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Mike Seeger performs "Walking Boss" in the Smithsonian Folkways Studio

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YouTube Videos
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Mike Seeger Talks Childhood and Early Days in Music [Interview Video]

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Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
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YouTube Videos
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2009-08-13T19:29:05.000Z
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Robinson and Via Family Papers

Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Names:
Capital Transit Company (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Serenity Farm, Inc.  Search this
Howes, Grace Bourne, ?-1976  Search this
Robinson, Adina Theresa, 1963-  Search this
Robinson, Amanda Baden, 1849-1940  Search this
Robinson, Elizabeth Bourne, 1892-1976  Search this
Robinson, Frank A., 1883-1970  Search this
Robinson, Franklin A., 1841-1905  Search this
Robinson, Franklin A., Sr., 1932-  Search this
Robinson, Martha Walls, 1807-1897  Search this
Robinson, Robert David, 1962-  Search this
Robinson, Robert Henry, 1851-1937  Search this
Robinson, Thomas Wells, 1803-1869  Search this
Townshend, Martha Robinson, 1880-1961  Search this
Via, Adina Mae, 1937-1966  Search this
Via, Ida Virginia Woods, 1914-2010  Search this
Via, Robert Delano, 1933-  Search this
Via, Robert Milton, 1906-1983  Search this
Creator:
Conner, Mary Robinson, 1930-2009  Search this
Extent:
23.1 Cubic feet (71 boxes, 3 map-size folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Correspondence
Photographs
Postcards
Baby books
Phonograph records
Postcard albums
Ephemera
School yearbooks
Diaries
Albums
Housebooks
Snapshots
Home movies
Family papers
Scrapbooks
Funeral registers
Architectural drawings
Place:
Maryland -- Family farms
Washington (D.C.)
Prince George's County (Md.)
Arizona -- Motion pictures
Benedict (Md.)
Charles County (Md.) -- Family farms
Calvert County (Md.) -- Family farms
California -- Motion pictures
Bahamas -- Motion pictures
Yosemite National Park (Calif.)
Puerto Rico -- Motion pictures
Washington -- motion pictures
Oregon -- Motion pictures
Disneyland (California)
Brandywine (Md.)
St. Thomas, V.I. -- Motion pictures
Florida -- Motion pictures
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- Westminster
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- Marston
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- New Windsor
Date:
1838-2023, undated
bulk 1872-1985
Summary:
Papers documenting the farming and family life of the Robinson family of Prince George's County and after 1975, Charles County, Maryland. Papers documenting the farming and family of the Via family of Greene County, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Prince George's and Calvert Counties, Maryland, by 1949.
Scope and Contents:
An extensive and comprehensive collection of papers relating to family, farming, and the Southern Maryland tobacco culture, the Robinson and Via Family Papers cover many aspects of family and farm life. The papers are particularly important in regard to the tobacco culture that defined Southern Maryland for generations. The papers concern two distinct family groups, the Robinson and Via families who are connected through the marriage of Franklin A. Robinson and Adina Mae Via. The papers consist of material generated by the Robinson and Via families in their personal and working lives and as farm owners and operators.

The papers are especially strong in 20th century material. They consist of various types of farm records: account books, bills, receipts, tenant farming agreements, ephemera, land rental and purchase agreements, insurance policies, photographs and 8mm and 16mm films of farming practices and procedures, equipment and landscapes, related to the farming of tobacco, small grains, and livestock. The personal records include diaries, letters both personal and business, greeting cards, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, high school yearbooks, baby books, house plans, recipe books, photographs and 8mm films of birthdays, holidays, weddings, baptisms, family occasions, and family travel, oral histories, and funeral ephemera including photographs, and transcription discs. Of particular interest are the "Serenity Farm Tobacco Production Photographs" documenting the crop year 1999-2000 and the films detailing agricultural practices. There is a memorandum book for Black Walnut Thicket, 1885-1901, the Baden farm in Baden, Prince George's County.

This collection includes a comprehensive range of 8mm and 16mm films and photographs documenting farming practices and landscapes as well as family gatherings, birthdays, holidays, and vacations. The researcher is alerted to the fact that in some cases with the memorandum and account books, books printed for a given year were often saved and used for subsequent years, some were dated, some were not.

The collection is divided into seven series arranged by subject and most often chronologically at folder level within each series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series:

Series 1: Ferndale Farm (Potomac Landing), Prince George's County, Maryland, 1861-1973, undated

Subseries 1.1: Farm papers, bill, and receipts, and publications, 1861-1973, undated

Subseries 1.2: Farm papers, bill, and receipts, 1945-1960, undated

Subseries 1.3: Farm papers, bills, and receipts, 1960-1965, undated

Series 2: Robinson Family, 1845-2017, undated

Subseries 2.1: Family Papers and Publications, 1845-1993, undated

Subseries 2.2: Townshend, Martha Robinson, 1896-1961, undated

Subseries 2.3: Robinson, Frank A., 1899-1970, undated

Subseries 2.4: Robinson, Elizabeth Bourne, 1841-1976, undated

Subseries 2.5: Conner, Mary Robinson, 1938-1985, undated

Subseries 2.6: Robinson, Franklin A., 1932-1997, undated

Subseries 2.6.1: Farming, 1948-1976, undated

Subseries 2.6.2: Financial, 1948-1988, undated

Subseries 2.6.3: 4-H and Future Farmers of America (FFA), 1945-1954, undated

Subseries 2.6.4: Travel, 1959-1970, undated

Subseries 2.7: Robinson, Jr., Franklin A., 1959-2001, undated

Series 3: Serenity Farm, Charles County, Maryland, 1962-2000, undated

Series 4: Via Farm, Calvert County, Maryland, 1954-1987, undated

Series 5: Via Family, 1932-2010, undated

Subseries 5.1: Family papers, 1941-1983, undated

Subseries 5.2: Via, Robert M., 1933-1987, undated

Subseries 5.3: Via, Ida Virginia, 1928-2010, undated

Subseries 5.4: Via, Robert D., 1933-1988, undated

Subseries 5.5: Robinson, Adina Via, 1937-1966, undated

Series 6: Photographs, Photographic Slides, and Photographic Negatives, 1860-2000, undated

Subseries 6.1: Photographs, 1872-2000, undated

Subseries 6.2: Photographic negatives, 1927--2000, undated

Subseries 6.3: Photographic Slides, 1955-1979, undated

Series 7: AudioVisual, 1943-1988
Biographical / Historical:
Robinson Family

The Robinson family is thought to be of Scottish origin and appear in the records of Prince George's County, Maryland by the early 18th century. The line has been definitively traced to James Robinson (?-1849). James' father was probably Benjamin Robinson (?-1810), of Prince George's County, Maryland. (Will Book TT1, pg. 15, Records of Prince George's County, Maryland, Maryland State Archives (MSA))

James Robinson and Sarah Wynn were issued a marriage license on February 28, 1802 in Prince George's County, Maryland. (Marriage Records of Prince George's County, Maryland) Eleven children lived to maturity (not listed in birth order); Thomas Wells (1803-1869), Ann, Priscilla, James Monroe, Benjamin (1813-1882), John C. (1819-1895), Mary Sophia, Thomas Stanley (1800-1874), Alfred, Sarah Ann, Matilda, and Rebecca Maria.

James worked as a farm manager for Benjamin Oden near Upper Marlborough, Prince George's County. (Oden Papers, Maryland Historical Society) The Robinsons and their children, moved to Wood County, Virginia (now West Virginia) by April 18, 1818 where James acted as Oden's land agent (Deed Book 6, pg. 123, Land Records of Wood County, West Virginia). They brought with them three enslaved described in the above reference as, "Kate a woman 45 years of age very black; Colonel a boy aged 8 years yellow complexion: and George a boy aged six years of a dark brown complexion." They settled on part of what was known as the "Burnt Mill" tract in the general area where the Hughes River meets the Little Kanawha River. (Deed Book 9, pg. 110 and Deed Book 14, pg. 40, Land Records of Wood County)

Thomas Wells Robinson may not have accompanied his family to Virginia as he has a presence in Prince George's County prior to 1822 and was employed as a farm manager for Benjamin Oden at least until 1832. He married Elizabeth J. Richards on December 15, 1829 (Robinson Family Bible). They had nine children; Richard Thomas (1831 1906), Rebecca Maria (1832-1895), Mary Wynn (1834-1916), James George (1835-1883), Virlinda Victoria (1837-1838), Elizabeth Ann (1839-1916), Sarah Ann Sophia (1840-1874), Franklin Alexander (1841-1905) and John Alfred (1843); seven lived to maturity. (Robinson Family Bible) Elizabeth died on August 17, 1843 from complications in childbirth. She was buried in the graveyard of Page's Chapel (later known as St. Thomas Episcopal Church), Croom, Prince George's County. In 1843, Thomas purchased the plantation of Dr. Benjamin B. Hodges for $10,000 or approximately $15 an acre. Hodges was a brother-in-law of Benjamin Oden. The deed dated September 7, 1843 describes the parcel as containing, "Six hundred and twenty nine acres of land more or less and constitute that plantation or Estate of the said Benjamin Oden heretofore commonly called "Brown's Quarter Place" being the Land tracts and parcels of land sold by the said Benjamin Oden to the said Benjamin B. Hodges and by deed bearing date the tenth day of December eighteen hundred and thirty five and recorded in Liber AB no. 10 folio 162 also one of the land Records of the County aforesaid". (JBB no. 3 pgs. 312 314, Land Records of Prince George's County) The land was level to rolling bordered on the north by a tributary of Piscataway Creek and generally termed "white oak land". Underlying the whole property was a large strata of gravel and sand. The entire parcel went by the name, Potomac Landing.

