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New England Pioneer Railroads

Collection Collector:
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Collection Creator:
White, John H., 1933-  Search this
Container:
Box 66, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, ca. 1830-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection / Series 4: Railroad Companies and Lines
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8fcaeb9e0-59e9-41b9-907c-0b966a87eb41
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0523-ref828

Lehigh and New England

Collection Collector:
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Collection Creator:
White, John H., 1933-  Search this
Container:
Box 54, Folder 21
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, ca. 1830-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection / Series 4: Railroad Companies and Lines
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a1ac028b-1007-4371-b3ad-c86adf1e9731
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0523-ref656

New York and New England

Collection Collector:
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Collection Creator:
White, John H., 1933-  Search this
Container:
Box 66, Folder 23
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, ca. 1830-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection / Series 4: Railroad Companies and Lines
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep872d657fb-2a82-4bf9-b0c9-0bc49ccdaf0b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0523-ref836

Philadelphia, Reading and New England

Collection Collector:
Watkins, J. Elfreth (John Elfreth), 1852-1903  Search this
Collection Creator:
White, John H., 1933-  Search this
Container:
Box 74, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, ca. 1830-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection
John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection / Series 4: Railroad Companies and Lines
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8108d59fa-93d0-4cae-a575-50ebff3c01ef
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0523-ref915

George B. "Slim" Purington Photo Album

Creator:
Purington, George Byron "Slim"  Search this
Names:
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company  Search this
Extent:
0.35 Cubic feet (1 flat box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Date:
Circa 1910 to 1919
Summary:
George Byron "Slim" Purington was chief mechanic for Curtiss at the North Island Aviation Camp in San Diego, California. This collection consists of a photograph album created by Purington in the early 1900s. The photographs in the album depict a number of early aviators and a variety of early aircraft.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a photograph album created by George Byron "Slim" Purington in the early 1900s. The photographs in the album depict a number of early aviators and a variety of early aircraft. Photographs were taken in and around North Island, as well as at various airshows and exhibitions in the midwestern and western United States. In addition, there are photographs in the album depicting various crash sites and recovery of damaged aircraft from land and water, as well as several pages of photographs pertaining to the crash that killed Cromwell Dixon, Jr. at the Spokane Interstate Fair in 1911. There are also photographs in the album of ships, sailboats, and trains. Aircraft shown in the album include the Curtiss Model D; Curtiss Beachey Tractor; Curtiss Hydro, Original; Curtiss Model E Hydro Headless; Curtiss Flying-Boat No.1; Curtiss Flying Boat No.2 "The Flying Fish"; Curtiss Model M (Morris) Boat; Curtiss F Boat; Curtiss Tractor Hydro; Curtiss Hydro Triplane; Curtiss A-1 (AH-1); Aerial Experiment Association Aerodrome No 4 Silver Dart; and the Curtiss G (Army 1913 Tractor). Besides Purington himself, notable figures in aviation shown in the album include Castle W. Shaffer ("Lucky Bob St. Henry"); John D. Cooper; Frank J. Bell; Hugh Armstrong Robinson; James J. "Jimmie" Ward; Julia E. Clark; Frank J. Terrill; Holden Chester "Dick" Richardson; Theodore Gordon "Spuds" Ellyson; Terah T. Maroney; John W. McClaskey; John Lansing Callan; Man Mohan Singh; Glenn Hammond Curtiss; Charles Francis Walsh; Beckwith Havens; Carl T. Sjolander; Lincoln Beachey; John A. D. McCurdy; Floyd E. Barlow; and Arthur F. Lym (Arthur Fook Yuen Lyn, Lin Fuyuan, Art Lin, Lim Fook Yin).
Arrangement:
Collection is a single item.
Biographical / Historical:
George Byron "Slim" Purington was chief mechanic for Curtiss at the North Island Aviation Camp in San Diego, California. Prior to working for Curtiss, Purington had been an engineer for the Tecopa Railroad Company which ran between mines in Nevada and California. In addition to his work at North Island, Purington was sent by Curtiss as part of a delegation to Russia relating to the sale of Curtiss K flying boats and was there from 1916 to 1917. The contents of the scrapbook in this collection suggest that Purington also traveled to some extent in the midwestern and western United States with the Curtiss Exhibition Company.
Provenance:
Mrs. T. C. [Margaret S.] MacAulay, Gift, 1964, NASM.XXXX.0248.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Citation:
George B. "Slim" Purington Photo Album, NASM.XXXX.0284, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0284
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2f67b9ac1-3c73-4a51-8a44-85dfbe5d72ad
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0284
Online Media:

The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 6

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
George Padmore, Trinidadian, 1903 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 7/8 x 6 5/16 in. (22.5 x 16 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
South Africa, Africa
Guyana, Caribbean, South America
Trinidad and Tobago, Caribbean, South America
Jamaica, Caribbean, North and Central America
Liberia, West Africa, Africa
Kenya, Africa
Place made:
Hamburg, Germany, Europe
Cultural Place:
England, Europe
Date:
1932
Topic:
African American  Search this
Colonialism  Search this
Decolonization  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
U.S. History, 1919-1933  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Pan Africanism
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5dfd877c2-c600-4962-995e-594a795e9f8c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.6
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William R. Hutton Papers

Creator:
Hutton, William R., 1826-1901  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (33 boxes, 21 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Cashbooks
Business records
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books
Books
Family papers
Financial records
Cyanotypes
Correspondence
Deeds
Printed material
Contracts
Harlem river bridge
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Place:
France
Maryland
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
Panama Canal (Panama)
New Jersey
New York (N.Y.)
Hudson River
Baltimore (Md.)
Georgetown (Washington, D.C.)
New York
Washington Bridge
New Croton Aqueduct
Kanawha River Canal
Washington Aqueduct
Potomac River -- 19th century
Washington Memorial Bridge
Hudson River Tunnel
Date:
1830-1965
Summary:
The papers document the life and work of William R. Hutton, a civil engineer during the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Materials include diaries, notebooks, correspondence, letterpress copy book, printed materials, publications, specifications, photographs, drawings, and maps that document the construction of several architectural and engineering projects during this period. Most notable are the records containing information related to the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington Aqueduct, the Kanawha River Canal, and the Washington/Harlem River Bridge. There are also several records about railroads in the state of Maryland, the District of Columbia and elsewhere, including the Western Maryland Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Colorado Midlands Railway, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, and the Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad. The records can be used to track the progression of these projects, and engineering innovation during the late 1800s to the early 1900s.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William R. Hutton's professional career as a civil engineer and his personal affairs. Although the personal materials in the collection provide insight into a man and a family that have been largely forgotten by biographers, it is the professional materials that are perhaps the most interesting to researchers. They provide a compelling narrative of the push to the West that occurred in 19th century America and the internal improvements movement typified by the American System plan proposed by Henry Clay. Perhaps best remembered for the high tariffs that accompanied it, the American System plan was also concerned with the advancement of internal improvements, such as canals, that would unite the East and West in communication, travel, and trade. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal can be seen as one of the products of this movement (1) and was in fact initially heralded as the first great work of national improvement (2).

The papers in this collection that are related to the construction and maintenance of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal are an invaluable documentation of efforts during this turbulent time to unite the eastern and western United States. They provide details of the canal from its initial construction to its decline with the incline at Georgetown project. The canal also serves as an example, or perhaps a warning against, federal involvement in state improvement efforts as it was the first project to be directly funded and staffed by the federal government (3). The groundbreaking ceremony was attended by then President John Quincy Adams whose toast, "to the canal: perseverance," (4) became an ironic omen, as construction of the canal took over twenty-two years to be completed. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal materials can be used as a case study for the problems encountered during canal building (5). These problems are best typified in the collection by the papers relating to the Georgetown incline. This project was headed by Hutton and was plagued with construction problems, boating accidents, and obsolescence from the moment of its completion. Despite these issues, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal remains a structure of historical significance in America. As the third and last effort to construct an all-water route to the West (6), the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is an important artifact of 19th century attitudes and efforts towards commerce, trade, travel, and communication between the eastern and western United States. Other significant canals and water structures represented in the collection are the Kanawha Canal, the Washington Aqueduct, and a large collection of materials relating to the Kingston Water Supply (New York).

One of the most significant internal improvements made during this time was the railroad. The legal conflicts that arose between the canal companies and railroads is also represented in the materials relating to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. These materials specifically deal with the legal conflict's between the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The development and construction of the railroads is also represented in the materials documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, the Western Maryland Railroad, the Mexican National Railroad, the Colorado Midlands Railroad, and the Columbia Railroad.

The collection also demonstrates the spirit of innovation and invention that was prevalent in the engineering field in the nineteenth century. Joseph Gies writes, "...one of the distinctive characteristics of the great nineteenth century engineering adventurers was their readiness to gamble on the translation of theory into practice" (7). In this quote, he is speaking of the civil engineer Dewitt Clinton Haskins and a project that truly encapsulates engineering invention in the nineteenth century, the Hudson River Tunnel. Responding to the increase in the population of the City of New York in the late nineteenth century from sixty thousand to three and a half million, the Hudson River Tunnel was originally devised as a way to alleviate traffic and to transport train passengers directly across the Hudson River (8). Beginning with records dating from 1881 to 1901, the Hutton papers can be used to document not only the advances in engineering during this time but also the costs of progress. Haskins' initial efforts to build the tunnel using submerged air pressurized caissons were marked by failure and in some cases fatalities. Workers on the tunnel often suffered from what came to be known as "caisson disease" or "the bends," caused by the immense forces of compression and decompression experienced while working in the tunnels (9). This problem was so prevalent that as construction progressed the rate of worker deaths caused by "the bends" rose to twenty-five percent (10). Materials in the collection document worker complaints and deaths resulting from this disease as well as providing a technical record of the construction of the tunnel. The highlight of the materials relating to the Hudson River Tunnel is an album that contains photographs of workers in the tunnel and a detailed daily report of the construction progress on the tunnel that was maintained by Hutton's assistant, Walton Aims. The first hand account in these reports provides insight not only into the construction of the tunnel, but also the problems encountered.

Another project featured in the Hutton collection that was devised in response to the population explosion in the City of New York in the nineteenth century is the Harlem River Bridge, or as it is now known, the Washington Bridge. Known as one of the longest steel arch bridges of its time, the Harlem River Bridge also represents that spirit of invention and innovation that was prevalent in the civil engineering field during the nineteenth century. The collection provides an invaluable resource for those wishing to track the construction of the bridge from early concept drawings and proposals to finalized plans. Also present are photographs of the construction and workers. Societal response to the bridge in the form of newspaper and magazine clippings help to create the narrative of the Washington Bridge, and these are supplemented by correspondence from the builders, suppliers, and planners.

This collection also includes diaries, 1866-1901; letterpress copybooks, 1858-1901; correspondence on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Bridge over the Harlem River, and Maryland and Colorado railroads, 1861-1901, and on Hutton's financial and real estate affairs, 1835-1921; construction photographs of the Harlem River, Cairo, Poughkeepsie, Niagara bridges and the Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Aqueduct, and Capitol Dome (in the form of albumen, cyanotype, salted paper print); data and drawings; rolled land profile drawings; canal notes, 1828-1892; Hudson River Tunnel construction reports, 1889-1891; publications, drawings, and maps of railroad routes; pamphlets and reprints on hydraulic works and water supply; road, railway, bridge, and hydraulic construction specifications, 1870-1900; drawings (linen, oil cloth, and heavy drawing paper), and blueprints; account books, 1891-1899; and plans, drawings, field notebooks, and publications on American and European construction projects, especially in Maryland, New York, and France; personal correspondence detailing his role as executor for the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and the Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt and his relationships with his children, siblings, cousins, and colleagues, 1850-1942.

Materials are handwritten, typed, and printed.

Special note should be made that any materials dated after the year 1901 were added to the collection by another creator who is unidentified. It can be speculated that professional materials added after this date were contributed by his brother and colleague Nathanial Hutton or his son Frank Hutton. Personal materials contributed after this date may have been added by his wife, daughters, or other members of his extended family.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901, consists of twenty seven letterpress copybooks containing correspondence between Hutton and other engineers, architects, and building suppliers. The letterpress copybooks in this series have been arranged chronologically. The books involve a process by which ink is transferred through direct contact with the original using moisture and pressure in a copy press. The majority of the correspondence is business- related. Some letterpress copybooks are devoted to specific projects such as the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The letterpress copybooks provide a record of correspondence written by Hutton, which makes it distinctive from the other correspondence in the collection. Most of the other correspondence has Hutton as recipient.

The letterpress copybooks also document Hutton's various residences throughout his life and provide a glimpse into the civil engineering profession at the time by demonstrating how engineers shared ideas and comments about projects. This can be supplemented with the printed materials in the collection as many of the authors also appear in the correspondence. Other topics covered in the letterpress copybooks include business reports (specifically the report of the president and directors of the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad), records of people and companies involved in projects, pasted in engineering sketches, engineering specifications and notes, travel expenses and estimates, construction histories and progress, legal issues with family estates, tax information, Colorado Railroad, payment certificate schedules, St. Paul Railroad, personal correspondence, title guarantees, Hudson River Tunnel, financial matters, real estate matters, insurance information, sketches and drawings, supply lists, cost estimates, the Memorial Bridge, Coffin Valve Company, engineering expenses, engineering calculations, payroll notes for Kingston Water Supply, proposals, account information, Hutton Park, reservoirs, contract drafts, French Society of Civil Engineers, inspection results (specifically Piedmont Bridge), land descriptions, damage reports, Morse Bridge, Illinois Central Railroad, North Sea Canal, moveable dams, iron works, site histories, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Kanawha River canal (lock quantities, specifications, payroll information), Pennsylvania Canal, and bills for services.

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901, consists of correspondence that relates to Hutton's architectural and engineering projects. This series is further subdivided into two subseries: Project Correspondence and General Correspondence. Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899, correspondence is divided by project and arranged alphabetically. Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901, is arranged chronologically. Both series contain handwritten and typed letters. Some letters are on letterpress copybook pages and are most likely copies. Some materials are in French and Spanish. Special note should be made that this series does not contain all of the professional correspondence in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to project and placed in Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, in order to make it easier for researchers to access materials related to those subjects.

Subseries 1, professional correspondence topics include comparisons between construction projects (specifically comparisons of the Kanawha River Canal to other canals), supply lists, location recommendations, sketches, construction plans and modifications, bills for supplies and works, leaks in the gates, cost estimates, Brooklyn Water Supply, use of lake storage (Ramapo Water Supply), water supply to states and counties, damages to water supply pipes, estimates of water quantities, responses to construction reports, legal issues related to projects, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and payment for services.

Subseries 2, general correspondence topics include employment opportunities, committee meetings and elections, land surveys, sketches, engineering plans and ideas, work on projects, dismissal from projects, notes on supplies, Washington Aqueduct, construction progress, land purchases, Civil War, Jones Falls, cost of water pumps, steam drills, lots divisions and prices, repairs, report of the engineering bureau, tidewater connection at Annapolis, bridge construction, construction costs, statement of vessels that entered and cleared Baltimore, technical questions from colleagues, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, supply costs, letters of introduction, requests for reference, changes to plans and designs, survey reports, St. Andrew's lot, Canal Coal Company, publication process, American Society of Civil Engineers and its members, responses to project inquiries, Graving Dock gross revenue, job offers, specifications, trade figures, contracts, water levels, appointment dates and times, moveable dams, proposals for membership, salaries, Piedmont Coal Lands, maps, land profiles, Washington Bridge, board payments, Nicaragua Canal, Grant Coal Company, statistics, engineering notes, Hartford Bridge, water pressures, coal deposits, Colorado Coal, pipe lines, reservoirs, boat costs for canals, floods, bridges, letters of resignation, engines, Ruxton Viaduct, Colorado and Midland Railroad, Morse Bridge, share values, railroad locations, membership invitations, call for submissions, structural tests, record of accounts for room and board, appointments, water rights (Putnam County), publications, blueprints, visitation programs, cotton compresses, street trenches, pressures in dams, level tests, Portland Transportation bureau, trade information, concrete steel, Chicago drainage canal, ship canals, Augusta Cotton and Compress Company, Sooysmith case, Consolidated Gas Company, masonry, book binding, Columbia Railway Company, jetties, land grades, Chesapeake and Delaware canal, water wheels, pneumatic lock, tunnel arches, rifton power, Hutton's health, elevators, Brooklyn Bridge Terminals, girder weights, legal issues and their results, rating table for the Potomac, land profiles, transmission lines, transformers, water turbines, and water power on the Potomac River.

Correspondents for this series include the following: Captain Montgomery C. Meigs, Captain T.W. Symons, William Bryan, Ernest Flagg, John Hurd, Jake Wolfe, J.C. Saunders, J.H. Dolph, Charles J. Allen, G.H. Mendell, Virgil S. Bogue, B.A. Mounnerlyn, Edward Burr, H.G. Prout, R. William, H. Dodge, C.R. Suter, M. Mink, W.R. King, John Lyons, Alex Brown and Sons, John G. Butler, D. Condon, Bernard Carter, R.P. McCormick, D.R. Magruder, Andrew Banks, Isaac Solomon, C.J. Mayer, C.W. Kern, John Herring, James S. Mackie, D.R. Magunde, D. Rittaguide, R.S. Stevens, J.L. Raudolph (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), J.M. Lane, W.D. Stuart, W.G.P. Palmer (Committee Church of the Ascension), C. Crozet, General W. Hughes, V.R. Maus, J.M. Hood (Western Maryland Railroad Company), Ernest Pontzen, M. Haus, William F. Craighill, Harry Hutton, John W. Pearce, Reverend James A. Harrald, William Watson, A.L. Rives, Thomas Monro, A.F. Croswan (Commander United States Navy), H.R. Garden, William McAlpine, James Forrest, Wm. Bloomsfield, Daniel Ammen, Linel Wells, A. and Otto Sibeth, Alfred Noble, Clemens Hershel, Sidney Warner, E.H. de Rheville, Theodore Cooper, William Findlay Shunk, Lewis S. Wolfe, Rufus Mead, Theodore F. Taylor, John Bogart, J. Whaler, B. Williamson, Colonel F.V. Greene, Robert H. Sayre (Lehigh Valley Railroad Company), Charles W. Pussey, Louis Q. Rissel, V.C. Bogue, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville E.G. Leston, Edwin Parson, Rudolph Hering, R.S. Hale, F.M. Turner, Thosl Martindale, Justus C. Strawbridge, William M. Ayresm, R.L. Austin, A.M. Miller, P. Livingston Dunn, T.J. Cleaver, C.S. Dutton, H.A. Carson, William Bainbridge Jaudon, H.A. Presset, Thomas H. McCann, Russel Sturgis, H.G. Prout, Alexis H. French, John K. Cowen, F.W. Williams, J. Waldorf, B.H. Byrant, B.H. Jones, M.H. Rogers, J.W. Ogden, General W. Cashing, William Longhudge, A.J. Cameron, T.L. Patterson, J.J. Hagerman, H. Wigglesworth, Charles B. Rowland, E. Bantz, W.G. Lathrop, Clarence King, George Rowland, George A. Tibbals (Continental Iron Works), George N. Vanderbilt, Eugene C. Lewis, F.P. Burt, Colonel John C. Clarke, Lieutenant Thomas Turtle, W.S.M. Scott, E. Bates Dorsey, Bernard Carter, George M. Shriver (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), Russel Sturgis, Macmillan Publishing, James Abernethy, B. Baker, J.G.W. Fynje, A. Mallet, Jean Hersuy, L.F. Vernon Horcourt, Robert Lilley, A.J. Johnson, F.M. Colby, Henry D. Loney, A.S. Cameron, James A. Harrald, William Watson, John B. Lervis, A.L. Rives, Edwin F. Bidell, Frank H. Stockett, E. McMahon, C.F. Elgin, Enrique Budge, G. Clayton Gardiner, Dwight Porter, William A. Chapman, T.E. Sickels, Theodore Cooper, C.J. Warner, Institution of Civil Engineers, Robert Gordon, United States Coast of Geodetic Survey Office, C.P. Pattun, J.N. Putnam, Sidney B. Warner, H.D. Fisher, Union Pacific Railway Company, Lewis S. Wolle, George E. Waring Junior, The American Exhibition, G.F. Swain, American Society of Civil Engineers, N.H. Whitten, U.S. Engineer Office, Government Works Committee, J.J. Hagerman, D. Jackson, Sterling Iron and Railway Company, E.P. Alexander, E. Williamson, Central Railway Company of New Jersey, William A. Underwood, F. Collingwood, James Dun (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company), Henry F. Kilburn, Louis A. Bissell, Virgil G. Boque, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville Egleston, Charles Parson, George Swain, Continental Iron Works, Rudolph Hering, J.B. Gordon, Mayor's Office (Baltimore), Harry Robinson, Pennsylvania Railway Company, W.H. Gahagan, L. Luiggi, B.H. Bryant, T.J. Cleaver (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company), H.A. Carson, H.A. Presset (Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey), John K. Cowen, Vernon H. Brown, J. Waldorf, B.H. Bryant, L.F. Root, P.W. White, Metropolitan Railroad Company, Charles F. Mayer (Consolidated Coal Company, Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad Company), J.M. Lane (Western Maryland Railroad), Dr. R.S. Stewart (Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad), Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad (John Lyons, John G. Butler, D. Candon, R.P. McCormick, Andrew Banks), Thomas F. Rowland, J.A. Bensel, Walton Aims, S.D. Coykendall, H.C. Rogers, John F. Ward, T.B. Jewell, H.A. Pressey, C.S. Armstrong, J. Nennett, V.G. Bague.

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, contains correspondence with immediate and extended family, specifically the heirs to the Benjamin H. Hutton and Joseph Hutton estates and Adele Gorman. Correspondence is primarily arranged chronologically, but some files have been divided based on subject or author (the Deer Park and Adele Gorman files), or by form (the Telegrams, and Cablegrams file). Special note is made of the posthumous correspondence file, which includes correspondence both relating to Hutton's death and correspondence that was written by family members after the years of his death. The series contains both hand written and typed letters. Some correspondence is in French. The correspondence demonstrates his relationship with his children specifically Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, and illuminates his role in his family. This series also provides details about nineteenth century upper class society and activities. Special note should be made that this folder does not contain all of the personal correspondence contained in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to recipient, or subject in order to make researching these recipients or subjects easier.

Series 3 correspondence topics include: estate payments, distribution of assets, funds transfers, estate lines, conflicts with tenants, sketches, lot maintenance, real estate sales, deeds, real estate sales negotiations, congratulations wishes on new babies, family illnesses, family affairs and travels, traveling directions, personal investments, invitations for social occasions, family debts, professional interests, professional and personal appointments, family issues, requests for money, sketches, advice to children (specifically Frank Hutton), life insurance, books, letters of introduction, legal issues, funeral expenses, charity donations, advertisements, minutes from professional organizations, army enlistment, deaths of friends and family, recipes, estimates of personal expenses, renovations, stock certificates (Great Northern Railway Company, New York), food, social activities, the weather, marriages, real estate and construction plans, and loan agreements.

