horace Gray, which also includes his answers to interrogatories filed by the Boston and Worcester Railroad Company in regard to the receiving basin of the Boston Water Power Company; and Boyden's deposition in the case of Oswego Canal Company v. Henry M. Ames & Isaac L. Merriam.

Series 7, Financial Papers, 1820-1876, contains both personal and business financial papers. A large portion documents the New England Glass Company, including records of the stockholders meetings and end of year reports on the financial state of the company. There are also copies of receipts of bills Boyden sent to companies he worked for, including the Atlantic Cotton Mills, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, the Boston and Lowell Railroad Corporation, the Ames Manufacturing Company, the Salmon Falls Manufacturing Company, the Lowell Machine Shop, and the Holyoke Water Power Company. Boyden also received stock dividends from some of the same companies and others, including the Merrimack Manufacturing Company, the New England Glass Company, the Old Colony Railroad Company, Stark Manufacturing Company, the Lancaster Mills, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, the Boston and Lowell Railroad Corporation, and the Boston Gas Light Company.

Another aspect of the papers includes Boyden's requests to buy certain items, including metals, glass cylinders, and wire for his experiments; books in English, French and German; and periodicals. There are also reports of Boyden's income for the Internal Revenue Service dating from 1864-1871. One document is a quitclaim deed for the Savin Hill property in Dorchester, Massachusetts, which Boyden surveyed. Surveying records can be found in Series 3, Subject Files, circa 1827-1875.

Series 8, Patents, 1838-1847, consists of three subseries, Subseries 1, Boyden's Patents, 1843-1847; Subseries 2, Other Patents, 1838-1843; and Subseries 3, Patent Assignments, 1849-1856.

Subseries 1, Boyden's Patents, 1843-1847, consists of issued patents for Boyden's turbine improvements with attached drawings and specifications, including patents for improvement in turbines, September 20, 1843 (US Patent 10,026); improvement in hydraulic motors, September 20, 1843 (US Patent 10,027); improvements in hanging shafts of waterwheels, April 17, 1847 (US Patent 5,068); and improvement in diffuser for waterwheels, May 1, 1847 (US Patent 5,090).

Subseries 2, Other Patents, 1838-1843, consists of a patent granted to John R. Wheeler for an improved waterwheel on April 14, 1838, and a patent granted to Amasa B. Beckwith for improvement in waterwheels on October 20, 1843.

Subseries 3, Patent Assignments, 1849-1856, consists of legal documents giving various companies the right to use Boyden's patented turbine improvements in their mills in exchange for royalties. Companies include the Great Falls Manufacturing Company, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, the Appleton Company, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, the Merrimack Manufacturing Company, the Lowell Manufacturing Company, and the Lowell Machine Shop.

Series 9, Drawings, circa 1835-1872, contains oversize drawings and some tables, ranging in size from approximately 48'' x 30'' to 21'' x 30''. Some of the papers are brittle and crumble easily. The series contains one work in German, "Werke Theorie und Bau der Wasserraeder" (A Work on the Theory and Construction of Waterwheels).

A significant portion of the series consists of Boyden's designs for turbines used at various mills throughout New England, including the Ames Manufacturing Company; the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company; the Appleton Company, the Atlantic Cotton Mills; the Hamilton Manufacturing Company; the Essex Company Machine Shop and Blacksmith Shop; the Lancaster Mill; the Manchester Printing Works; the Merrimack Manufacturing Company; the Merrimack Print Works; the Perkins Mills the Salmon Falls Manufacturing Company; the Stark Mills; and the New England Worsted Company and Suncook Manufacturing Company. More information on Boyden's work designing turbines for these companies can be found in Series 1, Correspondence, 1823-1879; Series 2, Notes on Turbines, 1833-1870; and Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867.

Of particular note are drawings from "Lowell Hydraulic Experiments", a work published in 1855 by James B. Francis. Francis developed an improved turbine based on the inward flow Poncelet turbine, which became known as the Francis turbine and was more efficient than the outward flow Boyden turbine. Boyden was an associate of Francis's, but it is unclear how closely involved he was in the development of the Francis turbine. One subseries, Boyden's improvements, contains drawings that demonstrate Boyden's development of new turbines.

The series also includes records from Boyden's experiments on sound in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Notes from other experiments on sound can be found in Series 4, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879, and Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867. Included in the series are designs for various tools, including a chronometer, differential galvanometer, hydraulic apparatus, and pneumatic glasses. Smaller copies of some of these drawings can be found in Series 4, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879.

Two folders of miscellaneous materials include several tables documenting people admitted to mental hospitals, the observation of tides made at the Charlestown Navy Yard; a table of fires in Boston; experiments on the wheel of the Poncelet System; a plan and sections for showing the results of surveys at the cold well in Brandon, Vermont; and designs for a brass apparatus, a rack of reflectors, an apparatus for measuring the heights of water, a glass scale, and a dynamometer. Nine folders contain unidentified drawings.

Series 10, Printed Material, 1835-1879, contains newspaper clippings and other printed material collected by Boyden. The major subjects covered by the newspaper clippings include a campaign to supply Boston with drinking water, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Smithsonian Institution. Other newspaper clippings discuss the career of Patrick Tracy Jackson, the founder of the Merrimack Manufacturing Company; Boyden's turbine wheel; railway accidents; a court case involving an escaped slave; the rotation of the earth; the establishment of a public library in Boston; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; the Louisiana imbroglio of 1874-1875; and smoking. Boyden frequently clipped from the Daily Evening Traveller, the Boston Advertiser, The Boston Atlas, the Boston Post, and the Boston Evening Transcript. Some newspapers have been saved and placed in a folder in a map case drawer.

The series also includes a pamphlet entitled Martin's Twenty-One Years in the Boston Stock Market, or Fluctuations Therein from January 1835 to January 1856, two bulletins of new books offered by the Boston Public Library and marked up by Boyden, patents for Alfred Nobel's new explosive compound, several of Boyden's business cards, a print portrait of Boyden, and a metal sign that hung outside his office in Boston. The series contains one miscellaneous file that includes items such as a price list for mechanists' tools, an article on the phenomena of sound, and a table of the work and expenses on the Boston and Lowell Railroad.

Series 11, Seth Boyden Materials, 1840-1841, is comprised of documents related to the death of Uriah Boyden's father, Seth Boyden (1764-1840). Included are drawings of the headstones for the graves of Seth Boyden (1764-1840) and Uriah Boyden's sister, Sarah Boyden; Seth Boyden's last will and testament; a poster for an executer's sale; and the account of Uriah Boyden and Benjamin F. Boyden, the executers of Seth Boyden's (1764-1840) last will and testament.

Series 12, Bernhard Schultze Materials, 1837-1857, contains the letters and papers of Bernhard Schultze, a man employed by Boyden as a translator from around November 26, 1853 until his death in August 1857. Schultze was a witness in the case of Boyden v. Atlantic Cotton Mills and compared and corrected materials related to the case. These can be found in Series 6, Lawsuits, 1836-1864. He died from a head injury that occurred in Boyden's offices at 81 Washington Street.

More information about the accident in Boyden's official statement, August 17, 1857, to the coroner and the jury investigating Schultze's death, in Series 1, Correspondence, 1823-1879. Half of the materials are in German and consist of correspondence, receipts, registered letter slips, a medical bill, and a program for the Paine Festival and Annual Ball in 1857. Several of the documents relate to politics in the late 1850s and the election of 1856. Included is a newspaper article reporting on a pro-German James Buchanan rally; a circular supporting John C. Fremont and William L. Dayton, the Republican ticket in the election of 1856; and the by-laws of the Boston Kansas Club.