Thomas supplemented his land holdings with later purchases. With the exception of twenty acres purchased from Sarah Talbert in 1844, (JBB no. 3 pg. 475, Land Records of Prince George's County) and the purchase of lot #3 consisting of 195 acres, part of the estate of John Townshend in 1856, these purchases were not contiguous to Potomac Landing. By the time of his death in 1869 these non-contiguous parcels had been sold. Thomas sold eighty-six acres of Potomac Landing and Jeffries to Edward Eversfield in October of 1843. (JBB no. 3, pg. 198, Land Records of Prince George's County) On January 13, 1846 Thomas married the widow Martha Ann Walls, daughter of George and Martha Naylor Walls. They had two sons; Benjamin Wells (1848-1849) and Robert Henry (1851-1937).

In addition to his sons, Thomas owned enslaved. The number varied from six in 1849 (JBB 6, folio 186, Land Records of Prince Georges' County) to eleven as noted in the census for 1850, and finally six as noted in the census of 1860. The 1867 Maryland Slave Statistics noted that, "at the time of the adoption of the Constitution of Maryland, in the year 1864, . . ." Thomas owned six enslaved, their names and ages being; Isaac Franklin age 31, Alfred West age 19, Susan West age 17, Margaret Franklin age 14, Fannie Franklin age 12, and Peter Franklin age 9. All were noted as being in good physical condition. (Prince Georges' County Slave Statistics 1867 1869, C 1307 1, MdHR:6198, page 185, MSA)

Thomas's financial problems began in the mid-1800s when Deeds of Trust appear in the county records securing outstanding loans. In 1856 and 1857 Thomas joined with others as bondsman for his son, Richard who was serving as "Collector of the State and County Taxes" for the 4th collection district, making he and the other signatories liable for any uncollected taxes. This, coupled with poor investments, led to his almost being "sold out" in 1859-1860 by J.W. & E. Reynolds of Baltimore to pay his debts. He executed three drafts on Penn & Mitchell, also of Baltimore, to pay off J.W. & E. Reynolds. (Equity Case #597, Prince Georges' County) Thomas was in poor health and his son James managed the farm in 1857 and 1858, and again from 1861 to October of 1862 (Equity Case #873, Prince Georges' County)

In October of 1862 Thomas' two sons, James and Franklin, traveled to Richmond to join the Confederate States Army. James enrolled in the 5th Battalion, Local Defense Arsenal and Franklin enrolled in the 5th Virginia Infantry, the Stonewall Brigade. (CSA Military Records, National Archives) James visited home frequently but was captured by the Union Army in St. Mary's County, Maryland on May 15, 1864 and spent the remainder of the war in Point Lookout Prison Camp. He was released on May 14, 1865. Franklin was not able to visit home at all during the war but survived to return home in 1865. In 1865, Thomas surveyed a parcel of 172 acres for his daughter Rebecca Maria. Rebecca had married her second cousin, William B. Robertson, on November 18, 1855. He made a gift of fifty acres, and Rebecca agreed to purchase the remainder. The Robertsons named this parcel Holly Grove. In Equity Case #849 (1872) filed after Thomas' death, his widow Martha and Samuel H. Berry, as executrix and executor, sought to recover payment for this land. At that time, William B. Robertson described this 172 acres of Potomac Landing: "There was no fences on the line which separated this land from the old gentleman's land, but he was to put a fence on it which he agreed to do before we agreed to come there. The land was thin, unimproved, with gullies and scrubby pine. If witness had been a judge of land he would not have given five dollars for it. All the improvements were one comfortable quarter the other indifferent with a poor oak shingle roof, worn out which made it not tenantable." Further along in his testimony, William gave an account of a conversation, "In a few days my father in law Thos. W. Robinson came to Washington and told me there his children had returned from the South, his two sons, that his debts were small and he was a happy man." Rebecca and William built a house on the property, a side-hall, double parlor plan that most likely her brother James was builder. They also built accompanying farm structures. (Records of Prince George's County, Maryland, Equity Case #849, MSA)

Thomas' son, Franklin, managed the farm after the War. In December 1868 Thomas entered into a sharecropping agreement with Edward Hanson, an African-American. After about a year-long illness, on May 16, 1869, Thomas died, deeply in debt. He was buried beside Elizabeth in the graveyard at St. Thomas' Church. He named as executrix his wife, Martha, and his friend and lawyer, Samuel H. Berry, as executor. His will divided the farm into thirds, one third going to his wife and their son Robert Henry, one third to his son James, and one third to his son Franklin. The land was surveyed according to the will. His personal property was sold but not enough profit was realized to pay off his creditors. The Commissioners of Prince George's County sued the estate on behalf of Thomas' creditors. The outcome was that in 1876 the property was sold at public auction. The Notice of Sale dated September 1, 1876 in the local county newspaper, The Prince Georgian, describes the farm as, "containing 514 2/3 acres More or less. The Improvements consist of a SMALL DWELLING, Three Barns, Stabling, and other necessary outbuildings. It is well wooded and watered, and the soil of fair quality. It has recently been divided into three lots and will be offered in lots, a description of which will be given at the time of sale." The sale was held on September 27, 1876, Lot No. 1 was purchased by Robert for $6.00 an acre, Lot #2 was purchased by Franklin for $5.00 an acre and Lot #3 was purchased by James for $4.00 per acre. Robert and Franklin eventually paid off their mortgage, but James defaulted on his purchase and later moved to St. Mary's County, Maryland. His portion later came to be owned by the Hawkins family, some members who had worked on the Robinson farm. (Equity Case #873, Prince Georges' County, MSA)

Lot #1, purchased by Robert from his fathers' estate, consisted of 177-1/3 acres, including the dwelling and farm buildings. On July 24, 1872, he married Amanda Malvina Baden (1849-1940), daughter of Robert W. G. and Margaret Caroline Early Baden. The Baden and Early families were both prominent south county families. Robert and Amanda had eight children; Caroline Early (1873 1967), Lucy Tennent (1875 1958), Albert Henry (1878 1914), Martha Perry (1880 1961), Robert Gover (1882 1882), Frank Alexander (1883 1970), Margaret Baden (1886 1956) and Grace Malvina (1889 1965).

By 1880 Robert had paid off his debt on the property and was fully engaged in farming. Unlike his father, or perhaps because of his father, Robert did not add to his land holdings, choosing to remain relatively debt free for his lifetime. The only land transactions he participated in were the sales of 79-3/4 acres in 1921 of Amanda's inheritance from her father and her interest in two smaller parcels of her father's land sold in 1894 and 1928 respectively. In 1928 he transferred 3.09 acres to his son Frank.

As late as the Federal census of 1880, Franklin was living with Robert and his household, both men engaged in farming. Sometime after 1880, Franklin took up residence on his part of Potomac Landing. His brother James most likely built the side-hall double parlor house that copied the main house at Potomac Landing. On February 18, 1897, Martha Robinson, died at the age of ninety. She was buried in the graveyyard of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden, Prince George's County. Robert continued cultivation of tobacco and small grains as his father before him. The first reference to the farm being named Ferndale is found in the "Communion Record" of Robert's daughter, Martha Perry "Pattie", dated 1896. (Robinson and Via Family Papers) The exact origin or reason for this new name is lost but perhaps the name Potomac Landing held such bitter memories of debt and hardship that, as a symbolic break with the past, a new name was found. It also may have simply been a way to distinguish this portion of Potomac Landing from the others. The farm continued to be listed on tax bills as Potomac Landing well into the 20th century, but was known to the general public and businesses as the Ferndale Farm. (Robinson and Via Family Papers)

Robert served as deputy inspector at the State Tobacco Warehouse in Baltimore for eight years under W.B. Bowie. He also served on the Board of Directors of the Bank of Brandywine. In July of 1905, Franklin died, a bachelor farmer. He was buried facing south in the graveyard of the Church of the Atonement, Cheltenham, (a chapel in St. Thomas' Episcopal Parish) where he had served as vestryman, treasurer, and cemetery custodian. Franklin died intestate and a lengthy process of dividing his estate began. This resulted in the sale of his part of Potomac Landing (Lot #2) in July 1908 to William E. Boswell. The court declared Robert ineligible for any inheritance due to his being " . . . a brother of the half blood." The Boswell family later sold the property to the Billingsley family of St. Mary's County. (Equity Case 3209, Prince George's County)

In 1910, after living in the farm's original home for approximately sixty seven years, the Robinson family built a new home. It was described in a 1956 insurance policy as, "2 story, frame, metal roof, 16x43, wing 14x28, 9 rooms." (Robinson and Via Family Papers) The house design was a simple Victorian with plastered walls, and lit by carbide gas. Electrical lighting was installed in 1951. The house was built with monies from Robert and Amanda, and their son Frank, who served as builder and contractor.

On Tuesday March 9, 1937, "During a celebration in honor of his wifes birthday anniversary, Mr. Robinson collapsed at the table and died immediately without a word or a sigh." (Robinson and Via Family Papers) Robert was buried beside his mother in the cemetery at St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden.

