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John White Alexander papers

Creator:
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Names:
MacDowell Club of New York  Search this
Abbey, Edwin Austin, 1852-1911  Search this
Alexander, Elizabeth A., d. 1947  Search this
Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Gibson, Charles Dana, 1867-1944  Search this
James, Henry, 1843-1916  Search this
La Farge, John, 1835-1910  Search this
Levy, Florence N. (Florence Nightingale), 1870-1947  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis, 1846-1912  Search this
Remington, Frederic, 1861-1909  Search this
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 1850-1894  Search this
Whistler, James McNeill, 1834-1903  Search this
Extent:
11.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Awards
Interviews
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Scrapbooks
Medals
Date:
1775-1968
bulk 1870-1915
Summary:
The papers of the painter, muralist, and illustrator John White Alexander measure 11.9 linear feet and date from 1775 to 1968, with the bulk of materials dating from 1870 to 1915. Papers document Alexander's artistic career and many connections to figures in the art world through biographical documentation, correspondence (some illustrated), writings, 14 sketchbooks, additonal artwork and loose sketches, scrapbooks, photographs, awards and medals, artifacts, and other records. Also found is a souvenir engraving of a Mark Twain self-portrait.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of the painter, muralist, and illustrator John White Alexander measure 11.9 linear feet and date from 1775 to 1968, with the bulk of materials dating from 1870 to 1915. Papers document Alexander's artistic career and many connections to figures in the art world through biographical documentation, correspondence (some illustrated), writings, 14 sketchbooks, additonal artwork and loose sketches, scrapbooks, photographs, awards and medals, artifacts, and other records. Also found is a souvenir engraving of a Mark Twain self-portrait.

Biographical Information includes multiple essays related to Alexander, his family, and others in his circle. Also found is an extensive oral history of Alexander's wife Elizabeth conducted in 1928. Correspondence includes letters written by Alexander to his family from New York and Europe at the start of his career, and later letters from fellow artists, art world leaders, and portrait sitters of Alexander's. Significant correspondents include Charles Dana Gibson, Florence Levy, Frederick Remington, Robert Louis Stevenson, Henry James, John La Farge, Francis Davis Millet, and Andrew Carnegie. Correspondence includes some small sketches as enclosures and illustrated letters.

Certificates and records related to Alexander's career are found in Associations and Memberships, Legal and Financial Records, and Notes and Writings, which contain documentation of Alexander's paintings and exhibitions. Scattered documentation of Alexander's memberships in various arts association exists for the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the American Academy in Rome, the National Academy of Design, the Onteora Club in New York, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, Germany, the Ministère de L'Instruction Publique et des Beaux-Arts, the Union Internationale des Beaux Arts et des Lettres, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Notes and Writings include speeches written by Alexander, short stories and essays written by his wife, and articles by various authors about Alexander. Extensive documentation of the planning and construction of the Alexander Memorial Studio by the MacDowell Club is found, along with other awards, medals, and memorial resolutions adopted by arts organizations after Alexander's death.

Artwork includes fourteen sketchbooks with sketches related to Alexander's commercial illustration and cartooning, murals, paintings, and travels. Dozens of loose drawings and sketches are also found, along with two volumes and several dozen loose reproductions of artwork, among which are found fine prints by named printmakers. Many sketches are also interspersed throughout the correspondence. Eight Scrapbooks contain mostly clippings, but also scattered letters, exhbition catalogs, announcements, invitations, and photographs related to Alexander's career between 1877 and 1915. Additional Exhibition Catalogs and later clippings, as well as clippings related to the career of his wife and other subjects, are found in Printed Materials.

Photographs include many portraits of Alexander taken by accomplished photographers such as Zaida Ben-Yusuf, Aimé Dupont, Curtis Bell, Elizabeth Buehrmann, and several signed Miss Huggins, who may have been Estelle Huntington Huggins, a New York painter and photographer. Portraits of others include Alexander's friends William Merritt Chase and Edward Austin Abbey. Also found are photographs of groups, juries, family, friends, and studios in New York, Paris, and New Jersey, and a handful of scenic photographs of Polling, Bavaria, where Alexander had an early studio. A large number of photographs of works of art are found, many with annotations. Among the photographs of murals are a small collection of snapshots of the Carnegie Institute murals in progress. Miscellaneous artifacts include a palette, several printing plates, and an inscribed souvenir engraving of a self-portrait caricature of Mark Twain.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 11 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1887-1968 (Box 1, OV 23; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1870-1942 (Box 1; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Associations and Memberships, circa 1897-1918 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 4: Legal and Financial Records, 1775, 1896-1923 (Box 1; 5 folders)

Series 5: Notes and Writings, circa 1875-1943 (Boxes 1-2; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Awards and Memorials, circa 1870-1944 (Box 2, OV 24; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1875-1915 (Boxes 2-3, 6, 14-16, OV 23; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, circa 1877-1915 (Boxes 17-22; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 9: Printed Materials, circa 1891-1945 (Boxes 3-4, OV 23; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographs, circa 1870-1915 (Boxes 4-8, MGP 1-2, OV 25-43, RD 44-45; 4.2 linear feet)

Series 11: Artifacts, circa 1899-1915 (Box 6, artifact cabinet; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
John White Alexander was born in 1856 in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. He was orphaned at age five and taken in by relatives of limited means. When Alexander left school and began working at a telegraph company, the company's vice-president, former civil war Colonel Edward Jay Allen, took an interest in his welfare. Allen became his legal guardian, brought him into the Allen household, and saw that he finished Pittsburgh High School. At eighteen, he moved to New York City and was hired by Harper and Brothers as an office boy in the art department. He was soon promoted to apprentice illustrator under staff artists such as Edwin A. Abbey and Charles Reinhart. During his time at Harpers, Alexander was sent out on assignment to illustrate events such as the Philadelphia Centennial celebration in 1876 and the Pittsburgh Railroad Strike in 1877, which erupted in violence.

Alexander carefully saved money from his illustration work and traveled to Europe in 1877 for further art training. He first enrolled in the Royal Art Academy of Munich, Germany, but soon moved to the village of Polling, where a colony of American artists was at its peak in the late 1870s. Alexander established a painting studio there and stayed for about a year. Despite his absence from the Munich Academy, he won the medal of the drawing class for 1878, the first of many honors. While in Polling, he became acquainted with J. Frank Currier, Frank Duveneck, William Merritt Chase, and other regular visitors to the colony. He later shared a studio and taught a painting class in Florence with Duveneck and traveled to Venice, where he met James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Alexander returned to New York in 1881 and resumed his commercial artwork for Harpers and Century. Harpers sent him down the Mississippi river to complete a series of sketches. He also began to receive commissions for portraits, and in the 1880s painted Charles Dewitt Bridgman, a daughter of one of the Harper brothers, Parke Godwin, Thurlow Weed, Walt Whitman, and Oliver Wendell Holmes. Alexander met his wife Elizabeth, whose maiden name was also Alexander, through her father, James W. Alexander, who was sometimes mistaken for the artist. Elizabeth and John White Alexander married in 1887 and had a son, James, in 1888.

Alexander and his family sailed for France in 1890, where they became a part of the lively literary and artistic scene in Paris at the time. Among their many contacts there were Puvis de Chavannes, Auguste Rodin, and Whistler, who arrived in Paris shortly thereafter. Alexander absorbed the new aesthetic ideas around him such as those of the symbolists and the decorative style of art nouveau. Critics often note how such ideas are reflected in his boldly composed paintings of women from this period, who titles drew attention to the sensual and natural elements of the paintings. His first exhibition in Paris was three paintings at the Société Nationale des Beaux Arts in 1893, and by 1895 he has become a full member of the Société.

Independent and secession artist societies emerged throughout Europe during this period, and Alexander exhibited with several of them, including the Société Nouvelle in Paris, the Munich Secession, and the Vienna Secession. He was also elected an honorary member of the Royal Society of Belgian Artists and the Royal Society of British Painters in London. His exhibited works sold well, and his influence began to be felt back in the United States. Andrew Carnegie and John Beatty of the Carnegie Institute consulted closely with Alexander in the planning and execution of the first Carnegie International Exhibitions. Alexander also became active in supporting younger American artists who wanted to exhibit in Europe, a stance which resulted in his resignation from the Society of American Artists in Paris, which he felt had become a barrier to younger artists. His promotion of American art became an central aspect of his career for the remainder of his life, most visibly through his presidency of the National Academy of Design from 1909 until shortly before his death in 1915. He also served frequently on juries for high-profile exhibitions, and was a trustee at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the New York Public Library, and the national Institute of Arts and Letters. Around 1912, he helped to form the School Art League in New York, which provided art instruction to high school students.

Alexander returned to the United States nearly every summer while based in Paris, and among his commissioned paintings were murals for the newly-constructed Library of Congress, completed around 1896. In 1901, the Alexanders returned to New York permanently. The demand for portraits continued, and he had his first solo exhibition at the Durand-Ruel Galleries in 1902. Around 1905 he received a commission for murals at the new Carnegie Institute building in Pittsburgh for the astounding sum of $175,000. He created 48 panels there through 1908. During this period, the Alexanders spent summers in Onteora, New York, where Alexander painted his well-known "Sunlight" paintings. There they became friends and collaborators with the actress Maude Adams, with Alexander designing lighting and stage sets, and Elizabeth Alexander designing costumes for Adams' productions such as Peter Pan, the Maid of Orleans, and Chanticleer. The couple became known for their "theatricals" or tableaux, staged at the MacDowell Club and elsewhere, and Elizabeth Alexander continued her design career when her husband died in 1915.

Alexander left several commissions unfinished upon his death at age 59, including murals in Wisconsin, Ohio, and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Elizabeth Alexander held a memorial exhibition at Arden Galleries a few months after his death, and a larger memorial exhibition was held by the Carnegie Institute in 1916. Alexander won dozens of awards for artwork in his lifetime, including the Lippincott Prize at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1899, the Gold Medal of Honor at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900, the Gold Medal at the Panama Pacific Exposition of 1901, and the Medal of the First Class at the Carnegie Institute International Exhibition in 1911. In 1923, the Alexander Memorial Studio was built at the MacDowell colony in New Hampshire to honor his memory.
Provenance:
Papers were donated in 1978 and 1981 by Irina Reed, Alexander's granddaughter and in 2017 by Elizabeth Reed, Alexander's great grandaughter.
Restrictions:
Use of the original papers requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Portrait painting -- 20th century  Search this
Portrait painting -- 19th century  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painting, American  Search this
Genre/Form:
Awards
Interviews
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Scrapbooks
Medals
Citation:
John White Alexander papers, 1775-1968, bulk 1870-1915. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.alexjohn
See more items in:
John White Alexander papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-alexjohn
Online Media:

W. A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album

Creator:
Hunt, Mary Alice Minear  Search this
Hunt, George Laird  Search this
Fishbaugh, William Arthur  Search this
Minear, A. Bruce  Search this
Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Former owner:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Panama Canal (Panama)
Panama -- 1900-1910
Date:
1905-1908.
Summary:
Photograph album of commercially-produced photographs of Panama Canal construction.
Scope and Contents note:
This collection consists of a photograph album of one hyndred commercially produced views of Panama Canal construction. Also included are some views of life in the Canal Zone, including hospitals, villages, street scenes, jungles, cemeteries, animal life, and bullfights. The album was assembled by A. Bruce Minear, who was sent to Panama by President Theodore Roosevelt to develop the YMCA for the men working on the canal. Most photographs are captioned.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series.