Series 13, Joseph Sidney Francis Materials, circa 1855-1872, consists of drawings made by Joseph Sidney Francis while studying at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They are labeled as the property of James B. Francis, the hydraulic engineer and inventor of the Francis turbine who worked closely with Boyden. Included in this series are tables documenting the number of fires in Boston and the number of people admitted to French mental hospitals.
Arrangement:
The papers are arranged into thirteen series. The contents of each series or subseries is arranged chronologically, with the exception of Series 3, which is arranged numerically, and Series 9, which is arranged alphabetically by subject. The series and subseries arrangement of the papers are as follows:

Series 1, Correspondence, 1823-1879

Subseries 1, Outgoing, 1830-1879

Subseries 2, Incoming, 1823-1879

Subseries 3, Miscellaneous, 1825-1879

Series 2, Notes on Turbines, 1833-1870

Series 3, Subject Files, circa 1827-1875

Series 4, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879

Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867

Series 6, Lawsuits, 1836-1864

Series 7, Financial Papers, 1820-1876

Series 8, Patents, 1838-1847

Subseries 1, Boyden Patents, 1843-1847

Subseries 2, Other Patents, 1838-1843

Subseries 3, Patent Assignments, 1849-1856

Series 9, Drawings, circa 1835-1872

Series 10, Printed Material, 1835-1879

Series 11, Seth Boyden (1764-1840) Materials, 1840-1841

Series 12, Bernhard Schultze Materials, 1837-1857

Series 13, Joseph Sidney Francis Materials, circa 1855-1872
Administrative/Biographical History:
Civil and mechanical engineer and multi-faceted scientist, Uriah Atherton Boyden was born on February 17, 1804 in Foxborough, Massachusetts. His father Seth Boyden (1764-1849) was a farmer and blacksmith and invented a machine to split leather (Reynolds 2010). His brother Seth Boyden (1788-1870) was a noted inventor in Newark, New Jersey, and in 1825 Boyden worked for him in a "leather and sheepskin bookbinding business" (Reynolds 2010). Boyden moved back to Massachusetts in 1828 and worked with James Hayward on surveys for the Boston and Providence Railroad, and with Loammi Baldwin on a dry dock for the Charlestown Navy Yard (now Boston Navy Yard) (Reynolds 2010). In the 1830s he opened his own engineering practice and worked on mills in the growing industrial center of Lowell, Massachusetts and was the chief engineer from 1836-1838 on the Nashua and Lowell Railroad. He designed a hydraulic power system for the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester, New Hampshire around 1840 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 5).

Boyden is best known for inventing the Boyden turbine, "the first turbine to be manufactured in quantity in the United States"(American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 1). Boyden developed this turbine around 1844 while working for the Appleton Company in Lowell, Massachusetts(American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 5). Boyden improved the efficiency of the Fourneyron outward flow turbine by "providing a conical approach passage for the incoming water… providing guide vanes in the outlet passages and by adding a submerged diffuser" (American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 2). Boyden assigned his patent rights to a number of mills and manufacturing companies in New England and provided them with plans and specifications for turbines, although he did not oversee construction.

The Boyden turbine was superseded in 1849 by the more efficient inward flow Francis turbine, developed by James B. Francis with Boyden's assistance (American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 2-3). The Francis turbine is now used throughout the world (Reynolds 2010).

After 1850, Boyden focused on scientific pursuits, including chemistry, physics, and meteorology. His other interests included the causes of fires in Boston, tobacco's effect on people's health, and mental illness in Europe and the United States. However, he rarely published the results of his research (Reynolds 2010). In 1874, Boyden "deposited $1,000 with the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia to be awarded to any resident of North America who should determine by experiment whether light and other physical rays are transmitted at the same velocity" (American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 5). No one has claimed the prize. Boyden died on October 17, 1879 in Boston. In his will, he bequeathed approximately $250,000 to Harvard University, which it used to build an observatory in Peru (Reynolds 2010). The Boyden Observatory is now located in South Africa.

Reference List

1975. The 102-inch Boyden Hydraulic Turbines at Harmony Mill No. 3, Cohoes, New York. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. http://files.asme.org/ASMEORG/Communities/History/Landmarks/5507.pdf, (accessed 18 July 2010).

Reynolds, Terry S. 2010. Boyden, Uriah Atherton. American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press. http://www.anb.org/articles/13/13-00178.html (accessed 18 July 2010).
Provenance:
Unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rules may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Water-wheels  Search this
Tobacco  Search this
Thermometers  Search this
Thermoelectricity  Search this
Specific heat  Search this
Sound  Search this
Religions  Search this
Railroads -- Surveying  Search this
Railroads -- Construction  Search this
Radiometers  Search this
Pneumatics  Search this
Physics  Search this
Optics  Search this
Ozone  Search this
Natural history  Search this
Mental illness  Search this
Mills and mill-work  Search this
Dividends  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Chronometer  Search this
Census  Search this
Atomic theory  Search this
Fires -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Drinking of alcoholic beverages -- Law and legislation  Search this
Hydraulic turbines  Search this
Inventions -- 19th century  Search this
Glass manufacture  Search this
Hydraulic engineering and engineers  Search this
Lawsuits  Search this
Inventors -- 19th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents -- 1840-1850
Newspapers
Correspondence -- 19th century
Clippings
Articles
Drawings
Financial records
Legal documents
Notebooks
Citation:
Uriah A. Boyden Papers, 1806-1879, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0982
See more items in:
Uriah A. Boyden Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0982
Online Media:

Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records

Creator:
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company  Search this
Names:
Anthracite Water Company  Search this
Extent:
17 Cubic feet (51 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Reports
Circular letters
Letterpress copybooks
Place:
Shamokin (Pa.)
Reading (Pa.)
Pennsylvania -- Anthracite coal industry
Pottsville (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Ashland (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Mahanoy City (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Schuylkill River (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Date:
1866-1927
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately seventeen cubic feet of records of the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company, dating from the period 1866-1927. The bulk of the collection comprises 124 letterpress copybooks from the company's Engineering Department. These contain letters and reports sent by engineers located at the major centers of the company's operations in the Schuylkill coal field — Ashland, Mahanoy City, Pottsville, and Shamokin. They also include the Chief Engineer, the Assistant Engineer, division engineers, resident engineers, associate engineers, mining engineers and their assistants, and transitmen. Among these were George S. Clemens, Joseph B. Garner, John R. Hoffman, James F. Jones, Henry M. Luther, Roland C. Luther, Henry Pleasants, John H. Pollard, John H. Strauch, and S. B. Whiting.

Their letterpress copybooks reflect the evolving organization of the Engineering Department, as job titles were changed and individuals were promoted or transferred from one post to another. The copybooks either accompanied the man when he took up a new post or remained in the office, where they were used by his successors. The copybooks in this collection have been arranged into series by person and position. Several additional volumes have been placed in a series of miscellaneous records at the end of the collection.

The correspondence in these volumes deals with all aspects of mining construction and operations, engineering personnel matters, and coordination with the Railroad for the shipment of coal, as well as periodic reports of operations and wagon accounts detailing how much coal had been shipped. Also included is correspondence relating to the formation and operation of the Schuylkill Coal Exchange Committee, which was set up to ease competition among the railroads in the Schuylkill region.

The collection also includes eight letterpress copybooks kept by S. B. Whiting while he was General Manager and General Superintendent of the company (1882-ca. 1888) . Whiting also kept letterbooks in which he pasted letters received from his superiors: Series 1 of the collection consists of two volumes of letters received (1879-1883) from Franklin B. Gowen, President, and one volume of letters received (1881-1884) from George DeB. Keim, General Solicitor and Vice President. In addition, there are eight letterpress copybooks kept by Roland C. Luther during his tenure as General Superintendent (ca. 1888-1902) and one volume from his tenure as the company's Second Vice President (1903-1905) . Also included is a volume of printed circular letters from both the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad and from the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company (1874-1887), which is located in Series 16.

Of additional interest is the inclusion of letters relating to the operation of the Anthracite Water Company among the letterpress copybooks of George S. Clemens, who served as that company's manager in the 1910s. In addition, several of the circular letters pertain directly to the 1888 anthracite coal strike.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 16 series.

Series 1: Letters received, S. B. Whiting, 1881-1883

Series 2: George S. Clemens, Shamokin, Ashland, and Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1875-1921

Series 3: Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1866-1881

Series 4: John H. Pollard, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1881-1905

Series 5: John H. Pollard, T. R. Spinney, and Joseph Garner, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1888-1911

Series 6: John H. Pollard and T. B. Van Buren, Ashland and Mahanoy City, 1902-1913

Series 7: Division Engineer, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1902-1927

Series 8: Henry M. Luther and John H. Pollard, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1881-1905

Series 9: Joseph S. Harris, Pottsville, 1871-1877

Series 10: J. Price Wetherill, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1879-1881

Series 11: James F. Jones and Roland C. Luther, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1881-1891

Series 12: John R. Hoffman and Roland C. Luther, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1883-1909

Series 13: Henry Pleasants and S. B. Whiting, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1874-1880

Series 14: S. B. Whiting and Roland C. Luther, Pottsville and Reading, Pennsylvania, 1877-1905

Series 15: George A. Brooke and John H. Strauch, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1879-1909

Series 16: Miscellaneous Records, 1873-1987
Biographical / Historical:
The Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Co. was organized in order to ensure its parent company, the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, a dominant position in the transportation of anthracite coal from the Schuylkill fields of eastern Pennsylvania. For thirty years after its incorporation in 1833, the Philadelphia & Reading had been the main carrier of coal from this region, shipping anthracite coal from independently owned mines to Philadelphia. By the mid-1860s, however, the company faced increasing competition from other railroads as well as interruptions in supply due to miners' strikes. In response, Franklin B. Gowen, President of the Philadelphia & Reading, decided to gain control of enough coal acreage to ensure the company's survival. However, since it was illegal for railroads to directly own coal fields or operate mines in Pennsylvania, the company had to organize a separate company for the purpose. Accordingly, the Laurel Run Improvement Company was incorporated in May 1871. By taking advantage of a loophole in the Laurel Run company's charter, the Philadelphia & Reading purchased it in November 1871, and thus circumvented the legal restrictions on railroad ownership of coal lands. The newly-acquired company was renamed the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company in December 1871.