At Robert's death, Ferndale Farm was valued at $30.00 an acre, the total acreage, 174 acres, being valued in the whole at $5,220.00. Robert died intestate, again the fate of the land was in question. He left eight heirs, his widow, Amanda, six of his children and his son Albert Henry's only surviving child, R. Henry Robinson. Rather than have the farm sold and his mother's life disrupted, Frank purchased the estate and personal property from the heirs. Before this could take place, a deed had to be granted the heirs for the property since one had never been recorded after the 1876 sale. Equity case 873 was reopened sixty-two years after its supposed resolution. Frank testified, "over a period of about thirty years I would on a number of occasions, talk about the fact that he had purchased and paid for this property and that a deed had never been executed to him and [he] kept saying he was going to have someone straighten this matter out for him." It was discovered that Robert had fully paid for his part of Potomac Landing. On February 14, 1938 the farm was deeded from Amanda along with Robert''s heirs to Frank. (Book 499, page 334, Land Records of Prince George's County) According to the deed and a 1937 fire insurance policy the farm consisted of 177 1/3 acres, "1 two story dwelling, one tenant house, 1 barrack, 1 tobacco barn, 1 corn house & cow stable, 1 Stable, and 1 Granary & Stable." (Robinson and Via Family Papers)

Frank A. Robinson, now the sole owner of Ferndale Farm, was born August 17, 1883. He learned farming and in addition took up the trade of builder and contractor. As a young man, he worked in the general store of his uncle Robert Baden. He was the contractor for the first Bank of Brandywine and many homes in and around the town of Brandywine, including the home of his cousin Robert E. Baden, DDS. He was secretary of the Building Committee for construction of the Chapel of the Incarnation in Brandywine, a mission chapel for St. Thomas' Episcopal Parish. His success in the building trade gave him disposable income that he invested in land. His first purchase was in August, 1915 of a 2-9/100 acre of land in Brandywine that was being sold by the Board of County School Commissioners; the purchase price was $300. In March 1916 he purchased 38.09 acres of his Uncle Franklin's farm. This property adjoined Ferndale Farm. Over the next fifty-four years of his life, Frank bought and sold many pieces of real estate. Perhaps his most significant purchases were: 18-1/3 acres purchased from The German American Colonization Land Company of Maryland in October 1915 (Book 115, pg. 140, Land Records of Prince George's County); 147.99 acres purchased from August and Wilhelmina Noltensmeir in December 1917 (Book 129, pg. 263, Land Records of Prince George's County) and 320 acres called the Vineyard purchased from William M. Wilson in March 1928. Frank used these three parcels as collateral for other purchases. Never once did he mortgage Ferndale Farm, insuring that no matter what financial stormy seas might blow, his home was secure. Over the course of his life, especially in the case of the Noltensmeir farm, when cash was needed a parcel of land would be surveyed off and sold. He inherited his grandfather Thomas' love of land but had fortunately developed a shrewd business sense to go along with it.

On November 20, 1929, he married Elizabeth Freeland Bourne, daughter of Joseph Blake and Maria Gantt Bourne of Calvert County, Maryland. They had three children: Mary Elizabeth (1930-2009), Franklin Alexander (1932-2023), and Robert Lee (1935-1997). In addition to his construction business he continued farming, raising tobacco, hay, and small grains. He engaged in sharecropping with tenants on his various properties. He was active in community affairs serving on the Board of The Maryland Tobacco Growers Association (MTGA), the Vestry of St. Thomas Parish, and as sheriff of Brandywine. On January 9, 1940 Amanda Baden Robinson died. She was buried next to her husband at St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden. In February 1958, Frank and Elizabeth conveyed 1.57 acres of Ferndale Farm to son Franklin where he and his fiancée, Adina M. Via, were building their new home prior to their marriage in July of that same year.

The booming economy and suburbanization of the Washington metropolitan area in the early 1960's led to the high quality gravel lying beneath Ferndale into becoming a valuable commodity. In October 1962, Franklin and his parents granted a three-year lease to William C. Nolte for mining sand and gravel on the Ferndale Farm at .174 per yard. (Book 2747, pg. 11, Land Records of Prince George's County) From now until 1975 when the property was sold, gravel would be mined from under the farm by various companies. In November 1962, Elizabeth and Frank transferred to Franklin the 38.09 acres Frank had purchased from Fitzhugh Billingsley in 1916. (Book 2754, pg. 99, Land Records of Prince George's County) That same year they transferred 6.754 acres, part of the Vineyard, to son Robert and his wife Lois, (Book 2765, pg. 201, Land Records of Prince George's County)

On December 28, 1965, Frank and Elizabeth participated in a land exchange/purchase of the farm of Ralph W. and Cordelia H. Brown located along the Patuxent River in Benedict, Charles County, Maryland. Franklin had rented this farm the year before and was impressed enough by its location and arability to work out a purchase. Frank and Elizabeth traded 65.9920 acres that would eventually become Franklin's under Frank's will. On February 21, 1966 they deeded the Charles County farm to Franklin and Adina. Adina named this property Serenity Farm. The property consisted of 480.66 acres. (Liber 179, page 708 etc., Land Records of Charles County)

On February 5, 1970, after a short illness, Frank died at Cafritz Memorial Hospital. He was buried at St. Paul's Episcopal Church near his parents. In his will, probated March 4, 1970 he left thirty acres of the property purchased from the German American Land Company and A. Noltensmeir to Elizabeth. He willed forty acres of the same parcel to daughter Mary Robinson Conner. The remainder of Ferndale Farm was willed to Franklin and the remaining acreage of the Vineyard was left to Robert Lee. Franklin Alexander Robinson was born August 13, 1932 at the Garfield Hospital in Washington, D.C.. He received his schooling in the public school system of Prince George's County, graduating from Gwynn Park High School in June 1951. He was a charter member of Gwynn Park's chapter of The Future Farmers of America. He was extremely active in FFA, achieving the Degree of Maryland Farmer in 1950 and their highest award, the Degree of American Farmer at their convention in Kansas City, Missouri in October 1953. He obtained his private pilots license in 1954. He entered the United States Army in February 1955 and went through basic training at Camp Gordon, Augusta, Georgia. After basic training he was transferred to Camp Hanford, Washington State. There he worked part time on the farm of Dick and Theresa Laurent during his off duty hours and began a lifelong friendship with them. He returned home to farming on an agricultural discharge in October of 1956. On July 27, 1958 he married his high school sweetheart, Adina Mae Via, daughter of Robert Milton and Virginia Woods Via. They had three children: Franklin Alexander (1959), Robert David (1962), and Adina Theresa (1963).

Franklin continued expanding and improving the farming operation by modern methods and means. At times, he farmed over one thousand acres, both owned and rented. On February 21, 1966, his parents deeded their purchase of the Ralph W. and Cordelia H. Brown farm in Benedict to he and Adina, later known as Serenity Farm Franklin and Adina engaged an architect to draft house plans for an anticipated new residence. A small A frame vacation home was built on the property so the family could spend weekends there.

On December 14, 1966, after a long illness, Adina died from complications associated with Hodgkin's Disease. She was buried in Trinity Memorial Gardens, Waldorf, Charles County. Franklin married Margaret Walker Lennox (nee Tallen, known as Rita) on August 21, 1970 (Marriage Records of Prince George's County, Maryland). This marriage ended in divorce in 1977. There were no children from this marriage.

On July 14, 1975 the Robinson family, Franklin, his second wife, Margaret, her daughter Margaret W. Lennox, Franklin, Jr., R. David, A. Theresa and Elizabeth B. Robinson, moved to Serenity Farm. On July 17, 1975 Franklin and Elizabeth sold the remaining acreage of Ferndale Farm to Brandywine Sand and Gravel, thus ending 131 years of ownership by the Robinson family. Elizabeth Bourne Robinson died on July 15, 1976 and was buried beside her husband at St. Paul's Church, Baden. Franklin married Hiltrud (Ceddie) Harris (nee Sedlacek) on July 15, 1978. (Robinson Family Bible) This marriage ended in divorce in 1986. There were no children from this marriage. Franklin married Diedre Gale Merhiage on April 19, 1989; this marriage ended in divorce in 1997. There were no children from this marriage. He married Remelda Henega Buenavista on January 13, 2007.

The Robinson family continue day-to-day operations of Serenity Farm. The land is well suited to the growing of tobacco and small grains, which crops, (with the exception of tobacco) along with a flock of sheep, are cultivated there to the present time. After the crop year 2001 the Robinson family took the tobacco buyout program offered by the state of Maryland and ceased growing tobacco. Franklin is active in farming and community affairs having served on the vestry of St. Thomas Episcopal Parish, the Board of Directors of the Maryland Tobacco Growers Association (MTGA), the Board of the Production Credit Association, the Boards of three schools, Holy Trinity Day School, Queen Anne School, and Calverton School, and numerous other organizations. Currently the farm consists of approximately 275 acres. In 1981 a state agricultural land preservation district of 222.755 acres was created. This was the first such district in Charles County and one of the first in the state of Maryland.

Via Family

The Via family traces its origins to the colony of Virginia, where the probable progenitor of the line, Amer Via, a French Huguenot, settled in Manakin Town, Albemarle County between 1670-1700. It is impossible to trace the Via line definitively due to the loss of Virginia county records during the Civil War.