Series 1, Photograph Album, 1905-1907
Historical:
On November 18, 1903, the United States and Panama negotiated the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, which granted the United States permission to construct a canal that would join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Construction for the Panama Canal began on May 4, 1904. The large workforce (at its highest population in 1913 it numbered 44,733 men, not including those sick, on leave, or otherwise absent) had a great impact on Panama. As there were not enough amenities to accommodate them when they arrived, they built entire communities, paved streets, improved communication systems, and installed water and sewage systems. Likewise, the railroad was improved for more efficient transportation of supplies, labor, food, and equipment. Much to the credit of Chief Sanitary Officer Dr. William Crawford Gorgas, yellow fever was completely eradicated on the Isthmus and malaria cases greatly reduced. Native villages and towns along the planned construction route were required to relocate.

The first self-propelled, ocean-bound vessel traveled on the canal on January 7, 1914, and the canal was formally opened in August of that year. The Panama Canal construction project was the most expensive construction project in United States history to that date, costing $375,000,000.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

W. P. Stine Panama Canal Papers (NMAH.AC.1039)

John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook Photograph Albums (NMAH.AC.0708)

Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album (NMAH.AC.1040)

A.R. Van Tassell Photograph Albums (NMAH.AC.1015)
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History's Division of the History of Science and Technology, Engineering and Industry Collections by Mary Alice Minear Hunt and George Laird Hunt, 1987.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Villages -- Panama  Search this
Streets -- Panama  Search this
Hospitals -- Panama  Search this
Jungles -- Panama  Search this
Animals -- Panama  Search this
Bullfights  Search this
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Cemeteries -- Panama  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
W.A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album, 1905-1908, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1021
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1021
Online Media:

William E. Woodard Patents

Author:
Woodard, William E., 1873-1942 (inventor)  Search this
Names:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Extent:
3.3 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1909 - 1949
Summary:
The collection consists of United States, Canadian, Mexican and other foreign patents issued to William E. Woodard from 1909 to 1949. The patents are for Woodard's developments in steam and electric locomotive design.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes United States, Canadian, Mexican, and other foreign patents issued to William E. Woodard for developments in steam and electric locomotive design.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into four series.

Series 1, United States Patents, 1909-1945

Series 2, Canadian Patents, 1909-1946

Series 3, Mexican Patents, 1922-1925

Series 4, Patents From Other Foreign Countries, 1926-1941
Biographical / Historical:
William E. Woodard (1873-1942) was directly responsible for many developments in steam locomotive design. As an inventor of locomotive equipment, he held patents on various mechanical features of steam locomotive and electric locomotive design. He worked for the Baldwin Locomotive Works, Cramp's Shipyard, the Dickson Locomotive Works, the Schenectady Locomotive Works, the American Locomotive Works (1900-1916), and, finally, the Lima Locomotive Works (1916-1942); during the same period he worked as a consultant to the Franklin Railway Supply Company. At the Lima Locomotive Works, he was vice president in charge of design until his death in 1942.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by George H. Woodard, on July 21, 1984.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Patents  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 1890-1960  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Citation:
William E. Woodard Patents, 1909-1949, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0125
See more items in:
William E. Woodard Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0125

William J. Hammer Collection

Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Batchelor, George  Search this
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922  Search this
Berliner, Emile, 1851-1929  Search this
Curie, Marie  Search this
Curie, Pierre  Search this
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Jehl, Francis  Search this
Johnson, Edward H.  Search this
Sprague, Frank J.  Search this
Tesla, Nikola, 1857-1943  Search this
Upton, Francis R.  Search this
Extent:
36 Cubic feet (124 boxes, 3 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
circa 1847-1989
Summary:
Original documents and papers generated by William J. Hammer and by various companies and individuals with whom he was associated. Includes material related to the research and inventions of Edison, Bell, Tesla, the Curies, etc.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes original documents and papers generated by Hammer and by various companies and individuals and various secondary sources assembled by Hammer between 1874 and 1934. Hammer's lifelong association with the foremost scientists of his day -- Edison, Bell, Maxim, the Curies, the Wright brothers, and others - afforded him a unique opportunity to collect materials about the development of science along many lines.

This collection, which includes rare historical, scientific, and research materials, was donated by the International Business Machine Corporation to the Museum of History and Technology in 1962 and held by the Division of Electricity. In 1983 it was transferred to the -Archives Center. The collection was badly disorganized when received and contained many fragile documents in poor condition. The collection was organized and arranged as reflected in this register.

The collection documents in photographs, manuscripts, notes, books, pamphlets, and excerpts, the beginnings of electrical technology. In its present state, it comprises four series: Series 1 contains twenty-two boxes of the William J. Hammer Papers, containing both biographical and autobiographical material; Series 2 has twenty boxes of material on Edison; Series 3 consists of thirty-three boxes of reference material; and Series 4 holds twenty-one boxes of photographs and portraits. See the container list beginning on page 39 for more detailed information on the contents of the collection.

Most of the material in the collection is chronologically arranged. However, in some cases alphabetical arrangement has been employed, for example, in the arrangement of portraits of eminent men of electrical science (Series 4, Boxes 78-80, 100-101), and the arrangement of publications (by authors' last names).

Hammer did original laboratory work upon selenium, radium, cathode rays, x-rays, ultra-violet rays, phosphorescence, fluorescence, cold light, and wireless. These aspects of his career are reflected in many parts of the collection: in Series 1 there are articles, notes, diagrams, sketches, graphs,, and correspondence; in Series 3 articles, magazines, news clippings, and bound pamphlets. Tie contributed many technical writings, some of which are found in Series 1.

Papers detailing Hammer's aeronautical activities were transferred to the National Air and Space Museum. They consist of two scrapbooks and one cubic foot of aeronautical photographs of balloons, airplanes, and gliders and one-half cubic foot of correspondence. For further information contact the National Air and Space Museum Archives at (202) 357-3133.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: William J. Hammer Papers, 1851-1957

Series 2: Edisonia, 1847-1960

Series 3: Reference Materials, 1870-1989

Series 4: Photographs, 1880-1925
Biography of William J. Hammer:
William Joseph Hammer, assistant to Thomas Edison and a consulting electrical engineer, was born at Cressona, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, February 26, 1858, and died March 24, 1934. His parents were Martha Augusta Bech (1827-1861) and William Alexander Hammer (1827-1895). He attended private and public schools in Newark, New Jersey, and university and technical school lectures abroad.

On January 3, 1894, Hammer married Alice Maud White in Cleveland, Ohio. They had one daughter, Mabel (Mrs. Thomas Cleveland Asheton). Alice Hammer died in 1906.

In 1878 Hammer became an assistant to Edward Weston of the Weston Malleable Nickel Company. In December 1879 he began his duties as laboratory assistant to Thomas Edison at Menlo Park, New Jersey. He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, ore separator, electric lighting, and other developing inventions. However, he worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device. In 1880 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. In this first year, the plant under general manager Francis Upton, turned out 50,000 lamps. According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of Incandescent Electric Lighting"! (Hammer's memoranda and notes, Series 2).

In 1881 Edison sent Hammer to London as Chief Engineer of the English Electric Light Co. In association with E. H. Johnson, general manager, Hammer constructed the Holborn Viaduct Central Electric Light Station in London. This plant included three, thirty-ton "Jumbo" steam-powered dynamos (generators), and operated 3,000 incandescent lamps. Holborn was the first central station ever constructed for incandescent electric lighting. Hammer began its operation on January 12, 1882, by lighting the Holborn Viaduct.

In 1882 Hammer also installed a large isolated lighting plant containing twelve Edison dynamos at the Crystal Palace Electric Exposition and the Edison Exhibit at the Paris Electrical Exposition.

At this time Hammer also designed and built the first electric sign. The sign spelled the name "Edison" in electric lights, and was operated by a hand controlled commutator and a large lever snap switch. It was erected over the organ in the Crystal Palace concert hall.

In 1883 Hammer became Chief Engineer for the German Edison Company (Deutsche Edison Gesellschaft), later known as Allegemeine Elektricitaets Gesellschaft. Hammer laid out and supervised the installations of all Edison plants in Germany. While in Berlin he invented the automatic motor-driven "flashing" electric lamp sign. The sign, which flashed "Edison" letter by letter and as a whole, was placed on the Edison Pavilion at the Berlin Health Exposition in 1883.

On his return to the United States in 1884, Hammer took charge of some of Edison's exhibits, including Edison's personal exhibit, at the International Electrical Exhibition held under the authority of the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. There he built the first flashing "Column of Light." He also became confidential assistant to E. R. Johnson, president of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. Together with Johnson and Frank J. Sprague, he became an incorporator of the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor company. He also was elected a trustee and the company's first secretary.

Hammer installed an all-electric house at Newark, New Jersey in 1884 and he devised various electrical devices and contrivances for an unusual party for friends and colleagues. (See "Electrical Diablerie" beginning on page 6).

At the end of 1884 Hammer became chief inspector of central stations of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. For over two years he made financial, mechanical, and electrical reports on the various stations throughout the United States. During 1886-87 he was chief engineer and general manager of the Boston Edison Electric Illuminating Company. He also acted as contractor for the company. He laid $140,000 of underground tubing and installed Sprague Electric Motors.

In 1888, acting as an independent engineer, he was placed in charge of completing the 8,000 light plant of the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St.Augustine Florida. At the time this was the largest isolated incandescent lighting plant ever constructed. Also in 1888 Hammer was appointed consulting electrical engineer to the Cincinati Centennial Expostition, and as a contractor designed and installed over $40,000 worth of electrical effects.

Hammer was appointed Edison's personal representative remarked, "There are a lot of crowned heads in the Edison business. How many of them am I subservient to?" Mr. Edison answered "You take no instructions except from Thomas A. Edison." Hammer asked "What are your instructions?" Mr. Edison replied, 'Hammer, I haven't any. Go and make a success of it.' In Paris he set up and operated all of Edison's inventions, which embraced nineteen departments and covered 9,800 square feet of space. He also built a huge Edison lamp forty-five feet high employing 20,000 lamps. Edison remarked, 'He had entire charge of my exhibit at the Paris Exposition, which was very successful." This was the largest individual exhibit at the Exposition, costing $100,000. Mr. Edison replied, "I want you to go right out and have a card engraved William J. Hammer, Representative of Thomas A. Edison. You are the only representative I have here," and he complimented him on his work adding, "The French government will do something handsome for you for your work." Hammer replied that he would not raise his hand to get it and did not believe in giving such honors to people who seek them. Mr. Edison said, "You are wrong. You are a young man and such things are valuable. At any rate if there's anyone in this exhibition who deserves recognition, you do, and I'm going to see you get it' (Hammer's memoranda and notes, Series 2). Thirty-four years later, in 1925, through the personal influence of Edison, Hammer was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor by the French government.