The company quickly acquired coal lands: by 1872, 80,000 acres had been purchased; by 1874, almost 100,000 acres - approximately one-third of the entire Schuylkill coal field. Originally, the company did not intend to mine coal itself; rather, it would rent the collieries it had acquired to independent operators, with the stipulation that the end product must be shipped over the Philadelphia & Reading railroad's lines. Unfortunately, this arrangement did not prove to be either practical or profitable and the company had to take direct control of its mining operations. Despite this step, however, the Coal & Iron Company continued to be unprofitable. In 1913 the United States government brought suit against the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, claiming that its ownership of both the Coal & Iron Company and the Railroad were a monopoly of trade. The case went to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled against the railroad in 1920. Under the terms of an agreement worked out by the Court, in December 1923, the Philadelphia & Reading transferred its interests in the Coal & Iron Company to a new company formed for the purpose — the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Corporation.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work & Industry has a collection of photographs from the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 1866-1927.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware The bulk of the surviving records of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company and its parent company, the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company.
Provenance:
These records were obtained by the National Museum of American History sometime prior to 1978. They were transferred from the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources to the Archives Center in July 1989. An additional thirty-five volumes were transferred to the Archives Center in July 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Anthracite coal industry  Search this
Coal -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Coal mines and mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Anthracite Coal Strike, Pa., 1902  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Reports
Circular letters
Letterpress copybooks
Citation:
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records, 1866-1927, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0282
See more items in:
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0282
Online Media:

Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railway Company Drawings

Creator:
Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railway Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1948-1950
Scope and Contents:
Engineering drawings (81) of the Centralized Traffic Control Machine electrical circuits of the Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railway Company (later Norfolk and Western Railway Company). The circuits extend from Connellsville, Pennsylvania to Pittsburgh Junction, Ohio and include those for mechanical controls, electrical signals, and telephone communications. The drawings were made in 1948-1950. The drawings are in ink on paper, mostly in the dimension 23" x 28", although some are larger.
Biographical / Historical:
The Pittsburgh & West Virginia was merged into the Norfolk & Western in 1964.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Norfolk & Western Railway Company in conjunction with Centralized Traffic Control Machine which was donated to Smithsonian in May 1978.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Electric circuits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings -- 1940-1950
Citation:
Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railway Company Drawings, 1948-1950, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0279
See more items in:
Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railway Company Drawings
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0279
Online Media:

Swatara Railroad Papers

Author:
Swatara Railroad Company  Search this
Donaldson, William  Search this
Swatara and Good Spring Railroad  Search this
Collector:
Agriculture, Divison of (NMAH)  Search this
Names:
Good Spring Railroad  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 vertical boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Financial statements
Receipts
Correspondence
Place:
Pennsylvania -- 19th century
Date:
1805-1894.
Scope and Contents:
Documents relating to the business of the Swatara Railroad Company of Danville, Pennsylvania and particularly of its president, "Judge" William Donaldson. Includes receipts, bills, contracts, operating statistics, financial statements and correspondence, filed chronologically by year.
Biographical / Historical:
The Swatara and Good Spring Railroad was incorporated in 1831 with Judge William Donaldson as president. Renamed the Swatara Railroad in 1841, it was one of several lines connecting the First Pennsylvania anthracite coal field via waterways to the East Coast. Until 1848 it was powered by horses and was extended and rebuilt periodically. In 1863, Donaldson sold his interest in the Swatara to the Philadelphia & Reading Co., which renamed it the Good Spring Railroad.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Coal mines and mining -- 19th century -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Anthracite coal industry -- 19th century -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Financial statements -- 19th century
Receipts -- 19th century
Correspondence -- 19th century
Citation:
Swatara Railroad Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0272
See more items in:
Swatara Railroad Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0272
Online Media:

John Stevens Collection

Creator:
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Stevens, John, 1749-1838  Search this
Source:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Camden and Amboy Railroad.  Search this
Danville & Pottsville Railroad  Search this
Former owner:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Pennsylvania
New Jersey
Date:
1808-1881
Scope and Contents:
The main component of this collection is a double-spaced typewritten document of 858 pages transcribed (apparently in 1903) from original records and consisting of correspondence, newspaper articles, technical descriptions, legal documents, and other material relating to John Stevens, his professional work and career. Some of the correspondence is between Stevens and his rival inventors, such as Robert Fulton, credited with producing the first steamboat.

Other documents in the collection are the orginal papers incorporating the Danville and Pottsville RR in 1831 and a carefully detailed survey and cost estimate of the Camden and Amboy RR in 1830.
Biographical / Historical:
John Stevens (1749 1838) of New York, inventor and engineer, graduated from King's College (now Columbia University) in 1768. Admitted to the New York Bar in 1771, he served as treasurer of New Jersey during the Revolutionary War. He became interested in steam powered navigation in 1787 and for the next fifty years was active in building and promoting steam boats and trains, securing numerous patents, and inventing such important developments as the screw propellor. He established the worlds first steam ferry, between New York City and Hoboken, New Jersey and later built the first operating steam locomotive in the United States Stevens secured a charter from the Legislature of Pennsylvania for the Pennsylvania Railroad, from Philadelphia to Lancaster County. Two of John Stevens' seven sons, Robert and Edwin were also prominent engineers and developers of transportation equipment who collaborated with their father.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steam engineers  Search this
Steam engineering  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Locomotive builders  Search this
Steamboats  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
John Stevens Collection, 1808-1881, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0333
See more items in:
John Stevens Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0333
Online Media:

Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Scrapbooks
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-six series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Materials for Interfile (Series 1; Series 3; Series 13; Series 15-23; Series 25-26)
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audio visual materials. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Communications equipment  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs -- 19th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Lumber Industry and Trade

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
4.58 Cubic feet (consisting of 10 boxes, 1 folder, 3 oversize folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical reports
Business cards
Business letters
Manufacturers' catalogs
Advertisements
Business ephemera
Advertising cards
Receipts
Invoices
Printed material
Sales letters
Commercial catalogs
Trade cards
Technical manuals
Publications
Legal documents
Trade catalogs
Printed ephemera
Trade literature
Sales catalogs
Manuals
Printed materials
Catalogues
Advertising mail
Print advertising
Catalogs
Correspondence
Ephemera
Reports
Advertising
Business records
Sales records
Illustrations
Letterheads
Advertising fliers
Date:
1790-1965
bulk 1840-1945
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Materials in this category document the commercial lumber trade of both raw and finished material by producers, dealers, and wholesalers. The application of lumber in residential and commercial building is well-represented, as well as other uses such as infrastructure use in railroad ties, telephones, and marine building.

Documents include receipts and invoices, correspondence, a lumber account book, advertisements, association documents, business cards, caricature, images, import/ export documents, legal documents, patents, preservation, price lists, product samples, publications, shipping and receiving documents, and trade literature.

No extensive runs or complete records exist for any single company, brand, and no particular depth is present for any singular subtopic though some publications may provide general and historical overviews of a person, company, or facet of industry.
Arrangement:
Lumber Industry and Trade is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material



Genre

Subject
Partial List of Company Names:
Alcott, C.W. & Son Lumber Dealers, New York

Allen, Gillingham & Company, Lumber Yard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Allen & Knight Lumber Yard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Allston

American Hard Wood Manufacturing Association

American Hoist and Derrick Company, Saint Paul, Minnesota

American Lumber & Manufacturing Company

American Tie & Timber Company Incorporated

American Vulcanizing Wood & Lumber Company

American Wood Carbolizing Company , New York

Anderson & Ailing

Archibald Lumber & Tie Company

Arlington Lumber Company , Condon, Oregon

Armsby, Morse & Company , Lumber Dealers, Millbury, MA

Arnold, Folsom & Company , Commission Lumber Dealers, Albany, New York

Atlantic Lumber Company, Buffalo, NY

Atwater, W.H.