Correspondents include the following: Frank Hutton, Thomas B. Brookes, J.L. Marcauley, C.M. Matthews, Edward J. Hancy, John M. Wilson, H.A. Carson, William H. Wiley (of John Wiley and Sons Scientific Publishers, New York), Georgina Hutton, Pierre and Jane Casson, George McNaughlin, Henrietta Hutton, Aaron Pennington Whitehead, J.B. Wheeler, B. Williamson, Robert De Forest, Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, Grace Beukard, J.C. Saunders, Mary Hutton, William J. Pennington, C.S. Hurd, Henry C. Cooper, Henry J. Segers, S.F. Miller, Annie Theller, Alfred Noble, Maria Burton, Joseph Hobson, E. Lennon, F. Hulberg, Charles Gordon Hutton, Edward C. Ebert, A. William Lewin, E.R. Dunn, William P. Craighill, Theodore Cooper, P.I. Chapelle, Anita McAlpine, Clarence King, Victoria Raymond, and Adele Gorman.

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946, contains documentation about Hutton's personal finances, role as executor of the Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt estates, Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Frank Hutton, John Caulfield (son-in-law), and B.F. and C.H. Hutton. The series has been divided into four subseries: Financial Records, 1876-1901, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, Other Huttons, 1876-1936, and Personal Material, 1878-1946. Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, contains correspondence relating to specific family estates and family members. This correspondence was separated from Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, to make it easier for researchers to access all records relating to the family estates. This series includes hand written, typed, and printed materials. Some materials are in French. All material dated after 1901 has been added to the collection by other creators such as Hutton's wife and children.

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901, includes account books, account records, correspondence related to bank accounts, bank statements, financial notes, bills and proofs of payment, rent receipts, tax bills (New York, Flatbush, Montgomery County), checks, money exchanges, receipts for tax payments, real estate receipts, stock and bond certificates, loan agreements, executor accounts, rebate calculation sheet, and tax and insurance payments.

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, includes property maps and information (rent, mortgage costs, deeds), correspondence, notes on estate distribution, estate assets, value of estate and estate payments, account records, loan agreements, receipts, proof of payments, checks, financial records, legal documents, insurance documents, tax bills, auction receipts, and wills relating to the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Countess H. de Moltke-Hivtfeldt, Annie Theller, and William R. Hutton. Also included are correspondence, property maps and information, and deeds and mortgages on Hutton properties.

Subseries 2, the estate and real estate records correspondence topics include: Virginia state building codes, construction costs, construction notices, purchasing offers for property, real estate prices, receipts of payments, property lines, real estate purchases and sales, real estate sales negotiations, deeds insurance estimates and costs, loan costs, property estimates, renovation costs, mortgages, property damages and repairs, property tax payments, insurance rates and payments, rent payments, telephone installation, building permits, rental agreements, reports on property condition, contracts of sale, conflicts with tenants, changes of address, deeds, distribution of estate monies, details about the Countess' illness, estate arrangements, changes of address, problems arising out of estate distribution, payment of debts, will details, selling of mortgage shares, accounts, estate settlement, money cables and transfers, dealings with lawyers, rent on Hutton Park property, legal and accounting fees, power of attorney transfer, investments, property security, land appraisals, lists of assets, legacy taxes, mortgages transfers, property management, Flatbush property, property rent and values, and physicians bills.

Correspondents include the following: A.C. Weeks, Walter I. Green, John D. Probsh, A.G. Darwin, Thomas H. McCann, Allan Farguhar, Thomas Dawson, Potter and Crandall Real Estate and Insurance Brokers, George C. Tilyou, H.D. Olephant, F. Winston, Richard E. Calbraith, Frank P. Martin, Henry DeForest, Henry C. Cooper, Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company, John Ecker, C.K. Avevill, Georgina Hutton, Edward J. Hancy, Robert Graham, W.M. Bennett, Willis E. Merriman, Nathan L. Miller, Harry Hutton, Marquise de Portes (Adele Gorman), Annie Theller, Samuel L. Theller, Mrs. R. Locke, Frank Z. Adams, John Palmer (Secretary of State, New York), J.T. Cammeyer, Frank P. Martin, Florence Theller, Francis H. Seger, Henry C. Cooper, D.W.G. Cammeyer, Campbell W. Adams, Jane Casson, Elizabeth Hutton, Rene de Portes, H.G. Atkins, Grace Beukard, Aaron Pennington Muikhead, J.E. Delapalme, T.H. Powers, Egerton L. Winthrop Junior, George B. Glover, William Jay and Robert W. Candler, B. Williamson, J.E. Knaff, Cornelius C. Vermeule, S.V. Hayden, Charles G. Landon[?], H.A. Hurlbert, F.A. Black, John L. Calwalder, the Health Department of New York, A.G. Darwin, William Laue, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Charles S. Brown, Henrietta Hutton, Edward Gelon.

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936, includes professional drawings and proposals, checks, insurance information, correspondence, tax information, medical information, tax bills, relating to Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Henry and Harry Hutton, Frank Hutton (son), John Caulfield (son-in-law), B.F. Hutton, and C.H. Hutton.

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946, contains handwritten property notes, school notes, sermons, travel documents, menus, Christmas cards, jewelry box, postal guide, typed religious materials and flyers.

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901, contains twenty nine diary books that document both Hutton's personal and professional life. These diaries provide not only a record of Hutton's life, but were also used by Hutton himself as a reference tool. When working on projects he would refer to notes and observations he made in his diary (as evidenced by notes made in his diaries). The first pages of the diaries often list his height, weight and clothing sizes as they varied from year to year. A researcher could probably use the cashbooks (see Series 7) and the diaries in conjunction as both detail the purchases made by Hutton. Many of the diaries also include a short record of accounts in the back. The diaries are arranged chronologically.

Topics found in the diaries include short form accounts of daily activities and appointments, records of the weather, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, construction progress on projects, steam pumps, sketches and calculations, extension of Washington railroads, cost of food, work supplies, travel costs, costs of goods and food, work deadlines, home renovations, visits to family, cash accounts, accounts of household duties, produce on Woodlands property, records of deaths, debts owed, account of clearing Woodlands property, church visits, Hancock and Tonoloway Aqueduct, canals, Drum Point Railroad, Montgomery C. Meigs, Washington Aqueduct, Annapolis Water Works, telegram costs, wages for Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, William Craighill, Morris Canal, Annapolis Railroad and Canal, professional duties (inspections), Kanawha River Canal, travel schedules, professional expenses, cash received from Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, John's Dam, cathedral construction (St. Patricks?), Piedmont Bridge, Cumberland, account of farm property belonging to Major Campbell Bruns, Cunard Pier, Marquise de Portes, rent costs, Baltimore Canal, Kingston Water Supply, Croton Orange Estate, Pierre Casson, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, entertainment costs, Greenwood cemetery, train schedule, notes on illness, real estate sales, Hutton Park, Benjamin H. Hutton estate and heirs, estimates, accounts of correspondence received and sent, Central Railroad, rent on Orange properties, addresses, contracts and building supplies for projects, personal finances, Joseph Hutton property on Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, amounts paid and received, medical appointments, Ramapo Water Company, drawing progress of maps and diagrams, Harbor Board (New York), property repairs, inspection and test reports, reservoirs, lists of birthdays, Boston Tunnel, family financial issues, tax payments, and prayers.

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900, document the engineering and architectural projects worked on by Hutton. The series has been divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899; Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886; and Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900. Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899, contains sixteen field notebooks used by Hutton. Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886, contains seven notebooks. Subseries three, Notes, 1863-1900, contains four documents.

Some notebooks correspond to specific projects such as the Kanawha River Canal (lockgate and Phoenix Waterline), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Buffalo Reservoir, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Northern Adirondack Railroad account, Washington Aqueduct, Little Rock Bridge, Wilson-Adam Dock, Croten Brick Works, Hutton Park, Centennial Iron Works, Cumberland Canal, Williamsport Aqueduct, Catoctin Aqueduct, Alexandria Canal, Miller's Saw Mill, Seneca Dam, Union Tunnel, Cumberland Waterworks, Victoria Bridge, Welland Canal, North Sea Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Annapolis Water Company, Antietam Aqueduct, Interoceanic Canal, San Quentin Canal, Suez Canal, Amsterdam Canal, Harlem Bulkhead, Morris Canal, Blue Lake Canal, and Nicaragua Canal.

These notebooks should be used in conjunction with the other materials in the collection related to professional projects, as they often provide more detailed accounts of the construction and land surveys. Some of the notebooks contain entries from several different sources. The notebooks were probably shared among the engineers working on these projects. The notebooks also contain looseleaf ephemera such as hand written calculations, newspaper clippings, and blueprints. Languages found in this series are English and French.

Notebook topics include construction projects, supply needs, costs for labor, sketches (Woodland Mills, landscapes, dams, railway cars, Noland Tunnel), costs of crops, survey measurements, cost of livestock, aqueducts, inspections, canal bridges, seed prices, dams, measurements, coffer dam, canal maintenance, worker salaries, calculations, towpath sketches and measurements, shipping rates, worker accidents, water and coal used, geometrical sketches (Washington Aqueduct), locks, damage reports, interactions with other engineers (William Reading), coal shipments on the canal, travel expenses, land survey notes, drafts for correspondence, William Craighill, Victoria docks, lists of personal supplies used, construction time estimates, surveying expenses, telegram costs, sand pump, canal from Sherling to Tuxedo Bay, analysis of several artificial lakes and reservoirs, distances of reservoirs to main pipes, calculations for the Austin Wheel, engine construction, bridges, gauging water depth, results and observations of tests and performance, problems with construction, to-do lists, cost of land surrounding towpaths, Fawcett's Lock, Tarman's Lock, comparison of costs in transporting coal by water and by rail, inspection notes, iron work, drainages, leaks, cost of supplies, watergates, harbor ferries, railroad station distances, flood protection, Panama Canal via the Nicaraguan route, cost of jetties, water levels, pressure of steam, boilers, steam and water cycle, water depth, cement, Great Falls, Virginia, waterflow, soundings, time of floats, flow of currents, rain fall measurements, tunnel measurements, cost of trenching San Francisco water supply, record of livestock, cost of food, rates of sawing woods and mills, preliminary railroad line measurements, profile of final line, and railroad line profiles.

Series 7, Cash Books, 1856-1899, contains seven cashbooks which list prices for personal items purchased by Hutton. Topics include groceries, church dues, clothes, hygiene products, cigars, some short journal entries about his work (Williamstown), concerts, dinners, family addresses, cakes, meals, cars, stamps, office supplies (pencils and papers), valentines, glasses, gloves, fabric, medicine, needles, diapers, tobacco, shoes (adult and childrens), travel expenses, telegrams, candles, newspapers, liquor, coal oil, jewelry, allowances given to family members, bank deposits, monies paid and received, taxes, subscriptions, tailoring costs, deposits and payments into estate trusts, and notes about payments to Benjamin H. Hutton heirs. The cashbooks also contain some personal loose leaf ephemera such as prayers, sketches, and engineering notes collected by Hutton.

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, contains documents about engineering and architectural projects throughout Hutton's career, including information about the professional organizations and the legal issues in which he was involved. This series has been divided into eight subseries based on project, document form, and document subject. Some materials are in French and Italian.

Series 8, Professional Projects, also includes correspondence related to specific projects, primarily the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, and the Georgetown Incline.

Topics include construction and repair to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, engineering and use of Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, worker contracts, supply and labor purchases, design plans and proposals, construction and repair costs, supply notes and costs of supplies, water pressure and power, shipping materials and routes (specifically the shipping of coal), inspections and their findings, condition of canal dam and locks, water supply, drainage, sketches, board proceedings, business meetings, deeds, cost comparisons to other shipping methods, hiring processes, wages, cost estimates, Hutton's consulting fees, measurements and calculations, funding issues, worker conflicts, negotiations with municipal governments, payment schedules, bills for services, air pressure in Hudson River Tunnel, permission for construction, specifications, mortality rate among workers on the Hudson River Tunnel, construction reports, outlet incline, proposals for construction, letters of introduction, railroad versus water for trade, controversy with Tiersey, construction contracts, construction schedules, construction issues, construction progress, construction damage, basis for estimates, supply requests, internal politics, changes to construction plans, contract and price adjustments, issues with suppliers, construction delays, work permits, bills, worker issues, engineering notes, construction excavations, expenses, construction instructions, Union Bridge Company, lighting installations, construction processes, hiring practices, electrical conductors, water proofing, hydraulics, cement, concrete, payment of contributors, processes of approval for construction, meeting dates of the Harlem River Bridge Commission, and contract restrictions.

Correspondents include the following: W.W.M. Kaig, Henry Dodge, E. Mulvany, John Shay, James Clarke, H.D. Whitcomb, Horace Benton, J. Rellan, J.R. Maus, W.E. Merrill, A.P. Gorman, J.H. Staats, Vernon H. Brown, Charles H. Fisher (New York Central and Hudson River Railway Company), B. Baker, John Fowler, Benjamin and John Dos Passos, Charles B. Colby, Charles B. Brush, S. Pearson, Stanford White, Horace E. Golding, R.H. Smith, Daniel Lord, A. Fteley, Herbert Hinds, J.R. Bartlett, D.M. Hirsch, M.H. Bartholomew, Thomas O. Driscoll, W.E. Porter, Thomas F. Rowland, George Edward Harding, R.H. Dames, William Watson, James B. Eads, J.D. Bright, H. Aston, Charles Suley, A.M. Maynard, W.R. Henton, G. Geddes, H.P. Gilbut, Malcolm W. Niver (Secretary of the Harlem River Bridge Commission), J.D. Patterson, George Devin (Assistant Engineer Washington/ Harlem River Bridge), J.B. Wheeler, John Bogart, Charles Burns, J. McClellon, Rob Bassee, B. Williamson, Theodore Cooper, Lewis Cass Ledyard, R.M. Hunt, John Cooper, Henry Wilson, A.A. Caille, Myles Tierney, W. Pentzen, L.B. Cantfield, George Q. Grumstaid Junior, M.J. Funton, George Pierce, W.O. Fayerweather, Noah S. Belthen, Herbert Steward, W.M. Habirsham. Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965, consists of plans, blueprints, land profiles, drawings, boat rates, contract forms, order forms, descriptions of the canal, design information, engineering data, sketches, cost estimates, land titles, microfilm, business papers, supply bills, patent bills, news clippings, reports, specifications, stockholder's reports, receipts, water leases, printed materials, and correspondence.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project was started in 1828 and completed twenty two years later in 1850. The canal's main objective was to connect Georgetown to the coal banks above Cumberland, Maryland, providing a short and cheap trade route between the eastern and western United States. It was also hoped that the canal would provide greater communication and travel between these two regions. Plagued by natural disasters, and construction setbacks, the canal was never completed in time to be useful and became obsolete shortly after its completion. Canal trade was eventually put out of business by the increase of railroads. Although it was an important development in engineering at its inception, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is no longer in use and has become what locals affectionately refer to as "the old ditch." The canal was designated a National Historical Park in 1971 and consists of 184.5 miles of hiking and biking trails.

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901, consists of agreements for construction, certificates, contracts, and cost estimates, construction reports, engineering notebooks, engineering notes, sketches, land profiles, maps, progress profiles, plans, proposals, printed material, statements of expenses, and correspondence.

The Hudson River Tunnel project was started in 1874, and the final tubes were opened in 1910 after several construction setbacks. The tunnel connects Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City. Today the Hudson River Tunnel, known as the North River Tunnels is used by Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit rail lines.

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1982, consists of blueprints, printed materials, photographs, engineer's estimates, schedules, costs, reports, proposals, contracts, specifications, and correspondence.

The Harlem River Bridge project was started in 1885 and was completed in 1889. It spans the Harlem River in New York City, New York and connects the Washington Heights section of Manhattan with the Bronx. It was later named and is still known as the Washington Bridge and has been adapted over time to carry highway traffic. These adaptations have allowed the bridge to remain in use today.

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1832, consists of drawings, maps, blueprints, plans, proposals, cost estimates, bills, correspondence, sketches, land profiles, dimensions, engineering notes, account records, photostats, supply lists, calculations, legal documents, surveys, inspection reports, financial data, and measurements on architectural and engineering projects. Highlights of this subseries include: Western Maryland Railroad, Washington Aqueduct, Panama Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Piedmont Bridge, Northern Adirondack Railroad, Columbia Railroad, Morris Canal, Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad, Suez Canal, St. Gothard Canal, Tansa Dam, Colorado Midland Railroad Company, Memorial Bridge, Mersey Tunnel, Little Rock Bridge, Kingston Water Supply, Kanawha River Canal, Florida Ship Canal, East Jersey Water Company, Consolidated Coal Company, Dismal Swamp Canal, Boston and Baltimore Tunnels, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Annapolis Water Company, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad Company, and the Baltimore Beltline.

Subseries 5, Unidentified Project Files, 1872-1900, consists of bills of sale, engineering forms and regulations, cement test results and methods, census bulletin, contracts, cost estimates, correspondence, notes on publications, engineering data and notes, drawings, surveys, sketches, payrolls, photographs, and reports.

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900, consists of documents related to some of Hutton's projects, including specifications for bridges, reservoirs, canals, viaducts, docks, buildings, water works, and tunnels. Some specifications are more general, and some are blank proposal/specification forms. There are also proposals for estimates and a "call" or advertisement to contractors to bid on certain projects. Many of the specifications deal with projects in New York State, but projects in Pennsylvania, the City of Baltimore, and Europe are represented. The materials are arranged alphabetically by project name. There is one folder of documentation for the Potomac River Bridge (Arlington Memorial Bridge) in Washington, D.C. The Arlington Memorial Bridge was part of the 1901 McMillan Commission's plan for restoring Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's original plan for the capital. Two decades passed before construction was initiated by the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White. The documentation for the Memorial Bridge consists of calculations and monetary figures for materials such as granite.

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886, contains documents related to a patent infringement suit for moveable dams involving Alfred Pasqueau vs. the United States. This file contains both a printed version of the case and a handwritten statement from Hutton.

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902, contains documents related to professional organizations where Hutton held membership. Specific organizations represented are American Institute of Architects, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institution of Civil Engineers, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, Librarie Polytechnique, American Agency of "Engineering" in London, Imperial Institute, League of Associated Engineers, Railroad Corporation, American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Century Association. Material in the subseries includes correspondence, candidates for membership, membership payments, membership lists, meeting minutes, schedule of terms, professional practices, charges, articles of association, invitations for membership, and election notes. Some materials are in French.

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1850-1913, contains a variety of printed materials relating to engineering and architectural projects written by Hutton and fellow engineers. This series can be used to examine not only professional developments of the period and responses to those developments, but also to track how ideas were transferred between engineers across countries and continents. This series should be used in conjunction with the professional correspondence found in this collection, as many of the authors also appear there. Some materials are in French, German, Spanish, and Italian.

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900, includes printed papers on the Missouri flood wave, the Ravine du Sud, the Potomac waterfront, the Colorado midlands, and the application of water supply machinery.

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913, includes printed materials on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canals, Tehuantec Ship Railway, Interoceanic canals and railways, jetties, Nicaragua Canal, uses of cements, mortars, concretes, steam power, harbors, Niagara Falls, Kanawha River canal, Mississippi River, Hudson River Bridge, sewage disposal, Washington Aqueduct, specifications, construction progress reports, hydraulic experiments, water supply, drainage, road surfacing, sea walls, water-cooling apparatus, pollution reports, bridges, pipes, channels, reservoirs, irrigation, water power, and sewers.

Subseries 2 contains an issue of The North American Review in which Hutton has specifically highlighted an article entitled, "The Inter-Oceanic Canal." Please see the container list for names of authors.

Subseries 3, Printed Materials with No Author, 1852-1903, includes printed materials on harbor reports, Annapolis Water Company, Ramapo Water Company, water departments and boards, maps, engineer's reports, sea walls, preservation of structures, annual reports, Coal and Iron Railway Company, sewers, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, contract specifications, proposals, social club life, Croton Water Supply, law suits, water supplies, moveable dams, reservoirs, East River Bridge, Eastern Canal, water filtration, Kingston New Water Supply, water pipes, locks, docks, contracts, construction reports, Croton Water Supply, and surveys. Also included are issues of journals such as Le Correspondant, Circular of the Office of Chief Engineers, The Club, VIII Congres International de Navigation, Journal of the Association of Engineering Studies, and Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Subseries 4, Newspaper, Journals and Magazine Clippings, 1873-1900, contains clippings from a variety of newspapers such as Scientific American, andRailroad Gazette. Subjects included are the Union Tunnel opening in Baltimore, Drum Point Railroad, railroad company conflicts, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Metropolitan Railroad, Western Maryland Railroad, crop prospects, lumber trade, North Avenue Bridge, Nicaraguan Canal, harbors, river improvements, reactions to engineering projects, Belt tunnel, city transit, Washington, D.C. flood in 1880, tunnel shields, Springfield Bridge, railroad patents, Panama Canal, jetties, Hudson Tunnel, steel boilers, composition and use of cement, and the Brooklyn Bridge.

Subseries 5, Oversized Printed Materials, 1889-1892, contains large printed materials related to the Washington Aqueduct, General Post Office Building, subway arches, cornices, Warwick's Castle, Neuschwanstein Castle, Renaissance paintings, botanical drawings, school buildings, church architecture, the Hospital for the Insane of the Army and Navy and the District of Columbia, the Panama Canal, Morningside Park, and the Mississippi Jetties. Also includes engravings of Hutton, T.N. Talfound, and F. Jeffrey and photographs of Montgomery C. Meigs, and Hutton. Some materials are in German and French.

References:

1. Ward, George Washington, "The Early Development of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Project," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series XVII, no. 9-11 (1899): 8.

2. Ibid., 88.

3. Ibid., 55.

4. Ibid., 90.

5. Sanderlin, Walter S., "The Great National Project: A History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series LXIV, no. 1 (1946): 21.

6. Ibid., 282.

7. Gies, Joseph, Adventure Underground (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1962): 134.

8. Ibid., 131-132.

9. Ibid., 135-136.

10. Ibid., 145.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901

Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899

Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900

Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899

Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886

Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900

Series 7, Cashbooks, 1856-1899

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965

Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1892

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1932

Subseries 5, Identified Project Files, 1872-1900

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1826-1913

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913

Subseries 3, Newspaper, Journals, and Magazine Clippings, 1855-1901

Subseries 4, Oversized Printed Material, 1889-1892

Series 10: Drawings, 1875, 1883
Biographical / Historical:
Not much is known about the history of William Rich Hutton outside of his role in architectural and engineering projects of the late 1800s and early 1900s. In many cases, he is spoken of only in reference to his projects, and the short biographies that have been written read more like a resume than a life story. Because of this lack of information, this note will focus on Hutton's professional accomplishments, but will attempt to make some comments on his personal life.

William Rich Hutton was born on March 21, 1826 in Washington, D.C., the eldest son of James Hutton (died 1843) and his wife, the former Salome Rich (1). He was educated at the Western Academy (Washington, D.C.) from 1837-1840 under George J. Abbot and then at Benjamin Hallowell's School in Alexandria, Virginia, where he received special training in mathematics, drawing, and surveying (2). Hutton began his professional career in California when he, along with his younger brother James, accompanied their uncle William Rich to work for the United States Army. His uncle was a paymaster for the army and Hutton became his clerk. They traveled around the new state paying the various platoons stationed there, but Hutton also occupied his time by drawing the landscapes and structures he saw in the settlements of Los Angeles, San Francisco, La Paz, Mazatlan, Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Pedro, San Diego, and Cape San Lucas (3). These drawings are now held by the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. Hutton held the position of clerk until the spring of 1849, and in July of that year he began working with Lieutenant Edward O.C. Ord and completed the first survey of Los Angeles and its surrounding pueblo lands and islands. Hutton continued surveying in California from 1850-1851. He was hired by William G. Dana to survey the Nipomo Ranch in San Luis Obispo County and also surveyed the ranches Santa Manuela and Huer-Huero, both owned by Francis Z. Branch. After his employment with Dana, he became the county surveyor for San Luis Obispo County, where he prepared the first survey and map of the region. He also continued to survey ranches for Captain John Wilson during this time. In August 1851, he resigned from his position as county surveyor and moved to Monterey where he worked as an assistant to Captain (later General) Henry W. Hallack, superintendent of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine in Santa Clara County (4). He remained in this position until March, 1853 when he returned to Washington, D.C. by way of Mexico (5).