In 1890 Hammer returned to the United States and opened an office as a consulting electrical engineer. He was in private practice until 1925, making reports, conducting tests, and giving expert testimony in patent suits.

On January 31, 1890, Hammer formed the Franklin Experimental Club of Newark where boys could come and carry on experiments, build apparatus, and listen to lectures. Hammer equipped the laboratory at his own expense. One side was an electrical laboratory and the other a chemical laboratory. About forty-five boys joined. Each boy had a key to the club and a section of a bench with his own drawer for keeping notes, tools, and other equipment. In 1892 the structure was destroyed by fire from a saloon next door, ending Hammer's plans for a large and useful institution.

In 1896 Hammer was elected president of the National Conference of Standard Electrical Rules, which prepared and promulgated the "National Electric Code."

In 1902 in Paris, Hammer visited Pierre and Marie Curie, the discoverers of radium and polonium. They gave him nine tubes of radium and one of polonium to bring back to the United States. He also acquired some sulphide of zinc, with which he mixed radium carbonates, producing a beautifully luminous powder. This was the first radium-luminous material ever made. By mixing the powder with Damar varnish he produced the first radium-luminous paint. He was also the first person to make colored (and white) luminous materials. In 1907 he invented and patented a process for producing colored phosphorescent materials by combining phosphorescent and fluorescent substances.

Back in the United States in the fall of 1902 and into 1903, Hammer applied his radium-luminous materials to thirty different objects: luminous dials for clocks and watches, toys, artificial flowers, radium luminous gun sights, taps and pulls for lamp sockets, switches, keyholes, push buttons, telephone transmitters, poison bottle labels, a small plaster figure, push pins, and writing implements among others. He did not patent the invention due to the scarcity and high cost of radium, but later in an important suit involving foreign and American patents of radium-luminous materials, his testimony and that of other noted scientists and professionals of the day who had visited his home and laboratory proved that his work completely anticipated that of all inventors both in the United States and abroad. In 1902 he was one of the first persons to be burned with radium.

Hammer gave eighty-eight lectures on the Curies' work and on radium and radioactive substances. He wrote the first book published on radium, Radium and other Radioactive Substances, 1903. Hammer proposed and used radium for cancer and tumor treatment, successfully treating and curing a tumor on his own hand in July 1903. Tie also supplied several hospitals with radioactive water he had made and conducted extensive experiments with x-rays, cathode-rays, radium-rays, ultraviolet lights, phosphorescence, fluorescence, and cold-light. He was probably the first to suggest many wartime uses for radium-luminous materials, such as airplanes, instruments, markers, barbed-wire, and landing fields.

Hammer also did important work with selenium, a nonmetallic element that resembles sulphur and tellurium chemically. It is obtained chiefly as a by-product in copper refining, and occurs in allotropic forms. A grey stable form varies in electrical conductivity depending on the intensity of its illumination and is used in electronic devices. Hammer invented selenium cells and apparatus, and suggested industrial uses for selenium and other light-sensitive cells.

In 1886 Hammer devised a system for automatically controlling street and other lights by use of a selenium cell. In 1892 he designed a torpedo that could be steered by searchlight and selenium cell. In the early 1900s he suggested many other uses for "light" cells, including burglar alarms, dynamo control, buoy, railroad signaling, automatic gun firing, transmission of music, stethoscope recorder, automatic operating shutters, automatic boiler feed, snow recorder, and electric motor control.

At the St. Louis Exposition of 1904 Hammer was Chairman of the Jury for Telegraphy, Telephony, and Wireless. He was also a member of the "Departmental" Jury ("Applied Science: Electricity") and of the committee appointed to organize the International Electrical Congress at St. Louis in 1904.

In 1906 Hammer received the "Elliott Cresson" gold medal from the Franklin Institute for his "Historical Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps," accumulated over thirty-four years. This collection received a special silver medal at the International Electrical Exposition at the Crystal Palace, London, England, in 1882, and "the Grand Prize" at the St. Louis Exposition of 1904.

During the First World war Hammer served as a major on the General Staff of the, Army War College, Washington, D.C., where he was attached to the Inventions Section of the War Plans Division and later to the operations Division at the war Department in charge of electrical and aeronautical war inventions. He did special work at the U.S. Patent office, marking and delaying patents that might be useful to the enemy and served on the Advisory Board of Experts attached to the Alien Property Commission. He was elected Historian general of the Military order of the World War (1926-1928) and was a member of the Society of American Military Engineers.

Hammer was an early aeronautics enthusiast and became the owner of one of the first airplanes sold in the United States to an individual. Even in his last few years of his life, Hammer's interest in airplanes did not wane. In 1931, by the permission of the Secretary of the -Navy, Hammer made a twelve-hour flight in the Los Angeles dirigible from the Lakehurst, New Jersey airdrome along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean to New York, flying over New York City at night.

Hammer served on numerous committees. In 1916 he was a member of a special committee, appointed by the Aeronautical Society of America. one of his responsibilities on this committee was to recommend methods for the formation of a reserve force of civilian aviators for the Army. At the start of World War I, Hammer was appointed chairman of a committee on camouflage by the Aeronautical Society. During the war, he flew airplanes and tested sound devices and was also among the first five selected out of thousands for the dissemination of propaganda into many countries. He also examined documents and papers captured from spies and prisoners of war to see if these material contained any technical matter of value to the U. S. Army.

Hammer traveled extensively as a delegate of the Military Order of World War I. For example, in 1922 he attended the aeronautical Congress and Flying Meet in Detroit, Michigan. In the same year he also attended Immigration Conferences of the National Civic Federation in New York.

Between 1922 and 1928 Hammer intensified his efforts in collecting and organizing autographed portraits of eminent scientific men, a project he had been working on for over forty-five years. Tie displayed many of these portraits with his Historical Collection of Incandescent Electrical Lamps in -his New York home. At this time he also prepared an elaborate bibliography on selenium and its industrial and scientific applications.

Major William Joseph Hammer, described by Edison as "my most valuable assistant at Menlo Park" died of pneumonia March 24, 1934.
'Electrical Diablerie':
"ELECTRICAL DIABLERIE"

N.Y. World, January 3, 1885 and Newark, N.J. Daily Advertiser and Journal, January 3, 1885

Some years ago, (1884) on New Year's eve, an entertainment was given at the home of Mr. William J. Hammer, in Newark, N.J., which, for the display of the powers of electricity has seldom, if ever, been equaled. Mr. Hammer, who has for years been associated with Mr. Edison, both in this country and in Europe, desiring to give his old classmates, the "Society of Seventy-Seven," a lively and interesting time, invited them to "an electrical dinner"at his home.

The invitations which were sent out were written upon Western Union telegram blanks with an Edison electric pen. When the guests arrived and entered the gate, the house appeared dark, but as they placed foot upon the lower step of the veranda a row of tiny electric lights over the door blazed out, and the number of the house appeared in bright relief. The next step taken rang the front door bell automatically, the third threw open the door, and at the same time made a connection which lit the gas in the hall by electricity.

Upon entering the house the visitor was invited to divest himself of his coat and hat, and by placing his foot upon an odd little foot-rest near the door, and pressing a pear-shaped pendant hanging from the wall by a silken cord, revolving brushes attached to an electric motor brushed the mud and snow from his shoes and polished them by electricity. As he was about to let go of the switch or button, a contact in it connected with a shocking coil, caused him to drop it like a hot potato. Up-stairs was a bedroom which would be a fortune to a lazy man; he had only to step on the door sill and the gas was instantly lighted. The ceiling was found to be covered with luminous stars, arranged to represent the principal constellations in the heavens-while comets, moons, etc., shone beautifully in the dark. By placing one's head on the pillow, the gas, fifteen feet away, would be extinguished and the phosphorescent stars on the ceiling would shine forth weirdly, and a phosphorescent moon rose from behind a cloud over the mantel and slowly describing a huge arch disappeared behind a bank of phosphorescent clouds on the other side of the room; by pressing the toe to the foot-board of the bed the gas could again be relit.

Pouring a teacup of water into the water clock on the mantel and setting the indicator would assure the awakening of the sleeper at whatever hour he might desire. There was also in the hall outside the room a large drum, which could be set to beat by electricity at the hour when the family wished to arise. The whole house was fitted throughout with electric bells, burglar alarms, fire alarms, telephones, electric cigar lighters, medical coils, phonographs, electric fans, thermostats, heat regulating devices, some seven musical instruments, operated by electricity, etc.

Upon the evening referred to nearly every. piece of furniture in the parlor was arranged to play its part. Sit on one chair and out went the gas, take another seat and it would light again; sitting on an ottoman produced a mysterious rapping under the floor; pressure on some chairs started off drums, triangles, tambourines, cymbals, chimes and other musical instruments; in fact, it seemed unsafe to sit down anywhere. The quests stood about in groups and whispered, each hoping to see his neighbor or a new comer caught napping.

One visitor (Brown) secured an apparently safe seat, and was telling a funny story--he had left electricity far behind--but just as he reached the climax, a pretty funnel-shaped Japanese affair like a big dunce cap, that seemed but a ceiling ornament which was held in place by an electromagnet, dropped from overhead and quietly covered him up, thus silently extinguishing the story and the story-teller.

A big easy chair placed invitingly between the folding doors joining the double, parlors sent the unwary sitter flying out of its recesses by the sudden deafening clamor of twenty-one electric bells hidden in the folds of the draperies hanging in the doorway. In a convenient position stood the silver lemonade pitcher and cup, the former was filled with the tempting beverage, but no matter how much a guest might desire to imbibe one touch convinced him that the pitcher and cup were so heavily charged with electricity as to render it impossible for him to pour out a drink or even to let go until the electricity was switched off from the hidden induction coil.

Some one proposed music, and half a selection had been enjoyed when something seemed to give way inside the piano, and suddenly there emanated from that bewitched instrument a conglomeration of sounds that drowned the voices of the singers, and the keys seemed to beat upon a horrible jangle of drums, gongs and various noise-producing implements which were fastened inside of and underneath the piano.