Atwood & Company, J.B.

Auger & Son, Quebec

Ayers, Dr. A.B.,

Backus & Brother, Lumber Manufacturers & Whole Dealers, Detroit, MI

Barlett Brothers Mfg. Company, Roby's Corner, NH

Barnes, Lawrence Lumber Company , Burlington, Vermont

Baxter, G.S. & Company, Lumber Manufacturers and Shipping, Jacksonville, Florida

Baxter, George S.

Bearden, R.B., St. Louis, MO

Beecher & Sillimand, Albann, NH

Bell brothers Timber Dealers, NY

Bender, Wendell

Bennet & Company , Wholesale Lumber

Bennet, Ray H. Lumber Company, North Tonawanda, NY

Bennet & Dimon, Manufacturers and Wholesale Dealers in Lumber, Niles Valley, PA

Bigler & Son's Saw Mills, Timber and Lumber Dealers, New York, NY

Bingham, Herbert S., Wholesale Lumber, Scranton, PA

Binkley & Nielson Timber Company, Niagara Falls, NY

Birch, S.M., Wholesale Lumber Merchant

Blakeslee, Charles L. Lumber Mfg. Co., Albany, NY

C.L. Blakeslee & Son Mfg. Co., Albany, New York

Blakeslee Lumber Co., Albany, NY

Bliss, J.A., Mfg. & Dealer in Lumber, Tonawanda, NY

Boyd, Herbert A., Huntington, West Va.

Brown, Bowman & Bledsoe, Lumber, Baltimore, MD

Buell, Guy I., Spring Hope, NC

Burgoyne, C.R., Pensacola, Florida

Burton, B.P., Wholesale Lumber Commission Merchant, Philadelphia, PA

Butler, J.H. & Brother Inc., Yonkers, NY

Cameron & Hawn, General Lumber Dealers, Albany, New York

Carolina Lumber Mfg. Co., Greenville, SC

Carr Lumber Company, Pisgah Forest, NC

Cate, L.G., Manufacturer of Lumber, Jacksonville, Florida

Chicago Car Lumber Co., Manufacturers and Wholesalers of Lumber, Chicago, IL

Chicago House Wrecking Co. (Harris Brothers Co.), Chicago, IL

Clark & Smith Saw Mill, Boston, MA

Clifford, S.L., Lumber Manufacturers, North Haverhill, N.H.

Clark & Sumner, Wholesale Lumber Merchants, Albany, New York

Consolidated Lumber Co., Savannah, Georgia

Converse, A. Place Lumber Company, Manufacturers, Wholesale, and Retail Dealers in Lumber, Dover, NH

Coolbaugh, C.C. & Son Co., Philadelphia, PA

Cornplanter Lumber Company, The, Buffalo, New York

Crane, W.B. and Co., Hardwood Lumber, Timber, and ties, Chicago, IL

Crane, Dr. H.A., Lumber & Timber Dealer

Curtis Moldings and Trim, Clinton, Iowa

Cutter, H. & Co., Mahogany & Fancy Wood Dealers

Cutting, Frank A., Hemlock Bark Dealer, Boston, MA

Cypress Lumber Co., The, Boston, MA

Dalton & Kibber, Dealers in All Kinds of Lumber, Albany, NY

Dart & Brothers, Rough and Dressed Lumber, Buffalo, NY

Deacon, H.R., Wholesale and Retail Lumber Yard, Philadelphia, PA

Deep River Lumber Corporation, Norfolk, VA

Deering, Rufus & Co., Lumber Dealers, Portland, Oregon

Deimel, H.A. Lumber Dealer, Herkimer, NY

Demeritt & Burnham, Wood and Lumber Dealers

Dexter & Noble, Manufacturers of Lumber, Elk Rapids, MI

Dickinson Bros., Ridgway, Pa

Dodd, C.H., DeRidder, LA

Dodge & Bliss Company, Manufacturers and Dealers in Lumber, Jersey City, NJ

Douglass, John & Sons, Wholesale Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Douglass, Saxe & Co., Wholesale Lumber Commission, Albany, NY

Downer & Kellogg, Dr., Dealers in Rough and Dressed Lumber, Utica, NY

Duker, Otto & Co., Steam Planning Mills & Lumber Yards

Dunham, Greene & Co., Commission Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Eagle Square Manufacturing Co., South Shaftsbury, Vermont

Earle, T. & O.K., Building and Finishing Lumber, Worchester, MA

Easton, C.P., Wholesale dealer in Lumber, Albany, NY

Eccleston Lumber Co. Manufacturers, New York, NY

Elias, G. & Bros., Timber and Lumber, Buffalo, NY

Eschenbach, John N., Lumber Company, Wilkes-Barre, PA

Este, Charles, Lumber Merchant, Philadelphia, PA

Etter, Siple & Carmany's, Steam Saw Mills, Dauphin, PA

Fee, Frank F., Dermott, Arkansas

Fogg, Ezra D., Lumber Commission Merchant, Providence, RI

Forest Lumber Co., Pittsburgh ~ Philadelphia, PA

Gage, Dr. C. & J.C., Manufacturers and Dealers in Wood and Lumber, Fisherville, NH

Ganahl, John J. Lumber Co., St. Louis, MO

Garret and Edward Green, New York

Garrison, S.B., Steam Mill and Lumber Yard, Camden, NJ

Gaskill, J.W. & Sons, Lumber commission Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Gibsons' Albany Steam Planning and Saw Mills, Albany, New York

Gratwick, William H. & Co., Wholesale Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Grayson & Cain, All Kinds Hardwood Lumber, Washington, DC

Green, Charles S., Manufacturers of Hemlock and Hard Wood Lumber, Roaring Branch, PA

Grieme, H.C. Co., Lumber Brick and Building Material, Amsterdam, NY

Griffin Lumber Company, Wholesale Lumber and Retail, Sandy Hill, NY

Hallam Lumber Company, Wholesale Georgia Long Leaf Pine, Macon, Georgia

Hamm, C.H. & Co., Manufacturers of and Dealers in all kinds of Long and Short Lumber, Boston, MA

Hanna, C.W. & Co., Dover, Kentucky

Harbert, Russell & Co., Lumber Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Harriman, Abel H. and Co., Manufacturers of Hogshead Shooks, Bridgton, Maine

Harrisburg Car Company's Saw Mill and Lumber Yards, Harrisburg, PA

Harrington, F.C., Dealer in Lumber, Philadelphia, PA

Harrod & Fernald, Boston, MA

Hartmann-Sanders Co., Chicago & New York

Hartough, P.C. & Co., Timber Dealers, New York, NY

Hawley, F.B., Albany, New York

Hawley, F.B., Albany, New York

Hawley, H.Q. & Co., Dr., Albany, New York

Headlam, Wm. & Sons, Albany, New York

Heinemann, B. Lumber Co., Wausau, Wisconsin

Henry & Carter, Commission Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Higbie, Douglas & co., Commission Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Hiram Hill, Hard wood Lumber Dealer, Providence, RI

Hines, Edward Lumber Co., Chicago, IL

Hoagland, George A., Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Omaha, NE

Houtz, D.K. & Co., Wholesale and Retail Lumber Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Hughes Bros. & Co., Pine Lumber & Shingles, Lapeen, MI

Hunsicker, Henry A., Lumber Merchant, Philadelphia, PA

Hunter, Dexter, Lumber Merchant, Albany, NY

Hunter, Gilbert & Son, Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Hutton & Bourbonnais Co., Manufacturers of Lumber, Hickory, NC

Hutton, William, Dr., Lumber Dealer, Rondent, NY

Insuliter, The, Minneapolis, Minnesota

International Lumber and Development, Philadelphia, PA

Kraetzer-Cured Lumber Co., Moorehead, Mississippi

Kramer, H. & Bro., Lumber, Shingles, Flooring, Maria Stein, Ohio

Jones, R.T. Lumber Co., North Tonawanda, NY

Jackson, J.C. & Co., Lumber and Timber, Lockport, NY

Janney, Samuel S., Lumber Merchant, Philadelphia, PA

Johnson & Sons, Lumber Commission Merchants, Baltimore, MD

Jones, R.T. Lumber Co., North Tonawanda, NY

Joslin, John H., Eastern and Western Lumber, Providence, RI

Lesh & Matthews, Warsaw, Indiana

Levering, W.A. Lumber Commission Merchant, Philadelphia, PA

Lieberman, Loveman & O'Brien, Manufacturers of Rough and Dressed Lumber, Nashville, Tennessee