Hutton began his career as a civil engineer in Washington, D.C. He was first assigned to the position of assistant engineer on a survey of the projected Metropolitan Railroad in 1853, which was chartered to connect Washington, D.C. with the mainline of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1855 he began his professional relationship with Montgomery C. Meigs when he was appointed to the position of assistant engineer on the Washington Aqueduct. He also served as division engineer on this project until construction was shut down in 1861 because of the outbreak of the Civil War. Fortunately for Hutton, the construction on the Aqueduct was resumed in 1862, and when Congress transferred the supervision of the aqueduct project from the War Department to the Department of the Interior, Hutton was made chief engineer. By the end of the Civil War, Hutton's reputation as a civil engineer was established (6).

During this decade Hutton also served as the chief engineer for the Annapolis Water Works (1866) and as chief engineer for one of his most famous projects, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (1869-1871). Although some historians minimize Hutton as just one of many engineers to work on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, he did make one major contribution to its construction: the Georgetown Canal Incline. Perhaps the final effort of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal company to compete with the emerging and fast expanding railroad, the Georgetown Incline was designed to allow canal boats to travel through the canal with low water levels and to alleviate canal congestion. Unfortunately, by the time the incline was completed use of the canal had decreased so significantly that it was no longer needed to help control traffic (7). Despite this, Hutton continued to work as a consulting engineer for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company until 1881, when he was let go because of the dwindling fortunes of the company (7).

In the 1870s and 1880s Hutton was busy with several engineering projects. During 1871-1873, he was the chief engineer in the completion of the Western Maryland Railroad to Hagerstown and Williamsport (9). He also practiced as an architect with his brother, the prominent Baltimore architect Nathanial Henry Hutton, during the years 1873-1880. He relocated to New York in 1880, serving as chief engineer for the Washington Bridge in 1888 and 1889 and the Hudson River Tunnel from 1889 to 1891. In 1886, he became the consulting engineer for the New Croton Aqueduct and served in the same position for the Colorado Midland Railway between the years of 1886-1889 (10).

As his personal and professional correspondence shows, Hutton continued to work on various engineering and architectural projects until his death on December 11, 1901. In addition to these projects, he also invented the innovative system of locks and moveable dams used in the Kanawha River Canal. He was awarded the Diplome d'Honneur for this featat the Paris Exposition in 1878 (11). His correspondence also demonstrates how Hutton was respected within his professional community. These letters refer to the accuracy of his work, his willingness to help other colleagues and supply them with reference materials and information, and, in addition to all this, his politeness. It seems that these qualities defined not only his personality but also his ideology. In one of the cashbooks in the collection, dated 1899, a hand written note contains a religious parable of "The Straw." The phrase in this parable that speaks most to Hutton's work ethic, and to the spirit of inventors everywhere, is this: "Even so however lowly may be the act, however little opportunities we may have of assisting others, we may still do something. Let us beg to fulfil our duty in this regards by making ourselves useful to others by some little act of thoughtful charity..." (12). Hutton, in his dedication to civil engineering, seems to have lived up to this virtue, and in his work he changed the landscape of Washington, D.C. and New York.

The Fairy Godfather: Hutton's Personal History

His professional records reveal a man who was fiercely dedicated to his work. His obituary references his professional life more than his personal life (13). Despite his reputation in the professional engineering community, his personal records demonstrate that Hutton was also dedicated to his family and children. In 1855, he married Montgomery County native Mary Augusta Clopper (died 1915). Together they lived on her family's estate known as the Woodlands, and had five children: Frank C. Hutton, Mary Hutton, Elizabeth Hutton (later Caulfield), Rosa Hutton, and Annie Salome Hutton (14). It is at this estate that Hutton died and was buried. The personal letters to his wife found in the Woodlands Collection held at the Montgomery County Historical Society show a man in love and willing to take time from his work to write to his wife. His letters to his children show a similar interest and compassion. In the many letters found in this collection from his daughter Elizabeth (Bessie) one can see a father who is interested in not only his daughter's activities abroad, but also in her opinion. This interest also extends to his son Frank Hutton, as their correspondence shows Hutton offering his son advice on his own engineering projects.

Hutton also served as executor to many of his extended family's estates. Many letters show the conflicts that Hutton had to mediate and the dependence of his cousins on him for advice and money. Although his family was wealthy (his cousin was Benjamin H. Hutton whose daughters married into the court of Napoleon III), they were volatile, and his records seem to indicate that he served as a mediator for many of their disputes. In addition to this, as his nickname of Fairy Godfather suggests, Hutton was always willing to lend his family either financial or moral support when needed. Unfortunately, little other documentation concerning Hutton's personal life exists outside of this collection and the one held at the Montgomery County Historical Society.

References:

1. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

2. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): ix.

3. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942). and Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): x-xi.

4. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

5. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii.

6. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii-xviii.

7. Skramstad, Harold, "The Georgetown Canal Incline," Technology and Culture, Vol. 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1969): 555.

8. Business Correspondence, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 22 February 1881, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 27, folder number 29.

9. "William Rich Hutton," The Club: A Journal of Club Life for Men and Women,(July 1894):37

10. Ibid.

11. Monzione, Joseph, "William R. Hutton," A.P.W.A. Reporter (Sept. 1977): 7.

12. Cashbook, 1899, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 23, folder number 5.

13. The Woodlands Collection, Montgomery County Historical Society.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1870-1890, (AC0987). Contains materials relating to the construction of the Washington Aqueduct including a book of drawings illustrating reservoirs, tunnels, culverts, and other structural elements, a Government Senate Document relating to construction progress, scrapbooks created by Meigs that include newspaper clippings about the Washington Aqueduct project, water supply, engineering projects, building construction, architecture and other subjects. Collection is currently unprocessed, but is available for research.

Materials in Other Organizations:

The William Rich Hutton Papers, 1840-1961, are located at the Huntington Library in California (see http://catalog.huntington.org).

The collection contains 95 drawings, 13 letters, and 39 facsimile copies of letters and manuscripts. The illustrative material includes both watercolor and pencil drawings of California (including Los Angeles, Monterey, San Francisco, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, and the California missions), Baja California, Mexico, and Peru. There are also five pieces in the collection related to the author María Amparo Ruiz de Burton. In 1942, the Huntington Library published Glances at California 1847--853: Diaries and Letters of William Rich Hutton, Surveyor and California 1847--852: Drawings by William Rich Hutton.

The Hutton family papers are located at the Montgomery County Historical Society, Sween Library (see http://www.montgomeryhistory.org/sites/default/files/Family_Files.pdf).

The collection contains account books from the Woodlands estate, recipe books, livestock records, records of Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary and Rose Hutton (daughters), newspaper clippings (including his obituary), correspondence, record books, deeds, bills and receipts, engineering papers, religious momentos (funeral service cards), and insurance papers.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mr. and Mrs. James J. Madine, a relative of Hutton's and last owners of the Woodlands estate; the Department of Forests and Parks, Maryland; Louis Fischer; and Mr. and Mrs. Mayo S. Stuntz, 1965-1966, 1974.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dams  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Canals  Search this
Underwater tunnels  Search this
Railroad bridges  Search this
Railroad construction  Search this
Water-supply  Search this
Construction workers  Search this
Construction equipment  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Concrete  Search this
Coal -- Transportation  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Canals -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Canals -- Maryland  Search this
Canals -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridges -- United States  Search this
Waterworks  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Tunnels -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Construction -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Underground construction  Search this
Locks and dams  Search this
Shipping  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Sewage disposal  Search this
Railroads -- Maryland  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroad engineering  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Aqueducts  Search this
Arch bridges  Search this
Architects -- 19th century  Search this
Books  Search this
Bridges -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridge construction industry -- United States  Search this
Engineering notebooks  Search this
Docks  Search this
Domestic and family life  Search this
Architecture -- United States  Search this
Architecture -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Western Maryland Railroad  Search this
Annapolis Waterworks  Search this
Steam engineering  Search this
Harlem River Bridge Commission  Search this
Washington (D.C.) -- 19th century  Search this
Reservoirs  Search this
Patents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Photographs -- 19th century
Cashbooks
Business records -- 19th century
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps -- 19th century
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books -- 19th century
Books -- 19th century
Family papers -- 18th century
Financial records -- 19th century
Diaries -- 19th century
Drawings -- 19th century
Cyanotypes
Correspondence -- 19th-20th century
Deeds
Printed material
Correspondence
Contracts
Harlem River Bridge
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Citation:
William R. Hutton Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0987
See more items in:
William R. Hutton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84f6824ce-7291-4ac4-ab0f-abaa2071815e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0987
Online Media:

George W. Sims Papers

Author:
Sims, George W.  Search this
Collector:
National Anthropological Archives  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (22 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Manuscripts
Audiotapes
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Carmel (Calif.)
Panama Canal (Panama)
California
Date:
1896-1981.
Summary:
Collection documents Sims's activities as a traveler and his interest in historic restoration. It includes forty-one notebooks, 6,000 color slides, a smaller number of photographic prints, forty-one stereo view cards, and three boxes of personal papers and ephemera. While some images are personal, the majority form a documentary record of various subjects and places and provide biographical information on Sims.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document Sims's activities as a traveler and his interest in historic restoration. They consist of forty-one notebooks, Series 1-4; and three boxes, Series 5-9, of personal papers and ephemera. Series 5-7 are particularly valuable for biographical information. Series 10 includes 6,000 color slides, a smaller number of photographic prints, and forty-one stereo view cards. The total volume of the collection is approximately eleven linear feet.

The notebooks cover the years 1896, 1908-1913, 1918, and 1934-1976. The notebooks are written in a documentary styles that is enhanced by literary touches and perceptive details. The subjects include visits to several national parks, the Boronda adobe, and travel on most continents.

The 6,000 35mm slides that Sims took between 1944 and 1976 portray the use of the automobile in travel, national and international touring, and family travel. They are organized by either trip or location. They document his collecting, research, and restoration interests, and complement his written and artistic work. In technique, Sims's photographs are at least a cut above amateur photography. The slides remain in the order in which the Archives Center received them. In some cases they are organized, captioned, and numbered as a slide program. In other cases, while they are captioned they are not part of a specific slide program that Sims organized. Usually the identification in the Detailed Container List represents Sims' s own captions, which have been copied from the slide sleeves.

While some images are personal, the majority form a documentary record of various subjects and places. All the slides are dated and labeled or captioned, either on box inserts or on the slides themselves. The slides are generally organized by trip. Of particular interest is the documentation of Sims's restoration of the Boronda adobe. These slides are well captioned and show the step by step process.

The slides include many early Kodachromes from the 1940s in excellent condition. These represent the few examples of this type in the Museum. Although these slides are not extraordinarily rare, they are a very early example of the color process.

There are also black and white prints and a few color prints. Some of these document an automobile trip along the California coast in the 1930s. All the black-and-white prints portray the photographer for Sims's concern to document his travels adequately and in a meaningful way.

The three document boxes of supplemental material includes articles, correspondence (for example, a letter to Sims from the Henry Ford Museum thanking him for donating an oral history of a motoring trip he had taken), business cards, certificates of achievement, hotel ephemera, news clippings (Series 12), published travel accounts, printed travel brochures, and audio tapes (Series 11), in which Sims recounts many of his trips over the years. This material is valuable because it provides biographical information on Sims. It also may be useful for exhibits and research. Much of the material—the hotel ephemera and the printed travel brochures and accounts—is similar to ephemera in the Warshaw Collection.

Sims's photographs are similar in content to two other collections in the Archives Center. The Clyde W. Stauffer Family Photographic Album portrays family automobile trips across the United States between 1935 and 1940. The Donald Sultner Welles Collection of travel slides documents locations throughout the United States and around the world.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 12 series.

Series 1:Notebooks, 1896-1975

Series 2: Political Notes, 1964-1976

Series 3: Comments on Vietnam, 1954-1975

Series 4: Moon Landings, 1969-1976

Series 5: Scrapbooks, 1896-1981, undated

Series 6: Correspondence, 1920-1987

Series 7: Biography, 1911-1938

Series 8: Published Material, 1927-1966

Series 9: Artifacts, 1913-1937

Series 10: Photographs, circa 1936-1962

Series 11: Audio Materials

Series 12: Newsclippings, undated
Historical:
Boronda Adobe

In 1946 George W. Sims purchased the old Boronda adobe in the Carmel Valley of California, and over the next ten years he restored it.

The Boronda adobe was built above the Carmel River in 1832 by José Manuel Boronda on his 7,000 acre Rancho de Los Laureles land grant. José was the son of Don Manuel Boronda, the first schoolteacher in California. José was married to Juana Cota of Santa Barbara. The sixty-four foot long house has adobe walls twenty-seven inches thick and hand-hewn redwood beams. Senor and Senora Boronda lived there with their fifteen children. It was in this house that Senora Boronda reputedly made a new cheese much liked by her neighbors and today known as Monterey Jack cheese. She eventually produced enough to sell to the surrounding community.

The Boronda family sold the ranch and adobe to Nathan W. Spaulding in the late 1860s or early 1870s. He was a mayor of Oakland, California. The next owner was the Pacific Improvement Company in the early 1880s, the forerunner of Del Monte Properties Company. A small cheese factory was built to commercialize the product under the name "Monterey Jack." Nevertheless, the adobe eventually became abandoned as a house. Before Sims purchased it the adobe was used as a shelter for dairy cows.

Sims plastered the outside walls to protect the soft adobe bricks and whitewashed the interior walls. The original dirt floor was covered with a floor of two-inch clear, heart redwood, random planks. It slopes downhill as does the roof of the house. The entire house follows the topography of the site. Sims left several cables stretching across the crudely raftered ceiling to support the walls.

Sims reroofed the house with one hundred year old roof tiles from the old Vasquez adobe in Monterey, California. He also constructed a workshop on the cement foundation of the old cheese factory and milk barn, added a carport, and built a fence protected patio of the Mexican type, adjacent to a Spanish garden with gravel paths. The patio walls were made of adobe created from Carmel Valley soil.

The first floor of the adobe consists of a long living room, a kitchen, a bedroom, and a bath. An inside staircase was added and leads to the second floor living room, two bedrooms, and a bath. All of the rooms on the main floor are on a different level. The kitchen at one end of the house is thought to date to the 1790s when the land belonged to the Carmel Mission.
Biographical / Historical:
George W. Sims (1896-1986) was a tax lawyer, certified public accountant, world traveler, and collector of pre-Columbian objects. He spent his childhood in Fairfax County, Virginia. At age seventeen he began the study of law at the Washington College of Law (now American University), and worked at night as a telephone company traffic manager. He was employed as a clerk in the Panama Canal Zone by the Panama Railroad Company, Commissary Branch, from 1915-1916. Sims left Washington, DC, because he needed money for school and received a better salary in Latin America. "The pay was 25% higher there [Panama] than in the U.S.A., because the risks of Yellow Fever were great, and work and living conditions less satisfactory than at home." (Box 8, folder 6) This was the first of his many trips to other countries. He then returned to Washington and graduated from law school.

Between 1918-1919 he served as sergeant first class in the aviation section of the Signal Corps. He was stationed for a time at the Vichy (France) Hospital Center, a part of the United States Base Army Hospital, No. 115. After the war Sims did graduate work in accounting at Benjamin Franklin University in the District of Columbia, studying at night. During the day he worked in the Navy Department's communications section.

In 1919 Sims and a few friends traveled west on one of the early automobile trips across the United States. In July he visited Fresno, California. He returned that same year to Washington, DC, and "made plans for making the West (and Fresno) his permanent home." In January, 1924, Sims returned with his wife to fulfill those plans and thus began his long time love affair with the West and California." (Scrapbooks: Vol. 38, Box 8, folder 2)

After his first wife Katherine died in 1946, Sims spent much time on world cruises. His destinations included North, South, and Central America, Eastern and Western Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Between 1946 and 1956 he also purchased and restored the 1832 Boronda adobe in Carmel, California.

Sims married Emma Marenchin Sims on her birthday November 2, 1971 in Santa Barbara, California. Prior to her marriage Mrs. Sims (1914-? ) worked in the public health field after graduating from Western Reserve University in Cleveland. She remarked, "My world opened up when I married George." Sims died in 1986.
Provenance:
Collection donated by George W. Sims, January 10, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Travel photography  Search this
Adobe houses  Search this
Pre-Columbian objects  Search this
Vichy France  Search this
Audio tapes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Manuscripts
Audiotapes
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- Phototransparencies -- 20th century
Citation:
George W. Sims Papers, 1896-1981, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0127
See more items in:
George W. Sims Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85d82cdde-b7ee-4b6e-b9f6-6698d75d53d0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0127
Online Media:

Joseph Stanley-Brown lantern slide collection

Collector:
Stanley-Brown, Joseph, 1858-1941  Search this
Names:
Harriman, Edward Henry, 1848-1909 (possible collector)  Search this
Donor:
Stanley-Brown, Mary Garfield, 1867-1947  Search this
Extent:
460 Lantern slides (circa)
silver gelatin; 27 mounted panoramas (each made from 3-5 prints)
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Unangan (Aleut)  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Alaska
Chilkoot Trail
Date:
circa 1888-1898
Scope and Contents note:
Lantern slides, probably largely collected by Joseph Stanley-Brown while stationed at Dutch Harbor in charge of the Pribilof Island seal fisheries, from 1890-1898. Images of Alaska include scenery, towns, seal hunting and preparation, fishing, whaling, boats, churches, livestock, Inuit and Aleut people, and the Chilkoot Pass and images relating to the Klondike gold rush. There are also slides of related maps and charts, and images of buildings in Washington, DC, exhibits at the Smithsonian Institutuion, and cowboys, possibly on the Great Plains. Some lantern slides have labels from "E. H. Harriman, 1 E. 55th Street, New York."
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in Washington, DC, Joseph Stanley-Brown (1858-1941) served as private secretary to President James A. Garfield and to President Chester A. Arthur after Garfield's assassination. In 1882, he joined the US Geological Survey and was appointed Assistant Geologist (1888-1889). Stanley-Brown was appointed in 1891 by the Secretary of the Treasury to investigate conditions in the seal industry on the Pribilof islands, which was a contentious issue between the United States and Great Britain. He represented the United States as secretary to the Bering Sea Joint Commission and to commissioners at the Fur Seal Tribunal of Arbitration, Paris, France. He later became a superintendent and leaseholder for the North American Commercial Companyʹs government-regulated sealing activities on the Pribilofs and Unalaska, and worked with several railroad companies.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 54
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs collected by Joseph Stanley Brown held in National Anthropological Archives in the Department of Anthropology Records (Manuscript and Pamphlet File), Photo Lot 24, and Photo Lot 37.
The Smithsonian Institution Archives hold Joseph Stanley-Brown correspondence in the Frederick William True Papers, circa 1886-1910.
Additional lantern slides collected by Stanley-Brown and donated as part of USNM ACC 165342 held in National Museum of American History, Archives Center in the Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs.
The Library of Congress holds Joseph Stanley-Brown papers, 1730-1941.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Cowboys  Search this
Whaling  Search this
Fisheries  Search this
Sealing  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 54, Joseph Stanley-Brown lantern slide collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.54
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3b1aa8ead-fece-4be1-b2ad-3f3a29ff8e12
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-54
Online Media:

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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Online Media:

W. Langdon Kihn papers

Creator:
Kihn, W. Langdon  Search this
Names:
National Geographic Society (U.S.)  Search this
Artzybasheff, Boris, 1899-1965  Search this
Barbeau, Marius, 1883-1969  Search this
Dale, Chester, b. 1883  Search this
Dale, Maud, 1875-1953  Search this
Dixon, Maynard, 1875-1946  Search this
Downs, Olin  Search this
Fisher, Franklin L.  Search this
Kihn, Alfred  Search this
Kihn, Helen Butler  Search this
Laubin, Gladys  Search this
Laubin, Reginald  Search this
Lecomte du Noüy, Marie  Search this
Lecomte du Noüy, Pierre, 1883-1947  Search this
Oakley, Thorton, 1881-1953  Search this
Skinner, Constance Lindsay, 1882-1939  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Wellcome, Henry S., Sir (Henry Solomon), 1853-1936  Search this
Wiggins, Guy C. (Guy Carleton), 1883-1962  Search this
Extent:
8.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Sketches
Photographs
Poetry
Writings
Date:
1904-1990
bulk 1904-1957
Summary:
The papers of painter and illustrator W. Langdon Kihn measure approximately 8.5 linear feet and date from 1904-1990, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1904-1957. Papers document Kihn's career and travels associated with his interests in documenting the native American tribal nations of the United States and Canada in portraiture and writings. Found here are biographical materials, voluminous correspondence, memoirs and writings, one travel diary, printed material, financial records, three sketchbooks, sketches, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter and illustrator W. Langdon Kihn measure approximately 8.5 linear feet and date from 1904-1990, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1904-1957. Papers document Kihn's career and travels associated with his interests in documenting the native American tribal nations of the United States and Canada in portraiture and writings. Found here are biographical material, voluminous correspondence, memoirs and writings, one travel diary, printed material, financial records, three sketchbooks, sketches, and photographs.

Biographical materials include address books, membership cards, exhibition and price lists, legal and travel documents, as well as biographical notes. Additional biographical sketches are found in the Writings and Notes series.

Correspondence is the largest series in the collection, almost half of the papers. In addition to letters to W. Langdon Kihn, this series include both originals and drafts of his outgoing letters; letters to his wife Helen from friends; third party business correspondence between his father, Alfred Kihn, and various parties undertaken on his son's behalf; and third party correspondence addressed to his friend and colleague, the Canadian ethnographer, Marius Barbeau. In addition to Barbeau, significant correspondents include Constance Lindsay Skinner, Chester and Maud Dale, Sir Henry Wellcome, Pierre and Marie "May" Lecompte du Noüy, and Reginald and Gladys Laubin. Although there is little correspondence with other artists, those represented with cards and letters in this collection include Boris Artzybasheff, Maynard Dixon, Olin Dows, Thornton Oakley, and Kihn's summer art school partner, Gus Wiggins. Correspondence with Franklin L. Fisher, Chief of National Geographic Magazine's Illustrated Division and Matthew W. Striling, Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution dominate the period spanning from 1935 - 1952, the years of Kihn's close association with the National Geographic Society.

Writings and notes includes manuscripts and typescripts of articles, poems, lectures, memoirs, and other writings by Kihn and others. There is one travel diary dated circa 1924-1925, and numerous writings about Kihn's travels and documentation of native American Indians.

Printed materials include exhibition catalogs, travel brochures, and magazine and newspaper clippings. Also found here are copies of Kihn's illustrations for books by other authors, including Beaver, Kings and Cabins, by Constance Lindsay Skinner, as well as proofs from the National Geographic series on American Indians arranged by geographic location. Financial records consist of invoices and receipts related to Kihn's artwork, traveling, and exhibitions.