After the guest were treated to a beautiful display of electrical experiments, under the direction of Mr. Hammer, and Professor George C. Sonn, they were escorted to the dining-room, where an electrical dinner had been prepared and was presided over by 'Jupiter," who was in full dress, and sat at the head of the table, where by means of a small phonograph inside of his anatomy he shouted, "Welcome, society of Seventy-Seven and their friends to Jove's festive board." The menu was as follows: "Electric Toast," "Wizard Pie," "Sheol Pudding," "Magnetic Cake," "Telegraph Cake," "Telephone Pie," "Ohm-made Electric Current Pie," "Menlo Park Fruit," "Incandescent Lemonade," "'Electric Coffee" and "Cigars," etc., and music by Prof. Mephistopheles' Electric Orchestra.

About the table were pretty bouquets, and among the flowers shone tiny incandescent lamps, while near the center of the table was placed an electric fan which kept the air cool and pure, and at each end was a tiny Christmas tree lighted with small incandescent lamps, planted in a huge dish of assorted nuts and raisins. Each lamp had a dainty piece of ribbon attached to it upon which the initials of the Society and the date were printed, and each guest received a lamp to take away with him as a souvenir of the occasion. Plates of iced cakes made in the form of telephones, switches, bells, electric lamps, batteries, etc., stood on each side of the center piece.

Promptly at 12 o'clock, as the chimes of the distant churches came softly to the ears of the assembled quests, pandemonium seemed to change places with the modest dining-room. A cannon on the porch, just outside the door, and another inside the chimney, were unexpectedly discharged; and at this sudden roar, every man sprang back from the table; the lights disappeared; huge fire-gongs, under each chair beat a tattoo. The concussion produced by the cannon in the fireplace caused several bricks to come crashing down the chimney, and as the year of 1884 faded away, the table seemed bewitched. The "Sheol Pudding" blazed forth green and red flames illuminating the room, tiny tin boxes containing 'Greek" fire which had been placed over each window and door were electrically ignited by spirals of platinum iridium wire heated by a storage battery and blazed up suddenly; the "Telegraph Cake" clicked forth messages said to be press reports of the proceedings (it was also utilized to count the guests and click off the answers to various questions put to it); bells rang inside the pastry; incandescent lamps burned underneath the colored lemonade; the thunderbolt pudding discharged its long black bolts all over the room (long steel spiral springs covered with black cloth) and loud spirit rapping occurred under the table. The silver knives, forks and spoons were charged with electricity from a shocking coil and could not be touched, while the coffee and toast (made by electricity) were made rapidly absorbed; the "Magnetic Cake' disappeared; the "Wizard" and "Current Pies' vanished, and 'Jupiter" raising a glass to his lips began to imbibe.

The effect was astonishing! The gas instantly went out, a gigantic skeleton painted with luminous paint appeared and paraded about the room, while Jupiter's nose assumed the color of a genuine toper! His green eyes twinkled, the electric diamonds in his shirt front (tiny lamps) blazed forth and twinkled like stars, as he phonographically shouted "Happy New Year'. Happy New Year!" This "Master of Cererionies' now becoming more gentle, the guests turned their attention to the beautiful fruit piece, over four feet high, that stood in the center of the table. From the fruit hung tiny electric lamps, and the whole was surmounted by a bronze figure of Bartholdils "Statue of Liberty;" uplifted in "Miss Liberty's" right hand burned an Edison lamp no larger than a bean.

The dinner finished, and there was much that was good to eat, notwithstanding the "magical" dishes which they were first invited to partake of, speeches were delivered by Messrs. Hammer, Rutan, McDougall, 'Brown, Duneka, and Dawson, and an original poem was read by Mr. Van Wyck. Upon repairing to the parlors the guest saw Mr. Hammer's little sister, May, dressed in white and mounted upon a pedestal, representing the "Goddess of Electricity:" tiny electric lamps hung in her hair, and were also suspended as earrings, while she held a wand surmounted by a star, and containing a very small electric lamp.

Not the least interesting display of electricity took place in front of the house, where a fine display of bombs, rockets, Roman candles, Greek fire and other fireworks were set off by electricity, which was by the way, the first time this had been accomplished. The guests were requested to press button switches ranged along the front veranda railing thus causing electricity from a storage battery to heat to a red heat tiny platinum iridium spirals attached to each fuse of the various pieces of fireworks thus sending up rocket after rocket, as well as igniting the other pieces which had been placed in the roadway in front of the house.

An attempt was made to send up a large hot air balloon to which was attached a tiny storage battery and an incandescent signal lamp but a sudden gust of wind caused the ballon to take fire as it rose fr(xn the ground. This constituted the only experiment made during the evening which was not an unqualified success. The innumerable electrical devices shown during the progress of the dinner were all operated by Mr. Hammer, who controlled various switches fastened to the under side of the table and attached to a switchboard, which rested on his lap, while the two cannons were fired by lever switches on the floor, which he operated by the pressure of the foot. Electricity was supplied by primary and storage batteries placed under the table. After an exhibition of electrical apparatus and experiments with a large phonograph, the guests departed with a bewildered feeling that somehow they had been living half a century ahead of the new year."
Expositions and Exhibitions:
The many Expositions held at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries were important for the Edison Electric Company's future business. In particular the Paris Electrical Exposition, 1881, and the Crystal Palace Exposition in London in 1892 were introductions for the company's international business enterprises. Edison, therefore, sent his ablest men from the Menlo Park staff (Batchelor, Hammer, Jehl, Johnson) to Europe to oversee the installation and promotion of the company's exhibits.

THE INTERNATIONAL PARIS EXPOSITION OF 1881

The International Paris Electrical Exposition was held during the summer of 1881. Many of Edison's electric lighting systems, ranging from arc lights to incandescent devices, were exhibited. A model of the Edison central-station lighting system showed an arrangement of incandescent lights within a complete electrical distributing system, including novel appliances and controls of the Edison system. "The completeness of its conception made a profound impression on the foremost European electrical engineers of that era." (Josephson, Matthew. Edison, A Biography. p. 252). Edison also exhibited his first "Jumbon generator. It was "direct-connected" to its driving engine, another area in which Edison pioneered. Edison improved upon the original design of William Wallace's "Telemachon' - a generator coupled to a water-powered turbine. Wallace had earlier in the decade produced the first dynamo in America.

Charles Batchelor headed the Edison exhibits within Paris. Edison received many gold medals and diplomas and was awarded the ribbon of the Legion of Honor.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains various reports and catalogues exhibited at the International Exposition of Electricity. (Series 3, Box 44, Folders 1-4)

THE CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION OF 1882

At the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1882 in London, Edison displayed a great many of his inventions, including: the steam dynamo; specimens of street pipes and service boxes used in the Edison underground system of conductors, and the system of house conductors with devices for preventing abnormal increase of energy in house circuits; apparatus for measuring the resistance of his lamps, for measuring the energy consumed in lamps, and rheostats for restoring currents; also thermogalvano-meters, carbon rheostats, dynamometers, photometers, carbon regulators, Weber meters,, current regulators, and circuit breakers for controlling electric light circuits; the carbon relay, the pressure relay, and the expansion relay; the telegraph system in Morse characters; and the Roman character automatic telegraph.

Thomas Edison also exhibited the carbon telephone, the musical telephonograph, telephone repeater, and numerous apparatus for demonstrating the method of varying the resistance of a closed circuit by contact with carbon, illustrative of the experimental factors of the Edison carbon transmitter. Incandescent lamps, the process of the manufacture of lamps, and various designs of electric light chandeliers were also on display.

Hammer won the silver medal at the exposition for the first complete development of the incandescent electric lamp from its initial stages to date. At the exhibition the first hand-operated flashing electric lamp sign was displayed, which was invented and built by Hammer.

The collection contains photographs of the Edison dynamo, and the Edison Electric Lighting Plant of 1882 erected by Hammer. The official Catalogue of the International Electric and Gas Exhibition, and various articles from the Daily Telegraph, Daily Chronicle, and Daily News are also included within the collection (Series 4, Box 99 and Series 3, Box 42, Folder 1-2).

THE BERLIN EXPOSITION OF 1883.

The Berlin Exposition of 1883 had the first motored flashing electric sign designed, built and operated by Hammer. The electric sign spelled out the word "Edison" letter by letter and was used on the Edison pavilion in the Health Exposition. It has most features of today's flashing sign.

The collection contains two photographs of the first flashing sign (Series 4, Box 99).

THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRICAL EXHIBITION OF 1884

The Franklin Institute International Electrical Exhibition was held in Philadelphia from September 2 to October 14, 1884. Many of Edison's companies had display booths at the exhibition. The Edison Electric Light Company showed in operation their system of house lighting as supplied from a central station. The Edison Company for Isolated Lighting exhibited their system of lighting factories, hotels, hospitals, and other places situated beyond the reach of a central lighting station. A full assortment of Edison lamps and dynamos also made up parts of other exhibits. Also displayed at the exhibition was the first flashing column of light, which Hammer designed and built.

Included within the collection are a variety of photographs of the exhibitions. Four pamphlets also are contained in the collection (Series 3, Box 1, Folder 3), (Series 4, Box 99).

THE EXPOSITION OF THE OHIO VALLEY AND THE CENTRAL STATES OF 1888

The Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States, in Cincinnati from July 4 to October 27, was in honor of the one hundredth anniversary of the settlement of Cincinnati. The exposition showed the progress and ramifications of the first hundred years of this settlement.

The space occupied by permanent buildings was greater than that covered by any building for exhibiting purposes on the Western continent. T',ie exposition developed the Electric Light Plant to make a special feature of electric lighting in the evening. Several companies used this opportunity to make exhibits of their apparatus and for their equipment to be used for illumination. The Edison Lamps were used for displays in showcases and pavilions of exhibitors of the Park Building.

The collection contains photographs of the halls of the exposition and a poster which is a souvenir of the electrical display of the exposition. An official Guide of the Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States is included within the collection. (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Box 42, Folder 4).

THE SUMMER CARNIVAL AND ELECTRICAL EXHIBITION, ST. JOHN, NEW BRUNSWICK, 1889

The Summer Carnival and Electric Exhibition held at St. John, New Brunswick, Canada was to celebrate the opening of the Canadian Pacific Short Line to St. John and Portland. The Electrical Exhibition was the most popular of the displays present, containing the Monster Edison Lanm, the Mysterious Electric Fountain, and many other inventions.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains a poster that illustrates some of the leading exhibits at the Electrical Exhibition (Series 4, Box 99).

PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION OF 1889

The Universal Exposition of 1889 held in Paris was larger than all previous expositions held there. The famous Eiffel Tower was its principal attraction.

A large portion of the exhibit hall within the Palace of Mechanical Industries contained Thomas Edison's electrical inventions, including various electric lamps for use in houses. Variations of the telephone also were shown. During the Paris Exposition Europeans were exposed to the phonograph for the first time. Hammer represented Edison's interests at the Paris Exhibition.