The Via family line covered in this collection can be definitively traced to William Via of Fredericksville Parish, Louisa (later Albemarle) County, Virginia. The William Via family lived west of the present day town of Whitehall at the base of the Blue Ridge Mountains, an area commonly known as Sugar Hollow. William Via III served in the Virginia Line during the Revolutionary War. He married Mary Craig, daughter of Thomas Craig and Jane Jameson, on March 17, 1784. William died on June 27, 1836, in Albemarle County (Rev. War Pension Appl. 6363, National Archives). His son Thomas married Sally, widow Griffin, on January 1, 1811 (Albemarle County Marriage Records). Their son, Hiram Karl Via (1812-1893), married Harriet Ardenia Naylor by license dated March 7, 1836 (Albemarle County Marriage Records).

Hiram and Harriet's son, Robert St. Clair Via (1844-1925), served as a private in Company I, 7th Virginia Infantry of the Confederate States Army (CSA Military Service Records, National Archives). After the war he married his first cousin, Mary Frances Naylor, daughter of Samuel Chapman Naylor and Eliza Jane Gardner, on April 3, 1866 in Rockingham County (Rockingham County, Virginia, Marriage Records). Sometime between 1870 and 1872, they moved to Linn County, Missouri, and settled about seven miles from the town of Bucklin. Their son, Hiram Chapman Via (1872-1933), was born there. In 1893, the family returned to Virginia, and settled on a farm in Greene County near the town of Stanardsville.

Hiram Chapman Via operated a mill as well as a farm. On March 15, 1899, he married Adina Eleanor Eusebia Runkle, daughter of Milton D. L. Runkle and Roberta A. Beadles (Greene County, Virginia, Marriage Records). They had three children: Bernice Olive (1902-1999), Robert Milton (1906-1983), and Deward Daniel (1909-1977).

Robert moved to Washington, D.C.. In December 1927 he began employment with the Capitol Traction Company as a streetcar conductor (Robinson and Via Family Papers). During the early 1930s, Robert rented a townhouse at 715 A St., SE, where he lived with his sister Bernice V. McMullan and her son, William C. McMullan; his brother and sister in law, and his parents. Next door, at 717, lived the Moses Albright family, including Moses's stepdaughter Ida Virginia Woods (1914-2010), daughter of Jesse Lee Woods (1894-1918) and Donna Mae Barker (1896-1928) of Frederick County, Maryland. Robert and Virginia began a courtship and on September 3, 1932 were married in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland (Frederick County, Maryland, Marriage Records).

After their marriage, Robert and Virginia lived in various locations in the Washington metropolitan area. Their first child, Robert Delano, was born on March 24, 1933, and their second child, Adina Mae, was born on April 12, 1937. Virginia was employed outside the home while her children were in school. Her first job before her marriage had been with Woolworth's in Martinsburg, WV working the candy counter and then before the birth of her son at The Hecht Company on F St. in Washington, D.C.. After her marriage she worked briefly for the United States Postal Service in Capitol Heights, Maryland. Beginning in the 1950s, she worked first at the Hecht Company department store on 7th Street in the District and later for Charles of the Ritz as a receptionist in their beauty salon located in Woodward & Lothrop's F Street store in Washington, D.C.. She also worked as salon manager at the Charles of the Ritz salons in the Woodward & Lothrop stores in Seven Corners, Virginia, and Chevy Chase, Maryland. She retired due to health reasons in 1973.

On September 10, 1941, Robert and Virginia purchased Lot #43 in Woodlane subdivision in Prince George's County. (Book 619, pg. 12, Land Records of Prince George's County) A house was designed for them for this lot by Clyde E. Phillips. They did not construct a home on this property due to the outbreak of World War II. Robert, due to his employment in public transportation, did not serve with the Armed Services in World War II. On October 18, 1946, they purchased approximately thirty acres bordering on Burch's Creek near the towns of Clinton, also know as Surrattsville, and T.B. in Prince George's County from Joseph H. and M. Pauline Blandford. (Book 873, pg. 483, Land Records of Prince George's County) Over the next three years, hiring private contractors, doing work themselves, and with the help of Robert's brother Deward, they built the two story house designed by Phillips in 1941. They moved to the farm from Capitol Heights in 1949. Robert raised hogs, small grains and a crop of tobacco yearly on this farm and also maintained his job with Capitol Transit (formerly Capitol Traction). In 1954, Robert and Virginia purchased a farm of approximately 150 acres in Island Creek, Calvert County, Maryland. The intention was for Robert and his son to enter into a full time farming operation on expanded acreage. Robert D. Via, known as Delano, graduated from Gwynn Park High School in June 1951. Delano was a part-time farmer and pursued a career as a country and western singer with Bashful Bob and the Rhythm Rangers, he being Bashful Bob. He was employed in various jobs, and began a tour in the Army in 1953. By the time the Via family moved to Calvert County in 1956, he decided to pursue careers other than farming. He eventually traveled and worked in various parts of the United States. He married first Delores Cooper, second Gloria J. Irick, and finally Candice Marinelli in December 1974, they had two children, Robert Marin (1975) and Kirstin Marin (1976).

On June 1, 1956 Robert resigned from his position at Capitol Transit due to health reasons. He and his family moved to the farm in Island Creek, Calvert County where he began full time farming. He and Virginia sold the thirty-acre farm in Prince George's County on June 21, 1956 to Melvin C. and Geraldine H. Rardia. (Book 2003, pg. 564, Land Records of Prince George's County) Virginia continued her employment with Charles of the Ritz. Adina, now a graduate of Gwynn Park High School, was employed by the USAF at Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs, Maryland. They both commuted daily from Calvert County to their places of employment.

Robert farmed in Calvert County, raising hogs, cattle, small grains and tobacco. Over the course of the next twenty-seven years, Robert and Virginia sold smaller parcels off the farm. In 1974, Robert and Virginia built a small retirement home designed for them by Calvert Masonry Contractors. Robert died on December 22, 1983. He was buried beside his daughter Adina in Trinity Memorial Gardens. At the time of Robert's death, the farm consisted of 28.694 acres. In 1998, Virginia deeded the remainder of the farm, then less than six acres, to her grandson, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr. who sold all but a one-acre lot in April 1999.

Virginia continued to live on the farm in Calvert County, maintaining a small herd of cattle. In the fall of 1989 Franklin, Jr. went to live with her. In 1993, the onset of Alzheimer's Disease required her to move to Serenity Farm and take up residence with her granddaughter A. Theresa. Virginia participated in various studies on Alzheimer's Disease conducted by the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland beginning in 1992. She was profiled in the September 1997 issue of Washingtonian Magazine. In October of 1998 she moved to All American Senior Care in Brandywine, Maryland and in 1999 she moved to Morningside, an elderly care facility in Waldorf, Maryland. In 2002, she moved to St. Mary's Nursing Center in Leonardtown, Maryland. The remainder of the farm was sold in 1999 and 2002. She died January 14, 2010 and was buried at Trinity Memorial Gardens in Waldorf.

Adina Mae Via was born April 12, 1937 at the Homeopathic Hospital in Washington, D.C.. Adina grew up in Washington, D.C. attending public schools. She moved with her family to the Burch's Creek farm, Prince George's County, in 1949. She enrolled in the Prince George's County school system, and graduated from Gwynn Park High School in June of 1955. After graduation, she was employed by the USAF at Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs.

In July of 1956, she moved with her family to the Via farm in Island Creek, Calvert County. On July 27, 1958 she married Franklin A. Robinson at the Chapel of the Incarnation. They had three children: Franklin Alexander (1959), Robert David (1962) and Adina Theresa (1963). In the fall of 1958, she and Franklin took up residence in the home they had built on Ferndale Farm. She resigned from her position with the USAF in 1959.

On December 14, 1966, at Providence Hospital in Washington, DC, Adina died from complications due to Hodgkin's Disease. She had been battling this disease for many years prior to her death. She was buried in Trinity Memorial Gardens, Charles County.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

The Maryland Historical Society holds items (costume, farming related implements) related to the Robinson and Via families.
Separated Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry (Agriculture Collection) holds agricultural implements and artifacts associated with both the Robinson farms and the Via farm; the Division of Home and Community Life holds clothing, textiles (crib quilt), jewelry, cosmetics and Adina M. Robinson's sewing box and dress patterns; (Costume and Textiles Collection). See accession numbers: 1989.0688, 1990.0394, 1991.0010; 1991.0722, 1992.0184, 1992.0283, 1992.0321, 1992.0474, 1992.3106, 1994.0064, 1994.0304, 1997.0327, 1998.0038, 1998.0129, 2001.0196, 2002.0087, 2003.0015, 2005.0009.