Three sketchbooks and loose sketches include illustrated field notes and other drawings that document Kihn's travels and of native Americans. Photographs are of Kihn, and of Kihn at work. There are also photographs of Kihn's artwork.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 7 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1916-1957 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1904-1959 (Boxes 1-5; 4.0 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, circa 1920-1990 (Box 5-6; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, circa 1920-1957 (Boxes 6-8, OV 10; 2.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Financial Records, 1920-1955 (Box 8; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Sketchbooks and Sketches, circa 1922-1955 (Boxes 8-9, OV 10; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1920-1955 (Box 9; 5 folders)
Biographical Note:
Born in Brooklyn, New York, W. (Wilfred) Langdon Kihn (1898-1959) is best known for his portraits of American Indians and illustrations of their history, culture and rapidly disappearing way of life. In 1919, Kihn joined his art teacher Winold Reiss on a trip to the Blackfeet Reservation in Montana where he completed his first series of portraits. This marked the beginning of his lifelong career of documenting the tribal nations of the United States and Canada. Through commissions from Canadian and American Railroad companies, Kihn spent much of the 1920s traversing both the United States and Northwest Canada where he had the opportunity to record the members and lives of various tribes. During this period, his paintings also traveled the country in a one man exhibition of his American Indian portraits, which was arranged by the Brooklyn Museum, and traveled to about 40 institutions in the United States. However his largest and best known commission was a project to research and paint North American Indians for serial publication in National Geographic. Kihn received the commission in 1935 and his association with the organization spanned two decades, culminating in the 1955 exhibition of his work at the National Geographic Museum, Washington, D.C, and the publication Indians of the Americas, with copius illustrations derived from Kihn's paintings and drawings.

In addition to his travels and work in North America, Kihn enjoyed a brief stint between 1929-1932 painting in France and Spain. Upon his return he focused upon obtaining commercial work and enjoyed success as an illustrator, whose work was featured in Beaver, Kings and Cabins (1933) and Flat Tail (1935), among other books. Kihn also wrote articles about his travels; amateur painters, whom he specialized in teaching; and American Indian legends and tribal cultures. Between 1948-1951 he was a partner in the Guy Wiggins-W. Langdon Kihn Art School in Essex, Connecticut. He married Helen Butler in 1920 and in between their travels the couple eventually settled in East Haddam, Connecticut. W. Langdon Kihn died in 1957.
Provenance:
Helen Kihn, W. Langdon Kihn's widow, donated the bulk of the collection in 1959. In 1994 Phyllis Kihn, the artist's daughter, donated pages 1-8 of Kihn's original manuscript of his memoirs and a transcript of the complete memoirs.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Connecticut  Search this
Topic:
Book illustrators -- Connecticut  Search this
Indians of North America -- Pictorial works  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Sketches
Photographs
Poetry
Writings
Citation:
W. Langdon Kihn papers, 1904-1990, bulk 1904-1957. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kihnwlan
See more items in:
W. Langdon Kihn papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw93f008482-8b83-4adf-8682-b122de614058
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kihnwlan
Online Media:

Chronological Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Kihn, W. Langdon  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1917-1959
Scope and Contents note:
Found in this subseries are letters to and from Kihn that document his career as an artist, illustrator, teacher, and writer. Scattered through out are personal correspondence, including letters addressed to his wife Helen from their mutual friends. There is also a cache of third party correspondence addressed to Marius Barbeau, a Canadian ethnologist who was a colleague and friend of Kihn's.

The earliest correspondence includes letters from his parents, particularly his father Alfred Kihn, who also trained as an artist and founded a steel engraving firm with his brother that specialized in bank note engraving. Kihn senior not only wrote proffering career advice, but also corresponded with his son's business and personal associates while Langdon Kihn was on extended trips. There are also letters from W. Langdon Kihn to his parents describing his trips, including his impressions of San Francisco, Glacier Park, experiences painting Indian portraits, as well as his 1929-1932 sojourn painting in Paris and Spain. These early letters also record exhibitions, primarily a traveling exhibition of his portraits of members of the Blackfeet Indian tribe, which was organized by the Brooklyn Museum of Art and traveled to over 40 institutions in the United States.

Letters to and from authors, publishers, advertisers, and collectors comprise a large amount of correspondence from late 1920s to the mid 1930s, which document his efforts at securing commissions for commercial work. During this time he also began to submit articles about his work and travels. Correspondents include the author Constance Lindsay Skinner; publishers Macmillan and Company; Little, Brown, and Company; Harcourt Brace and Company; and magazines including, Fortune and Story Parade.

The bulk of the chronological correspondence records his association with the National Geographic magazine, spanning from 1935-1955. The National Geographic Society commissioned Kihn to paint historical and contemporary scenes of the lives of over 35 tribal nations from the continental United States, Alaska, and the Northwest Territories. Engraved illustrations of his paintings were published in the magazine's ongoing series on American Indians between 1937 and 1949. Most of the related correspondence was between Kihn, Franklin L. Fisher, Chief of National Geographic's Illustrated Division and Matthew W. Striling, Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution, who also played an important role in this project.

See Appendix for a list of selected indivuduals, institutions, and organizations found in Series 2.2.
Arrangement note:
Letters have been arranged in folders in chronological order. However, there are examples of early correspondence in which the original letter and the later response letter have been glued together. No attempt has been made to separate them and in some cases they may disrupt the chronological arrangement.
Appendix: Selected Indivuduals, Institutions, and Organizations found in Series 2.2:
Ament, Robert S.

American Museum of Natural History, New York, N.Y.

American Federation of Arts, Washington, D.C.

Artzybasheff, Boris

Barbeau, Marius

Bill, Edward Lyman

Blassingame, Lurton

Bowles, Chester

Brooklyn Museum

Bye, George T.

Canadian Pacific Railway Company, Montreal

Cross, Wilbur L.

Dixon, Maynard

Eaton, Earle Hooker

Eggers, G. W.

Ennis, Howard

Explorers Club, New York, N.Y.

Fisher, Franklin

Gallup, Anna Billings

Great Northern Railroad Company, St. Paul, Minn.

Grosvenor, Gilbert

Halseth, Odd S.

Kihn, Alfred

Kihn, Helen

Kihn, W. Langdon

Kirk, Ruth

Laubin, Reginald and Gladys

Lecompte du Noüy, Marie (May)

Lecompte du Noüy, Pierre

Leechman, Douglas

Lummis Charles, F.

Macmillan Company

Museum of the American Indian

Niven, Frederick

Oakley, Thornton

Paisano, Ulysses

Reid, Russell

Schultz, Hart (Lone Wolf)

Skinner, Constance Lindsay

Standard, Paul

Steele, Captain Russell V.

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur

Stirling, Matthew W.

Watson, Elmo Scott

Wellcome, Sir Henry

White, D. Fedotoff

Wiggins, Guy

Ziegler, John
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
W. Langdon Kihn papers, 1904-1990, bulk 1904-1957. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kihnwlan, Subseries 2.2
See more items in:
W. Langdon Kihn papers
W. Langdon Kihn papers / Series 2: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9d13b087a-f919-4b26-846c-225725565fde
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kihnwlan-ref69

General Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Extent:
4 Linear feet (Box 5-9, 32, 56, OV 40)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1890-1966
Scope and Contents note:
Correspondence in this series is primarily between Walt Kuhn and his professional and personal contacts and spans his entire career. Correspondents include family members, fellow artists, students, dealers, museum and gallery staff, collectors, friends, fans, critics and colleagues. Copies of outgoing correspondence are often present and are interfiled chronologically. Also included is scattered correspondence of Vera and Brenda Kuhn, and correspondence written after Kuhn died that documents his family's efforts to exhibit, sell, and donate his work.

The content of the correspondence ranges from personal and candid to purely transactional. Artists, collectors, dealers, and critics involved in the creation of significant works of art and collections in the early 20th century are represented. An alphabetical index of selected correspondents in this series is provided in the appendix. Another resource for accessing correspondence are the card files in Series 4.8: Notes and Writings, where correspondence with various contacts was indexed by the Kuhns and filed alphabetically by name.

In 1938, Walt and Vera Kuhn wrote and self-published the pamphlet, "The Story of the Armory Show" and sent it gratis to hundreds of interested parties. Among the correspondence from that year are many heartfelt reponses from fellow artists and other witnesses to the 1913 event, including Charles Sheeler, William Glackens, Stuart Davis, André Derain, Henri Roché, Walter Pach, and J.H. du Bois to name just a few.

Kuhn regularly instructed students through the mail with lengthy letters about painting techniques and methods. San Francisco painter Otis Oldfield is represented by over 100 lengthy letters in this subseries. Kuhn's letters to Oldfield, returned at Kuhn's request in 1945 for a publication project that was never realized, are interfiled. Other correspondence students include Patsy Santo, Frank di Gioia, Watson Bidwell, John Bernhardt, John Laurent, Goldie Paley, and Eric Lundgren. See the appendix for dates.

Types of material include letters (sometimes illustrated), postcards, invitations, announcements, and Christmas cards, which are sometimes made of original artwork. Enclosures are often found, such as photographs, clippings, tracings of art work, writings, receipts, passes and membership cards. Some letters indicate enclosures that were previously separated and can be found in other series.

Significant writings enclosed with correspondence include an early vaudeville script written by Kuhn and his friend, Archibald Macnab (1923); drafts of articles about Kuhn by the poet Genevieve Taggard (1931), critic Alan Burroughs (1930), and patron Eloise Spaeth (1950); and an unpublished history of the 1913 Armory Show by Paul Bird (1938). Photographs and photographic postcards are also found throughout the series. Included are photo postcards from Spain and France (1925), and from Arizona and California (1928); and photographs related to Kuhn's work for the Union Pacific Railroad Company (1936, 1938).

Additional correspondence can be found throughout the collection. See individual series descriptions for details.

See Appendix for a list of selected correspondents in Series 4.3.
Appendix: Selected Correspondents in Series 4.3:
The following is a selective list of correspondents represented in Series 4.3: General Correspondence, with cross-references to correspondence in 4.4: Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files and 4.5: Provenance Files. It is not comprehensive. An effort has been made to index regionally and nationally known artists, Kuhn's patrons and students, models, art historians, writers, museum and gallery staff, dealers, and persons known to be well-represented in other collections at the Archives of American Art. Cross-references to existing letters in other parts of the Kuhn papers and Armory Show records are included selectively. Correspondents who have not been indexed include family members, neighbors, business contacts from his theater and vaudeville work of the early 1920s, and from his railroad car design work from 1936 to 1948.

Abeel, Neilson (American-Scandinavian Foundation): 1930 (3 letters)

Abercrombie and Fitch: 1948-1949 (4 letters)

Adair, William Gleason: 1945

Adams, Philip R. (Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts): 1938-1946, 1948-1951 (51 letters; See also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Adams, Ruth Hutchins: 1943-1944 (6 letters)

Albany Institute of History and Art (see MacFarlane)

Aldis, Graham: 1928

American Print Makers (see also Goldsmith, B.K.): 1928 (2 letters)

American Federation of the Arts: 1950 (see also N. Anderson, Messer, Pope, Prior, E. Spaeth)

Ames, Mary (Mrs. John W.; see Goodyear, Mary)

Ames, Winslow (Lyman Allyn Museum): 1934 (3 letters)

Anderson, Nesta (Mrs. A. Scott; American Federation of Arts): 1951-1952 (3 letters)

Anderson, Sherwood: 1928, undated (2 letters)

Angle, Catherine (Mrs. Everett E.; Nebraska Art Association): 1946

Anisfeld, Mara: 1932

Arden Gallery (see Meigs and Smoluchowska)

Arensberg, Walter C.: 1938 (see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Armory Show 50th Anniversary Exhibition (Winslow Carlton): 1963 (see also Henry Street Settlement)

Arnold, Grace (Mrs. Harry Bartley): 1941, 1945 (3 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Art Students League of New York: 1927

Arts Club of Chicago: 1927, 1934, 1956 (6 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Asherman, David: 1936, undated (2 letters including Christmas card with original, signed print)

Austin, Darrel (see also Perls): 1940, 1941 (4 letters)

Bahr, A.W. (Billy): 1923, 1938, 1945, 1947-1949 (7 letters)

Balkan, Edward Duff: 1932

Ballin, Hugo: 1937 (2 letters)

Bangsbergh, Raymond: 1939

Barber, George R.: 1933

Barr, Alfred H. Jr. (Museum of Modern Art): 1929, 1934, 1945 (5 letters)

Barrie, Erwin S. (Grand Central Art Galleries): 1927, 1951 (5 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Barrington, Lewis: 1932

Barry, Bobby (see Provenance Files, "Portrait of Bobby Barry")

Bartlett, Frederic Clay, Jr.: 1939-1940, 1942-1943, 1945, 1947 (7 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Bartley, Louise: 1931

Baur, John I.H. (Brooklyn Museum): 1946 (see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Beals, Ralph A. (New York Public Library): 1949

Bear, Donald (Santa Barbara Museum of Art): 1936-1938, 1945, 1948, 1949 (6 items including Christmas cards with original prints; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Beerbohm, Marvin (Detroit School of Art): 1938

Bell, Janet M. (John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art): 1952 (4 letters)

Belmont, Eleanor R.: 1935 Benjamin, Ruth: 1940

Bernays, Edward L. (see also Doris E. Fleischman): 1928, 1935-1937 (4 letters)

Bernhardt, John: 1948-1950 (4 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files, 1947)

Beuf, Carlo: 1928

Bidwell, Watson (Denver Art Museum): 1936-1940, 1945, 1947, undated (23 letters)

Biesel, C.: 1931-1933, 1935 (5 items including Christmas cards with original prints)

Biesel, Frances (Renaissance Society, University of Chicago; see Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Bird, Isabel (Mrs. Paul): 1940, 1942, 1944 (4 letters)

Bird, Paul: 1938, 1941, 1944, 1945, 1948, 1949 (5 letters)

Bissell, Julia A. (Mrs. Alfred E.; Wilmington Society of the Fine Arts): 1946

Bjorkman, Edwin: 1931, 1934, 1941 (3 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Blackie, John Haldam (Vanguard Press): 1928

Bluemner, Oscar: 1932 (see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files, 1930, 1936)

Bliss, Betty: 1931, 1933, 1935 (3 items including Christmas card with original print)

Bloch, E. Maurice: 1949 (3 letters)

Block, Maurice (Huntington Library): 1938

Blount, Rose M. (Denver Art Museum): 1934, 1936, 1938-1939, 1941, 1943, 1949 (8 letters)

Boas, George: 1928

Boissevain, Engen (see Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Bolander, Karl (Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts): 1928

Botkin, Henry: 1937

Bouché, Louis: 1949

Bowman, Eleanor: 1931 (Christmas card with print)

Boyce, Ruth: 1930

Boyer, C. Philip (Mellon Galleries): 1933

Bransom, Paul: 1938, 1949 (2 letters)

Bridaham, Lester B. (Strathmont Museum): 1958

Briggs, Berta N.: 1938

Britt, George ( -- New York World-Telegram -- ): 1938

Brodsky, Harold: 1931-1933, 1935-1939, 1943, undated (16 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Brooklyn Museum: 1930, 1957 (4 letters; see also Baur)

Brown, Adele Smith (Mrs. Philip Stoddard Brown; see Smith, Adele; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Brown, Henry Collins (Museum of the City of New York): 1942

Brown, Margaret E. (Grace Horne Galleries): 1943-1944 (5 letters)

Brown, Rollo Walter: 1928

Bruton, Helen: 1930

Bufano, Remo: 1928

Burroughs, Alan: 1928, 1929, 1930, 1937, 1938, 1941 (13 letters)

Burroughs, Clyde (Detroit Institute of Arts): 1928, 1930, 1938, 1943-1944 (11 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Butler, Roland (Ringling Brothers): 1944

Call, Mary Bradish and Leigh: 1930, 1932, 1935, 1936 (original Christmas cards)

Campbell, Heyworth: 1926

Candler, Duncan: 1927, 1928, 1941 (4 letters)

Canfield, Cass (Harper and Brothers): 1937, 1947-1948 (5 letters)

Cantor, Eddie: 1923

Carlton, Mrs. A.E.: 1952

Carnegie Institute: 1947, 1948 (2 receipts; see also Kepper, O'Connor, Saint-Gaudens; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Carr, Helen Renne (Mrs. Raymond J. Carr): 1946, 1949 (3 letters)

Carroll, John: 1938, 1939, 1941 (3 items, including Christmas card with print)

Carroll, Patricia (Mrs. Anton van Dereck): 1930

Cashin, Bonnie (typed copy): 1947 (see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Catlin, Mimi (Museum of Modern Art): 1948

Chapin, Louise V.: 1943-1944 (12 letters)

Chillman, James (Museum of Fine Arts of Houston): 1928

Clapp, Frederick Mortimer (The Frick Collection): 1938

Clark, Virginia and Marshall: 1932-1935 (4 Christmas cards with original prints)

Clark, Virginia Keep: 1928, 1934 (2 letters)

Clark, Walter L. (Grand Central Galleries): 1930

Clear, Charles Val (Akron Art Institute): 1946

Coates, Dorothy: 1925, 1948 (2 letters)

Coffin, Robert M. (Art Academy of Cincinnati): 1950-1951 (4 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Cook, Helen Fetter: 1931, 1932, 1936, 1938, 1941-1943 (8 items including Christmas cards)

Cooper, Gary and Rocky (Mrs. Gary): 1936-1937 (2 letters)

Connelly, Marc: 1940

Cosgrave, John O'Hara: 1928, 1938 (2 letters)

Crocker, Anna B. (Portland Art Association): 1928

Crowninshield, Frank (Vogue, Art News): 1928, 1932, 1935-1936, 1940-1943, 1946 (13 letters; see also Graham)

Cuneo, Mrs. Rinaldo: 1938, 1940 (3 letters)

Cushing, Lily Emmet (Clark Boyd): 1931, 1942, 1945-1948, 1955 (7 letters)

Cutler, Ann (Hotel Marguery): 1931

Cutler, Carl Gordon: 1939

Cutler, Merritt: 1927, 1928, 1942-1945, 1948, 1963 (10 letters)

Daniel, Harry M.: 1952-1953 (2 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files, 1946)

Davidson, Alfred: 1945

Davies Orchards (David Davies): 1928, 1929 (3 letters)

Davis, Stuart: 1938 (2 letters)

De Bois, J.H. (Kunsthandel en Antiquariaat, Haarlem): 1938, 1939 (3 letters)

Dennis, Jan: undated

Derain, André: 1938

Diamond, Harry: 1948

Di Gioia, Frank: 1931, 1933-1948, 1950, 1953, undated (50 items, including original printed Christmas cards)

Dirks, Rudolph: 1925

Dorgan, T.A.: 1927

Dorl, Theodore: 1929, 1931, 1932, 1937, 1938 (9 letters)

Downs, Mr. and Mrs. Edgar: 1931-1937 (7 Christmas cards with photographs)

Downtown Gallery (see Halpert and Goldsmith)

Duckworth, J. Herbert: 1933, 1934 (6 letters)

Dudensing Galleries Inc. (Richard Dudensing): 1930, 1931, 1932 (4 letters)

East West Gallery: 1929

Eggers, George William (Worcester Art Museum, Royal Academy of Art, Stockholm): 1927, 1929 (4 letters)

Elfers, Herbert (Durand-Ruel, Inc.): 1945, 1947, 1948 (3 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Ellis, Freemont (autograph print, with card from Sally Lewis): [1923]

Ellsworth, Mary Louise: undated

Emery, Irene: 1958 (2 letters)

Ester, Ruth (model): 1944-1945 (6 letters)

Etchison, Bruce (Washington County Museum of Fine Arts): 1951-1953 (22 letters)

Evans, Anne (Denver Art Museum): 1933

Evers, Fred: 1939

Ferrand, Charles: 1919, 1934, 1937, 1940 (3 letters)

Findlay, W.C. Jr. (Findlay Galleries): 1939 (2 letters)

Fischkin, Rose Mary: 1928

Fitzgerald, George F. (model): 1927, 1933 (2 letters; 1 signed "Man From Eden")

Fleischman, Doris E.: 1938

Fliesler, Joseph R.: 1935, 1938, 1949 (3 letters)

Forbes, Edward (Fogg Art Museum): 1928

Force, Juliana (Whitney Museum of American Art): 1929, 1932-1937, 1939-1941, 1943 (21 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Fortune -- (magazine; Deborah Calkins): 1956

Fox, William Henry: 1923, 1937 (2 letters)

Francis, Emily O. (Contemporary Arts): 1935

Francis, Henry Sayles (Cleveland Museum of Art): 1932

Fraenkel, John: 1934, 1936, 1938, 1939, 1953 (8 letters)

Frankel, Robert ( -- The Art News -- ): 1939

Frankenstein, Alfred V. ( -- San Francisco Chronicle -- ): 1940 (2 letters)

Frankfurter, Alfred M.: 1938, 1945, 1947, 1948, 1950 (10 letters)

Fraser, Joseph T. (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts): 1947, 1951 (3 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Free, Karl R.: 1935

Freeman, Anna (Whitney Museum of American Art): 1938 (2 letters)

Frey, Erwin F.: 1943, 1945, 1947 (4 letters)

Frueh, Alfred: 1925, 1953 (2 letters)

Freund, Frank E.W.: 1932, 1934-1935, 1938 (7 letters)

Friede, Donald S. (Boni and Liveright Publishers): 1927

Frink, Angelika W.: 1941 (see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Gallagher, Edward J.: 1952

Gallatin, Albert E.: 1927, 1928 (3 letters)

Gardner, Paul (William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art): 1936, 1938-1945, 1947-1950 (26 items including Christmas card with original print; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Gardner, Mrs. William (see Owen)

Garrett, Garet: 1928

Garrett, Alice (Mrs. John Work): 1938, 1939 (5 items, including Christmas card with original photograph)

Gates, Margaret (Studio House, Philips Memorial Gallery): 1935

Genauer, Emily (New York World Telegram): 1947

Gest, J.H. (Cincinnati Museum Association): 1928 (3 letters)

Gise, Margaret (Marie Harriman Gallery): 1938 (see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files and Provenance Files, "Girl in Shako" and "Guide")

Glackens, William and Edith: 1938

Glackens, Edith: 1938, 1941, 1943, 1949, 1950 (7 items, including outgoing letters of condolence when William Glackens died, and response from Edith with account of his last day)

Godwin, Black-More (Toledo Museum of Art): 1932 (2 letters)

Goldsmith, B.K. (American Print Makers, Downtown Gallery): 1928, 1929, 1930 (3 letters)

Goldsmith, Morton R.: 1936

Goodrich, Lloyd (Whitney Museum of American Art; see Provenance Files, "Man with Ship Model")

Goodyear, A. Conger: 1934, 1938, 1941, 1949 (5 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files, and Provenance Files, "Dryad" and "Man From Eden")

Goodyear, Mary (Mrs. A. Conger, also Mrs. John W. Ames): 1936-1942, 1947, 1949, 1954 (44 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Grace Horne Galleries (see M.E. Brown, Littlefield; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Graham, John D.: 1937

Greason, Donald (Deerfield Academy): 1942 (discussing Harry Whitney)

Grossman, Ted (Edwin Booth): 1938, 1940, 1941, 1945, 1948, 1951, 1952 (13 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Grumman, Paul H. (Joslyn Memorial Art Museum): 1943