Lloyd, William m. & Co., Lumber dealers, Philadelphia, PA

Long Bell Lumber Co., Kansas City, MO

Loud's, H.M. Sons Co., North Tonawanda, NY

Loyal Lovejoy & Co., Lumber Dealers, Boston, MA

Lumber-Trade-Journal, New Orleans, LA

Lumbermen's Rail and Equipment Bureau, Chicago, IL

Luther, T.C., Forest Products and Wholesalers

Lyons Lumber Company, Lyons, Iowa

Marquette-Bailey lumber Company, Lumber Manufacturers, Lock Haven, PA

Maule & Brothers, Dr., Lumber Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Maule & Donohue, Dr., Lumber Dealers, Philadelphia, PA

McClave Brothers, Lumber Dealers, New York, NY

McClave, E.W. & Co., Dealers in Yellow Pine, New York, NY

McCullough & bro., Dealers in Lumber, Coal and Lime, Hills Landing

McKee, W.I. Lumber Co., Manufacturers and Wholesalers, Quincy, IL

McLean, John S., New York, NY

Mead, Dunham & Co., Commission Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Menzies, William Timber Dealer, New York

Menzies, Viele & MAther, New York

Merchants Mutual Building Material Assn., New York

Millard Lumber Co., New York

Millard's, W. Sons Wholesale Lumber Dealers, New Hamburgh, NY

Millener, J.H. & Co., Manufacturer & Dealer of Building Timber, Tonawanda, NY

Modoc Lumber Co., Chiloqin, Oregon

Montgomery & Co. Lumber Manufacuters, Grand Rapids, MI

Moore, David Com. Lumber Merchants & Co., Newburgh, NY

Moore & McClung Retail and Wholesale Dealers, Newburgh, NY

Moore, R.H. & Zimmerman Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Morse and Company Wholesale and Manufacturers, Bangor, Maine

Morse, Wm. B. & Co., Pine and Hemlock Lumber, Rochester, NY

Morton, Black & Bro., Coal and Lumber Merchants, Chester Dock, PA

Mueller, Charles of Lumber, Lath, Davenport, Iowa

Munson, J.L. Lumber Dealer, Chapinville, NY

New England Baled Shavings Co., Albany, NY

Niedermeyer-Martin Lumber Co., Portland, Oregon

Northwestern Compo-Board Co., Minneapolis, Minn.

Park & Nelson Wholesale and Manufacturing, Redwing, Minn.

Patterson, J.E. & Co. Lumber dealers, Pittston, PA

Pease Co., The, Cincinnati, Ohio

Peckham, Wolf & Co., Wholesale and Retail Manufacturers, Schenectady, NY

Potter, James A. Retail Dealer, Providence, RI

Rathbun, Joshua & Co., Albany, NY

Reeves, Ward S. Lumber Dealer, Astoria, LA City

Remsdells & Co., Lumber Dealers, Savannah, NY

Riley, Thomas R., Dr., Lumber dealer, Washington, D.C.

Ruggles White Pine Co., Inc., Boston, MA

Salisbury & Co., Commision Wholesale Merchants, Albany, New York

Scott, Alexander & Son, Lumber Dealer, Concordville, PA

Shepard, Dave & Co. Whalesale Lumber Dealers, Burlington, Vermont

Shryock, Thom Wholesale Lumber, Baltimore, MD

Simons & Griswold Lumber retail & Wholesale Dealers, Albany, NY

Skillings, D.N. & Co., Lumber Dealers, Boston, MA

Skillings, Whitney Bros. & Barnes, Boston, MA & Albany, NY

Slocum, H.W., Lumber Retail Dealer, Providence, RI

Slocum, J.L. , Lumber Dealers, Providence, RI

Snoqualmie Falls, Lumber Co., Snoqualmie Falls, Washington

Southern Cyress, Jacksonville, Fla.

Steam Saw Mills, Winsted, Wisconsin

Stetson & Pope Timber Dealers, Boston, MA

Stetson & Post Lumber Co., Seattle, WA

Streight, A.D. Wholesale Dealer and Manufacturers of Lumber, Indianapolis, Ind.

Sullivan, C.F. Pacific Coast Lumber, Buffalo, NY

Sumner & Hascy , Commission Lumber Merchant, Albany, NY

Taylor & Mendenhall

Taylor, William Lumber Dealers, Troy, NY

Taylor & Crate Lumber Dealers, Buffalo, NY

Titcomb, F.W. Wholesale Manufacturer, Houlton, Maine

Thomas & Hyatt Commission Lumber Merchants, Albany, NY

Thompson, Benj. & Co., Wholesale Dealers, Charlestown

Thomson, L. & Co., Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Timber Engineering Company

Timber Structure Inc.

Towner, B.A. & Son, Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Upson Company

Towner, J.O. & Co., Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Trask & Clark Wholesale Dealers, Woonsocket

Tucker & Kelly , Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Turck, William Wholesale & Retail Lumber Co.

Uhler, Peter Timber Manufacturer, Easton, PA

United States Gypsum Company

United States Plywood Co.

Vandemark, S. & Sons

Vanderbilt & Hopkins, Dealers and Manufacturers of Lumber

Vanderbeek & Sons

Vandenburg, H.L. & Co.

Valley Tie & Timber Co.

Veneer Assn.

Virginia Tie & Lumber Co., Virginia

Vose, Rodney, Lumber Merchant & Forwarder

Ward, J.C. & Son

West Coast Lumberman's Assn., Seattle, Washington

Weyerhaeuser Forest Products

White, John T. & Son, Philadelphia, PA

White, Loveland, & Co.

Whitney, Baxter D. & Son, Inc., Wichendon, MA

White Pine

Whitney, C.D. Jr. & Co., Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Williams, C.P. & Co., Wholesale Lumber Dealers, Albany, NY

Williams, J.J. & F.H., Lumber Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Williams, R.D. & J.J. , Lumber Merchants, Philadelphia, PA

Williamsport & Philade Lumber Co., Philadelphia, PA

Williamstown and Redfield, Railroad & Forest Co.

Wisconsin Valley Lumbermen's Association

Wood, Joshua Lumber Co., New York

Wood Preserving Co., New York

Yellow Pine Commission Lumber De3alers, Brooklyn, NY

Yellow Pine Manufacturers' Association, St. Louis, MO

Young, A., & P.B. Wholesalers and Retail Dealers, Hiram, Maine

Young, B.E. & Co. Lumber Dealers, Annandale, NJ

Youngs & Corley Lumber Dealers & Box Makers, New York

Zellerbach Corp.
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Lumber Trade and Industry is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sales promotion  Search this
Patents  Search this
Wood  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Sawmills  Search this
Lumber trade -- 19th century  Search this
Logging  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical reports
Business cards
Business letters
Manufacturers' catalogs
Advertisements
Business ephemera
Advertising cards
Receipts
Invoices
Printed material
Sales letters
Commercial catalogs
Trade cards
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Publications
Legal documents
Trade catalogs
Printed ephemera
Trade literature
Sales catalogs
Manuals
Printed materials
Catalogues
Advertising mail
Print advertising
Catalogs
Correspondence
Publications -- Business
Ephemera
Reports
Advertising
Business records
Sales records
Illustrations
Letterheads
Advertising fliers
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Lumber Trade and Industry, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Lumber
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Lumber Industry and Trade
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-lumber

Division of Transportation: Railroads' Engineering Data

Source:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Hamily, David  Search this
Names:
Erie Railroad Company  Search this
New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad.  Search this
Pennsylvania Railroad.  Search this
Philadelphia and Western Railroad.  Search this
Piedmont and Northern Railroad.  Search this
Sorocabana Railway.  Search this
Takata and Company Railroad.  Search this
Former owner:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Statistics
Correspondence
Blueprints
Place:
Pennsylvania
New Haven (Conn.)
New York
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Hartford (Conn.)
Date:
1912-1949
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of statistics on electric train operation, drawings, blueprints, technical papers, train classifications, research and development reports, business and financial correspondence (1933, 1939-1948, 1940-1941), installation and operation instructions, locomotive system test procedures, locomotive operations data and calculations, records of locomotive mileages and part failures, suggested locomotive improvements, locomotive specifications, plans for fire extinguishing systems, tonnage ratings and includes material from the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad, Piedmont and Northern Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad, Takata and Co. Railroad, Philadelphia and Western Railroad, Sorocabana Railway, and Erie Railroad Co.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 8 series.