Division of Armed Forces History (now Division of Olitical and Military History, National Numismatics Collection) holds the Robert M. Via Trolley Token Collection.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center, by Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., in November 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farms -- Maryland  Search this
Holidays  Search this
Amusement parks -- California  Search this
Children's parties  Search this
Rural women  Search this
Sheep ranches  Search this
Parks -- California  Search this
Rural families  Search this
Tobacco -- Harvesting  Search this
Tobacco -- Storage  Search this
Street-railroads  Search this
Street-railroads -- Employees  Search this
Travel  Search this
Urban transportation  Search this
Work and family  Search this
Tobacco curing  Search this
Women in agriculture  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Farm buildings  Search this
Family recreation  Search this
Family festivals  Search this
Farm ownership  Search this
Farm life -- 20th century  Search this
Farm management  Search this
Illiterate persons  Search this
Christmas  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Students  Search this
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Family farms  Search this
Easter  Search this
Electric railroads  Search this
Acting -- 1980-2000  Search this
Amateur films  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Agriculture -- 20th century -- Maryland  Search this
Tobacco farmers  Search this
Housewives -- United States  Search this
Weddings  Search this
Farmers  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 20th century
Postcards
Baby books
Phonograph records
Postcard albums
Ephemera
School yearbooks
Diaries
Albums
Housebooks
Photographs -- 19th century
Snapshots
Home movies
Family papers
Scrapbooks
Funeral registers
Architectural drawings
Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0475
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86b1972cf-a789-45ec-8f3e-fb780d43456d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0475
Online Media:

Pottstown -- Company Farm

Patent owner:
Penn, Thomas  Search this
Penn, Richard  Search this
Former owner:
Ingles, James  Search this
Ingles, John  Search this
Beary, Christian  Search this
Beary, Daniel  Search this
Harley, Eli  Search this
Reifsnyder, John  Search this
Reitenbaugh, Joseph Elwood  Search this
Bullock, Anthony N.  Search this
Brooke, G. Clymer  Search this
Shelton Claude  Search this
Clevenger, Robert  Search this
Reading Railroad  Search this
Schuylkill and Susquehanna Navigation  Search this
Provenance:
Four Counties Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Company Farm (Pottstown, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Montgomery County -- Pottstown
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a worksheet, copies of photographs, copy of Pennsylvania Historic Resource Survey form, copies of public sale announcements, 1843 property inventory, 1754 deed, and garden plan.
General:
The property, being primarily a farm, had a relatively simple garden behind the house except for more sophisticated landscaping by the former owners of the Tudor-style house. Historically, there has been a strong connection of the property to the old Schuylkill Canal. In the early 19th century, the farm was used to raise mules needed to pull the barges from upstate Pennsylvania to Philadelphia. The present owners wished to emphasize the natural landscape. A pond is fed from run-off from a spring. Rhododendrons are interspersed with grassy areas and stone walls. A trip to a Japanese garden, designed by Kobori Enshu, inspired the owners to recreate it using stones to represent cranes and a small central peninsula representing the island of eternal youth. A later trip to Thailand inspired the garden's Thai Spirit House. The garden has been used for Thai students to perform dances, for weddings, and as a gathering place for Easter sunrise services and garden tours.
Special appreciation for the owners' children's hard work is shown by placing bronze statues in special garden settings. "Celebration," by L'Deane Trueblood (1999), is dancing in a large oval garden. The bronze statue, "Wings," by Gary Price (1996), stands on a high rock depicting a young boy launching his model plane. "Child of Peace," by Edward Fenno Hoffman III. (1960), depicts a boy cuddling a dove. "Garden Chimes," by Val Bertoia (2000), represents the gardener's love for music.
Persons associated with the garden include: Thomas and Richard Penn (patent owners, 1754); James and John Ingles (former owners, 1754-1806); Christian and Daniel Beary (former owners, 1806-1836); Eli Harley (1836-1844); John Reifsnyder (former owner, 1844-1847); Schuylkill Navigation Company (former owner, 1847-1896); Reading Railroad (former owners, 1896-1914); Joseph Elwood Reitenbaugh (former owner, 1914-1928); Anthony N. Bullock (former owner, 1928-1934); G. Clymer Brooke (former owner, 1934-1945); Claude and Minnie Shelton (former owners, 1945-1970); and Robert Clevenger (former owner, 1970).
Related Materials:
Company Farm related holdings consist of 1 folder (12 35 mm. slides and 2 photoprints)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Pottstown  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA620
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6c2d89d68-71e6-4aed-bfdf-45c99189d605
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16557

Beverly -- Sea Meadow

Former owner:
Larcom Family  Search this
Dexter Family  Search this
Putnam, Augusta  Search this
Ames, Oliver  Search this
Seamans, Robert  Search this
Seamans, Eugenia  Search this
Sculptor:
Seamans, Beverly Benson  Search this
Garden assistant:
Lydon, Austin  Search this
Forgit, Dick  Search this
Forgit, Sylvia  Search this
Bell, Bob  Search this
Bell, Cindy  Search this
Pool and tennis court designer:
H. J. Collins & Associates  Search this
Provenance:
North Shore Garden Club of Massachusetts  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Sea Meadow (Beverly, Massachusetts)
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Essex -- Beverly
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, site plans, photocopies of articles, historical images, biographical and other information.
General:
The 55 acres acquired in 1950 by the Seamans family comprised the upland area with house, woodland, meadow and pond, and the low-lying wetlands and sandy beachfront. For most of their history these two sections had been separate. The first recorded owner of the upland was Cornelius Larcom, of French Huguenot descent, who acquired it for farmland in the early 1700s. It remained a working farm and family homestead for five generations of Larcoms who lived in the homestead until 1890. Although the original homestead was replaced by a larger house in the 19th century, an historic log cabin remains. It was once quarters for slaves belonging to David Larcom who died in 1775. Juno, one of his female slaves, was freed and continued to live on the property. When the Boston & Maine Railroad extension reached Beverly Farms in 1890, the value of the property soared and was split up into two and purchased separately by 1907. Eventually, the two properties were consolidated into today's "Sea Meadow," but there were virtually no changes over the next century.
Overlooking Massachusetts Bay, the 18-acre garden boasts whimsical designs by its former owner, Eugenia "Gene" Merrill Seamans. Plant material in formal beds, near the house, are carefully chosen, as well as wildflowers, native shrubs and grasses which densely cover the transition to meadow and pond. On the grounds are informal adaptions of formal elements, such as an allée of lindens with a hint of geometry; a folly, that floats above an outcropping, accessed along a hidden path of alpines; and an extensive herb garden nestled in a rocky ledge by the kitchen doors. In the wetlands is a rustic footbridge which crosses the tidal creeks, dotted by berry bushes and banks of towering pink and white mallows.
Persons associated with the garden include the Larcom Family, (former owners, 1730-1853?); the Dexter Family (former owners, 1885-1920); Augusta Putnam (former owner, 1920-1945); Oliver Ames (former owner, 1945-1950); Robert & Eugenia Seamans (former owners, 1950-2010); H. J. Collins & Associates (pool & tennis court designer, circa 1980); Beverly Benson Seamans (sculptor, 1970-1990); Austin Lydon (garden assistant, 1951-1965); Dick & Sylvia Forgit (garden assistants, 1966-1986); Bob & Cindi Bell (garden assistants, 1987-2011).
Related Materials:
Sea Meadow related holdings consist of 1 folder (15 35mm slides (photographs); 5 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Massachusetts -- Beverly  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File MA620
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb651a16679-93c7-4925-b8b6-2b6f1fc0ade9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref17558

Mike Seeger - "Walking Boss" [Live at Folkways Studio 2007]

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2009-07-29T13:05:36.000Z
YouTube Category:
Music  Search this
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianfolkways
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianfolkways
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_4St8z3cBEFk

Hamden -- Mill Rock

Engineer:
Blake, William P. (William Phipps), 1826-1910  Search this
Former owner:
Blake, William P. (William Phipps), 1826-1910  Search this
Blake, Whitney  Search this
Whitney, Stephen Mr. Mrs.  Search this
Fulton, John, MD  Search this
Fulton, Lucia Pickering  Search this
Gardener:
Fulton, Lucia Pickering  Search this
Photographer:
Radford, Jennifer  Search this
Owner:
Axion Cushing-Fulton Corporation  Search this
Provenance:
Garden Club of New Haven  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Mill Rock (Hamden, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- New Haven County -- Hamden
General:
"The English manor style house was built in 1870 by William Phipps Blake, a grand nephew of Eli Whitney. Blake was a geologist for the Union Pacific Railroad; later he became Director of the School of Mines at the University of Arizona. He was appointed by the Smithsonian Institution as Executive Commissioner for the Centennial Exposition of 1876 in Philadelphia. His late 19th century garden layout is down a sheltered southern slope. Massive retaining walls, masonry pillars linked by copper chains, and glazed brick paths, bricked-edged, have proved a very durable hardscape. Some features were added mid 20th century including the small fountain pool."
Persons associated with the property include: William Phipps Blake (former owner and engineer); Whitney Blake (former owner); Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Whitney (former owner);John Fulton, MD (former owner); Lucia Pickering Fulton (former owner); Axion Cushing-Fulton Corporation (owner); Jennifer Radford (photographer).
Related Materials:
Mill Rock related holdings consist of 1 folder (24 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Hamden  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File CT187
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb663dc62eb-162a-4e40-8877-7edda60b3c53
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21521

Chauncey Mitchell Depew

Artist:
Theodore L. Wust, active late 19th century  Search this
Sitter:
Chauncey Mitchell Depew, 23 Apr 1834 - 5 Apr 1928  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
148cm x 87cm (58 1/4" x 34 1/4"), Estimate
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1890-95
Topic:
Chauncey Mitchell Depew: Male  Search this
Chauncey Mitchell Depew: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Chauncey Mitchell Depew: Politics and Government\US Senator\New York  Search this
Chauncey Mitchell Depew: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Chauncey Mitchell Depew: Politics and Government\Presidential candidate  Search this
Chauncey Mitchell Depew: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Chauncey Mitchell Depew: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\University trustee  Search this
Chauncey Mitchell Depew: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
Chauncey Mitchell Depew: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Chicago History Museum
Object number:
1930.38
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4185b0b8e-4ddc-41a9-9d68-6363d49acb0a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_1930.38