The collection contains articles from New York World, New York Herald and Electrical World on Edison's exhibits at the Paris Exposition (Series 3, Box 44, folder 6). A scrapbook of photographs from the exhibition showing exhibit buildings and halls and loose photographs showing Edison's exhibits are included in the collection (Series 4, Box 98).

THE CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION OF 1892

The Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1892 was held in London. Hammer displayed a great variety of products in the machine room of the Electrical Exhibition. Sockets for controlling individual incandescent lamps on alternating currents and the Ward Arc Lamp for use on incandescent circuits were just a few of the items displayed. Edison's companies displayed specimens of all types of incandescent electric lamps for public and private illumination. They also displayed primary batteries for use in telegraphy, telephony, household work, and engines.

The William, J. Hammer Collection contains a variety of photographs of the electrical exhibition. The Official Catalogue and Guide of the Electrical Exhibition is also contained within the collection (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Folder 2, Box 42).

LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION, 1904

The Louisiana Purchase Expostition of 1904, held in St. Louis, Missouri from April 30 to December 1, celebrated the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase. The nineteen million people who attended made it the largest exposition ever. The year 1904 marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of Edison's invention of the carbon filament lamp and central power station system.

F.J.V. Skiff, the exhibits classifier for the fair, developed a twofold classificatory arrangement. He organized exhibits in a sequential synopsis corresponding to the sixteen different departments of the exposition. The principal exhibition buildings were built in the shape of a fan. The departments of education, art, liberal arts, and applied sciences-including electricity - headed the classification, Skiff noted, because they "equip man for the battle and prepare him for the enjoyments of life.' Departments devoted to displays of raw materials such as agriculture, horticulture, !inning, forestry, fish and game came next. Anthropology, social economy, and physical culture concluded the classification.

The Hammer collection contains photographs of Hammer with other Chairmen of Domestic and Foreign Jurors of the Electricity Section of the International Jury of Awards of the Louisiana Exposition and Hammer as chairman of the jury on telegraphy, telephony, and wireless. (Series 4, Box 102). A pamphlet by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company on the exhibit of the Radiophone at the Department of Applied Science is also part of the collection (Series 3, Box 42, Folder 5).

THE PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION OF 1915

The Panama Pacific Exposition celebrated the opening of the Panama Canal and the four hundredth anniversary of the European discovery of the Pacific Ocean. It was held in San Francisco from February 20 to December 4, 1915. Approximately nineteen million people attended the exposition.

The eleven main buildings of the exposition were grouped around a central court of the Sun and Stars at the entrance of which was the famous Tower of Jewels. The main group of exhibits comprised the Palaces of Education, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Varied Industries, Mines,

Transportation, Agriculture, Horticulture and all kinds of food products. During the exposition special days were set aside to honor industrialists Henry Ford and Thomas Edison. The Pacific Gas and Electric Company provided a large searchlight to flash out a Morse code greeting on the nighttime sky for their arrival.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains a pamphlet on the "Illumination of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition." The pamphlet describes the lighting of the exposition, and the use of arc lamps ' searchlights, incandescent electric lamps, and gas lamps (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Box 43).
Provenance:
Collection donated by IBM, 1962.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fluorescence  Search this
Electrical engineering  Search this
Incandescent lamps  Search this
Phosphorescence  Search this
Selenium cells  Search this
Cathode rays  Search this
X-rays  Search this
Radium  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0069
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0069
Online Media:

Lima Locomotive Works, Inc., Service Department Records

Creator:
Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Corporation  Search this
Lima Railroad, Inc.  Search this
Collector:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (17 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Card files
Place:
Ohio
Lima (Ohio)
Date:
1919-1949
Summary:
The Service Department Records document the activity of the service and sales department of Lima Locomotive Works. Lima Locomotive Works manufactured Shay Locomotives in Lima, Ohio, from 1879 to 1980 when production ended. This collection contains cards describing the purchasing and selling of Shay Locomotives, maintenance of the locomotives, and sales calls made by the company.
Scope and Contents:
The Lima Locomotive Works, Inc., Service Department Records document the activity of the service and sales department of Lima Locomotive Works. The records consist of 5" x 7" cards.
The Lima Locomotive Works, Inc., Service Department Records document the activity of the service and sales department of Lima Locomotive Works. The records consist of 5" x 7" cards.
Arrangement:
The collection is one series with sixteen subseries.

Series 1, Service Department Records, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.1, Locomotive Number, undated

Subseries 1.2, Town Cards, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.3, Shay Locomotives in the United States, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.4, Shay Locomotives in Canada, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.5, Shay Locomotives in Foreign Countries, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.6, Direct Locomotives in the United States, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.7, United States Dead Files, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.8, Foreign Dead Files, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.9, Locomotive by United States Location, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.10, Locomotive by Canadian Location, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.11, Locomotive by Foreign Location, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.12, Inactive Shay Locomotive Owners, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.13, Visit Records, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.14, Dead Shay Ownership Cards, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.15, Road Repairs in the United States, 1919-1949

Subseries 1.16, Road Repairs in Canada, 1919-1949
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in 1879, Lima Locomotive Works manufactured locomotives in Lima, Ohio. James Alley contracted the Lima Locomotive Works (then Lima Machine Works) to build the locomotive designed by Ephraim Shay. A few years later, the first Shay Geared Steam Locomotive was off the production line and on the rails. The Shay Geared Steam Locomotive became an especially popular mode of transporting lumber not only in the United States, but world wide. What made it different was the unusual cylinder arrangement. Two vertical cylinders drove a crankshaft, which in turn drove a pair of geared trucks through a system of universal joints and sliding shafts. By the 1940s, companies were seeking out a faster mode of rail transportation, and the Lima Locomotive Works ceased production of the Shay Geared Steam Locomotive and began its Diesel Locomotive line.

In 1947, General Machinery Corporation and Lima merged to form the Lima-Hamilton Corporation. By this time, the corporation focused solely on the Diesel Locomotives, but still faltered. The Lima-Hamilton Corporation merged with Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1950 to form Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton (BLH). Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton discontinued the production of the Lima-Hamilton's Diesel Locomotive, and only produced Baldwin's Diesel. Unable to keep up with its competitors, BLH stopped all locomotive production in 1956, and in 1980, BLH finally closed its operations.
Provenance:
Unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroad companies  Search this
Locomotives  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 20th century
Card files
Citation:
Lima Locomotive Works, Inc., Service Department Records, 1919-1949, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1180
See more items in:
Lima Locomotive Works, Inc., Service Department Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1180

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Negatives

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company.  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Names:
Modjeski, Ralph, 1861-1940  Search this
Extent:
2.33 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1890-1915, undated.
Summary:
The photographic images in this collection are largely of railway bridge construction and other properties owned by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company at the turn of the twentieth century. Images are of two distinct projects (mostly construction) taken in and around the St. Louis, Missouri area (1890-1900): of a bridge project (name and location unknown) spanning 1902-1903; and of the construction of the Metropolis Bridge (that crosses the Ohio River at Metropolis, Illinois, about 12 miles south of Paducah, Kentucky) between 1914-1915. For the latter project Ralph Modjeski originally served as consultant engineer and then as chief civil engineer of construction. There are also negatives of unidentified bridge construction.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes approximately 230 glass plate negatives depicting railway bridge construction; 41 negatives, dated 1890 to 1894, depicting construction and railroad facilities in St. Louis, Missouri (including the Mound Street Viaduct and the buildings at the corner of Main and Brooklyn Streets); and 36 negatives showing construction work at the Metropolis (Illinois) Bridge from 1914-1915.

Court testimony in an accidental injury claim (Kersten vs. Hines, no. 21593) indicates these sites are located in St. Louis, Missouri, and were at the time owned by the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis. The envelope containing these negatives marks them as the property of F.H. Cramer, Bridge Engineer with the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad.

Negatives in Subseries 3 are themselves undated. The containing envelope indicates the photos depict construction work at the Metropolis Bridge by Carter H. Harrison Jr., 1914-1915.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.

Series 1, Photographic negatives, 1890-1915, undated
Biographical/Historical note:
In the later part of the 1800s and throughout the Progressive Era, the United States experienced a great expansion of its railroad industry, which resulted in many partnerships, mergers, and changes in leadership. Among railroad companies that became a dominant force in the industry was the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company (originally the Aurora Branch Railroad), which was purchased in 1901 by James Jerome Hill. Hill, a businessman and resident of St. Paul, Minnesota, also owned the Great Northern Railway and other entities. Hill's other business interests included mining, timber, land, and livestock--all industries with ties to the transportation industry, and particularly to railroads as the country became more reliant upon this mode of transportation. Hill was noted for his business acumen and competition with other wealthy men and families of the time--J.P. Morgan, the Rockefellers, and E.H. Harriman of the Union Pacific--who eventually pooled their resources to form the Northern Securities Company.

Northern Securities Company was a holding company, set up to hold a controlling part of the stock of other companies, essentially to control four big railroads of the Northwest. During a period of much labor unrest and migration to the country's Midwestern and Northwestern regions, people were left at the mercy of one big conglomerate that had a stronghold on the industry. It is important to note that the Northwestern Securities Company (at President Theodore Roosevelt's request) was sued by the United States government through invocation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

In March of 1904, the Supreme Court, by a vote of 5 to 4, ruled in favor of the United States and ordered the Northern Securities Company dissolved (Northern Securities Company vs. United States 193 U.S. 197). While the images in this collection are not known to be tied to the court case, they do provide details of many construction projects that are significant to the railroad expansion occurring at that time. The bulk of the collection focuses on railway bridge construction. Also included are photos of the Metropolis Bridge in Metropolis, Illinois, which was overseen in part by Ralph Modjeski. Modjeski was a lauded civil engineer who wrote the engineering manual Standard Designs for Steel Bridges for the Northern Pacific Railway Company. Additionally, the collection includes earlier photographic negatives showing construction from 1890 to 1894 of the Mound Street Viaduct and buildings at the corner of the Main and Brooklyn Streets in St. Louis, Missouri.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, subject category Railroads (AC0060)

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, circa 1826-1943, 1951 (AC1086)

Wilbur L. Metz Collection of Railroad Ephemera, 1910-1986 (AC1172)

Northern Pacific Railway Photoprints, 1880-1945 (AC1067)

Wheeling and Lake Erie Photographs, 1925-1942 (AC1075)

Materials at Other Organizations

The Newberry Library

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company, 1820-1999

Minnesota Historical Society

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company Corporate records, 1855-1983 (bulk 1901-1970)
Provenance:
Originally collected by the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (now called the Division of Work and Industry). Exact date and source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Bridges  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Railroad bridges  Search this
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Railroad tracks  Search this
Railroads -- Rolling-stock  Search this
Railroads -- Employees  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th century
Citation:
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Negatives, 1890-1915, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1080
See more items in:
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1080
Online Media:

Erie Railroad Collection

Creator:
Erie Railroad Company  Search this
Olevsky, Walter  Search this
Donor:
ConRail  Search this
ConRail  Search this
Collector:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
57 Cubic feet (59 boxes, 97 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Mechanical drawings
Tracings
Glass negatives
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
circa 1880-1980
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of six hundred sixty-eight (668) glass negatives relating to the Erie Railroad. Subjects include stations, train cars, railroad employees, employees' recreational activities, ferries, construction, street scenes, and resort hotels; drawings of structures built by the various railroads which, at the time of the donation, constituted the Consolidated Rail Corporation. Included are linen tracings, blueprints, and mechanical copies; and two cubic feet of photoprints made from negatives in the Erie Railroad Collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series. Series 1: Photographs

Series 2: Glass Plate Negatives Series 3: Lists Series 4: Subject Files Series 5: Specifications for Bridges, Buildings and Terminals Series 6: Drawings Series 7: Bridge Notebooks
Biographical / Historical:
The Erie Railroad was founded in 1832 by large group of investors from the Southern Tier Counties of New York. Among these investors, businessman Eleazar Lord had been among the originators and later became the first president of the company. The railroad's construction took place from 1832 to 1851 with a seven-year pause between 1842 and 1849.