Series 1: New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad

Series 2: Piedmont and Northern Railway Company

Series 3: Takata and Company

Series 4: Philadelphia and Western Railway Company

Series 5: Sorocabana Railway

Series 6; Pennsylvania Railroad

Series 7: Miscellaneous Westinghouse Reports

Series 8: Erie Railroad Company
Provenance:
This collection was donated by David Hamily of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1986.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Locomotives -- Design and construction  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Locomotive industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Statistics
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Blueprints
Citation:
Division of Transportation: Railroads' Engineering Data, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0207
See more items in:
Division of Transportation: Railroads' Engineering Data
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0207
Online Media:

Samuel Morse Felton Family Papers

Source:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Felton, Samuel Morse, (civil engineer), 1809-1889  Search this
Felton, Samuel Morse, (son), 1853-1930  Search this
Names:
American Locomotive Sales Corporation.  Search this
Louisville Southern Railway Co.  Search this
Philadelphia RR.  Search this
Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore RR.  Search this
Southern Railway and Steamship Association.  Search this
United States War Department  Search this
United States. Army  Search this
Ames, Oliver  Search this
Atterbury, W.W.  Search this
Cooke, Jay  Search this
Davis, Robert C.  Search this
Fletcher, Andrew  Search this
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Lomonossoff, G.  Search this
McAdoo, W.G.  Search this
Milliken, J.  Search this
Scott, Thomas A.  Search this
Smith, M.H.  Search this
Former owner:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Reports
Clippings
Place:
Pennsylvania
Date:
1841-1930
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains biographical material on both Feltons; a handwritten bound report by Felton on the construction of the Norfolk Co. Railroad, 1847 1849; correspondence, 1861 1927, to and from both Feltons; various reports on military railroads during the World War years; and news clippings and articles on the Feltons, 1889-1930.
Arrangement:
Collection divided into five series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1841-1921

Series 2: Correspondence, 1861-1927

Series 3: Reports, 1847-1919

Series 4:History of Transportation Department, undated

Series 5: News clippings, 1889-1930
Biographical / Historical:
Samuel Morse Felton (1809 1889), civil engineer, became Superintendent and engineer of the Fitchburg Railroad in 1843 and left in 1851 to become President of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad (PWBRR). Under Felton's able management this unsuccessful and financially failing railroad was rebuilt, restored and prospered. The road was of great strategic importance during the Civil War and performed a great service by transporting troops and supplies for the Union. In 1857, he installed the locomotive engine "Daniel Webster" in service on the PWBRR. It was probably the first really successful coal burning passenger engine in regular service upon any RR in the U.S. In 1865 he left the PWBRR to become President of the Pennsylvania Steel Company. This was the first attempt in the United States to manufacture steel rails as a commercial enterprise. During this period he also served as director of many railroads including the Philadelphia, Wilmington & BRR, the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co., the Northern Pacific, the Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain and several others. He was director for ten years of the Pennsylvania RR. In 1869 he was appointed by President Grant as a Commissioner to inspect Pacific Railroads.

His son, Samuel Morse Felton (1853 1930), followed in this father's footsteps. He graduated from MIT in 1873 and began a life long career in American railroading. In 1889 he became President of the Chicago and Alton Railroad, later assumed the Presidency of the Mexican Central Railroad, and became President of the Chicago Great Western Railroad in 1909. During WWI he was appointed Director General of Military Railways and in that capacity had charge of the organization and dispatch to France of all American railway forces and supplies. He continued in that position during the World War years. By 1928 he was Chairman of the Board of the Chicago Great Western Railroad, President of the Western Railroad Association, and Chairman of the Western Association of Railway Executives, to name only a few of his positions. At his death he was an advisor and associate of the Central Trust Company of Illinois.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Business records -- 1840-1930  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Slavery -- United States  Search this
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1840-1930
Reports
Clippings -- 1840-1940
Citation:
Samuel Morse Felton Family Papers, 1841-1930, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0170
See more items in:
Samuel Morse Felton Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0170
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Glassware

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
4.89 Cubic feet (consisting of 10.5 boxes, 2 folders, 5 oversize folders, 2 map case folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Business cards
Publications
Trade catalogs
Advertisements
Sales catalogs
Business letters
Printed materials
Receipts
Printed material
Invoices
Illustrations
Business ephemera
Letterheads
Design patents
Advertising mail
Patents
Print advertising
Catalogs
Sales records
Advertising
Trade cards
Advertising fliers
Periodicals
Catalogues
Manufacturers' catalogs
Advertising cards
Commercial correspondence
Ephemera
Printed ephemera
Manuals
Reports
Commercial catalogs
Trade literature
Sales letters
Legal documents
Correspondence
Mail order catalogs
Date:
1804-1967
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Glassware forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Covers glassware in its many forms and application including in building design and sculpture, both as a structural and an aesthetic component, in lighting, in art as a medium and as a method to protect and display art (picture frames, cases, etcetera.), in industry (insulators, electronics), in transportation (lighthouses, railroad signal glasses, headlamps), and in science with medical and lab supplies and instruments, and equipment such as telescopes. Daily and practical use consumer products feature prominently in the form of household and decorative goods (jarring, canning, dish and serving ware, daily and special use), windows, lamps and lighting, storage of liquids and solids, including detergents, medicine storage, plus beverages and foodstuffs, and cleaning of glass. Colored, ornamental, ground, etched, leaded, stained, and mosaic glasswork related material appears sporadically. China and other ceramic and pottery breakable wear is sometimes categorized along with clear, cut, opaque, and colored glass. Related aspects, such as stoppers, are also included.

Collection materials represent a sampling of businesses and products. The Patent and Design folder has numerous submission summaries, along with schematics, some hand drawn, and a few blueprints, mostly related to bottle design. A limited amount of industry publications and union documents are present, especially for the Glass Workers.
Arrangement:
Glassware is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre

Subject
Partial List of Companies in the Oversize Materials:
Oversize materials include, but are not limited to the following companies:

Averbeck, M.J., New York, NY

Cleveland Glass Works, Cleveland, NY

Cold Spring Distilling Company Cincinatti, OH

Craft House Williamsburg Restoration, Inc. Williamsburg, VA

Cullen & Newman Knoxville, TN

French, Richards, and Company Philadelphia, PA

Glassware: Union Wages and Rules

Jones, Thomas New York, NY

Libby Owens Ford Class Company Manufacturers of Safety Glass Location unknown

Metropolitan Plate Glass Insurance Company New York, NY

Morgantown, WV

New Jersey Plate Glass Insurance Company Newark, NJ

New York Plate Glass Insurance Company New York, NY

Seneca Glass Company

Smalley, A.G. and Company Boston, MA

Woods, Sherwood and Company Lowell, MA
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Glassware is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Stained glass artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Topic:
Glass manufacture  Search this
Glassware  Search this
Glassware -- Catalogs  Search this
Glass art -- United States -- 20th century  Search this
Glass artists  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Mail-order business -- Catalogs  Search this
Retail trade  Search this
Sales promotion  Search this
Trade associations  Search this
advertising -- Business ephemera  Search this
Mosaics  Search this
Etching -- Technique  Search this
Windows  Search this
Stained glass artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records
Business cards
Publications -- Business
Trade catalogs
Advertisements
Sales catalogs
Business letters
Printed materials
Receipts
Printed material
Invoices
Illustrations
Business ephemera
Letterheads
Design patents
Advertising mail
Patents
Print advertising
Catalogs
Sales records
Advertising
Trade cards
Advertising fliers
Periodicals
Catalogues
Manufacturers' catalogs
Advertising cards
Commercial correspondence
Ephemera
Printed ephemera
Manuals
Reports
Commercial catalogs
Publications
Trade literature
Sales letters
Legal documents
Correspondence
Mail order catalogs
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Glassware, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Glassware
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Glassware
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-glassware
Online Media:

Pullman Palace Car Company Collection

Creator:
Pullman Palace Car Co.  Search this
Pullman, George M., 1831-1897  Search this
Names:
Lincoln, Robert Todd  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (11 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Drawings
Date:
1867-1982
bulk 1900-1930
Summary:
Records of the Pullman Company, manufacturers and operators of railroad sleeping cars. Pullman also manufactured hospital and dining cars at its Chicago facilities. Dating from 1867 to 1982 (bulk 1900-1930s), the collection includes background materials, correspondence, financial, personnel and operating records, drawings and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of materials from 1867-1982 (bulk 1900-1930s), and includes background materials, correspondence, financial records, operating records, personnel records, drawings, and photographs. Of note is the documentation of hospital cars and instructions for porters. The collection is not a complete record of the Pullman Palace Car Company's activities.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1867-1982, contains newspaper clippings and articles about the Pullman Palace Car Company and George Pullman. Also included is a 318-page typescript titledThe History of the Sleeping Car 1923, by Charles S. Sweet; documentation on how Pullman cars were named; and other histories of the Pullman Company including its hospital cars and maquetry design.