The Officers of the C.S. Army & Navy

Artist:
C. F. May, 1800 - 1900?  Search this
Sitter:
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, 28 May 1818 - 20 Feb 1893  Search this
Judah Philip Benjamin, 6 Aug 1811 - 6 May 1884  Search this
Milledge Luke Bonham, 1813 - 1890  Search this
Braxton Bragg, 22 Mar 1817 - 27 Sep 1876  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge, 15 Jan 1821 - 17 May 1875  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner, 1 Apr 1823 - 8 Jan 1914  Search this
Franklin Buchanan, 1800 - 1874  Search this
Frederick Chatard, 1800 - 1900?  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham, 1820 - 1886  Search this
Thomas Lanier Clingman, 27 July 1812 - 3 Nov 1897  Search this
Jefferson Davis, 3 Jun 1808 - 6 Dec 1889  Search this
John Buchanan Floyd, 01 Jun 1806 - 26 Aug 1863  Search this
Robert Selden Garnett, 1819 - 1861  Search this
William Joseph Hardee, 12 Oct 1815 - 6 Nov 1873  Search this
Roger Weightman Hanson, 1827 - 1863  Search this
Charles Frederick Henningsen, 1815 - 1877  Search this
Ambrose Powell Hill, 9 Nov 1825 - 2 Apr 1865  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman, 1828 - 1868  Search this
George Nichols Hollins, 1799 - 1878  Search this
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, 21 Apr 1809 - 18 Jul 1887  Search this
Thomas Jonathan Jackson, 21 Jan 1824 - 10 May 1863  Search this
Joseph Eggleston Johnston, 3 Feb 1807 - 21 Mar 1891  Search this
Robert Edward Lee, 19 Jan 1807 - 12 Oct 1870  Search this
John Letcher, 1813 - 1884  Search this
Mansfield Lovel, 1822 - 1884  Search this
John Bankhead Magruder, 1810 - 1871  Search this
Ben McCulloch, 1808 - 1895  Search this
James Murray Mason, 3 Nov 1798 - 28 Apr 1871  Search this
Humphrey Marshall, 13 Jan 1812 - 28 Mar 1872  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury, 14 Jan 1806 - 1 Feb 1873  Search this
John Hunt Morgan, 1 Jun 1825 - 4 Sep 1864  Search this
Mosby Munroe Parsons, 1822 - 1865  Search this
Albert Pike, 1809 - 1891  Search this
Gideon Johnson Pillow, 1806 - 1878  Search this
Leonidas Polk, 10 Apr 1806 - 14 Jun 1864  Search this
Sterling Price, 20 Sep 1809 - 29 Sep 1867  Search this
Edward Price, 19th century  Search this
Gabriel James Rains, 1803 - 1881  Search this
Raphael Semmes, 27 Sep 1809 - 30 Aug 1877  Search this
John Slidell, 1793 - 29 Jul 1871  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith, 16 May 1824 - 28 Mar 1893  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens, 11 Feb 1812 - 4 Mar 1883  Search this
David Emanuel Twiggs, 1790 - 1862  Search this
Lloyd Tilghman, 1816 - 1863  Search this
M. Jeff Thompson, 1800 - 1900?  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs, 2 Jul 1810 - 15 Dec 1885  Search this
Earl Van Dorn, 1820 - 1863  Search this
James S. West, 1800 - 1900?  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall, 21 Apr 1816 - 18 Feb 1874  Search this
Medium:
Albumen print on paper
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 17.8 × 25.5 cm (7 × 10 1/16")
Mount: 27.5 × 35 cm (10 13/16 × 13 3/4")
Type:
Print
Date:
c. 1861-65
Topic:
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Mustache  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Epaulet  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Male  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Literature\Writer  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Military and Intelligence\Soldier  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Politics and Government\Confederate President  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Mississippi  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Politics and Government\US Senator\Mississippi  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of War  Search this
Jefferson Davis: Politics and Government\Governor\Mississippi  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith: Male  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor\University  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Captain  Search this
Edmund Kirby Smith: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\University president  Search this
John Hunt Morgan: Male  Search this
John Hunt Morgan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Robert Edward Lee: Male  Search this
Robert Edward Lee: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Robert Edward Lee: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\College administrator\President  Search this
Braxton Bragg: Male  Search this
Braxton Bragg: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Braxton Bragg: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Braxton Bragg: Science and Technology\Engineer\Civil engineer  Search this
Earl Van Dorn: Male  Search this
Earl Van Dorn: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
John Buchanan Floyd: Male  Search this
John Buchanan Floyd: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Buchanan Floyd: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
John Buchanan Floyd: Politics and Government\Governor\Virginia  Search this
Milledge Luke Bonham: Male  Search this
Milledge Luke Bonham: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Milledge Luke Bonham: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
Milledge Luke Bonham: Politics and Government\Governor\South Carolina  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Male  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Journalism and Media\Newspaper editor  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Politics and Government\Vice-Presidential Candidate  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Politics and Government\Governor\Kentucky  Search this
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Insurance agent  Search this
Frederick Chatard: Male  Search this
Frederick Chatard: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer\Civil War\Confederate  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham: Male  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Robert Selden Garnett: Male  Search this
Robert Selden Garnett: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Roger Weightman Hanson: Male  Search this
Roger Weightman Hanson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Charles Frederick Henningsen: Male  Search this
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter: Male  Search this
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter: Politics and Government\US Senator\Virginia  Search this
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Virginia  Search this
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter: Politics and Government\Statesman\Confederate statesman  Search this
John Letcher: Male  Search this
Mansfield Lovel: Male  Search this
Humphrey Marshall: Male  Search this
Humphrey Marshall: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Humphrey Marshall: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Humphrey Marshall: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Kentucky  Search this
Mosby Munroe Parsons: Male  Search this
Mosby Munroe Parsons: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Albert Pike: Male  Search this
Albert Pike: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Albert Pike: Literature\Writer  Search this
Albert Pike: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Albert Pike: Literature\Writer\Poet  Search this
Albert Pike: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice  Search this
Edward Price: Male  Search this
Raphael Semmes: Male  Search this
Raphael Semmes: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Raphael Semmes: Literature\Writer  Search this
Raphael Semmes: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer\Civil War\Confederate  Search this
David Emanuel Twiggs: Male  Search this
Lloyd Tilghman: Male  Search this
M. Jeff Thompson: Male  Search this
James S. West: Male  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Male  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Politics and Government\US Senator\Texas  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Politics and Government\Statesman\Confederate statesman  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Texas  Search this
Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Politics and Government\State Senator\Texas  Search this
Thomas Jonathan Jackson: Male  Search this
Thomas Jonathan Jackson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Thomas Jonathan Jackson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard: Male  Search this
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard: Literature\Writer  Search this
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Male  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Politics and Government\Presidential candidate  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of War\Confederate Secretary of War  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Kentucky  Search this
John Cabell Breckinridge: Politics and Government\US Senator\Kentucky  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury: Male  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury: Literature\Writer  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor\College  Search this
Matthew Fontaine Maury: Science and Technology\Scientist\Earth scientist\Oceanographer  Search this
Joseph Eggleston Johnston: Male  Search this
Joseph Eggleston Johnston: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Ambrose Powell Hill: Male  Search this
Ambrose Powell Hill: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Male  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Journalism and Media\Newspaper publisher  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Georgia  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Politics and Government\Governor\Georgia  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Georgia  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Stephens: Politics and Government\Confederate Vice President  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Male  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Politics and Government\Statesman  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Georgia  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Planter  Search this
Robert Augustus Toombs: Politics and Government\US Senator\Georgia  Search this
Leonidas Polk: Male  Search this
Leonidas Polk: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Leonidas Polk: Religion and Spirituality\Clergy\Prelate\Bishop  Search this
Leonidas Polk: Education and Scholarship\Founder\University  Search this
Gabriel James Rains: Male  Search this
Gabriel James Rains: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Sterling Price: Male  Search this
Sterling Price: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Sterling Price: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Sterling Price: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Missouri  Search this
Sterling Price: Politics and Government\Governor\Missouri  Search this
Sterling Price: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Missouri  Search this
John Bankhead Magruder: Male  Search this
John Bankhead Magruder: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer  Search this
Gideon Johnson Pillow: Male  Search this
Gideon Johnson Pillow: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Gideon Johnson Pillow: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Gideon Johnson Pillow: Politics and Government\Politician  Search this
Judah Philip Benjamin: Male  Search this
Judah Philip Benjamin: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Judah Philip Benjamin: Politics and Government\Statesman\Confederate statesman  Search this
Judah Philip Benjamin: Politics and Government\US Senator\Louisiana  Search this
Franklin Buchanan: Male  Search this
Franklin Buchanan: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer\Civil War\Confederate  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Male  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Politics and Government\Congressman  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Journalism and Media\Editor  Search this
Thomas Carmichael Hindman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General  Search this
Thomas Lanier Clingman: Male  Search this
Thomas Lanier Clingman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Thomas Lanier Clingman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
Thomas Lanier Clingman: Politics and Government\US Senator\North Carolina  Search this
Ben McCulloch: Male  Search this
George Nichols Hollins: Male  Search this
George Nichols Hollins: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer  Search this
George Nichols Hollins: Military and Intelligence\Navy\Officer\Civil War\Confederate  Search this
William Joseph Hardee: Male  Search this
William Joseph Hardee: Literature\Writer  Search this
William Joseph Hardee: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Confederate army officer  Search this
William Joseph Hardee: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Mexican War army officer  Search this
John Slidell: Male  Search this
John Slidell: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Slidell: Politics and Government\Diplomat  Search this
John Slidell: Politics and Government\Confederate official  Search this
John Slidell: Politics and Government\US Senator\Louisiana  Search this
John Slidell: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Louisiana  Search this
James Murray Mason: Male  Search this
James Murray Mason: Politics and Government\Diplomat  Search this
James Murray Mason: Politics and Government\US Senator\Virginia  Search this
James Murray Mason: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Virginia  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
S/NPG.84.421
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm45ea8e948-d94c-46ab-b21a-e4047db4e069
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_S_NPG.84.421