Hagen, Oskar: 1938, 1939 (2 letters)

Hagerman, Percy (Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center): 1949

Hale, Dorothea: 1928

Hale, Robert B. (Metropolitan Museum of Art): 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Halpert, Edith (Downtown Gallery): 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930 (7 letters; New Year card 1928 printed with collage of Walt Kuhn)

Hall, Porter: 1941, 1942, 1944, 1948 (4 items, including Christmas card)

Hanna, Mark: 1942-1944, 1946-1949 (17 letters)

Hare, Betty (Mrs. Meredith): 1923, 1930-1935, 1939-1941, 1948 (21 letters)

Harper's Bazaar -- (see Kaufman, Snow)

Harriman, Marie: 1946, 1947, 1949, 1958 (4 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Harriman, Mary W.: 1930

Harriman, W. Averell: 1936, 1937, 1939, 1948, 1949 (5 letters)

Harrison, Preston: 1928, 1929, 1930 (to Mrs. Harriman), 1933, 1935 (8 letters)

Harshe, Robert (Art Institute of Chicago): 1928, 1929, 1932 (4 letters)

Hart, George Overbury "Pop": 1926, 1928, 1929, 1932 (6 letters)

Hart, Jean Overbury: 1948 (2 letters)

Hartell, John A. (Cornell University College of Architecture): 1941-1942, 1948 (11 letters)

Hartley, Marsden: 1937 (2 letters)

Hartmann, Sadakichi: 1938, 1939-1943 (8 letters, 1940 letter accompanied by ink drawing)

Harvey, Dorothy Dudley: 1933, 1936 (2 letters)

Hatch, John Davis Jr. (Albany Institute of History and Art): 1938, 1941 (2 letters)

Hatfield, Dalzell (Dalzell Hatfield Galleries): 1940

Haven, Ethel (Museum of Modern Art): 1930 (minutes of board meeting), 1932 (list of names; 2 items; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Hawkins, Frances (Museum of Modern Art): 1943

Hayes, Helen: 1946

Heicher, Joyce: 1941

Heil, Walter (M.H. de Young Memorial Museum): 1943

Hein Antiques: 1931, undated (4 letters)

Henry Street Settlement: 1963

Hess, Thomas: 1953 (Christmas card)

Heun, Arthur: 1930, 1932-1937, undated (9 items, including Christmas cards)

Hitchcock, Thomas Jr.: 1927, 1930, 1934-1937, 1939 (7 items, including Christmas cards)

Hodgson, Daphne: 1931, 1932, 1933, 1936, 1938, 1939 (15 letters)

Hoffman, Irving: 1947

Hood, Gretchen: 1928, 1934 (2 letters)

Hope, Henry R.: 1948, 1951 (3 letters; see also Provenance Files, "Sliced Loaf")

Howard, Cecil: 1931, 1934, 1936, 1938 (5 letters)

Howe, Mrs. Frederic: 1931, 1933 (3 letters)

Howe, Thomas Carr (California Palace of the Legion of Honor): 1947

Huggins, Wilfrid: 1932

Hunter, E.R. (Norton Gallery and School of Art): 1947

Hutchins, Ruth (see Adams)

Hutton, Ruth: 1931

Ingersoll, R. Sturgis: 1942, 1944, 1951 (4 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files and Provenance Files, "Young Girl")

Javis, Sidney (Museum of Modern Art): 1939 (2 letters)

Jeffreys, Lee: 1931

Jewell, Edward Alden: 1938

Jewett, Eleanor ( -- Chicago Tribune -- ): 1928

Johnson, G.M. (to Vera): 1909 (2 letters)

Johnston, William: 1927

Jonson, Raymond: 1938

Joslyn Memorial Art Museum (see Grumman, Kingman; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Kahn, Otto: 1927, 1928 (2 letters)

Kaltenbach, G.E. (Art Institute of Chicago): 1931

Kanzler, Josephine (Mrs. Ernest): 1945, 1947 (3 items including Christmas card)

Kaufman, Beatrice ( -- Harper's Bazaar -- ): 1935 (2 letters)

Kaufman, George: 1940

Keezer, Dexter M. (Reed College): 1936, 1937, 1941, 1945 (6 letters)

Kelekian, Dikran: 1922-1924, 1933, 1937, undated (9 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Keller, Henry: 1936, 1937, 1938 (3 letters)

Kennedy, Jacqueline: 1961

Kenefick, Theodore G.: 1956

Kennerley, Mitchell (Anderson Galleries, Inc.): 1938, 1941 (4 letters)

Keppel, Frederick P. (Carnegie Corporation): 1938 (2 letters)

Kerr, George F. (Society of Illustrators): 1930 (2 letters)

Kimball, Fiske (The Pennsylvania Museum): 1928, 1939 (2 letters)

Kingman, Eugene (Joslyn Memorial Art Museum): 1951 (4 letters)

Kirsch, Dwight (University of Nebraska Department of Art): 1941, 1943-1944, 1946, 1950, 1953 (9 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Kirstein, Lincoln (Museum of Modern Art): 1932

Kissel, Eleanora: 1928

Kistler, Aline ( -- San Francisco Chronicle -- , -- The San Franciscan -- , M.H. de Young Memorial Museum): 1929, 1930, 1932, 1933 (6 letters)

Klopfer, Donald S. (Random House, Inc.): 1940

Kohl, Dorothy (Philadelphia Art Alliance): 1945 (3 letters)

Komroff, Manuel: 1938

Kravis, Hal: 1936, 1941 (3 letters)

Kunstverein München E.V.: 1930

Kurtzworth, Harry Muir (Los Angeles Art Association, California Academy of the Fine Arts): 1938 (2 letters)

Lahr, Bert: 1948 (see also Provenance Files, "Portrait of Bert Lahr")

Labaudt, Lucien: 1929, 1933, 1936, 1937, 1938 (5 items including Christmas card; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Lamb, James E.: 1928, 1930, 1935, 1937 (4 letters)

Larcada, Dick: 1963

Laurent, John: 1947-1950, undated (12 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Laurent, Mimi (Mrs. Robert): 1952

Laurent, Robert (Indiana University): 1923, 1949, 1953 (8 letters; see also Provenance Files, "Black Butterfly")

Lea, Lida Gorwin; 1935-1938, 1942 (8 letters, including Christmas card with original print; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Lenssen, Heidi: 1938, 1943, 1947, 1949-1951, 1963, 1964 (9 letters)

Levy, Adele Rosenwald (Mrs. David M.): 1948

Lewis, Agnes Knox: 1945

Lewis, Sally: 1923, 1939 (3 letters, includes signed print by Ellis Freemont; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Lie, Jonas: 1930

Lindsay, Howard: 1940

Littlefield, William (Grace Horne's Galleries): 1929

Liveright, Horace (Boni and Liveright Publishers): 1928

Lovins, Henry (Hollywood Art Center School): 1938

Luce, Molly: undated (Christmas card with print)

Lundgren, Eric: 1947-1953 (61 letters)

Lustgarten, Samuel (see Provenance Files, "Morning")

MacFarlane, Janet R. (Albany Institute of History and Art): 1958

Macnab, Archibald Leavenworth: 1923 (includes typescript of play "The Sculpting of Money"), 1927, 1929 (2 letters)

MacRae, Elmer: 1939

Mager, Gus: 1938, 1941-1943, 1946 (9 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Mangravite, Peppino (Cooper Union Art Schools): 1941

Mann, Margo (model): 1950

Marie Harriman Gallery (see Harriman, Sardi, Smoluchowska, or Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Matthews, H. L. ( -- The New York Times -- ): 1928

Matthias, Blanche: 1923, 1927, 1929, 1931-1937, 1940-1941 (19 items, including Christmas cards; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

McBride, Henry: 1935

McBride, Mary Margaret (WOR radio): 1940

McCausland, Elizabeth: 1938, 1948 (2 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

McCormick, Chauncey (Art Institute of Chicago): 1938

McCurdy, Edward: 1928

McDaniel, Beatrice (Mrs. Bruce): 1940

McIntyre, Robert: 1931 (2 letters)

McKim, William: 1945

Meigs, Ruth Averell (Arden Gallery): 1929 (2 letters)

Mencken, H.L.: 1945, 1946, 1947 (3 letters; see also Series 4.8: Notes and Writings)

Merrick, James Kirk (Philadelphia Art Alliance): 1945

Messer, Thomas M. (American Federation of Arts): 1952-1954 (5 letters)

Metcalf, Thomas N. (Boston Museum of Modern Art, Inc.): 1938, 1940 (2 letters)

Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1949, 1956 (5 letters; see also Hale, F.H. Taylor, Wehle)

Mellon, Minna (Mrs. Paul): 1946

Millay, Edna St. Vincent (typed copy): 1947 (see also Engen Boissevain in Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Miller, Dorothy C. (Museum of Modern Art): 1943

Miller, Lulu F. (The Hackley Gallery of Fine Arts): 1928

Milliken, William M.: 1936 (2 letters)

Minnigerode, C. Powell (Corcoran Gallery of Art): 1928 (2 letters)

Montclair Art Museum: 1928, 1932 (2 letters)

Montgomery, Gertrude: 1928

More, Hermon (Whitney Museum of American Art): 1933, 1935, 1943, 1948-1950 (8 letters)

Morgan, Agnes: 1938

Morison, David (Hamilton Easter Field Art Foundation): 1930

Morley, Grace: 1936, 1937-1939, 1943 (11 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Morse, John (see Provenance Files, "Man and Sea Beach")

Muguruza Otaño, Pedro: 1928

Museum of Art of Ogonquit: 1953 (see also Strater)

Museum of Modern Art (see Barr, Catlin, Haven, Hawkins, Kirstein, D. Miller, Pelles, A. Porter)

Nadelman, Viola M. (Mrs. Elie): 1947

Nankivell, Frank: 1934-1935 (Christmas cards with signed prints)

National Arts Club: 1932

Newhall, Beaumont (Museum of Modern Art): 1938

Nichols, Hobart (National Academy of Design): 1948

Nichols, J.C. (William Rockhill Nelson Trust): 1948

North, Henry Ringling (Ringling Brothers): 1941 (2 letters)

Norton Gallery and School of Art (see Hunter)

Norton, Ralph H. (Norton Gallery and School of Art): 1948

O'Connor, John Jr. (Carnegie Institute): 1943, 1945-1946, 1948 (8 letters)

Oldfield, Otis: 1928-1946, 1948-1949, 1951-1952, undated (111 letters; 1931, 1941, undated include Chritmas cards with print; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

O'Neil, John (University of Oklahoma): 1946

Owen, Ronnie (Mrs. William Gardner): 1941-1942, 1944-1946, 1948-1949 (15 letters)

Owens, Virginia B.( -- Christian Science Monitor -- ): 1943 (2 letters)

Paley, Goldie (Mrs. Samuel): 1941-1942 (2 letters)

Pandolfini, Giuseppi: 1938

Pach, Walter: 1938

Pascin, Jules: 1921

Passedoit, Georgete: 1930, 1931, 1932 (3 letters)

Patterson, Augusta Owen ( -- Town and Country -- ): 1930 (2 letters)

Paxson, Gordon (Syracuse University School of Art; see Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Peat, Wilbur D. (John Herron Art Institute): 1944, 1945 (7 letters)

Pelles, Geraldine (Museum of Modern Art): 1953 (3 letters)

Pelton, Agnes: 1938

Penfield, Louis: 1945, 1947-1949 (5 letters)

Penrose, Julie: 1937, 1948, 1951 (3 letters)

Perkins, Frances: 1949

Perls, Klaus G. (Perls Galleries): 1940

Perrine, Van: 1938

Perry, Mitzi: 1942

Petit, Margaret: 1928, 1931-1933, 1935-1938, undated (13 items including Christmas cards)

Philadelphia Art Alliance (see Kohl, Merrick, Williamson)

Phillips, Duncan: 1927, 1931, 1932, 1939, 1944 (15 letters)

Pinchot, Ruth Pickering: 1932

Poland, Reginald: 1938, 1947-1948 (12 letters)

Pope, Annemarie (American Federation of Arts): 1951 (5 letters)

Porter, Allen (Museum of Modern Art): 1945

Porter, Bruce: 1938

Potter, Fuller: 1933, 1934, 1936, 1944 (6 items including Christmas card)

Pratt, Mrs. Harold Irving; 1934 (2 letters, plus notes from lecture)

Pratt, Julia D.: 1927, 1928 (2 letters)

Pressoir, E.E.: 1928 (Guggenheim application), 1932 (2 letters)

Price, Frederic Newlin (Ferargil Galleries): 1948 (3 letters)

Prior, Harris K. (American Federation of Arts): 1957

Purnell, Lewis M.: 1943

Putnam, Samuel: 1928 (2 letters)

Quinn, John (see also Watson): 1919, 1920, 1921 (5 letters)

Quinton, Cornelia B. Sage (California Legion of Honor): 1928

Randolph, Lee F. (California School of Fine Arts): 1930, 1942 (2 letters)

Raseman, Richard P. (Cranbrook Academy of Art): 1940

Rathbone, Perry T.: 1946

Reber, Gottlieb Friedrich: 1931, 1932, 1933, undated (3 letters)

Redmond, Johnston: 1933

Renne, Otto A.: 1935, 1936, 1938, 1940 (5 letters; see also Carr)

Renwick, Charles S. Jr.: 1945-1946 (2 letters)

Rickey, George: 1937

Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey (see Butler and North)

Rivière, Nina S. (Toledo Museum of Art): 1932

Robinson, Edward G.: 1936 (2 letters)

Roché, H.P.: 1928, 1938, 1939 (7 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Rogers, Christopher H. (regarding Francis Rogers): 1930

Rogers, Jane: 1932

Rogers, Meyric (Art Institute of Chicago): 1948 (see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Rogers, Will: [1926]

Roosevelt, Jean S. (Mrs. Philip James): 1928

Rosenberg, Paul (Paul Rosenberg and Co.): 1942, 1946, 1948 (8 letters)

Ross, Leola: 1928, 1931, 1935, 1936, 1937 (5 items including Christmas cards)

Rossiter, Henry P.: 1928

Rothschild, Howard: 1927

Roullier, Alice F. (Arts Club of Chicago): 1925, 1927, 1933, 1941 (8 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Rousseau, Théodore: 1935

Rumsey, Mary H. (Mrs. C.C.): 1930, 1934-1936, 1938, 1940, 1945, 1949, undated (11 items including Christmas card and receipts for paintings sold)

Ryan, Beatrice Judd (Beaux Arts Galerie): 1928, 1929 (4 letters)

Saint-Gaudens, Homer (Carnegie Institute): 1931, 1933, 1940, 1946-1949 (18 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Saklatwalla, Ann: 1944-1945 (2 letters; see also Provenance Files, "Bareback Rider")

Saklatwalla, B.D.: 1928, 1930-1936, 1941 (2 letters, 7 Christmas cards containing prints, 1931 print signed Jean Crotti)

Salinger, Jehanne Bietry: 1928-1930, 1933, 1935, 1946-1948 (includes signed print by Harry Wickey; 17 letters)

Salons of America: 1923, 1924

Salpeter, Harry ( -- Esquire -- ): 1936-1938 (6 letters)

Sanborn, Robert Alden: 1945

Sands, Mary (Museum of Modern Art): 1930

Sanger, Helen: 1948-1950, 1953, 1963 (16 letters)

Sanger, Margaret (American Birth Control League, Inc.): 1928

Santa Barbara Museum of Art (see Bear, Steele, Story; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Santo, Patsy: 1937-1946, 1948-1949, 1953 (103 letters, some illustrated)

Sardi Gina, Anne (Marie Harriman Gallery): 1941-1942, 1947, 1949 (6 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files and Provenance Files, "Girl in Shako" and "Guide")

Schlesigner, Louis: 1949

Schmit, Waldo (Smithsonian Institution): 1936-1949

Schulte, Antoinette: 1932-1938 (8 items, including Christmas card with original print)

Seiberling, Frank Jr. (Toledo Museum of Art): 1943, 1946 (3 letters)

Seymour Halpern Associates: 1945

Shapiro, Meyer: 1938

Sharkey, Alice M. (Whitney Museum of American Art): 1944

Shaw, Marjorie: 1930 (Christmas card with woodblock print)

Sheeler, Charles: 1938 (See also Series 4.2: Walt Kuhn Letters to Family)

Shostac, Percy (Labor Division, Greater New York Fund): 1941

Shyrock, Burnett H.: 1938 (4 letters)

Siple, Walter H. (Cincinnati Art Museum): 1938, 1942, 1945 (4 letters)

Skeoch, Mary E.: 1934-1936, 1938 (8 letters)

Skira, Alfred: 1932 (5 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files, 1933)

Smith, Adele (Studio House, Philips Memorial Gallery, Museum of Modern Art Gallery of Washington): 1935, 1938, 1939 (5 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Smith, Cecil: 1937-1938 (3 letters)

Smith, Gordon M. (Currier Gallery of Art): 1950

Smoluchowska, Donia (Arden Gallery, Marie Harriman Gallery): 1929, 1932 (3 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Snow, Carmel ( -- Harper's Bazaar -- ): 1935, 1941 (2 letters)

Spaeth, Eloise (Mrs. Otto L.; Dayton Art Institute, American Federation of Arts, The Guild Hall): 1943-1953, 1960, undated (50 letters)

Spaeth, Otto: 1943 (4 letters)

Spier, LaSalle (brother of Vera Kuhn): 1914-1963

Spingarn, Amy (Mrs. Joel Elias): 1938 (2 letters)

Sprague, Marshall (Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center): 1948 (2 letters)

Steele, Mary Oldfield (Santa Barbara Museum of Art): 1953-1954 (4 letters)

Stendahl, E.L. (Stendahl Art Galleries): 1939 (3 letters)

Stetson, Carroll: 1932

Stickney, Dorothy (Mrs. Howard Lindsay): 1941

Stinson, Eugene: 1928

Story, Ala (Santa Barbara Museum of Art): 1954 (2 letters)

Stout, George L.: 1952

Strain, Gertrude: 1935

Stransky, Joseph: 1927

Strater, Henry (Museum of Art of Ogonquit): 1953-1954 (4 letters)

Stroh, Earl W.: 1942 (2 letters)

Studio House (see Gates, Law, Smith)

Swartz, Susan (Art Institute of Zanesville, Ohio): 1943-1944 (7 letters)

Swope, Herbert Bayard: 1949

Sykes, Maltby (Alabama Polytechnic Institute): 1946

Taggard, Genevieve: 1930, 1931, 1933, 1941, undated (13 letters)

Tanner, Ethel: 1930 (Christmas card with woodblock print)

Taylor, Bertrand: 1945

Taylor, Francis Henry (Metropolitan Museum of Art): 1949 (see also Provenance Files, "Blue Clown")

Taylor, Henry White: 1938

Taylor, Olive (Mrs. Bertrand): 1944-1946, 1948-1949, undated (14 letters)

Teague, Virginia (Mrs. R.L.): 1951 (2 letters)

Teigen, Peter (Princeton University School of Architecture): 1928, 1929 (2 letters)

Thayer, Ellen ( -- The Dial -- ): 1927, 1928 (2 letters)

Thompson, Mark B.: 1934, 1935, 1937 (3 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Thorp, George G. (American Federation of Arts): 1947

Toledo Museum of Art (see Godwin, Rivière, Seiberling)

Toler, Sidney: 1941

Todd, Bianca: 1929, 1933, 1934 (3 items including Christmas cards with original prints)

Trovato, Joseph (Munson-Williams-Proctor-Institute): 1946, 1949 (2 letters)

Tucker, Allen: 1938

Turney, Winthrop: 1924

Tyson, Carroll: 1934

Underwood, Gilbert Stanley (architect): 1938, 1948 (5 letters)

Valentiner, Dr. W.R. (Detroit Institute of Arts): 1945

Valez, Dr. Xavier de: 1934

Venendi, Mario: 1949 (3 letters)

Vidar, Frede: 1936

Vreeland, Mr. and Mrs. Francis (Toby and Marion): 1934-1938 (6 letters)

Wadsworth, Alice (Mrs. James W.): 1940, 1941, 1942, 1945 (8 letters)

Waida, Robert: 1928

Waldron, James M. K. (Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery): 1936, 1937, 1961 (3 letters)

Walker, Maynard: 1946, 1948-1949, 1951-1952, 1955, 1961 (10 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files and Provenance Files, "Guide" and "Veteran Acrobat")

Ward, William: 1949

Washburn, Gordon B. (Rhode Island School of Design Museum of Art): 1945

Watkins, C. Law (Studio House, Phillips Memorial Gallery): 1933 (2 letters)

Watson, John (for John Quinn): 1914, 1921 (2 letters), 1938

Watson, Nan: 1928, undated

Wear, Verna (Mortimer Brandt Gallery): 1943 (2 letters)

Weber, Max: 1938

Weber, W.: 1928

Wehle, Harry B. (Metropolitan Museum of Art; see Provenance Files, "Girl in Uniform")

Weibel, Adèle (Detroit Institute of Arts): 1938

Weigel, Paul: 1932, 1934, 1935, 1937 (4 letters)

Weinberger, Alfred: 1931

Weir, Ernest and Mary: 1945 (2 letters)

Weng, Siegfried R. (Dayton Art Institute): 1943 (2 letters)

Werner, M.R.: 1928

Weston, Edward: 1928-1930, 1932-1933, 1935, 1937-1938, 1941 (9 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Wetmore, Edith: 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932-1936 (16 items including Christmas cards)

White, Frances M.: 1945

Whiting, F.A. Jr. ( -- Magazine of Art -- ): 1938

Whitney, Harry: 1942 (see also Greason and Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Whitney Studio Galleries (see also Force): 1929

Whitney Museum of American Art (see Force, Free, More, Freeman, Sharkey, Goodrich)

Wilder, Mitchell A. (Colorado Springs): 1946-1953 (75 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Wilenski, R.H.: 1938, 1939, 1945-1946 (8 letters)

Williams, Adele (Women's club of Richmond): 1930

Williamson, Ada (Philadelphia Art Alliance): 1927, 1928, 1945, 1949 (19 letters; see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Wilmington Society of the Fine Arts (see Bissell)

Wilson, Henry J.: 1950

Winser, Beatrice: 1935, 1940 (7 letters)

Woelfle, Arthur M.: 1914 (see also Selected Gallery and Exhibition Files)

Woelfle, Georgiana: 1936, 1937, 1963 (3 letters)

Wood, Stanley: 1928

Zayas, Marius de: 1934, 1939, 1947, 1948 (10 letters)

Zügel, Heinrich von: 1904
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records, 1859-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kuhnwalt, Subseries 4.3
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records / Series 4: Walt Kuhn Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9c4aa9368-d825-47f1-9645-57573ff2e833
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kuhnwalt-ref352

Ellen Hale and Hale Family papers

Creator:
Hale, Ellen Day, 1855-1940  Search this
Names:
Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909  Search this
Hale, Emily P.  Search this
Hale, Herbert Dudley, 1866-1909  Search this
Hale, Lilian Westcott, 1880-1963  Search this
Hale, Robert Beverly, 1901-1985  Search this
Hale, Susan, 1833-1910  Search this
Extent:
3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Sketches
Date:
circa 1860-1952
Summary:
The Ellen Hale and Hale family papers measure 3 linear feet and date from circa 1860 to 1952. Found within the papers are biographical material for Ellen Day and Edward Everett Hale; personal correspondence from Ellen Day and Lillian Westcott Hale; diaries by Ellen Day and Susan Hale; an appraisal of the Hale estate and personal business records for Ellen Day and Edward Everett Hale; printed material; sketchbooks and sketches by Ellen Day and Herbert Dudley Hale; and travel photographs of the Hale family.
Scope and Contents:
The Ellen Hale and Hale family papers measure 3 linear feet and date from circa 1860 to 1952. Found within the papers are biographical material for Ellen Day and Edward Everett Hale; personal correspondence from Ellen Day and Lillian Westcott Hale; diaries by Ellen Day and Susan Hale; an appraisal of the Hale estate and personal business records for Ellen Day and Edward Everett Hale; printed material; sketchbooks and sketches by Ellen Day and Herbert Dudley Hale; and travel photographs of the Hale family.