Series 2, Correspondence, 1912-1960, consists primarily of documentation about the sale of cars and equipment by Pullman Palace Car Company to specific railroad companies. The correspondence details the cost per car and in some instances, leasing costs, operating costs, and other relevant statistical and financial information about the transactions. There is some consolidated data on cars sold to the railroads as well as summary data on the type of car sold, name of car, selling price, purchasers, and the date the sale was approved. The correspondence is organized chronologically within Pullman Company correspondence wrappers which were used to maintain the correspondence in a uniform manner and in consecutive date order.

Correspondence about hospital cars contains information on the rental of Pullman cars to the United States government as well as letters discussing specifications for building hospital unit cars for the United States Army. There is one folder of miscellaneous correspondence with individuals seeking copies of photographs from the company and/or offering their historical writings about the company.

Series 3, Financial Records, 1875-1930, consists primarily of details of cost documentation created by the Pullman Company's Manufacturing Department. The cost sheets are arranged chronologically and represent an itemized financial breakdown of costs by material, labor, extra equipment, sundries, and recapitulation for a variety of Pullman cars. The cover sheet for work orders notes the lot number, plan number, type of Pullman car (e.g. baggage, parlor, private) being manufactured or serviced/repaired, to whom the order belongs, and associated dates. For example, one private, steel car for Mr. D. J. Reid or general service parlor car for Southern Railway.

Series 4, Operating Records, 1875-1972, consists of records used by the company for daily operations, particularly instructions for porters as well as repair logbooks, volumes detailing car building completion, published supplements noting specific changes to cars, correspondence, reports, newspaper clippings, and lists of cars built by Pullman and cars withdrawn from service. Also included is the Illustrations Accompanying the Report of the Engineer-in-chief, H.C. Mais, on Observations on Railways Made During His Tour in 1883. Henry Coathupe Mais (1827-1916) was an English born civil engineer who spent most of his career in Australia. Mais toured railways and other works in Europe and America. His lengthy report with many detailed illustrations was printed in 1884 as a parliamentary paper. Some report pages were moldy and have been separated. These pages include: the index, pages 1-7; page 58; and pages 98-111.

The reports found in the "general file" include Sleeping, Parlor and Lounge Equipment (1945) and Pullman Passenger Survey A Continuing Study--Part II, (1955). The latter report by McFarland, Aveyard and Company studied attitudes and opinions of Pullman passengers. There is a typescript of a presentation made by George W. Bohannan of the Pullman Company to the American Association of Passenger Traffic Officers (1964).

The records documenting the completion of cars are bound volumes arranged chronologically. The volumes detail lot number, plan numbers, date of order, type of car, account name, date of delivery, destination route, estimate price, cost price, and contract price. In some instances, new information was glued or taped into the volume. The repair books capture the date, name of car, yard, name of porter, and date shipped.

Series 5, Personnel Records, 1873-1979, includes a payroll list for the General Ticket Department, 1876; instructions for passengers with cholera, 1873; reward notices for an 1878 robbery; instructional manuals for Pullman porters; photographs of Pullman Company employees working, and general correspondence, 1896-1979; ancedotes about Pullman porters; an obituary for George Arthur Kelly, an executive vice president for the Pullman Company; articles and newspaper clippings about porters and conductors, particularly the Society for the Prevention of Calling Pullman Car Porters "George." Started in 1916, the Society for the Prevention of Calling Pullman Car Porters "George" was founded by George W. Dulany, Jr., an Iowa lumber merchant. Dulany organized the society for fun after hearing passengers call every porter George. The society became a hobby and there were no meetings, dues, or activities associated with his work. Dulany's campaign was solely to have passengers use a porter's correct name or simply call them "porter."

Series 6, Drawings, 1907-1939 and undated, contains bound volumes arranged chronologically of records of tracings of drawings for Pullman cars. The volumes detail the negative number, date, type of car, job number, and remarks.

Series 7, Photographs, 1932-1950s and undated, consists primarily of black-and-white copy prints (8" x 10") documenting employees, especially porters, passengers, and hospital cars. Many of the hospital cars depict both the exterior and interior, but none with patients. The passenger photographs are almost exclusively interior images of persons dining, sleeping, playing cards, and in general seating areas. The Southern Pacific dining car photographs are original prints and bear the Pullman Car Company embossed stamp and unique number. This range of photographs is (Pullman photograph #32867 to #32873) and the images depict exterior and interior views of the dining cars. There is one album of ninety-nine photographs taken by Ricardo Villalba (active 1860-1880) in Peru. The album was made for W.W. Evans, Esquire in 1875. The images depict landscapes, bridges, train tracks, railroad cars, railroad engines, and buildings, such as the Pano Cathedral.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series:

Series 1, Historical Background, 1867-1982

Series 2, Correspondence, 1912-1960

Series 3, Financial Records, 1875-1930

Series 4, Operating Records, 1875-1972

Series 5, Personnel Records, 1873-1979

Series 6, Drawings, 1907-1939 and undated

Series 7, Photographs, 1932-1950s and undated
Biographical / Historical:
George M. Pullman (1831-1897) developed the railroad passenger sleeping car service into a major 19th century industry. He created the Pullman Palace Car Company in 1867. George Pullman was succeeded as president of the company by Robert Todd Lincoln, President Abraham Lincoln's son, who served until 1911. In 1900, after buying competing companies, the firm was reorganized as the Pullman Company.

The idea for specially designed sleeping cars came to Pullman while traveling from Buffalo to Westfield, New York in 1854. He altered existing railroad cars in September, 1858, for service on the Chicago and Alton Railroad. They first sleeping car built to Pullman's specifications was the "pioneer," which carried part of the Lincoln funeral party from Chicago to Springfield, Illinois in 1865. In 1867 "hotel cars" were introduced. These sleeping cars, equipped with kitchen and dining facilities, eliminating the need for trains to stop at stations for passengers to buy food. In 1868, Pullman built the "Delmonica," devoted to restaurant purposes. The Pullman firm also built streetcars and trolleys.

In 1880 George Pullman built the town of Pullman, just south of the city of Chicago along the Illinois Central Railroad line, as the site for his manufacturing plant. Intended as a model manufacturing town, it had 12,000 residents in 1893. It suffered from the usual company town problems and was annexed to Chicago in 1889. In the wake of the depression of 1893 Pullman reduced wages for its workers by 25% or more. The American Railway Union, lead by Eugene V. Debs, sought to bring wage issues to arbitration but Pullman refused. In June, 1894 some 4,000 employees struck the company gaining support from thousands of railroad workers who refused to handle trains with Pullman cars. President Grover Cleveland sent federal troops to Chicago in July and after a period of sporadic violence the strike was over by the end of the summer.

In later years the Pullman company introduced several innovations. It built lighter, articulated cars of alloy steel beginning in 1936. The following year, it introduced the roomette car with eighteen enclosed private rooms. In 1956 Pullman introduced the dome sleeper car with an upper deck observation level. The United States anti-trust suit against Pullman Manufacturing and Operating Company resulted in a 1944 decision requiring a separation of car building and car operation activities. Pullman sold its sleeping car service, transferring its operating unit to a group of fifty-nine railway firms in 1947.

George Pullman introduced two notable practices. First, rather than operating railroads, his firm leased sleeping cars to the railroads and provided the complete services on them, including supplying porters, conductors, dining staff, and food and linens. Second, Pullman named each of his sleeping and dining cars rather than assigning them numbers. This was intended to enhance the company's image by creating a personality for the car. Different categories of names signified different categories of cars and geographical names also helped to promote travel to the areas in which they operated.