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Periodicals

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
14.07 Cubic feet (consisting of 26.5 boxes, 9 folders, 39 oversize folder, 3 map case folders, 4 flat boxes (2 full, 2 partial), plus digital images of some collection material. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
1798-1977
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Periodicals forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This material consists primarily of periodicals (serial publications), including trade literature, educational, general interest, and leisure publications marketed to children, youths, and adults, plus related subscription information, and advertising information.

It dates from 1811-1966 but the bulk of the material dates from 1850-1920. The periodicals relate to a number of different interest groups including women, children, men, and family. Subjects include farming, the home, horses, advertising, art, railroads, hotels, food, literature, religion, medicine, mining, architecture, fashion and current events. While the majority of these periodicals are directed toward consumers, there are also a number of specialized professional and business publications. The periodicals are arranged alphabetically by title. Much of the material consists of subscription information directed to readers and information for advertisers including receipts, circulars cards and letters. Individual copies of the publications are listed with their date(s) of issue. Most of these were issued monthly; others weekly or quarterly.

Periodicals provide valuable information about the customs, styles and attitudes of the times and places in which they appear. Many feature elaborate illustrations and photographs by well-known practitioners and articles and stories by notable persons. Advertisements provide insight into social customs, commercial practices, and the evolving complexity of life in the last half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century.

The first group of materials, Periodicals, consists of copies of periodicals and related materials including receipts, circulars, subscription information, advertising information, letters, notes, and cards; arranged alphabetically by title.

Subscription Agencies and Dealers in Periodicals includes advertising circulars, price lists, and order forms arranged alphabetically by name of company.

Related Materials contains miscellaneous printers and publishers, samples of cover designs, and export/import documents
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Periodicals is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Periodicals, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Periodicals
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Periodicals
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83e740b22-1be0-477e-8440-794e0c56adc5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-periodicals
Online Media:

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Universal Network Television, American, founded 1950  Search this
Alex Haley, American, 1921 - 1992  Search this
Percy Ellis Sutton, American, 1920 - 2009  Search this
Columbia Records, American, founded 1888  Search this
Brown & Williamson, American, born 1894  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Roy Wilkins, American, 1901 - 1981  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1923  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
President Jimmy Carter, American, born 1924  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Urban League Guild, American, founded 1946  Search this
Tuskegee Airmen, 1941 - 1946  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Muhammad Ali, American, 1942 - 2016  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, American, founded 1957  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Northside Center for Child Development, Inc., founded 1946  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 5/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 0.8 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1977
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Sports  Search this
Tennis  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.11
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5a191f832-64ab-4d62-81fe-a2bc53493bea
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.11
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records

Author:
Garrett, John W. (John Work), 1820-1884  Search this
Latrobe, Benj. H. (Benjamin Henry), 1807-1878  Search this
Creator:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
33 Cubic feet (76 boxes, 46 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tracings
Correspondence
Drawings
Date:
1827-1987
Summary:
The collection consists of correspondence, invoices, drawings, photographs, and negatives and other printed literature documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence, engineering drawings, notes, photographs, transparencies, negatives, glass plate negatives, printed materials, and newspaper clippings documenting the Baltimore and Ohio railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio in the 1960s.
Arrangement:
The records are arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1827-1987

Series 2, Bridge Histories, 1867-1966

Series 3, President's Office, 1826-1880

Series 4, Correspondence, 1826-1859

Series 5, Business Records, 1894-1914, and undated

Series 6, Agreement, 1870

Series 7, Drawings, 1858-1957, and undated

Subseries 7.1, Indices and Lists, 1924-1943, undated

Subseries 7.2, Bailey's Station, 1887; 1899; 1901

Subseries 7.3, Baltimore Belt Railroad, 1895, undated

Subseries 7.4, Bay View and Canton Bridges, 1884-1885

Subseries 7.5, Big Seneca Creek Viaduct, 1905

Subseries 7.6, Bollman Bridges, undated

Subseries 7.7, Boyds, Maryland Station, 1886; 1927

Subseries 7.8, Bridewell Station, undated

Subseries 7.9, Bridges (general), 1893-1917

Subseries 7.10, Brunswick, Maryland, 1890-1907

Subseries 7.11, Building Materials List, undated

Subseries 7.12, Building Signs, 1911-1912

Subseries 7.13, Camden Station, 1881-1942 (not inclusive)

Subseries 7.14, Camden Station (related), 1881-1915

Subseries 7.15, Centenary Bridge Models, 1927

Subseries 7.16, Central Office Building, undated

Subseries 7.17, Chestnut Street Station, 1925-1952

Subseries 7.18, Coaling facilities, water tanks, turntables, and miscellaneous structures, 1888-1912

Subseries 7.19, Cumberland Station, 1910-1955

Subseries 7.20, Curtis Bay Branch, 1900-1911

Subseries 7.21, Frederick Station, 1908-1915

Subseries 7.22, Hyattsville Station, 1913

Subseries 7.23, Keedysville Station, undated

Subseries 7.24, Laurel Station, undated

Subseries 7.25, Ledger, undated

Subseries 7.26, Lieperville Station, 1889

Subseries 7.27, Locust Point, 1881-1957

Subseries 7.28, Maps, 1862; 1918

Subseries 7.29, Martinsburg, West Virginia, 1913-1927

Subseries 7.30, Miscellaneous Buildings, 1875-1956

Subseries 7.31, Miscellaneous Large Photographs, undated

Subseries 7.32, Miscellaneous Structures, 1890-1916

Subseries 7.33: Mt. Clare (general)

Subseries 7.34, Mt. Clare New Blue Line Stable, 1899; 1905

Subseries 7.35, Mt. Clare New Car Shops, undated

Subseries 7.36, Mt. Royal Station, undated

Subseries 7.37, Newton Falls and Fairpoint, Ohio, 1909

Subseries 7.38, Patapsco River Bridge, 1883

Subseries 7.39, Plans for house no. 1846 (N. Gay Street, Baltimore, Maryland), undated

Subseries 7.40, Point of Rocks Station, 1951

Subseries 7.41, Scales, 1903

Subseries 7.42, Signal towers, 1900-1908

Subseries 7.43, Stations (general), 1866-1907

Subseries 7.44, Sykesville Station, undated

Subseries 7.45, Untitled, undated

Subseries 7.46, Warnings, 1894-1911

Subseries 7.47, Woodstock Station, undated

Subseries 7.48, Miscellaneous (rolled), 1858-1930 (not inclusive)

Series 8, Photographs and Copy Prints, 1872-1980s (not inclusive)

Subseries 8.1, Photographs, 1872-1980s

Subseries 8.2, Copy prints, 1901-1931, undated

Subseries 8.3, Indices and Lists, 1909-1920

Series 9, Negatives, 1850-1983 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.1, Glass plate negatives (unidentified), undated

Subseries 9.2, Glass plate negatives (numbered), 1850-1957 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.3, Negatives by number, undated

Subseries 9.4, Negatives by location, 1870; 1978-1983

Subseries 9.5, Negatives by subject, 1922-1930s, undated

Series 10, Stations and Buildings, 1884-1982
Biographical / Historical:
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was the nation's first extensive steam powered railroad. It was founded by Baltimore merchants in 1827 as a means of promoting trade and making Baltimore competitive with other east coast ports. The original intent of the founders was to provide direct and fast access to the Ohio River, and the markets that the river reached. The railroad, however, went beyond the Ohio River and its lines went as far west as St. Louis and Chicago. The B&O was also known for its use of an electric locomotive in the mid 1890s. It also had a completely air conditioned train, and it was a forerunner in the use of diesel-electric locomotives. Company activities paralleled those of other American railroads and over the course of its life included expansion, near bankruptcy, innovations, regulations, and finally buy out. In February 1963, the Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) completed its purchase of the B&O. Today, B&O is part of the CSX Transportation (CSX) network.

John Work Garrett president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 1858-1884, was born in Baltimore, Maryland July 31, 1820. He was the second son of Elizabeth Stouffer and Robert Garrett. He married Rachel Ann Harrison, the daughter of Thomas Harrison, a Baltimore merchant. They had one daughter, Mary and two sons Robert and Thomas Harrison Garrett.