Biographical materials consist of publications related to Edward Everett Hale's 80th birthday celebration; Ellen Day Hale's calling cards, calendar, and engagement books; and Robert Beverly Hale's calendar.

Correspondence is primarily Ellen Day Hale's and Lillian Westcott Hale's personal and business correspondence, and a letter from Margaret C. Hale to Arthur Hale.

Writings include 9 diaries by Ellen Day Hale, 1 diary by Emily P. Hale, and 19 diaries by Susan Hale; an essay by Arthur Hale; Herbert Dudley Hale's word game book; Susan Hale's travel instructions to a niece; and a notebook listing the likes and dislikes of various Hale family members.

Personal business records consist of Edward Everett and Emily P. Hale's account and tax records; Ellen Day Hale's art supply receipts, royalty statements, tax records, and a check register; Lillian Westcott Hale's receipts; and Susan Hale's notes on an appraisal of the Hale estate.

Printed material includes various clippings, invitations, and programs kept by the Hale family, and Ellen Day Hale's travel postcards.

Artwork includes 22 sketchbooks by Ellen Day Hale, 5 sketchbooks by Herbert Dudley Hale; and 7 sketchbooks by other artists.

Photographs are travel snapshots taken during travels in Mexico.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical materials, circa 1875-1925 (6 folders; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1861-1951 (4 folders; Box 1)

Series 3: Writings, 1878-1933 (0.9 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 4: Personal business records, 1909-1952 (8 folders; Box 2)

Series 5: Printed material, 1862-1933 (5 folders; Box 2)

Series 6: Artwork, circa 1860-1925 (1.5 linear feet; Box 2-3)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1890-1901 (1 folder; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
Writer, publisher, and clergyman Edward Everett Hale (1822-1909) and his wife, Emily Perkins Hale, were well regarded members of Boston society. After graduating from Boston Latin School at age 13, Hale enrolled directly into Harvard University and graduated second in his class in 1839. He became a licensed Unitarian minister in 1842 and was a church pastor from 1846 to 1899. In the 1860s, Hale began publishing short stories in the Atlantic Monthly, Harper's New Monthly Magazine, and other periodicals. In 1869, he co-founded the Christian Examiner, which later merged with Scribner's Magazine in 1875, and founded Lend a Hand in 1886. He and his wife had one daughter and eight sons. Three of those sons died in childhood, and a fourth, Robert Beverly Hale, died as a young adult.

Writer and artist Susan Hale (1833-1910) was schooled at home by tutors before enrolling in George B. Emerson's school. She was a self-taught artist who learned to paint and draw early in life. In 1872, she traveled to Europe to pursue formal art instruction and, upon her return to Boston, began giving lessons in watercolors. From 1873 to 1885, she maintained a studio at the Boston Art Club, wrote articles for Boston papers, edited literary collections for fundraisers, lectured on popular fiction, and eventually became a literary celebrity. Beginning in the mid-1880s, Hale began traveling the country and abroad giving lectures in the winter and visiting Edward Everett's family in Matunuck, Rhode Island in the summer. In between her travels, she continued to publish books, including a traveling series for young readers, and an instruction book on painting techniques.

Artist and teacher Ellen Day Hale (1854-1939) was the eldest of the Hale children. She received her early art training from her aunt, Susan Hale, and received formal art training from Boston artists William Rimmer, William Morris Hunt, and Helen Knowlton. Hale continued her education at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and in 1877, opened a portrait studio where she taught private students. In the early 1880s, Hale traveled through Europe before settling in Paris to study at the Académie Julian for three years. In 1883, she met fellow artist and lifelong companion Gabrielle de Veaux Clements. In 1893, they purchased a home near Gloucester, Massachusetts named "The Thickets," where they opened their studio to women artists and taught various painting, printing, and etching techniques. After the death of her mother, from 1904 to 1909, Hale moved to Washington, D.C. to act as hostess for her father, who had been appointed Chaplain of the U.S. Senate. After her father's death, Hale continued to produce paintings, and together with Clements, summered at the artists' colony at Folly Cove on Cape Ann, Massachusetts, and frequently traveled abroad in the winters.

Arthur Hale (1859-1939) was a general agent for the American Railway Association and an employee of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. In 1899, he married Camilla Conner, with whom he had one daughter.

Architect Herbert Dudley Hale (1866-1908) graduated from Harvard in 1888 and studied architecture abroad at the École des Beaux Art in Paris, where he graduated among the first in his class. After his return to Boston around the turn of the century, Hale married Margaret Marquand, with whom he had five children, and established the architecture firm Hale and Rogers with James Gamble Rogers.

Writer Robert Beverly Hale (1869-1895) graduated from Harvard in 1892 and published numerous stories and articles in the Atlantic Monthly, Harper's Weekly, and Youth's Companion. Elsie and Other Poems was published in 1894, and Six Stories and Some Verses was published posthumously after Hale's death in 1895.

Artist Lillian Westcott Hale (1881-1963) was the wife of fellow artist Philip Leslie Hale, the third eldest of the Hale children. Hale received a scholarship to attend the Boston Museum School of Fine Arts, where she met Philip and married him halfway through her studies. Hale held her first solo show in 1908, the same year her daughter was born, and continued to produce work for exhibitions through the 1920s. She was the recipient of the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition gold medal, the National Academy's Shaw Memorial Prize (1915), and the National Academy of Design's Altman Prize (1927). She continued producing works until her death in 1963.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds two collections related to the Hale family, including the Philip Leslie Hale papers and the Edward Everett Hale letter to an unidentified person. Smith College's Sophia Smith Collection also holds papers of the Hale family, including Nathan, Sr., and Sarah Preston Everett Hale; Edward Everett and Emily Perkins Hale; Ellen Day Hale; and Philip and Lilian Westcott Hale. .
Separated Materials:
Printed books and monographs in the collection were transferred to the National Portrait Gallery Library in 1978.
Provenance:
The Ellen Hale and Hale family papers were donated in 1978 and 1984 by Nancy Hale Bowers, the niece of Ellen Day Hale, and the grand-daughter of Edward Everett and Emily P. Hale.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Topic:
Artists -- Massachusetts  Search this
Watercolorists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Sketches
Citation:
Ellen Hale and Hale family papers, circa 1860-1952. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.halefami
See more items in:
Ellen Hale and Hale Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw957bc3fd0-b038-4cbe-96fc-5f9d53af084b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-halefami

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tours

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
3.68 Cubic feet (consisting of 8 boxes, 1 folder, 3 oversize folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Travel brochures
Commercial correspondence
Letterheads
Receipts
Print advertising
Business cards
Invoices
Business letters
Publications
Business records
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Correspondence
Advertising fliers
Advertisements
Advertising
Advertising mail
Advertising cards
Printed ephemera
Place:
Australia -- Description and Travel
Austria -- description and travel
Spain -- description and travel
Scotland -- description and travel
Colorado -- description and travel
Ireland -- description and travel
England -- description and travel
Europe -- description and travel -- 1910-1950
China -- Description and Travel
Mexico -- description and travel
Europe -- description and travel
Canada -- Description and Travel
United States -- description and travel
Date:
1844-1966
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Tours consists of business records and advertisements created by tourism companies and rail lines, travel guides to varied countries and geographic areas, and other select items such as travel advice, resources on hotels and resorts, and travel-related events or lectures.

No expansive business documentation exists for any company represented within the records. The strength of the collection lies in its breadth of information about other countries, states, or geographic locations provided for the purposes of informing travelers. While no substantial material concerning the history and development of the tourism industry exists within the collection, this subject category provides substantial resources for researchers interested in sorts of information that was made available to tourists, types of travel and tours available, and background about resources and perceptions of promoted vacation destinations over a long time period.
Arrangement:
Tours is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Tours is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Health resorts  Search this
Automobile travel  Search this
Railroads -- 1860-1900  Search this
Railroads -- 1874-1910  Search this
Travel  Search this
Hotels  Search this
Automobile travel -- United States  Search this
Railroads -- Dining-car service  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Tourist trade -- 1900-1910  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Maps, Tourist  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Railroads -- History  Search this
Railroads -- Trains  Search this
Sleeping cars (Railroads)  Search this
Air travel  Search this
Travel -- 1890-1930  Search this
Tourist trade -- Postcards  Search this
Travel -- 1910-1920  Search this
Railroad travel  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Family vacations  Search this
Tourist trade -- 1910-1940  Search this
Railroad stations  Search this
Tourist trade -- 1900-1910 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
advertising -- Transportation  Search this
Vacations  Search this
Railroad passenger cars  Search this
Genre/Form:
Travel brochures
Commercial correspondence
Letterheads
Receipts
Print advertising
Business cards
Invoices
Business letters
Publications -- Business
Business records
Publications
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Correspondence
Advertising fliers
Advertisements
Advertising
Advertising mail
Advertising cards
Printed ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tours, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Tours
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tours
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ec3d919a-fdba-4173-8a85-5b72a71d4dfa
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-tours

Coxe Brothers Collection

Creator:
Coxe Brothers and Company, Inc. (Drifton, Pennsylvania)  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Extractive Industries  Search this
Engineer:
Coxe, Eckley B. (Eckley Brinton), 1839-1895  Search this
Names:
Coxe, Tench, 1755-1824  Search this
Extent:
100 Cubic feet (55 boxes, 107 map folders )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Agreements
Blueprints
Correspondence
Deeds
Drawings
Glass plate negatives
Legal documents
Maps
Patents
Photographs
Tracings
Place:
Pennsylvania
Date:
1830-1997
Summary:
Collection documents the Coxe Brothers and Company Inc., an anthracite coal producer in Pennsylvania.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains primarily drawings of mine machinery and buildings, including buildings within the company town such as worker housing and churches and maps, including real estate maps, contour and topographical maps, maps of highways and roads, insurance maps and others. There are some photographs, including glass plate negatives, of mining machinery and operations; deeds, leases, and agreements and papers relating to Eckley B. Coxe's patents and legal matters.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: Eckley B. Coxe, Jr. Estate Materials, 1891-1969

Series 2: Patent Material, 1871-1902

Series 3: Agreements, Deeds, and Leases, 1882-1949

Series 4: Miscellaneous Documentation, 1866-1950

Series 5: Glass Plate Negatives and Photographs, 1890-1937

Series 6: Drawings, 1885-1991

Series 7: Maps, 1830-1997
Historical:
The Coxe family's connection with Pennsylvania's anthracite coal region is rooted in the prescience of the statesman, author and land speculator Tench Coxe. Recognizing the significance anthracite would play in the development of the newly founded Republic, Tench purchased nearly 80,000 acres of land surrounding outcroppings of anthracite coal in Carbon, Luzerne and Schuylkill counties. He hoped that future generations of the family would profit from the land when the anthracite industry came of age. Indeed, his purchase would secure wealth for the Coxe family and all their mining enterprises well into the twentieth century.

Tench Coxe was born in Philadelphia on May 22, 1755, to William and Mary Francis Coxe, members of a family with a long tradition of land ownership. Tench's great-grandfather, Dr. Daniel Coxe, personal physician to King Charles II and Queen Anne of England, held large colonial land grants in New Jersey and the Carolinas. Though he never visited his property in the new world, Dr. Coxe would eventually acquire the title of Governor of West Jersey. Upon his death, he passed the whole of his North American land holdings to his son, Colonel Daniel Coxe. The Colonel was the first Coxe to leave England for life in America, settling in Burlington, New Jersey in 1702. Inheriting a passion for land, Colonel Coxe distinguished himself by publishing "A Description of the Provinces of Carolana," which in 1722 proposed one of the earliest plans for political union of the British colonies of North America. Tench Coxe explored various career options in his struggle to establish his name in the United States. After considering a profession in law, Tench chose instead to join his father's import-export firm, Coxe & Furman, in 1776. The renamed firm of Coxe, Furman & Coxe operated for fourteen years but was dissolved by mutual agreement after experiencing financial difficulties.

Soon after, Tench and a business partner from Boston established a new commercial enterprise under the name of Coxe & Frazier. After several prosperous years, this firm also disbanded, freeing Tench to pursue a career in public service. Tench's Loyalist sympathies during the American Revolution complicated his political ambitions. Following British General Howe's evacuation of Philadelphia in 1778, the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania accused Tench of treason for collaborating with the enemy. Although he swore an oath of allegiance to the United States of America, his Tory leanings would be used repeatedly to undermine his political influence. Despite his Loyalist past, Tench retained the respect of his patriot neighbors. He was selected as the sole Pennsylvania delegate to the Annapolis Convention in 1786, and then selected to the Second Continental Congress in 1788. After the war, Tench became an advocate for the Whig Party, although his politics were often in direct support of the Federalist cause. This was apparent from a pamphlet he wrote in 1788 titled, "An Examination of the Constitution of the United States," which revealed his strong support for the ratification of the United States Constitution.

With the new government in place, Tench received a variety of appointments to public office under George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. He was named Assistant Secretary of the Treasury in 1790, Commissioner of the Revenue of the United States in 1792 and Secretary of the Pennsylvania Land Office in 1800. After switching his affiliation to the Republican Party in 1803, Tench accepted an appointment from Thomas Jefferson as Purveyor of the Public Supplies, an office that he held until 1812. The duties of his various posts ultimately made Tench an authority on the industrial development of the nation. In 1794 he published a collection of essays under the title, "A View of the United States of America," in which he contemplated the development of commerce and manufacturing in America. These essays reveal his early awareness of coal in Pennsylvania, as he remarked:

"All our coal has hitherto been accidentally found on the surface of the earth or discovered in the digging of common cellars or wells; so that when our wood-fuel shall become scarce, and the European methods of boring shall be skillfully pursued, there can be no doubt of our finding it in many other places."

Anthracite coal was discovered around the year 1769 in Pennsylvania. It is the hardest of the known types of coal, with an average 85%-95% carbon content, as compared to the 45%- 85% range of the bituminous coal found in the western part of the state. The high carbon content in anthracite allows it to burn at much higher temperatures than bituminous coal and with less smoke, making it an ideal fuel for home heating. The only anthracite deposits of commercial value in the United States are located within four major fields in Eastern Pennsylvania and are confined to an area of 3,300 square miles. These four coalfields are commonly referred to as the Northern, Eastern-Middle, Western-Middle and Southern fields. Tench Coxe's awareness of the promise of anthracite coal, coupled with his tenure in the Pennsylvania land office and a family tradition of land speculation spurred him in 1790 to begin purchasing promising acreage. Though he acquired land throughout the country, he particularly focused on land in Carbon, Luzerne and Schuylkill counties in Northeastern Pennsylvania, which he believed held vast underground seams of coal.

Despite large land holdings, Tench Coxe lived most of his life in debt thanks to litigation, tax problems and complications with business partners. Realizing that he would not be able to develop the property in his lifetime, Tench worked diligently to retain the property he believed was enriched with valuable mineral deposits, in hopes that his dreams would be realized by future generations of Coxes. Tench's son, Charles Sidney Coxe, would inherit from his father a passion for land ownership and for the untapped potential of the anthracite coal region. When Tench Coxe died on July 16, 1824, he left Charles sole executor of his estate, which was composed of approximately 1.5 million acres in eight states. Born July 31, 1791, Charles Sidney Coxe was the sixth of ten children of Tench and Rebecca Coxe. Educated at the University of Pennsylvania and Brown University, Charles was admitted to the Philadelphia Bar in 1812. Charles eventually served as District Attorney of Philadelphia and associate judge of the District Court of Philadelphia, but he remained infatuated by his father's vision.

Charles devoted his life to keeping together the large coal properties handed down by Tench to his surviving children. This monumental task involved paying annual taxes on completely unproductive land, fighting a never-ending battle against squatters and timber thieves, and litigating an endless array of boundary disputes. Charles and his family routinely spent their summer months in Drifton, Luzerne County a location that would eventually become synonymous with the Coxe name. His son Eckley Brinton Coxe gained his first experience in the coalfields at Drifton, accompanying his father as he traced the geology of the area in search of coal veins. Besides introducing Eckley to the "family business", the surveys gave Charles invaluable detailed knowledge that he used to preserve the coal deposits on his family's property. Deposits that he discovered comprised nearly half of the entire Eastern-Middle field. Even as his knowledge grew, however, Charles was unable to develop the land he retained. He saw the pioneers of anthracite mining lose fortunes as the mining technology of the day struggled to catch up with the new demands.

Regular shipments of anthracite began in the 1820s as canals opened the coal regions of Pennsylvania to markets in Philadelphia. The demand for anthracite remained relatively low during the early years of the industry, but as markets developed and demand increased, railroads began to compete in the trade and would eventually come to dominate as carriers to all of the major markets. As the problems of mining and transporting coal and developing a market for it were worked out, the demand for "hard coal" grew substantially. Coal sales increased from 364,384 tons in 1840 to 3,358,890 tons in 1850 and would steadily increase throughout the century to levels exceeding 40 million tons annually. Charles Coxe's witness to the inception of this industry unquestionably spurred his desire to realize his father's dream, but like Tench, he too would have to defer to his sons.

Charles S. Coxe had married Ann Maria Brinton in 1832 and together they were the parents of seven children, Brinton, Rebecca, Anna Brinton, Eckley Brinton, Henry Brinton, Charles Brinton and Alexander Brinton. The eldest son, Brinton Coxe, followed the career of his father, establishing himself in the legal profession. Brinton was a renowned lawyer and writer of constitutional law and served with prestige as president of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania from 1884 until his death. The remaining four sons would distinguish themselves in the coal business under the guidance of their brother, Eckley B. Coxe. Born in Philadelphia on June 4, 1839, Eckley B. Coxe entered into a family in which his calling was clear. His aptitude for the calling, however, would astonish the entire industry. Eckley's earl surveying excursions with his father introduced him to the mines, machines and collieries of the anthracite industry. His exposure to local miners must also have made a lasting impression, as his knowledge of their customs and sympathy toward their circumstances proved to be one of his greatest assets as an employer.

Eckley Coxe's formal education began in 1854 at the University of Pennsylvania. Although focusing his studies in chemistry and physics, he took additional courses in French and bookkeeping after receiving his degree in 1858. After graduation, Eckley briefly returned to the coalfields where he was engaged in topographic geological work on his family's land, learning a skill that would later earn him a commission to the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. In 1860 Eckley went abroad to polish his technical education, spending two years in Paris at the Ecole Nationale des Mines, one year at the Bergakademie in Freiberg, Germany and nearly two years on a tour studying the practical operations of European mines. Armed with both practical and theoretical knowledge of his craft, Eckley B. Coxe returned to America and embarked on the mission for which his entire life had prepared him. On January 30, 1865, Eckley, his brothers Alexander, Charles and Henry and a cousin, Franklin Coxe, formed the co-partnership Coxe Brothers and Company.

The company began with a combined capital of $120,000, with Eckley investing $40,000 and the other partners investing $20,000 each. The firm was formed for the exclusive purpose of mining and selling coal from the Drifton property, which they leased from the Estate of Tench Coxe. The Estate had begun leasing property as early as 1852 to various companies, which paid royalties to the estate in return for the coal they mined. Coxe Brothers would operate under a similar lease, but they would, in a sense, be paying royalties to themselves as both partners and heirs. Coxe Brothers and Company began operations in Drifton in February 1865, sending their first shipment of coal to market the following June. Once the operations at Drifton were fully tested and proved successful, Eckley moved to consolidate control over all of his family's land, in order to keep all the mining profits in the family.

By 1879 Coxe Brothers and Company had opened collieries at Deringer, Gowen and Tomhicken, adding Beaver Meadow Colliery two years later. The firm's success exceeded all of the partners' expectations, reaching well beyond the goals set forth in the original Articles of Copartnership. Charles B. Coxe died in 1873 and Franklin Coxe retired from the firm in 1878. In 1885, the remaining partners agreed to extend the life of the firm indefinitely and operate for the purpose of developing the land belonging to the Estate of Tench Coxe.

Even more important to the success of the Coxe family mining interests was the organization of the Cross Creek Coal Company in October 1882. The officers of this company included the three remaining partners of Coxe Brothers and Company, along with a Philadelphia partner, J. Brinton White and the Coxe's first cousin Arthur McClellan, brother of the Civil War General, George B. McClellan. Cross Creek Coal Company took over all of the mining operations on the Estate lands, led by Eckley B. Coxe, president of both companies. Coxe Brothers transferred the mining rights to the Coxe property to the Cross Creek Coal Company but retained control of the Coxe collieries where the freshly mined coal was prepared.

Eckley's shrewd and aggressive management of his family's land proved successful. When his father, Charles S. Coxe died in 1879, Eckley assumed an even more direct role in the management of the property. In addition to receiving the inheritance of his grandfather's land, he, along with his three surviving brothers, became executors of the Estate of Tench Coxe. By 1886, Eckley had brought nearly 3/4ths of his family's property under his direct control. Coal shipments from these properties reached an astounding 1.5 million tons in 1890, a vast improvement from the 27,000 tons sold in its inaugural year. Coxe Brothers and Company did not limit itself to mining operations on the lands of the Estate of Tench Coxe. By 1889, the firm was also leasing lands from the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company, West Buck Mountain Coal Company, Anspach & Stanton, the Black Creek Coal Company, and the Central Coal Company. In total Coxe Brothers was operating roughly 30,000 acres of coal property.

Just over twenty years after its inception, Coxe Brothers and Company established itself as the largest individual anthracite producer that was not associated with a major railroad. This distinction, however, made them an obvious target for the expanding railroad industry. Realizing the value of anthracite as freight, railroads entered into a land scramble throughout the region, securing their coal freight by purchasing it before it was mined. This point is perhaps best illustrated by the actions of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which in 1872 purchased 28,000 acres in the anthracite fields. Of the roughly 38 million tons of coal produced in 1888, 29 million had been mined by coal companies linked with the railroads.

The remaining independent producers were forced to negotiate with the railroads to have their coal shipped to market. It was the practice of the railroads to charge exorbitant fees to the independent producers, which in effect reduced the railroads' competition in the coal sale yards. In order to survive, many independent producers were either forced to sell their coal directly to the railroads at the mines or to sell their operation completely to the railroad. Eckley B. Coxe, however, pursued an altogether different means of survival. In 1888, the partners of Coxe Brothers and Company petitioned the Interstate Commerce Commission for relief from the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company (LVRR). They argued that the Lehigh Valley Coal Company (LVCC), entirely owned by the LVRR, sold coal at a price that did not net them sufficient funds to pay the fees that were being charged to Coxe Brothers and Company for the same shipping service. The railroads were willing to operate their coal companies at a loss, since they were more than able to absorb the losses with increased railroad freight. As a result of discriminating between the companies it owned and independent operators, the LVRR was found in violation of federal law and was forced to lower its rates in 1891.