Arthur Detmers Dubin assembled these Pullman Company materials. Dubin was born in 1923 in Chicago, Illinois. He began his architectural education at the University of Michigan in 1941 but was interrupted by World War II, and he served with distinction in the United States Army until 1946. After completing his studies in 1949, Dubin joined his father's and uncle's architectural firm, Dubin and Dubin, as a second--eneration architect. The leadership of the firm soon passed to Arthur and his brother, Martin David, and in 1965 they were joined by John Black and in 1966 by John Moutoussamy. Arthur's life--ong interest in trains and transportation and their implications for architecture is evident in transit stations commissions and service on transportation--elated advisory boards (Dubin was a member of the Illinois Railroad Commission), as well as in his writings and personal collections. Dubin was an avid train enthusiast and collector.

References

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago Area Architects Oral History Project
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs (AC1175), contains photographs of Pullman cars: freight, passenger, private and street railway/rapid transit cars. The bulk of the collection contains approximately 13,500 original glass plate negatives, film negatives, and copy prints.

Materials In Other Organizations

Art Institute of Chicago

Bombardier Corporation

California State Railroad Museum

Chicago Historical Society

Arthur Dubin Collection at Lakeforest College

Illinois Railway Museum

Newberry Library, Pullman Company Archives

The Pullman Company archives consists of 2,500 cubic feet of records from the Pullman Company and Pullman heirs. The collection is comprised of business archives of the Pullman Palace Car Company from 1867 and include records of the entire firm up to the 1924 split into operating (sleeping car operation, service, and repair) and manufacturiung companies. From 1924 to 1981 the records chronicle the activities of the operating company only.

Pennsylvania State Archives

Pullman State Historic Site

Pullman Technology (Harvey, Illinois)

Smithsonian Institution Archives, Arthur D. Dubin Papers (83-015; 83-076; 83-101)

South Suburban Genealogical & Historical Society (South Holland, illinois)
Provenance:
Collection materials were donated by Arthur D. Dubin in 1980 and on January 30, 1986. Additional materials were donated by Lorrain Douglass, Kiara S. Winans and Kristin Peterson on April 3, 2012.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hospital cars  Search this
Hotel car  Search this
Roomette car  Search this
Dining cars  Search this
Labor relations  Search this
Railroads -- Dining-car service  Search this
Sleeping car  Search this
Strikes and lockouts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Correspondence -- 1930-1960
Drawings
Citation:
Pullman Palace Car Company Collection, 1867-1982, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0181
See more items in:
Pullman Palace Car Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0181
Online Media:

Spoons as Falstaff Mustering the Impeachment Managers

Artist:
Thomas Worth, 1834 - 1917  Search this
Publisher:
John McDermott  Search this
Sitter:
Andrew Johnson, 29 Dec 1808 - 31 Jul 1875  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler, 5 Nov 1818 - 11 Jan 1893  Search this
James Falconer Wilson, 19 Oct 1828 - 22 Apr 1895  Search this
Thomas Williams, 28 Aug 1806 - 16 Jun 1872  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell, 28 Jan 1818 - 27 Feb 1905  Search this
John Armor Bingham, 1815 - 1900  Search this
Thaddeus Stevens, 4 Apr 1792 - 11 Aug 1868  Search this
John Alexander Logan, 9 Feb 1826 - 26 Dec 1886  Search this
Salmon Portland Chase, 13 Jan 1808 - 7 May 1873  Search this
Medium:
Lithograph on paper
Dimensions:
Sheet: 45.5 × 47 cm (17 15/16 × 18 1/2")
Type:
Print
Date:
1868
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Weapon\Sword  Search this
Tool\Scissors  Search this
Cartoon  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Military\Helmet  Search this
Thaddeus Stevens: Male  Search this
Thaddeus Stevens: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thaddeus Stevens: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Thaddeus Stevens: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Pennsylvania  Search this
John Alexander Logan: Male  Search this
John Alexander Logan: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Alexander Logan: Military\Army\Officer\General  Search this
John Alexander Logan: Military\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union  Search this
John Alexander Logan: Politics and Government\US Senator\Illinois  Search this
John Alexander Logan: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Illinois  Search this
John Alexander Logan: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Illinois  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Male  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Railroad  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Iowa  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Iowa  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Iowa  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Politics and Government\State Senator\Iowa  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Male  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\Governor\Tennessee  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Tennessee  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\State Senator\Tennessee  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\Public Official\Mayor  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Tennessee  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Tennessee  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Crafts and Trades\Craftsman\Textile worker\Tailor  Search this
Salmon Portland Chase: Male  Search this
Salmon Portland Chase: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Salmon Portland Chase: Politics and Government\Presidential Candidate  Search this
Salmon Portland Chase: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of Treasury  Search this
Salmon Portland Chase: Politics and Government\Governor\Ohio  Search this
Salmon Portland Chase: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of State  Search this
Salmon Portland Chase: Politics and Government\US Senator\Ohio  Search this
Salmon Portland Chase: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Abolitionist  Search this
Salmon Portland Chase: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\US Supreme Court Justice\Chief Justice of US  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Male  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of Treasury  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Politics and Government\Governor\Massachusetts  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Education\Educator\Teacher  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Politics and Government\US Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Politics and Government\Government Official\Postmaster  Search this
John Armor Bingham: Male  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Male  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Politics and Government\Presidential Candidate  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Politics and Government\Governor\Massachusetts  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Military\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Massachusetts  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Sports and Recreation\Athlete\Yachtsman  Search this
Thomas Williams: Male  Search this
Thomas Williams: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thomas Williams: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Thomas Williams: Politics and Government\State Senator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2014.34
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4fd851618-73c0-4847-a7ea-fcac7863c1b3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2014.34

Alexander Johnston Cassatt

Artist:
John Singer Sargent, 12 Jan 1856 - 15 Apr 1925  Search this
Sitter:
Alexander Johnston Cassatt, 8 Dec 1839 - 28 Dec 1906  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
147.3 × 91.4cm (58 × 36")
Type:
Painting
Date:
1903
Topic:
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Mustache  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Handkerchief  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Tie\Bowtie  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Fob  Search this
Alexander Johnston Cassatt: Male  Search this
Alexander Johnston Cassatt: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Railroad  Search this
Alexander Johnston Cassatt: Science and Technology\Engineer\Civil  Search this
Alexander Johnston Cassatt: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Insurance Agent  Search this
Alexander Johnston Cassatt: Sports and Recreation\Horse racing  Search this
Alexander Johnston Cassatt: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Livestock  Search this
Alexander Johnston Cassatt: Sports and Recreation\Horse trainer/breeder  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: State Museum of Pennsylvania
Object number:
PA460001
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4fc2405bd-9be1-4c6f-aaae-265581292215
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_PA460001

Thomas Wheeler Williams

Artist:
Edward Dalton Marchant, 1806 - 1887  Search this
Sitter:
Thomas Wheeler Williams, 1789 - 1874  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
73.7cm x 60.9cm (29" x 24"), Sight
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1849
Topic:
Thomas Wheeler Williams: Male  Search this
Thomas Wheeler Williams: Business and Finance\Businessperson  Search this
Thomas Wheeler Williams: Politics and Government\Congressman  Search this
Thomas Wheeler Williams: Politics and Government\US Congressman  Search this
Thomas Wheeler Williams: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Railroad  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Object number:
1923.38
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm464937807-7096-45d1-aa1f-522adcae4f36
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_1923.38

John Edgar Thomson

Artist:
Robert William Vonnoh, 17 Sep 1858 - 28 Dec 1933  Search this
Sitter:
John Edgar Thomson, 1808 - 1874  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
112.5cm x 95cm (44 5/16" x 37 3/8"), Sight
Type:
Painting
Date:
1896?
Topic:
John Edgar Thomson: Male  Search this
John Edgar Thomson: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Financier  Search this
John Edgar Thomson: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Railroad  Search this
John Edgar Thomson: Science and Technology\Engineer\Civil  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: University of Pennsylvania
Object number:
PA330392
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm439ab8b20-bffc-40ce-9f63-587510a86a4d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_PA330392

Thomas Alexander Scott

Artist:
John Alfred Vinter, 1828 - 1905  Search this
Sitter:
Thomas Alexander Scott, 1823 - 1881  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
144.4cm x 98.9cm (56 7/8" x 38 15/16"), Sight
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1875-1885
Topic:
Thomas Alexander Scott: Male  Search this
Thomas Alexander Scott: Politics and Government\Government Official  Search this
Thomas Alexander Scott: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Railroad  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: University of Pennsylvania
Object number:
PA330389
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm421da7f2d-8d67-4e01-9441-f105974e14bc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_PA330389

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By