At the time of its completion, the Erie Railroad was the largest railway system in the United States, both in length, 446 miles, and in gauge, six feet. Thanks to its tracks span from New Jersey to Illinois and itsabove-average gauge, it could transport larger cargo.

Throughout its history the company underwent numerous bankruptcies and merged with several companies. The first merger was in 1960 with the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad creating the Erie Lackawanna Railroad. The second was in 1976 when the once-again bankrupt company merged with five other lines to create Conrail.

Source

Allegany County Historical Society, Andover, New York

https://www.alleganyhistory.org/culture/transportation/railroads/erie-railroad/1060-the-erie-railroad (Last accessed on Decemeber 3, 2019)
Provenance:
Originally collected by the National Museum of American History's Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering's reference collection.

In 1978, 668 glass plate negatives documenting Erie railroad stations were purchaed from Walter Olevsky; in 1987 drawings of structures built by the various railroads which, at the time of the donation, constituted the Consolidated Rail Corporation were donated; and in 2007, two cubic feet of photoprints and nine cubic feet of archival records were transferred from the Division of Work and Industry to the Archives Center.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Railroads -- Employees  Search this
Railroads -- Rolling-stock  Search this
Railroad tracksdrawings  Search this
Railroad stations -- United States  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Mechanical drawings
Tracings
Glass negatives
Photographs -- 19th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Drawings
Citation:
Erie Railroad Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1082
See more items in:
Erie Railroad Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1082

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records

Collector:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Donor:
ConRail  Search this
ConRail  Search this
Creator:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad  Search this
Names:
Passaic Steel Company (Paterson, N.J.)  Search this
Extent:
22.3 Cubic feet (1 box, 59 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Cyanotypes
Place:
Paterson (N.J.)
Hoboken (N.J.)
Date:
1878-1971
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of: a 1903 book of photographs entitled "Illustrations Showing the Works of the Passaic Steel Company at Paterson, New Jersey"; photograph albums (including several cyanotype albums) of the port of Hoboken, the terminal and buildings and other structures; a "souvenir" photograph album of the Clarks Summit/Halstead cut-off, 1914, published by the American Society of Civil Engineers; reports from the 1950s and 1960s itemizing the precise costs of the elements of the Hoboken terminal; track maps; and approximately 10,000 oversized drawings, tracings and blueprints of structures built by the railroad.
Arrangement:
Collection divided into two series.

Series 1: Business Records

Series 2: Drawings
Historical:
The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on April 7, 1832, as the Liggetts Gap Railroad Company. Its name was changed to the Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company on April 14, 1851, and to the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western (DL&W) Railroad Company on March 11, 1853, at which time it absorbed the Delaware & Cobbs Gap Railroad Company.

The first section of railroad, from Scranton to Great Bend, opened in October, 1851. The Southern Division of the railroad was opened between Scranton and the Delaware River on May 27, 1856, forming a more direct route to New York City in connection with the Warren Railroad and the Central Railroad of New Jersey. The DL&W leased the Morris & Essex Railroad in 1868 and, after upgrading it to permit a heavy coal tonnage, secured its own line to New York Harbor. Other extensions carried the Lackawanna to Utica, Syracuse, Ithaca, and Oswego in central New York State and to Buffalo in the early 1880s. The DL&W had a particular advantage in that it was allowed to directly operate coal mines. The DL&W began mining on its own account in 1851, when a Coal Department was organized. The Lackawanna was exceptionally well placed to supply both New York City and New England via the Southern Division and also upstate New York, the Great Lakes, and Canada via the Northern Division.

The DL&W was still bound by its 1856 traffic contract with the Central of New Jersey, and on March 16, 1872, the two companies agreed to consolidate, being managed by a joint committee of directors from the two companies. However, the two companies were actually now competitors, with roughly parallel lines between Scranton and New York. The consolidation broke up after about a year over arguments as to which company would be the dominant partner. All connection between the two companies was severed in 1875.

During the long presidency of the conservative Samuel Sloan (1867-1899), the road became extremely prosperous as a coal hauler. Financial control was exercised by Moses Taylor and his National City Bank of New York, who had bought into the company at the time of the Panic of 1857. In March 1876 the DL&W converted from 6-foot gauge to standard gauge.

In 1880 Jay Gould acquired an interest in the company and promoted its extension to Buffalo (1882), giving it a significant share of the truck line business for the first time. However, Taylor and his successors refused Gould any further voice in the management. In 1890 William Rockefeller became a director, reflecting the alliance between the Standard Oil group and the National City Bank.

William H. Truesdale replaced Sloan as president and began a massive modernization of both the company's management and the physical plant. The company began issuing full annual reports for the first time since 1857. Two major line relocations were built to the highest engineering standards, across western New Jersey and between Scranton and Binghamton, to improve grades and clearances. They featured massive cuts and fills and huge viaducts, the Tunkhannock Viaduct, 240 feet high, being the largest concrete arch bridge in the world. The DL&W was a pioneer in the adoption of reinforced concrete construction for all types of structures. Under Truesdale's successor, John M. Davis, the principal New Jersey commuter services were electrified in the early 1930s.

After successful government prosecution of the other anthracite railroads for antitrust violations, the DL&W voluntarily divested itself of its Coal Dept., which became the Glen Alden Coal Company in 1921.

After World War II the DL&W hoped to merge with its principal western connection, the Nickle Plate, but was unsuccessful. After continuing losses from commuter service and heavy storm damage to its main lines in 1955, the company began to explore the possibility of consolidation with the roughly parallel Erie Railroad. The merger, forming the Erie Lackawanna Railroad Company, took effect on October 17, 1960.

Source

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company records, Accession 1643, Manuscripts and Archives Department, Hagley Museum and Library
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Manuscripts and Archives Department, Hagley Museum and Library

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company records, 1849-1960

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company Coal Department photographs (Accession 1990.267), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department

The Enderlin Collection of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company Records, 1835-1956

The collection consists of material acquired by Enderlin during his career with the Lackawanna, primarily the kind of historical miscellany that flowed into the secretary's office. Two-thirds of the collection consists of newsclippings on labor matters (ca. 1900-1919), and the remainder of agreements, letters of resignation, statistics and rough minutes. John G. Enderlin was born on August 16, 1888. In 1903, he began work as an office boy in the New York City headquarters of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, rising through the ranks in the president's and secretary's offices to become secretary-treasurer in 1933. He retired at the end of 1956 and died on September 28, 1981.

Syracuse University Libraries

Lackawanna County Historical Society

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad was one of the largest and most prosperous anthracite mining and transporting companies in Pennsylvania.Their records consist of minutes of the DL&W and its two direct predecessors.
Provenance:
The oversized items were donated to the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering by Consolidated Rail Corporation (ConRail) through William M. Wehner in 1987. Provenance for the rest of the collection is unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroad stations -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Cyanotypes
Citation:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1074
See more items in:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1074

Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Kingsford, Katherine  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Place:
Panama Canal (Panama)
Panama
Date:
circa 1904-1914
Summary:
An album of photographs of Panama and the Panama Canal, circa 1904-1914.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of a disbound album of photographs relating to the Panama Canal, including a few construction scenes, vessels traveling through the Canal, urban and rural street scenes, housing, hospital scenes, historic buildings, and people. The three inch by three inch photographic prints are mounted on black album paper and most are badly faded and unidentified. Most of the photographs are informal and have the feel of snapshots taken by an amateur photographer. There are a few larger format photographs. Also included is the Official Handbook of the Panama Council, 1913.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series.

Series 1, Photograph Album, circa 1904-1914
Biographical / Historical:
On November 18, 1903, the United States and Panama negotiated the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, which granted the United States. permission to construct a canal that would join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Construction for the Panama Canal began on May 4, 1904. The large workforce -- at its highest population in 1913 it numbered 44,733 men, not including those sick, on leave, or otherwise absent -- had a great impact on Panama. As there were not enough amenities to accommodate them when they arrived, the workers built entire communities, paved streets, improved communication systems, and installed water and sewage systems. Likewise, the railroad was improved for more efficient transportation of supplies, labor, food, and equipment. Much to the credit of Chief Sanitary Officer Dr. William Crawford Gorgas, yellow fever was completely eradicated on the isthmus and malaria cases greatly reduced. Native villages and towns along the planned construction route were required to relocate.

The first self-propelled, ocean-bound vessel traveled on the canal on January 7, 1914, and the canal was formally opened in August of that year. The Panama Canal construction project was the most expensive construction project in United States history to that date, costing $375,000,000.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

William Currie Photograph Album (AC1043)

John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook (AC0708)

Roland A. McCrady Photograph Collection (AC0710)

Robert Dearborn Panama Canal Photonegatives (AC1111)

W.A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album (AC1021)

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection (AC0143)

W.P. Stine Panama Canal Papers (AC1039)
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History's Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (now Division of Work and Industry) by Katherine Kingsford in1982. It was transferred to the Archives Center in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1040
See more items in:
Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1040

David Plowden Steel Manufacturing Photographs

Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Plowden, David  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1981
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs documenting the steel industry. Subjects include blast furnaces, steel mills, ore barges, and other related subjects.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical/Historical note:
David Plowden (1932-) is an American photographer of urban cities, steam trains, American farmlands, and small towns.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

David Plowden North American Bridge Photographs

Photographs Plowden took of bridges, aqueducts and viaducts all over the United States and a few in Canada. The photographs are of various types of bridges: truss, suspension, covered. Some photographs feature close-up details of architectural elements, such as arches, chains, towers and ornamentation.

Materials at Other Organizations

Chicago History Museum

David Plowden photograph collection

Includes photographs of steel mills and coke plants, automobile assembly factories, oil refineries, printing plants, food processing plants, and other industries in Chicago's Central Manufacturing District and other locations in the Chicago metropolitan area and northern Indiana. Includes transportation yards for railroads and trucks, and some scenes of the Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor. Many buildings show the demise of industry in these locations.

Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

David Plowden photographs and papers, 1948-2011

This collection consists of photographs and papers that document the work of David Plowden as a photographer and author, 1948-2011.

Buffalo History Museum

David Plowden photographic collection, 1968-1985

featuring Buffalo waterfront scenes, grain elevators, steel mills, and Great Lakes steamers. Also includes photographs of places other than Buffalo.

Library of Congress

Photographs of architecture, landscapes, and transportation in the United States and Canada

hese large-format photographs show details of vernacular architecture buildings such as barns; rural, small town, industrial, and urban landscape scenes; and transportation (railroads, ferries, steamships, and roadways).
Provenance:
Collection donated by David Plowden, 1985.
Donated by David Plowden to the Museum's Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (now Division of Work and Industry) in 1984.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Blast furnaces  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
David Plowden Steel Manufacturing Photographs, 1981, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1020
See more items in:
David Plowden Steel Manufacturing Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1020

Robert Lee Weide Photographs

Donor:
Blake, Beverly B.  Search this
Blake, Beverly B.  Search this
Collector:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Photographer:
Weide, Robert Lee  Search this
Names:
James Baird Company (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Madeira School (McLean, Va.)  Search this
Potomac Electric Power Company (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
United States. Bureau of Engraving and Printing  Search this
Hatfield, Devil Anse, 1839-1921  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Photographs
Place:
West Virginia -- Logan
West Virginia -- White Sulphur Springs
Guyandotte River
Coosawattee River
Virginia -- Buffalo Springs
Virginia -- Bedford City
Pennsylvania -- Ridgway
Ohio -- Salem
Virginia -- New Castle
Virginia -- Covington
Virginia -- Clifton Forge
Date:
1910-1933.
Scope and Contents:
Photographs and photograph albums documenting engineering projects with which Robert Weide was involved. They include the Potomac Electric Power Company plant in Washington, D.C.; the Bureau of Engraving and Printing building in Washington, D.C.;. a hydroelectric plant on the James River for Bedford City, Virginia; a power plant in Salem, Ohio; a power plant in Ridgway, Pennsylvania; a power plant in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia; a power plant in Logan, West Virginia; a dam project at Coleman Falls, Virginia; the Madeira School in Fairfax, Virginia; a railroad bridge at Clifton Forge, Virginia; a railroad station at Buffalo Springs, Virginia; and other projects. Also includes images of families, street scenes, and recreational activities (such as fishing and picnicking) at some of these locations. Devil Anse Hatfield (of the Hatfield-McCoy feud,) is in some of the photographs.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Lee Weide was a construction engineer who worked for the James Baird Company of Washington, D.C.
Provenance:
Donated by Beverly B. Blake in 1980 to the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (now called the Division of Work and Industry).
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dams  Search this
Railroad stations -- Virginia  Search this
Railroad bridges  Search this
Power plants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Robert Lee Weide Photographs, 1910-1933, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1012
See more items in:
Robert Lee Weide Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1012

J. Parker Snow Collection

Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Snow, J. Parker  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Notebooks
Writings
Correspondence
Date:
1882-1933
bulk 1930-1933
Summary:
The J. P. Snow Papers document Snow's history of wooden bridges and his work as a civil engineer. The history was written in the 1930s with Robert Fletcher, Director Emeritus of the Thayer School of Civil Engineering at Dartmouth College.
Scope and Contents:
Snow's engineering notebook, 1882; notes relating to his writings on the history of wooden bridges; drafts and manuscripts for articles he wrote on the development of wooden bridges; and correspondence, especially with engineering journals relating to efforts to get his manuscripts published.
Correspondence, drafts of manuscript, notes, and an engineering notebook comprise the J. Parker Snow Collection.

Series 1, History of wooden bridges, 1930-1933, undated, contains material relating to Snow and Fletcher's unpublished manuscript. Snow corresponded with Fletcher regarding topics addressed in the book and the status of their writing. He also corresponded with John W. Storr, another civil engineer with an extensive knowledge of wooden bridges, and Sydney Wilmot, the editor planning to publish the history.

Series 2, Engineering projects, 1882, 1930-1931, consists of material related to various civil engineering projects, primarily bridges, with which Snow was associated. The engineering notebook contains detailed drawings of kilns and arches and information on various types of bridges, including railroad bridges.
Arrangement:
System of Arrangement: The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1, History of Wooden Bridges, 1930-1933, undated

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1930-1933, undated

Subseries 2, Drafts of manuscript, 1932-1933, undated

Series 2, Engineering projects, 1882, 1930-1931
Biographical / Historical:
J. Parker Snow was an American civil engineer with an interest in wooden bridges. He partnered with Robert Fletcher, the Director Emeritus of the Thayer School of Civil Engineering at Dartmouth College, to write a manuscript on the history of wooden bridges in the United States. This manuscript was not published. Both were members of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Llewellyn N. Edwards Collection (AC0959) contains extensive correspondence with J. Parker Snow regarding the history of wooden bridges.
Provenance:
Source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Wooden bridges  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 1850-1900
Writings
Correspondence -- 1930-1940
Citation:
J. Parker Snow Collection, 1882-1933, (bulk 1930-1933) Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1000
See more items in:
J. Parker Snow Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1000
Online Media:

George W. Sims Papers

Collector:
Community Life, Div. of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
National Anthropological Archives  Search this
Community Life, Div. of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
National Anthropological Archives  Search this
Author:
Sims, George W.  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (22 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Manuscripts
Audiotapes
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Carmel (Calif.)
Panama Canal (Panama)
California
Date:
1896-1981.
Summary:
Collection documents Sims's activities as a traveler and his interest in historic restoration. It includes forty-one notebooks, 6,000 color slides, a smaller number of photographic prints, forty-one stereo view cards, and three boxes of personal papers and ephemera. While some images are personal, the majority form a documentary record of various subjects and places and provide biographical information on Sims.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document Sims's activities as a traveler and his interest in historic restoration. They consist of forty-one notebooks, Series 1-4; and three boxes, Series 5-9, of personal papers and ephemera. Series 5-7 are particularly valuable for biographical information. Series 10 includes 6,000 color slides, a smaller number of photographic prints, and forty-one stereo view cards. The total volume of the collection is approximately eleven linear feet.

The notebooks cover the years 1896, 1908-1913, 1918, and 1934-1976. The notebooks are written in a documentary styles that is enhanced by literary touches and perceptive details. The subjects include visits to several national parks, the Boronda adobe, and travel on most continents.

The 6,000 35mm slides that Sims took between 1944 and 1976 portray the use of the automobile in travel, national and international touring, and family travel. They are organized by either trip or location. They document his collecting, research, and restoration interests, and complement his written and artistic work. In technique, Sims's photographs are at least a cut above amateur photography. The slides remain in the order in which the Archives Center received them. In some cases they are organized, captioned, and numbered as a slide program. In other cases, while they are captioned they are not part of a specific slide program that Sims organized. Usually the identification in the Detailed Container List represents Sims' s own captions, which have been copied from the slide sleeves.

While some images are personal, the majority form a documentary record of various subjects and places. All the slides are dated and labeled or captioned, either on box inserts or on the slides themselves. The slides are generally organized by trip. Of particular interest is the documentation of Sims's restoration of the Boronda adobe. These slides are well captioned and show the step by step process.

The slides include many early Kodachromes from the 1940s in excellent condition. These represent the few examples of this type in the Museum. Although these slides are not extraordinarily rare, they are a very early example of the color process.

There are also black and white prints and a few color prints. Some of these document an automobile trip along the California coast in the 1930s. All the black-and-white prints portray the photographer for Sims's concern to document his travels adequately and in a meaningful way.

The three document boxes of supplemental material includes articles, correspondence (for example, a letter to Sims from the Henry Ford Museum thanking him for donating an oral history of a motoring trip he had taken), business cards, certificates of achievement, hotel ephemera, news clippings (Series 12), published travel accounts, printed travel brochures, and audio tapes (Series 11), in which Sims recounts many of his trips over the years. This material is valuable because it provides biographical information on Sims. It also may be useful for exhibits and research. Much of the material—the hotel ephemera and the printed travel brochures and accounts—is similar to ephemera in the Warshaw Collection.

Sims's photographs are similar in content to two other collections in the Archives Center. The Clyde W. Stauffer Family Photographic Album portrays family automobile trips across the United States between 1935 and 1940. The Donald Sultner Welles Collection of travel slides documents locations throughout the United States and around the world.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 12 series.

Series 1:Notebooks, 1896-1975

Series 2: Political Notes, 1964-1976

Series 3: Comments on Vietnam, 1954-1975

Series 4: Moon Landings, 1969-1976

Series 5: Scrapbooks, 1896-1981, undated

Series 6: Correspondence, 1920-1987

Series 7: Biography, 1911-1938

Series 8: Published Material, 1927-1966

Series 9: Artifacts, 1913-1937

Series 10: Photographs, circa 1936-1962

Series 11: Audio Materials

Series 12: Newsclippings, undated
Historical:
Boronda Adobe

In 1946 George W. Sims purchased the old Boronda adobe in the Carmel Valley of California, and over the next ten years he restored it.

The Boronda adobe was built above the Carmel River in 1832 by José Manuel Boronda on his 7,000 acre Rancho de Los Laureles land grant. José was the son of Don Manuel Boronda, the first schoolteacher in California. José was married to Juana Cota of Santa Barbara. The sixty-four foot long house has adobe walls twenty-seven inches thick and hand-hewn redwood beams. Senor and Senora Boronda lived there with their fifteen children. It was in this house that Senora Boronda reputedly made a new cheese much liked by her neighbors and today known as Monterey Jack cheese. She eventually produced enough to sell to the surrounding community.

The Boronda family sold the ranch and adobe to Nathan W. Spaulding in the late 1860s or early 1870s. He was a mayor of Oakland, California. The next owner was the Pacific Improvement Company in the early 1880s, the forerunner of Del Monte Properties Company. A small cheese factory was built to commercialize the product under the name "Monterey Jack." Nevertheless, the adobe eventually became abandoned as a house. Before Sims purchased it the adobe was used as a shelter for dairy cows.

Sims plastered the outside walls to protect the soft adobe bricks and whitewashed the interior walls. The original dirt floor was covered with a floor of two-inch clear, heart redwood, random planks. It slopes downhill as does the roof of the house. The entire house follows the topography of the site. Sims left several cables stretching across the crudely raftered ceiling to support the walls.

Sims reroofed the house with one hundred year old roof tiles from the old Vasquez adobe in Monterey, California. He also constructed a workshop on the cement foundation of the old cheese factory and milk barn, added a carport, and built a fence protected patio of the Mexican type, adjacent to a Spanish garden with gravel paths. The patio walls were made of adobe created from Carmel Valley soil.