After attending Lafayette College (Pennsylvania) for two years John W. Garrett left in 1836 to become associated with his father's commission business in Baltimore. The commission house which dealt in wholesale groceries, produce, forwarding and a commission business expanded to establish direct connections with Latin America, seek outlets in Europe and develop its own banking operations. In time its financial operations overshadowed the commission and shipping business.

When John W. Garrett began to invest heavily in Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stock, the road was in competition with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the stock was not popular. Its value rose steadily over the years. Mr. Garrett was elected a director of the railroad in 1855. His report as chairman of a subcommittee on the need for additional funds to complete the line to the Ohio River led to his election to the presidency of the road on November 17, 1858, a position he held for 26 years. New policies with emphasis on economy, personal supervision and gradual expansion were inaugurated and consistently maintained, in spite of a general financial crisis, Mr. Garrett's first year in office showed a net gain in earnings.

Sympathetic to his southern friends during the Civil War, Mr. Garrett nevertheless supported the Union. He recognized the inevitability of Confederate defeat by superior northern resources. Confederate leaders blamed him for their inability to seize Washington and he received warm appreciation for his services to the Union cause from President Lincoln. The railroad stretched along the theater of war and twice crossed Confederate territory. It was, therefore, a main objective for southern attack. Branches were frequently damaged by Confederate raids, but the main line to Washington became important for the transport of troops and supplies. The Baltimore and Ohio carried out the first military rail transport in history and the transfer of 20,000 men from the Potomac to Chattanooga in 1863 was a major triumph for its president.

With the advent of peace Mr. Garrett turned to rebuilding and strengthening the railroad. He replaced equipment and track damaged by the war, then extended the system by securing direct routes to Pittsburgh and Chicago and arranging an independent line into New York. Wharves were built at Locust Point for ocean liners and a system of elevators erected. The B&O. built its own sleeping and dining cars, established hotels in the mountains and created its own express company. By 1880, after battles over rates with other trunk lines, a costly rivalry with the Pennsylvania Railroad over the eastern route and charges of discrimination against local shippers Mr. Garrett was at the height of his success. He cooperated in establishing the B. and 0. Employees Relief Association for accident and life insurance, a hospital system, saving and building funds, and arrangements for improving sanitation in the work place. He was on friendly terms with Johns Hopkins, a trustee of John Hopkins Hospital, and with George Peabody, founder of the Peabody institute of which he was also a trustee. Garrett County, Maryland was named in his honor.

John W. Garrett died on September 26, 1884 within a year of his wife's death in a carriage accident. During his connection with the railroad the stock increased from $57 to $200; at the outbreak of the Civil War the railroad was operating 514 miles of rail, gross earnings were $4,000,097 and net per mile was $4246.1 By 1864 gross earnings were $10,138,876 and net per mile, $7113.2 By the end of his presidency mileage had increased to 1711 miles and net earnings were $4535 per mile.3

References

1 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

2 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

3 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Maryland Historical Society

Baltimore and Ohio Museum
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs and glass plate negatives with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Engineering -- 19th century  Search this
Repairing -- Railroads  Search this
Railway engineering -- 1860-1890  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tracings
Correspondence -- 19th century
Drawings -- 1860-1890
Citation:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1086
See more items in:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e652d903-bb57-46a8-a205-c7cbfe89f444
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1086
Online Media:

Soldiers' Home near Dayton, Ohio [folding strip of lithographs.]

Publisher:
Home Store of the Central Branch National Home for D.V.'s  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 3" x 50".)
Type:
Archival materials
Lithographs
Foldouts
Date:
Ca. 1878
Scope and Contents:
Folding strip of 10 illustrations of National Soldiers Home near Dayton, Ohio: The Home Church; The Music Hall, The Putnam Library; Conservatory & Garden; View from the Lower Lake; Stone Arch & Grotto; Home Restaurant and Railroad; the Monument, Main Avenue; and The Deer Park.
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001240a.tif (AC Scan: 2 images: The Home Church, and Music Hall)

AC0060-0001240b.tif (AC Scan: The Putnam Library)

AC0060-0001240c.tif (AC Scan: Conservatory & Garden)

AC0060-0001240d.tif (AC Scan: View from the Lower Lake; and Stone Arch & Grotto)

AC0060-0001240e.tif (AC Scan: Hlome Restaurant and Railroad; and The Monument)
General:
In Box 2, Folder 17.
Civil War Selections from the Archives Center
Related Materials:
Civil War series, Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Church buildings  Search this
Music-halls  Search this
Soldiers -- Civil War  Search this
Disabled veterans  Search this
Veterans -- Civil war  Search this
Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lithographs -- 19th century
Foldouts
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Civil War
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Civil War / Government Records, Business Records, and Other / Civil War
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep816201178-f46d-4576-93ea-bd0c22a401e2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-civilwar-ref540
Online Media:

Strategic factors in nineteenth century American economic history : a volume to honor Robert W. Fogel / edited by Claudia Goldin and Hugh Rockoff

Title:
Strategic factors in 19th century American economic history
Author:
Fogel, Robert William  Search this
Goldin, Claudia Dale  Search this
Rockoff, Hugh  Search this
National Bureau of Economic Research  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 491 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Place:
United States
Date:
1992
C1992
20th century
Topic:
Labor market--History  Search this
Capital market--History  Search this
Economic conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_494137

Samuel Marsh

Artist:
Harrison Lorenzo Plummer, 1814 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
Samuel Marsh, 1786 - 1872  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Stretcher: 76.2 × 63.5cm (30 × 25")
Type:
Painting
Date:
mid 19th century
Topic:
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Bowtie  Search this
Samuel Marsh: Male  Search this
Samuel Marsh: Business and Finance\Businessperson  Search this
Samuel Marsh: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: New York State Museum
Object number:
H-2003.41.105
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4ebc5ba40-a8da-47d4-bdef-26caf171a853
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_H-2003.41.105
Online Media:

Henry Crow

Artist:
Unidentified Artist  Search this
Sitter:
Henry Crow  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Sight (Accurate): 73.8 x 61cm (29 1/16 x 24")
Type:
Painting
Date:
mid-late 19th century
Topic:
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Mustache  Search this
Architecture\Wall  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard  Search this
Home Furnishings\Curtain  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Bowtie  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Button  Search this
Henry Crow: Male  Search this
Henry Crow: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Railroad  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Colorado History Museum
Object number:
SHNH.11256.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm472002430-498e-453a-8350-44c80093ac21
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_SHNH.11256.1

Writings: "What is This Thing Called Soaring", US Air Service

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1931-11
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 3: General materials of Hattie Meyers Junkin
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg27555f373-0faa-4727-be16-7a2237173799
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref130
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Writings:

Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Administrative records
Articles
Books
Clippings
Contracts
Drawings
Photographs
Patents
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Scrapbooks
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-seven series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Addenda
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but Series 11 and films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audiovisual materials. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Communications equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Administrative records
Articles
Books
Clippings
Contracts
Drawings
Photographs -- 19th century
Patents
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Specifications
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b72e8493-288c-4bd0-84d5-011155da30a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Online Media:

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Crispus Attucks, American, 1723 - 1770  Search this
Sojourner Truth, American, 1797 - 1883  Search this
Harriet Tubman, American, 1822 - 1913  Search this
Sarah C. Roberts, American, born 1844  Search this
Susan McKinney Steward, American, 1847 - 1918  Search this
Dred Scott, American, ca 1800 - 1858  Search this
Frederick Douglass, American, 1818 - 1895  Search this
Booker T. Washington, American, 1856 - 1915  Search this
George Washington Carver, American, 1860s - 1943  Search this
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Scott Joplin, American, 1867 - 1917  Search this
Marcus Garvey, Jamaican, 1887 - 1940  Search this
James Weldon Johnson, American, 1871 - 1938  Search this
Father Divine, American, ca. 1876 - 1965  Search this
A. Philip Randolph, American, 1889 - 1979  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
Rosa Parks, American, 1913 - 2005  Search this
Medgar Evers, American, 1925 - 1963  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
President Lyndon Baines Johnson, American, 1908 - 1973  Search this
Mary McLeod Bethune, American, 1875 - 1955  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Langston Hughes, American, 1902 - 1967  Search this
Paul Robeson, American, 1898 - 1976  Search this
Ezzard Mack Charles, American, 1921 - 1975  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1976
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
U.S. History, Colonial period, 1600-1775  Search this
United States History  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e57ffdd9-2ab1-46da-b6e7-10757007351f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.10
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Phi Rho Fraternity, American, founded 1978  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
Association of Black Women Attorneys, American, founded 1976  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
Raymond A. Jordan Jr., American, born 1943  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
Northside Center for Child Development, Inc., founded 1946  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Dr. Leslie L. Alexander, Jamaican American, 1917 - 2002  Search this
Smithsonian Institution, American, founded 1846  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1923  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Dr. Benjamin Elijah Mays, American, 1894 - 1984  Search this
Count Basie, American, 1904 - 1984  Search this
National Coalition of 100 Black Women, American, founded 1981  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
Signed by:
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 9/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.5 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1985
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Enterprise  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.19
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5ee110782-b949-43b4-bbec-56a00d4f086e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.19
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