The lengthy trial, however, inspired Eckley to build his own railroad, which began operations in 1891. Incorporated as the Delaware, Susquehanna & Schuylkill Railroad, its tracks linked all of the Coxe collieries with connections to most of the major rail lines in the region. With sixty miles of single gauge track, twenty-nine locomotives and 1,500 coal-cars, they forced the railroads to compete for the immense freight being produced by their coal companies. By compelling his adversaries to come to fair terms with victories in both the courts and in the coalfields, Eckley succeeded in securing Coxe Brothers' position as the largest independent anthracite producers in Pennsylvania. In June 1893, Ezra B. Ely and Eckley Brinton Coxe, Jr. were admitted to the firm of Coxe Brothers and Company. Ezra, a long-time business associate and general sales agent of Coxe Brothers and Company and Eckley, Jr., son of the deceased Charles Brinton Coxe, joined the firm just weeks prior to the establishment of two more Coxe mining enterprises.

On June 19,Coxe Brothers and Company, Incorporated was organized as the selling agency for Coxe coal and purchased from the firm their supply headquarters in New York, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Milwaukee and Philadelphia. This same day also saw the formation of the Coxe Iron Manufacturing Company, which took control of the firm's machine shops in Drifton. In addition to being responsible for the construction and repair of Coxe mines and railroads, this company also filled large outside orders for machinery. It was in these machine shops that Eckley proved himself as one of the most brilliant mining engineers of the day. The United States Patent Office records 111 patents either issued directly to Eckley B. Coxe or as a supervisor of employees who worked under his instructions at the Drifton Shops. Seventy-three of these patents pertained to the details of the Coxe Mechanical Stoker, which introduced the first practical means of burning small sizes of anthracite coal. This innovation put an end to the financial loss associated with large culm banks of fine sized coal that plagued collieries as waste. The subject of waste seems to have driven the business and personal endeavors of Eckley B. Coxe.

As a founder and future president of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Eckley was appointed to chair a committee to investigate waste in coal mining, which he did thoroughly. His report outlined the waste associated with the extraction, preparation and transportation of anthracite coal. To combat waste in the preparation of coal, Eckley designed and erected the world's first coal breaker made of iron and steel. This fireproof structure, used to separate coal into uniform sized pieces, was also equipped with numerous innovative labor-saving devices, including an automated slate picking chute, improved coal jigs, corrugated rollers for breaking coal and electric lighting for nighttime operations. The breaker at Drifton stood as one of the most revolutionary coal structures in the region until Eckley erected an even more magnificent iron and steel coal breaker at Oneida. In creating more economical methods for preparing and consuming coal, Eckley helped boost the anthracite industry to remarkable levels. Although he secured many of his inventions by patent, Eckley licensed his improvements to many coal operators and created an agency to help install and maintain the complicated machinery at the various collieries. This service reflected Eckley's conviction that the mutual exchange of knowledge in engineering matters would benefit the whole anthracite industry, and in turn would benefit each individual company. That attitude appears to have carried over in his interactions with consumers, as is evidenced by a paper Eckley read before a meeting of the New England Cotton Manufactures, acknowledging that, "It may seem curious that a person whose life has been spent in mining and marketing coal should appear before this association to discuss the economical production of steam, involving, as it does, either the use of less fuel or fuel of less value. But I am convinced that the more valuable a ton of coal becomes to our consumers, the more in the end will be our profit from it."

Eckley recognized, however, that the increased demand for anthracite would subvert his battle against waste. The abundance of coal beds in the region gave rise to numerous operators who often sacrificed long-term efficiency for low-overhead and quick profits. Using cheap machinery and incompetent labor, these operators mined only the most valuable and easily available veins, leaving large amounts to waste. Mining practices like these were prohibited in many European countries, where the right to mine had to be obtained from the government. In many countries, mining operations were required to work to full capacity, so long as they did not compromise the safety of the men or the mine. Having witnessed European laws in practice, Eckley was an advocate for comparable laws in this country, calling for a well-educated corps of experts to inspect the mines and manufactories to ensure the protection of life and property. In later years, mining foremen would be required by Pennsylvania law to pass an extensive exam, demonstrating not only practical experience but also specific knowledge of the principles of ventilation. Eckley was also aware that mining legislation alone could not prevent careless miners.

As an employer of skilled labor and a trustee of Lehigh University, Eckley gave a great deal of thought to the issue of technical education. In concluding a paper titled, "Mining Legislation," read at the general meeting of the American Social Science Association in 1870, Eckley insisted "upon the importance of establishing schools for master miners, in which anyone who works in the mines could, while supporting himself by his labor, receive sufficient instruction in his business to qualify him to direct intelligently the underground workings of a mine." His exposure to the finest technical institutions of Europe made Eckley keenly aware of the shortcomings in America of giving its students an equivalent education. In order to prevent future mining foremen and superintendents to grow up without a theoretical knowledge of their work, Eckley established the Industrial School for Miners and Mechanics in Drifton. The school opened its doors on May 7, 1879, providing young men employed by Coxe Brothers and Company with an opportunity to educate themselves outside of working hours. This unique opportunity gave the young miners a chance to combine the scientific knowledge of various disciplines, including trigonometry, mechanical drawing, physics, mineralogy and drafting with the experience gained in their daily toil. Classes were held free of charge at night and during idle days in the mines in a two-story building erected by Eckley Coxe, known as Cross Creek Hall.

In addition to comfortably seating 1,000 people and housing a library and reading room for the residents of Drifton, it also furnished classrooms for the eleven students who enrolled in the school during its first year. The school succeeded in delivering a first-class technical education to its students for nearly ten years before a fire completely destroyed the Hall in 1888. Five years later the school reorganized under the name Miners and Mechanics' Institute of Freeland, Pennsylvania, which soon after changed its name to the Mining and Mechanical Institute of Freeland. The school continues to operate today as the MMI Preparatory School and stands as a testimonial to Eckley's achievements in promoting technical education.

Eckley and the Coxe family gave generously to the people of the anthracite fields. They donated estate lands for churches and cemeteries of various denominations, as well as schools, parks and baseball fields. Eckley also established a scholarship prize of $300 for the best student at his mining school, which would continue for the term of four years if the recipient chose to pursue higher education. Eckley made a point, however, not to confuse business with charity and confined his donations predominantly to gifts of opportunity and knowledge. But, as the people of Drifton affirmed during the opening ceremonies for Cross Creek Hall, "For relieving those who have been disabled by accidents, providing for the widows and orphans, visiting our homes in times of sickness, taking an interest in the education and welfare of our children and providing a free library, to promote our intellectual culture you are worthy of the highest praise we can bestow." One of the most deplorable circumstances in the coalfields was the scarcity of adequate hospitals. Nineteenth century anthracite mining was extremely dangerous, with miners facing hazards from explosions, suffocation, cave-ins and floods.

By 1881, Coxe Brothers and Company employed 1,171 people, who endured their share of accidents, despite the sound mining methods initiated by the company. The closest hospital was in Bethlehem, which was over two hours away. To remedy the situation, at least for his own workers, Eckley established the Drifton Hospital on September 1, 1882, for the benefit of Coxe Brothers and Company employees. The building could accommodate thirty-five patients and in its first sixteen months of operation treated eighty-five people. In later years, a state hospital at Hazleton was built for the miners of the Eastern-Middle field. Eckley was an obvious candidate for the Board of Commissioners of the state hospital, an appointment he received in 1891.

The company also maintained an accident fund for its employees. In the event a Coxe Brothers employee died, the fund contributed fifty dollars to the family to defray their funeral expenses. It also provided the widows of employees with three dollars a week for one year, allowing an additional dollar per week for each child less than twelve years of age. In cases where the employees were disabled, men were given five dollars a week until they were able to perform light work.

In all his endeavors, Eckley B. Coxe held himself to a high standard of honor. His standard of personal integrity created unusual circumstances when he was elected to the Pennsylvania State Senate in November 1880. Elected a Democrat from the 26th senatorial district, comprised of parts of Luzerne and Lackawanna counties, he declined to take the oath prescribed by the state constitution, thereby forfeiting the office. In an address to his constituents in January 1881, he explained that he was not able to swear to the fact that all his campaign funds had been contributed as "expressly authorized by law." He further stated, "I have done nothing in this campaign that I am ashamed of, or that was inconsistent with strict honesty." A detailed examination of his accounts shows expenses that were not considered "expressly authorized," but were also not uncommon for most of the political candidates in Pennsylvania. In holding himself to the strict letter of the law, he earned the respect of both Democrats and Republicans alike. The next year Eckley B. Coxe was again elected to the Senate, this time with a majority three times as large as the previous year.

Eckley's personal character made him a model senator and he took advantage of the opportunity to spread his opinions across the entire commonwealth. Belonging to the minority party in the Senate, Eckley was unable to initiate any legislation, but did remain vocal concerning many of the major issues of the day. He was particularly interested in the "Voluntary Trade Tribunal Statute," which dealt with the vexed topic of labor organizations. In addressing the Senate, Eckley argued, "Though not pretending to be a workingman, or in any way his representative, but, on the contrary, a large employer of labor of all kinds, I feel and admit that he has equal rights with me. What he properly demands, and what he will have, is justice. To be satisfied, he must feel that the bargain is fair, and that it has been reached in an honorable way, without any resort to coercion. He cares more for this than a slight addition to or a deduction from his daily pay. Where the workingman does not get his dues, trouble must ensue, and capital must pay its share of the bill, which is often a large one." Eckley made every attempt to treat his men with the respect they demanded. Even so, he was not immune to strikes, which brought his collieries to a halt on several occasions. When demands for increased wages by a joint committee of the Knights of Labor and the Miners' and Laborers' Amalgamated Association brought operations in the anthracite fields to a standstill in 1887, Eckley remained open to hearing the grievances of his men, but like many coal operators, refused to meet with organizations, as he did not believe they represented the best interest of his men. As labor struggled to organize in the latter part of the century, workingmen were as determined to stand by their unions as operators were to ignore them.

This state of affairs resulted in repeated struggles between labor and capital throughout the country, struggles that were especially bitter in the coalfields. When a congressional committee was appointed to investigate the labor troubles in Pennsylvania in 1888, Eckley testified, "It does not make any difference to us whether the men belong to any association or not. I do not care what association they belong to or what politics they have; it is none of my business; but when it came to the question, I was always willing and anxious to deal with my own men, and I expect to always; but I want to deal with the men who are interested to the particular question that I have got to settle." Eckley continued to remain active in the mining profession through his associations with numerous professional organizations, including the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Engineer's Club of Philadelphia, the American Chemical Society, the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, to name just a few. In 1870, Eckley published a translation of Julias Weisbach's treatise, "A Manual of the Mechanics of Engineering and of the Construction of Machines, with an Introduction to the Calculus." Weisbach was a former professor of Eckley's at the Bergakademie in Freiberg, and an influential voice in the field of mechanics. This capacious volume, used primarily as a textbook, was completed at a monetary loss, but would, however, associate Eckley's name with one of the leading mechanical engineers in the world.

As Eckley continued to advance his own career and the anthracite industry as a whole, he never lost sight of his principal commitment to developing the lands of the Estate of Tench Coxe. In an effort to fully exploit the resources of his family's land, Eckley organized four additional companies in June 1893. The Drifton, Oneida, Tomhicken and Beaver Meadow water companies were organized to supply water to the industries and citizens of Hazle, East Union, Black Creek and Banks Township, respectively. On June 20, 1893, the capital stock of the four water companies, along with the stock of the Cross Creek Coal Company, Coxe Brothers and Company, Incorporated, the Delaware, Susquehanna and Schuylkill Railroad Company, and the Coxe Iron Manufacturing Company were placed into a trust under the control of Eckley B. Coxe, who served as president of them all. The trust was created to secure the continuation of the companies in the case of the death or sale of interest by any of the partners. The ownership of these companies was held in the same interest as that of the firm of Coxe Brothers and Company, being 4/15ths each with Eckley and Alexander Coxe, 3/15ths each vested in Henry B. and Eckley B. Coxe, Jr., and a 1/15th interest with Ezra B. Ely.

With the establishment of the various new Coxe enterprises, the business of the original firm (Coxe Brothers and Company) became limited to the operation of company stores at Fern Glen, Eckley and Drifton. This was no small point, however. By remaining a partnership, the Coxe family was not bound by the corporation laws of Pennsylvania, which prohibited the operation of company stores. But Coxe Brothers and Company stores respected the spirit of the anti-company store legislation. All Coxe employees were paid in cash that they could spend anywhere and not company script, which they would have to spend on overpriced goods at company stores. Eckley instructed his stores to sell goods as cheaply as possible and at no point were store debts deducted from an employee's wages. The various Coxe-owned enterprises remained in Eckley's charge till May 13, 1895, when at the age of 55, Eckley Brinton Coxe died of pneumonia. His death was mourned across the region as the buildings of Drifton were draped in black and Coxe collieries went idle. On the occasion of his funeral, every mine in the region suspended operations as a tribute to their deceased colleague.

Although Eckley was gone, his benevolence lived on through his wife of twenty-six years, Sophia Georgiana (Fisher) Coxe. Sophia undoubtedly served as Eckley's guiding light in his many altruistic endeavors. She was collectively known throughout the region as the "Angel of the Anthracite Fields" and the "Coxe Santa Claus." Sophia earned the latter title by providing the children of the Coxe mining towns with gifts and candy at an annul Christmas Party held in Cross Creek Hall. With the income guaranteed to her in Eckley's will, Sophia embarked on numerous acts of charity, funding additions to the Hazleton State Hospital, White Haven Sanitarium and the Philadelphia Children's Hospital. Sophia also advanced Eckley's work in education as a faithful benefactor of the Mining and Mechanical Institute of Freeland. She endowed the school with a new gymnasium and a trust fund to keep the school operating after her death, which occurred in 1926.

As Eckley's benevolence continued after his death, so too did his mining enterprises. His two surviving brothers, Alexander and Henry Coxe remained active in the business affairs of the Coxe mining companies, as Alfred E. Walter, a business associate, took control of the trust and presidency of the Coxe companies. The trust would subsequently pass to Irving A. Stearns from 1901 to 1905, when the trusteeship was canceled. The mining enterprises continued to expand through the turn of the century under the administration of Alexander B. Coxe. A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, Alexander had distinguished himself in the Civil War, serving on the staff of Major-General George Meade. After the war, he played a major role in the financial management of Coxe Brothers and Company as the only Coxe partner, other than Eckley, who resided in Drifton. He continued to live near the collieries for nearly forty years.

In March 1900, Alexander initiated a series of business maneuvers to streamline the management of the various Coxe companies. He purchased the entire capital stock of the Coxe Iron Manufacturing Company and the selling agency, Coxe Brothers and Company, Inc. for the Cross Creek Coal Company. Now representing the combined capital of three companies, the Cross Creek Coal Company officially changed its name to Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. The new company name distinguished only by the replacement of "and" by "&". Days later, the original firm of Coxe Brothers and Company was dissolved by agreement, with the remainder of its property and assets being assigned to the Cross Creek Coal Company for the sum of $300. The business of the firm would be continued by Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. and the Delaware, Susquehanna & Schuylkill Railroad, both of which were owned in the same interest as the original firm. As both the executor of the Tench Coxe Estate and partner of Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc., Alexander was in a unique situation to further consolidate the management of the Coxe properties. On June 24, 1904, the numerous individual leases from the Estate of Tench Coxe to Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. were consolidated into one blanket lease. The lease granted exclusive mining rights to the latter on the Drifton, Eckley, Stockton and Beaver Meadow properties, as well as on portions of the Tomhicken, Derringer and Oneida properties. The terms of the lease were agreed to continue until the coal was exhausted from the property or mining operations became unprofitable.

In 1904 Coxe Brothers was operating roughly 30,000 acres of land, although not all of it came from family leases. In addition to owning small portions of land, they still held leases on additional property from the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company, West Buck Mountain Coal Company, Anspach & Stanton, Black Creek Improvement Company and the Central Coal Company. The year 1904 also marked the death of Henry B. Coxe, leaving the sole responsibility of the company and the estate in Alexander's charge. With most of the family leaving the coalfields for homes in Philadelphia and nobody in the family willing to take the reins of the family business, the aging Alexander contemplated giving in to the railroads and selling off the mining operations. The Pennsylvania Railroad approached Alexander with an offer to purchase the entire operation of Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc., in an attempt to secure the valuable freight being produced at Coxe collieries. This freight totaled over one 1,500,000 tons of anthracite with 1,000,000 tons being mined directly from Coxe land. The LVRR, however, was not willing to lose its principal independent coal shipper and made Coxe Brothers a matching offer. Fortunately for the LVRR, Alexander Coxe served on its board of directors and in 1905 agreed to sell the whole of the Coxe mining enterprises to the LVRR.

The sale was completed on October 7, 1905, and included all of the property and assets of Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. comprising, 1100 miners' houses, real estate in Chicago and Milwaukee, floating equipment in New York harbor, all the mined coal on hand as well as the leasehold rights covered in the 1904 lease. Also included in the sale were the Delaware Susquehanna & Schuylkill Railroad and the four Coxe subsidiary water companies. In return the LVRR paid a total of 18.4 million dollars, $6,400,000 being paid in cash and $12,000,000 in collateral trust four percent bonds, which could be redeemed in semi-annual payments of $500,000. The bonds were issued by the Girard Trust Company, which secured payment with Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. stock, pledged by the LVRR. These bonds would mature in February 1926 at which time the stock was to be transferred back to the LVRR. The sale had the effect of taking the Coxe family out of the mining industry after forty years of successful operations.

The sale also marked the last major land acquisition by the LVRR, which competed in an industry that by some estimates controlled as much as 78% of the entire anthracite output. Nearly all of the other large independent operators had sold-out years ago, leaving the Coxe family operations as a relic of a day gone by. The family, however, would not forget the employees who gave the better part of their lives in service to the company. The Coxe Relief Fund was created by a resolution of the former stockholders of Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. on October 31, 1905, and was funded by contributions from the Coxe family. In addition to paying off the sundry debts of the company, the fund provided a pension to numerous Coxe employees. The Coxe family benefited greatly from Alexander Coxe's management of the company. In addition to providing the estates of his former partners with an $18.4 million dollar sale, he secured the Heirs of Tench Coxe a steady income of coal royalties for years to come. The stress and anxiety of such an endeavor, however, had an adverse effect on his health. Just four months after completing the sale to the LVRR, Alexander B. Coxe died.

With all of the original Coxe partners dead, a new generation of Coxe heirs stepped in to manage the affairs of the Estate of Tench Coxe. In January 1906, Henry Brinton Coxe, Jr. and Alexander Brown Coxe, both sons of Henry B. Coxe, became the Estate Agents. The management of the estate's property remained in the hands of agents and attorneys-in-fact for its entire existence, one member of which was always a descendant of Tench Coxe.

Although selling all of its direct interests in mining, the Coxe family retained ownership of the land it leased to Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc., now a subsidiary of the LVRR. Indirectly having control of the leases to the Coxe property, the LVRR subleased the mining rights of the Coxe land to the Lehigh Valley Coal Company, placing Coxe Brothers in the business of preparing coal at the breakers.

For years Federal law had prohibited railroad companies from owning their own coal properties, a law that was easily avoided by placing control of their properties with a coal company whose stock they owned entirely. Laws seeking to put an end to monopolistic trusts were becoming increasingly more stringent, however, placing all of the major rail lines in the anthracite field at risk of prosecution. In June of 1906, the Hepburn Act passed into law. Containing a commodities clause, it explicitly forbade the interstate shipment by railroad companies of any mining product in which they held a direct or indirect interest.

The LVRR became an easy target for the law. The railroad could not readily disguise its ownership of Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. because it was paying for the purchase with railroad bonds. A decision in 1911, by the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York, affirmed that the LVRR was in violation of the Commodities Clause of the Hepburn Act by its stock ownership of both the LVCC and Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. To evade the clause the Lehigh Valley Coal Sales Company was organized in an attempt to distance the railroad from its mining operations. The sales company purchased Coxe Brothers and Lehigh Valley coal at the breakers and distributed it to the various dealers.

The Lehigh Valley Railroad Company's entanglement with its coal properties remained obvious nonetheless and in March 1914, the Federal Government filed suit against the railroad for trust evasion, charging it with violations of both the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Hepburn Act. After six years of litigation, a decision was handed down ordering the dissolution of the Lehigh Valley mining combination. The final decree of the court was handed down in November 1923, outlining the exact steps the court required. The decree called for the creation of a trusteeship that would hold the complete voting power of Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. stock. The trustee was further ordered not to vote the stock in any way that would bring about a unity of interest or a suppression of competition between the two companies. Under the direction of the Coxe trustee, Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. went through a series of changes in the operation of their property. In 1929 management of the Coxe properties was turned over to the Jeddo-Highland Coal Company, operated by Donald Markle, son of the highly successful retired anthracite operator, John Markle. The change in management took control of the Coxe Brothers property out of the hands of the LVCC, severing the remaining links with the LVRR. The agreement with Jeddo-Highland had been in place for seven years when, in 1936, Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. was given direct control of its mining operations, placing them back in the business of mining coal for the first time since the company was sold in 1905.

Management by Coxe Brothers did not prove to be very sound, as strikes repeatedly shut down operations. During a strike in 1938, an operative employed by the company to spy on the men reported, "They say the company is not providing and using props at any place – that no effort is being made to save the roof. They say no coal is being taken which entails the expenditure of anything but the minimum amount of money. This they interpret to mean the abandonment of the company's operations there in the near future is a certainty. This is now the basis for the strike." The poor management of Coxe Brothers under the control of its board of directors, many of whom were directors of the LVRR, did not go unnoticed by the Coxe trustee and in 1940 management of Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc., once again, was turned over to the Jeddo-Highland Coal Company. Management of portions of some properties were also granted to the Gowen Coal Company, Wolf Collieries Company, Pardee Brothers and Company, Inc., Sterrick Creek Coal Company and the Haddock Mining Company.

The year 1940 marked the last year that Coxe Brothers had any direct or indirect control concerning mining, selling or transporting coal from its leased property. The anthracite industry saw peak years of production during World War I, but then began a steady decline from which it would never recover. By the 1940s coal operators were becoming increasingly scarce giving the LVRR an opportunity to regain control of the capital stock of Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. In 1942 they petitioned the United States Government to end the trusteeship, arguing that Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. acted strictly as a property agent without any control of the operators' policies. They further argued that 82% of the coal on Coxe Brothers property had been removed since the trusteeship was created and with the decreased market for anthracite coal, finding a buyer of the Coxe Brothers stock would be nearly impossible.

The courts handed down a decision in favor of the railroad and ordered the stock of Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. returned to the LVRR. The return of Coxe Brothers' stock was authorized by the courts with the explicit requirement that quarterly reports concerning the financial condition and conduct of business be submitted to the office of the Attorney General of the United States. The approval of the Attorney General's office was also required before Coxe Brothers could change the terms or execute any new lease. In its petition to the courts the LVRR alluded to the "short prospective life of Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc." This attitude appears to be confirmed upon the latter's return to LVRR control. A memo from C.E. Hildum, Vice President of the LVRR, in June 1943, stated, "Coxe Bros. presumably could use its cash to continue mining operations, either by its own organization or through management agreements, until its working funds were exhausted, or until its operating leases exceeded the Railroad Company profits from the movement of coal."