The first floor of the adobe consists of a long living room, a kitchen, a bedroom, and a bath. An inside staircase was added and leads to the second floor living room, two bedrooms, and a bath. All of the rooms on the main floor are on a different level. The kitchen at one end of the house is thought to date to the 1790s when the land belonged to the Carmel Mission.
Biographical / Historical:
George W. Sims (1896-1986) was a tax lawyer, certified public accountant, world traveler, and collector of pre-Columbian objects. He spent his childhood in Fairfax County, Virginia. At age seventeen he began the study of law at the Washington College of Law (now American University), and worked at night as a telephone company traffic manager. He was employed as a clerk in the Panama Canal Zone by the Panama Railroad Company, Commissary Branch, from 1915-1916. Sims left Washington, DC, because he needed money for school and received a better salary in Latin America. "The pay was 25% higher there [Panama] than in the U.S.A., because the risks of Yellow Fever were great, and work and living conditions less satisfactory than at home." (Box 8, folder 6) This was the first of his many trips to other countries. He then returned to Washington and graduated from law school.

Between 1918-1919 he served as sergeant first class in the aviation section of the Signal Corps. He was stationed for a time at the Vichy (France) Hospital Center, a part of the United States Base Army Hospital, No. 115. After the war Sims did graduate work in accounting at Benjamin Franklin University in the District of Columbia, studying at night. During the day he worked in the Navy Department's communications section.

In 1919 Sims and a few friends traveled west on one of the early automobile trips across the United States. In July he visited Fresno, California. He returned that same year to Washington, DC, and "made plans for making the West (and Fresno) his permanent home." In January, 1924, Sims returned with his wife to fulfill those plans and thus began his long time love affair with the West and California." (Scrapbooks: Vol. 38, Box 8, folder 2)

After his first wife Katherine died in 1946, Sims spent much time on world cruises. His destinations included North, South, and Central America, Eastern and Western Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Between 1946 and 1956 he also purchased and restored the 1832 Boronda adobe in Carmel, California.

Sims married Emma Marenchin Sims on her birthday November 2, 1971 in Santa Barbara, California. Prior to her marriage Mrs. Sims (1914-? ) worked in the public health field after graduating from Western Reserve University in Cleveland. She remarked, "My world opened up when I married George." Sims died in 1986.
Provenance:
Collection donated by George W. Sims, January 10, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Travel photography  Search this
Adobe houses  Search this
Pre-Columbian objects  Search this
Vichy France  Search this
Audio tapes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Manuscripts
Audiotapes
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- Phototransparencies -- 20th century
Citation:
George W. Sims Papers, 1896-1981, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0127
See more items in:
George W. Sims Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0127
Online Media:

Lawrence Talma Smith Papers

Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Smith, Lawrence Talma, 1899-  Search this
Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Names:
Armour Institute of Technology  Search this
Chicago Park District  Search this
Ohio Turnpike  Search this
Former owner:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Theses
Reports
Specifications
Photographs
Contracts
Drawings
Date:
circa 1927-1966
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes engineering reports, contract specifications, construction photographs, and drawings for South Park Commissioners and Chicago Park District projects, 1927, 1931, 1935-1940; Ohio Turnpike projects, 1951; railway bridges, 1953-1954; and Northern Illinois Toll Highway projects, 1954-1956. Also included are a copy of Smith's thesis for the Civil Engineering degree from Armour Institute of Technology, 1940; an article by Smith, 1940; engineering periodicals; and unidentified photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Lawrence Talman Smith was a structural engineer who worked on various projects from 1924-1940, including the Holland Tunnel in New York, Florence Lake Tunnel in California, construction projects in China, and Chicago Park District projects. Following service in the United States Army from 1940-1945, Smith set up a private consulting practice.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroad bridges  Search this
Roads  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Theses
Reports
Specifications
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Contracts
Drawings
Citation:
Archives Center, Lawrence Talma Smith Papers, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0988
See more items in:
Lawrence Talma Smith Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0988

Girard Estate Records

Collector:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Lehigh Valley Coal Company  Search this
Lehigh Valley Railroad Company  Search this
Millington, W.P.  Search this
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company  Search this
Wagner, E.C.  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Blueprints
Land titles
Correspondence
Maps
Deeds
Journals (accounts)
Photographs
Application forms
Patents
Place:
Pennsylvania -- Anthracite coal industry
Date:
1785-1965,(bulk 1870-1965).
Scope and Contents:
Records include voluminous correspondence, much of it to or from W.P. Millington, Secretary of the Estate; with the Lehigh Valley Coal Company and Lehigh Valley Railroad Company; and with the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company. Also reports, including annual reports, reports by the Mining Engineer, and reports on visits by trustees; applications for permits; leases, including the lease for the City of Philadelphia as trustee under the will of Stephen Girard to Lehigh Valley Coal Company, 1884-1899; deeds; original agreements regarding the land, 1785 and 1793; licenses to mine coal; photographs, including photographs taken as part of surveys; blueprints; maps; patents; and daily journals for the years 1872, 1873, and 1879, kept by E.C. Wagner, Assistant Superintendent for the Girard Estate, detailing such things as inspections, meetings, etc.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1830, Stephen Girard, a merchant, financier, and philanthropist, purchased 67 tracts of land in Pennsylvania that had been held by trustees of the first Bank of the United States. A large portion of the land passed into the Girard Trusts, bequeathed by Girard to the city of Philadelphia. Beginning in 1862, leases for the mining of coal on these lands were granted by the Estate.
Provenance:
Collected for the Museum for the Division of Extractive Industries.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Coal mines and mining  Search this
Mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Blueprints
Land titles
Correspondence
Maps
Deeds
Journals (accounts)
Photographs -- 20th century
Application forms
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Patents
Citation:
Girard Estate Records, 1870-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1011
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1011

Delaware and Hudson Railroad Engineering Drawings

Donor:
Brosterman, Norman  Search this
Nahem, Edward T.  Search this
Sasson, Maurice  Search this
Smith, Sanford  Search this
Creator:
Delaware and Hudson Railway Company  Search this
Muhlfeld, John E.  Search this
Collector:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
240 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Photographs
Design drawings
Engineering drawings
Ledgers (account books)
Periodicals
Date:
1900-1955
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of this collection consists of approximately 26,500 original ink and pencil drawings from which blueprints were later made. The drawings depict not only the rolling stock but the components of the railroad equipment, from the largest to the smallest. The drawings are indexed, titled, numbered, dated and annotated with dimensions and other information. In addition to the drawings, the collection also includes thousands of blueprints, photographs, ledgers, books, and periodicals.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Delaware and Hudson Railway Company grew out of the former Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, which had been chartered in Northeastern Pennsylvania in 1823. The canal was last used in 1891. The company's first rail line ran between Carbondale, Pennsylvania and New York, beginning in 1872. After numerous mergers and purchases, it became the Delaware and Hudson Company and later Delaware and Hudson Railway. It was purchased by Guilford Rail System in 1984, and went bankrupt in 1988. Its lines were purchased in 1991 by the Canadian Pacific Railway. During its most successful years, Delaware and Hudson was the inventor, manufacturer and user of some of the most important innovations in steam locomotive design. One of its most important designers, John E. Muhlfeld, is well represented in this collection.
Provenance:
Donated in 1991 by Sanford L. Smith, Maurice Sasson, Edward T. Nahem, and Norman Brosterman.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Photographs -- 20th century
Design drawings
Engineering drawings
Ledgers (account books)
Periodicals
Citation:
Delaware and Hudson Railroad Engineering Drawings, 1900-1955, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1169
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1169

Harry A. McBride Railroad Photographs

Donor:
McBride, Harry A.  Search this
Collector:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
ca. 1940s-1950s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approxiamtely 3,000 views of railroads, railroad equipment, stations, yards and employees. The emphasis is on American railroads, but the collection includes a few views of railroad subjects in Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Europe, Scandinavia and several island nations.
Arrangement:
1 series, arranged by railroad.
Biographical / Historical:
McBride was a foreign service officer and museum official. He was also a railroad enthusiast.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Colonel Harry A. McBride, Date Unknown
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Railroads -- Trains  Search this
Railroad stations  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Railroads -- Rolling-stock  Search this
Railroads -- Employees  Search this
Citation:
Harry A. McBride Railroad Photographs, 1940s-1950s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1171
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1171
Online Media:

Grenville Mellen Dodge

Artist:
William F. Cogswell, 1819 - 1903  Search this
Sitter:
Grenville Mellen Dodge, 1831 - 1916  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
74.9 × 62.2 cm (29 1/2 × 24 1/2")
Type:
Painting
Date:
mid 19th-early 20th century
Topic:
Costume\Headgear\Military  Search this
Grenville Mellen Dodge: Male  Search this
Grenville Mellen Dodge: Politics and Government\US Congressman  Search this
Grenville Mellen Dodge: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Railroad  Search this
Grenville Mellen Dodge: Science and Technology\Engineer\Civil  Search this
Grenville Mellen Dodge: Military\Army\Officer\Major General  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Historic General Dodge House
Object number:
IA900062
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm41b65bb98-e680-484c-ba8b-812a09455c64
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_IA900062

Esperanza Spalding

Artist:
Sandrine Lee, born 1972  Search this
Sitter:
Esperanza Spalding, born 1984  Search this
Medium:
Digitally exposed chromogenic print
Dimensions:
Image: 40.5 x 61 cm (15 15/16 x 24")
Sheet: 50.7 x 71.2 cm (19 15/16 x 28 1/16")
Type:
Photograph
Place:
United States\Connecticut
Date:
2010 (printed 2012)
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Music\Musical instrument\Violin  Search this
Equipment\Drafting & Writing Implements\Writing implement\Pencil  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Bench  Search this
Music\Sheet music  Search this
Music\Musical instrument\Cello  Search this
Interior\Train station  Search this
Esperanza Spalding: Female  Search this
Esperanza Spalding: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician  Search this
Esperanza Spalding: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Composer  Search this
Esperanza Spalding: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Jazz  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Sandrine Lee
Object number:
C/NPG.2012.42
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
20th Century Americans: 2000 to Present
On View:
NPG, South Gallery 341
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4f238680a-347f-4d05-9f04-be717317dfdf
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_C_NPG.2012.42

George Washington Veale

Artist:
George Melville Stone, 1858 - 1931  Search this
Sitter:
George Washington Veale, 1833 - ?  Search this
Medium:
Oil
Type:
Painting
Date:
late 19th-early 20th century
Topic:
George Washington Veale: Male  Search this
George Washington Veale: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive\Railroad  Search this
George Washington Veale: Politics and Government\US Senator\Kansas  Search this
George Washington Veale: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Kansas  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Kansas Museum of History
Object number:
1991.39 KMH
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4ce8864e2-8fc8-40c4-aba3-a6826c918894
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_1991.39_KMH

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