The LVRR was once again mining for freight, a practice that ultimately brought about a significant decrease in coal royalties for the Heirs of Tench Coxe. In 1943, Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. leased over 19,000 acres of land, 79% of which was leased from the Estate of Tench Coxe. The remaining portions were either owned in fee or leased from the Deringer Estate, LVCC or the Estate of Charles S. Coxe. For the next seven years Coxe Brothers did not operate any of its collieries but was still required to obtain the heirs' consent before subleasing to tenants. The Estate Agents, however, were unhappy with the way Coxe Brothers was managing their property. The agents believed that Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. was mainly interested in obtaining freight for the railroad rather than obtaining the maximum income from the properties.

Coxe Brothers was further criticized for allowing the Haddock Mining Company to operate the Beaver Meadow, Deringer and Tomhicken properties without paying royalties or taxes for a period of nine months. In 1938, an amendment was made to the 1904 lease in which royalties were to be paid to the estate on a profit-sharing basis, with 2/3 of the net income being paid in royalties. The estate was then permitted to employ accountants to examine the records of Coxe Brothers. The accountants found numerous discrepancies in Coxe Brothers' accounts and in February 1949 the Heirs of Tench Coxe filed a lawsuit against Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. to recover $350,000 due them in royalties. The heirs charged that Coxe Brothers took unauthorized deductions in computing their net income, the basis for establishing royalty payments. The lawsuit, however, was just an example of the animosity that existed between the two interests. It eventually became the clear desire of the Estate Agents to eliminate Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. as a "middleman" by canceling the terms of the 1904 lease.

In 1950, the Estate Agent, Daniel M. Coxe, called a meeting of the Coxe heirs to discuss the canceling of their lease with Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. It was agreed by all parties involved that the result of such an action would create considerable savings on overhead and increased royalties to the Estate. As part of the settlement agreement from the lawsuit filed a year earlier the terms of the 1904 lease were canceled. In addition, Coxe Brothers assigned all of its subleases, titles to culm and refuse banks, its fee land, mining equipment, drainage tunnels and miners houses to the Estate of Tench Coxe. Of particular significance in this agreement was the stipulation that all of the maps, leases, surveys, correspondence and records of every nature relating to the property be transferred to the Estate. The ownership of these records were retained by the Estate until 1968 when they were transferred to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, as a portion of this collection. The courts approved the settlement agreement in July 1950, having the effect of putting Coxe Brothers & Company, Inc. out of business and in line for liquidation. Coxe Brothers was officially dissolved in July of the following year with distribution to its stockholders, the LVRR. The settlement also placed the Coxe family in direct control of its landholdings for the first time in forty-five years.

By 1950, the anthracite industry was a shell of its former self. A deflated market for anthracite led to decreased income for the estate. Under the direction of the agents, new leases were granted to mining operations, including the Jeddo-Highland Coal Company, but finding additional tenants proved to be extremely difficult. Given the state of affairs in the anthracite fields it soon became the clear intention of the Tench Coxe Estate to divest itself of its land holdings.

In 1956, the first major land sale was completed for 2,000 acres, to the Beryllium Corporation of Reading to establish the firm's new Nuclear Division. The land sale trend continued in 1959 with the sale of the Drifton Village and again in 1960 with the sale of Tomhicken. Coal production on estate lands was down to 62,744 tons in 1960 without any hope of future improvements. Facing the prospect that the majority of accessible coal deposits had been exhausted and profitable leases were no longer available, Daniel urged to the heirs to liquidate the real estate of the Estate of Tench Coxe. The large number of individuals, estates and trusts holding an interest in the Tench Coxe Estate, however, made property sales extremely difficult.

With over fifty-seven distributees, representing 108 heirs on two continents, the fractional interests of the estate were getting smaller as the number of heirs multiplied with each generation. To avoid the lengthy task of securing consent from all of the individual family members, the heirs and owners of the Tench Coxe properties executed a trust agreement, which conveyed their authority to sell the family property to a group of trustees, which included Daniel M. Coxe, Eckley B. Coxe, III and Tench C. Coxe, Jr. The trust was organized under the name Tench Coxe Properties Liquidating Trust in December 1961.

Initially, the trust was able to sell only small portions of the property, but nonetheless actively pursued a buyer for the large acreage that remained. The trust liquidated the last remaining portions of the estate lands in 1966, with the sale of 16,400 acres to Butler Enterprises, Inc., owned by the prominent Philadelphia real estate developers, Philip and Nathan Seltzer. Butler Enterprises was drawn to the area due in large part to the efforts of Can-Do, Inc., (Community-Area New Development Organization). This citizen-sponsored organization was established in 1956 with the intention of drawing new industries to the Hazleton region, which Philip Seltzer described as being one of the "great progressive areas of Pennsylvania." Can-Do, Inc. functioned with assistance from the Coxe family, which had a great deal to gain from increasing the vitality of the region.

The assistance was also very much characteristic of the Coxe family's tradition of providing support for the social and economic development of the region. The transfer of title to Butler Enterprises marked the end of an era for the Coxe family, an era spanning over 150 years of direct involvement with the people and geology of the area. An example of this relationship between labor and capital can be seen today at Eckley Miners Village, a historic site representing a nineteenth century company mining town or "patch town." The site is maintained by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, on land once owned by the Estate of Tench Coxe. The family's impact will also continue to be felt at MMI Preparatory School, which continues to benefit from contributions from the Heirs of Tench Coxe and the Sophia Coxe Charitable Trust.

Although the Coxe family has long since left the coalfields of Northeastern Pennsylvania, the potential still exists for the Coxes to return to the region, through the auspices of Tench Coxe, Inc. Established in 1968, this company holds the gas and oil rights to roughly 13,000 acres of property included in the sale to Butler Enterprises. Although the prospect of discovering gas and oil may not be substantial, large domes discovered on the property in the 1950's may prove to be valuable storage sites for natural gas surpluses pumped into the Northeast during summer months. The domes are situated at depths of 18,000 feet, which do not make them economically useful to date.

Source

Coxe Family Mining Papers, Background Notes, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 2001. (last accessed February 28, 2022, http://www2.hsp.org/collections/coxe/findingaid.html)
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

Coxe Family Papers, 1638-1970 (inclusive), 1730-1900 (bulk)

The collection is broken into three major series of papers. They include the Tench Coxe section, 1638, 1776-1824, 1879; the Charles Sidney Coxe, Edward Sidney Coxe, and Alexander Sidney Coxe legal papers section, circ 1810-1879; and Third Party Papers, circa 1722-1815. The Tench Coxe Section is broken down further into four series: Volumes and printed materials; Correspondence and general papers; Essays, addresses and resource material; and Bills and receipts

Coxe Family Mining Papers, 1774-1968

The Coxe family mining papers document the history of what once was the largest independent anthracite coal producer in the United States

The William J. Wilgus Collection, 1915-1916

Documents the valuation conducted by William Wilgus during 1915 and 1916 on land and property either owned or leased by Coxe Brothers and Company, Inc. Coxe Brothers was a company that mined and leased anthracite coal lands in northeastern Pennsylvania.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Tench Coxe Properties through Daniel M. Coxe, Senior Trustee to the Division of Extractive Industries, National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History). The exact date of the acquisition is unknown, but it is presumed to be pre-1978.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Anthracite coal  Search this
Coal mines and mining  Search this
Coal mines and mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Mines  Search this
Mining  Search this
Mining equipment  Search this
Genre/Form:
Agreements
Blueprints
Correspondence -- 19th-20th century
Deeds
Drawings -- 19th century
Drawings -- 20th century
Glass plate negatives
Legal documents -- 19th century
Maps
Patents -- 19th century
Photographs
Photographs -- 19th century
Tracings
Citation:
Coxe Brothers Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1002
See more items in:
Coxe Brothers Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e29ebe7f-2837-4d3e-938e-6f844f019642
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1002
Online Media:

4c Andrew Carnegie single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 1171
Depicts:
Andrew Carnegie, Scottish American, 1835 - 1919  Search this
Printer:
Bureau of Engraving and Printing  Search this
Medium:
paper; ink (deep claret); adhesive / engraving
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
United States of America
Date:
November 25, 1960
Topic:
Humanitarian Causes  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Object number:
1980.2493.5362
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm86b4b47f0-1204-453d-831a-99d0f8e3575a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_1980.2493.5362

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Breuer, Marcel, 1902-  Search this
Extent:
5.3 Linear feet (Boxes 1-6, OV 47; Reels 5708-5717)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1923-1986
Scope and Contents note:
Correspondents in this series include a wide range of international architects, designers, and artists who interacted with Breuer. The letters discuss his training and the execution of his hundreds of architectural projects and designs for furnishings. Researchers will find the letters between Breuer and his Bauhaus colleagues, including Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, Walter Gropius, and László Moholy-Nagy, of particular interest.

Appendix A: List of Notable Correspondents from Series 2: Correspondence
Arrangement note:
The files are arranged chronologically, with the undated letters arranged alphabetically according to the correspondents' surnames.
Appendix A: List of Notable Correspondents from Series 2: Correspondence:
Missing Title

Aalto, Alvar, 1964 (1 invitation): to reception honoring Aalto

Abercrombie, Stan (architect), 1964-1977 (8 letters)

Abramovitz, Max (Harrison & Abramovitz, Architects), 1947 (3 letters) and 1963 invitation from Brandeis University in honor of Abramovitz

Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office Académie d'Architecture, 1976-1979 (4 letters)

Acme Laboratory Equipment Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office ács, Gábor and Anikó, 1956 (1 letter)

Adelaide Festival of Arts, 1959 (1 letter)

Adler, Bruno, 1937 (1 letter) ágasvári, Vilmos, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Agel, Jerome B. (Agel & Friend), 1959 (1 letter): includes press release

Agostini, Edward (Becker and Becker Associates), 1969 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Airflow Refrigeration, 1954: (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 1947 (1 letter)

Albers, Josef ("Juppy") and Anni (Black Mountain College), 1933-1958 (11 letters): a 1956 letter includes miscellaneous typescripts by Albers and clippings; a 1965 letter to the Phoenix Art Museum from William A. Leonard of the Contemporary Arts Center concerns an Albers exhibition and includes a list of works; a 1967 letter from Breuer to National Institute of Arts and Letters includes a typescript concerning Albers

Albert, Edouard (architect), 1956-1958 (2 letters)

Albright Art Gallery, 1959 (3 letters)

Alexander, H. J. W. (Architectural Association), 1957-1958 (4 letters)

Alpern, Robert, 1964 (letter from Breuer)

B. Altman & Company, 1951 (1 letter)

Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA), 1946-1964 (2 letters)

Aluminum Import Corporation, 1946 (2 letters)

Alvarez, Raúl J., 1968 (1 letter)

American Academy in Rome, 1947-1961 (4 letters): request recommendations for Frederic S. Coolidge, Arthur Myhrum, and Thomas B. Simmons

American Academy of Arts and Letters, 1965-1978 (10 letters): a letter 1967 is a nomination by Walter Gropius for Sigfried Giedion's honorary membership in American Academy of Arts and Letters and National Institute of Arts and Letters; see National Institute of Arts and Letters

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1977 (1 letter)

American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1946 (1 letter)

American Arbitration Association, 1960-1968 (52 letters)

American Church in Paris, 1966 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

American Council for Emigres in the Professions, Inc., undated: letter introduces Viola Kondor

American Craftsmen's Council (Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb), 1967 (1 letter)

American Designer's Institute, 1947 (convention schedule)

American Export and Isbrandtsen Lines, 1963 (1 letter)

American Federation of Arts, 1958-1967 (8 letters)

American Field Service, 1956 (1 ): letter from Breuer on behalf of Danielle Eyquem

American Fork & Hoe Company, 1944 (1 letter)

American Hungarian Studies Foundation (August J. Molnár), 1964-1968 (10 letters): a 1967 invitation is to George Washington Awards Dinner in honor of Breuer, Watson Kirkconnel, and Hans Selye

American Institute of Architects, 1946-1976 (45 letters): membership applications for Edward Larrabee Barnes, Landis Gores, John MacL. Johansen, George Sherman Lewis, A. McVoy McIntyre, Robert Hays Rosenberg, Bernard Rudofsky); a 1963 letter from Breuer's office concerns a Skyscraper Architecture survey team from Japan; a 1968 letter concerns the Comité Organizador de Los Juegos de la XIX Olimpiada

American Institute of Architects, College of Fellows, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Institute of Architects, Jury of Fellows, 1960 (3 letters): from Breuer

American Institute of Architects, Library Buildings Award Program, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Institute of Architects, New York Chapter, 1945-1963 (16 letters)

American Institute of Decorators (Richard F. Bach), 1956 (1 letter)

American Institute of Interior Design in Switzerland (Charles D. Gandy and Susan Zimmermann), 1977-1978 (2 letters)

American-Jewish Congress: see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI)

American Library Association, 1951-1968 (2 letters)

American Planning and Civic Association, undated: membership notice

American Press Institute, 1974-1975 (5 letters): from Breuer

American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corporation, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

American Shakespeare Festival, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Society for Church Architecture, 1965-1966 (4 letters)

American Society for Friendship with Switzerland, 1969 (1 letter)

American Society of Interior Decorators, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA), 1945-1947 (12 letters)

Anderson, Lawrence B., 1945-1965 (2 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

András, Ivánka, 1957 (1 letter)

Andrews, Robert, 1956 (1 letter)

Aoyagi, Nobuo, 1964 (1 letter)

Aoyagi, Tetsu, 1965 (1 letter)

Arbelaez, Carlos, 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer)

Architects & Engineers Institute, 1959 (1 letter)

Architects' Collaborative, 1946-1959 (3 letters): see McMillan, Louis and Peggy

Architectural Association, London, 1965-1969 (7 letters): see project file for UNESCO for correspondence with Edward J. Carter Architectural Design, 1960 (1 letter): from Ernesto Fuenmayor and Manuel Sayago of Centro Profesional del Este)

Architectural Forum, 1960 (1 letter): from Leonard J. Currie

Architectural Group, (W. D. Wilson), 1947 (1 letter)

Architectural League of New York, 1947-1975: (26 letters and minutes from 6 meetings): see Ketchum, Morris

Architectural Record, 1946-1959 (9 letters)

Architectural Students Association, 1958 (1 letter)

Architecture Formes Fonctions, 1971 (3 letters): includes a typescript "Design Research in Concrete" for July 1971 magazine

Architektur + Wohnwelt, 1975 (3 letters)

Argan, Giulio Carlo, 1955-1957 (6 letters)

Arizona, University of, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Arnold, Randolph, undated: illustrated Christmas card

Arp, Hans Jean, 1954-1959 (5 letters): a 1959 letter on Arp's behalf from Marguerite Hagenbach; a 1959 wedding announcement for

Arp and Hagenbach

Arseniev, Milko, 1975 (1 letter)

Art Circus: see Long Beach Art Association, Inc.

Art Directors Club, Inc., 1975 (5 letters)

Artek-Pascoe (Clifford Pascoe), 1941-1946 (2 letters)

Artigas, Josep Llorens (ceramist colleague of Joan Miró), undated and 1960-1963 (5 letters)

Arts Council of Great Britain, 1962 (4 letters): concern an

Alexander Calder sculpture

Art Squad, Inc. (Ernest Costa), 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Asfia, H. E. Dr. Safi (Iranian deputy prime minister), 1974 (1 telegram): from Breuer

Ashihara, Yoshinobu ("Yosh"), undated and 1954-1970 (26 letters): a 1955 letter encloses a photograph of Ashihara and a model of his project

Association of Hungarian Students in North America, undated and 1958 (4 letters)

Atelier International, Ltd., 1968 (2 phone messages)

Atkin, William Wilson (Silvermine Publishers), 1965 (1 letter)

Atlanta Central Library, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Atlantic Refining Company, Inc., 1956 (1 letter)

Atlas Tile & Marble Company, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Auchincloss, Lily and Douglas, undated and 1963 (5 letters)

Auckland University College, 1945 (2 letters): 1 letter from Walter Gropius

Aufricht, Gustave and Maria, 1955-1970 (4 letters)

Aujame, Roger and Edith (and María Feuyo McVitty), undated (1 letter)

Australian National Gallery, Canberra, 1975 (3 letters): from Breuer

Austrian Consulate General, 1951 (2 letters)

Austrian Institute and Mrs. Schlag, 1964 (invitation to reception)

Auzelle, Robert (architect), 1956 (1 letter): see Académie d'Architecture

Babarovic, Gretchen and John, undated and 1963 (2 letters)

Bacal, Jacob, 1967 (1 letter)

Bachem, Hans Peter (architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Baer, David C. (AIA), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Bak, Joseph, 1950 (1 letter)

Baker, James (Tower Development), 1981 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Baldes, Jeannette, 1948 (1 letter)

Baldwin, Benjamin, undated (2 letters)

Ballard, Robert F. R., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bard Civic Award Trust Fund: see City Club of New York, Albert S. Bard Civic Award Trust Fund

Bárdos, Tamés, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Barnes, Belva Jane ("B. J."), undated and 1956-1957 (4 letters)

Barnes, Edward Larrabee (architect), 1945-1955 (5 letters)

Barnett, Steven G., 1966 (1 letter)

Barroso, Nicolás Mariscal (VIII Congreso Panamericano de Arquitectos, México), 1952 (2 letters)

Barry, Gerald, 1951 (1 invitation): mentions Barry

Bartholdy & Klein, 1933 (1 letter)

Bartlett, Allan J., 1950 (1 letter): from Robert W. Gumbel

Bartolozzi, Goffredo (Vetro Italiano di Sicurezza, Milan [VIS]), 1959 (1 letter)

Bassetti, Fred (Bassetti & Morse, Architects), 1951 (2 letters)

Bauen + Wohnen, 1974-1975 (5 letters): from Breuer

Baughman, George F. (New York University), 1959 (1 letter)

Bauhaus-Archiv, Bibliothek und Schausammlung, 1972 (1 letter): to Knoll International

Bauhaus Archiv E. V., 1960 (1 letter)

Bayer, Herbert and Joella, undated and 1933-1966 (87 letters)

Beaux Arts Club, 1968 (1 letter)

Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, 1946-1947 (3 letters)

B.E.B. Consultants, 1982 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Bechtol, Ron (Lance Larcade & Bechtol), 1968-1976 (3 letters)

Beck, Martin (New York University), 1962-1964 (2 letters): from Hamilton Smith

Beckhard, Herbert and Ellie and Susan, undated and 1954-1980 (45 letters)

Bee, Anton, 1957 (1 letter)

Beekman, Rev. Gerardus, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

Begrow, Harold J., 1954 (3 letters)

Behar, Esther, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Belgiojoso, Lodovico (Lodovico B. Belgiojoso, Enrico Peressutti, Ernesto N. Rogers, architects), 1950 (1 letter)

Belluschi, Pietro (MIT School of Architecture and Planning), 1954-1968 (3 letters)

Bemis, Frances, 1954 (1 letter)

Bemo Shipping Company, 1954-1956 (2 letters)

Bender, Richard (Harvard University), 1952 (2 letters)

Benesch, Edward M. (Gomprecht & Benesch), 1955 (1 letter)

Benglia, Christine (architect; married architect Alistair Bevington), 1964 (1 letter)

Bennett, Richard M. (Loebl, Schlossman & Bennett), 1958 (1 letter)

Benton & Bowles, Inc., Advertising, 1955 (1 letter)

Beothy, E., undated (1 letter)

Bergen County Cut Stone Company, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bergen, Emiel, 1956 (1 letter)

Berger, Donald (North Dakota Agricultural College), 1953 (1 letter)

Berger, George, 1950 (1 letter)

Berger, Otti, undated and 1934-1937 (7 letters)

Berger, Sanford and Helen (architects), 1945 (1 letter): from

Breuer to László Moholy-Nagy and Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe introducing the Bergers

Berger, Stephen E., 1959 (1 letter)

Berizzi, Sergio, 1959 (4 letters): letters of introduction

Berko, Franz, 1946-1947 (5 letters): including one from László Moholy-Nagy

Berlin Interbau, (International Building Exhibition), 1957 (1 letter): from mayor of Berlin

Berndt, Marianne, 1933 (1 letter)

Berti, Vincent, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Better-Philadelphia Exhibition (Richard A. Protheroe, Harry

B. Nason, Hugh B. Sutherland), 1947 (1 letter)

Bevington, Alistair M., 1959 (1 letter): includes résumé

Bevington, Mariette (stained-glass designer), 1967 (1 letter): to Herbert Beckhart

Bharadwaj, Ajaya, 1955 (2 letters)

Biasini, E. J. (French prime minister), 1972 (1 letter)

Biddle, Mrs. Francis, 1962-1968 (3 letters): includes a funeral announcement for her husband)

Biddle, George, 1965 (4 letters): 3 from Breuer

Bier, Justus (University of Louisville), 1938 (3 letters)

Bigeleisen, Jacob (University of Rochester), 1970 (1 letter) Ronald S. Biggins and Associates, 1958 (1 letter)

Bijenkorfbeheer N.V., Amsterdam, 1967-1974 (2 letters): from Breuer

Bill, Alexander H., Jr., undated (1 calling card)

Blake, Peter (architect), undated and 1950-1976 (41 letters): a 1958 letter from Breuer is illustrated with a hand-drawn map by

Blake of Easthampton property

Blanton, John A., 1951 (1 letter)

Blaustein, Morton K., 1963-1965 (2 letters)

Bliss, Douglas P. (Glasgow School of Art), 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Bloeme, Sidney, 1963 (1 memorandum): from James S. Plaut

Blum, Kurt (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bode, Paul (architect), 1956 (1 letter)

Bodri, Ferenc, 1967-1975 (3 letters): 2 1975 letters from Breuer

Boehringer Ingelheim, Ltd., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Bogner, Walter, 1938-1960 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Boissonnas, Eric and Sylvie, undated and 1960-1978 (20 letters)

Bollingen Foundation, 1964 (1 invitation): to reception in honor of Sigfried Giedion

Bonaparte, Mrs. Robert L., 1955 (1 letter)

Bonomi, Maria, undated and 1958 (2 letters)

Bookman, Mrs. John, 1964 (1 letter)

Borbíró, Virgil (Hungarian architect), 1945-1956 (2 letters): includes Borbíró's obituary

Borglum, Paul, 1950 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Born, Karl, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Borsódy, István ("Stephen"; historian; Hungarian Legation) and Zsóka, 1946-1965 (5 letters): 1951 letter includes a biographical sketch of Borsódy by Aladár Szegedy-Maszák

Bortfeldt, Hermann (Büro Willy Brandt), 1963 (1 letter)

Bosch, Robert, 1934 (2 letters)

Bosserman, Joseph Norwood, 1963-1967 (2 letters)

Bosshard, J., 1956 (1 letter)

Boston Architectural Center, 1968 (1 letter)

Boston Redevelopment Authority, 1970 (1 letter)

Boston Society of Architects, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer to John R. Abbott

Botond, Stephen G. ("Pista"; architect), 1958-1960 (2 letters): includes wedding announcement for Botond and Patricia Potter Luce

Bouchet, Maxime, 1953 (5 letters)

Bourget, Inc., 1955 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Bower, John, 1954 (1 letter)

Bozzola, Vittorio, 1964 (2 letters)

Bradford, Carol (Mrs. Amory H. Bradford), 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer

Brandon-Jones, John, 1958 (1 letter)

Brandstätter, Elsbeth, 1936-1937 (2 letters)

Brassaï, Gyula Halász (Romanian photographer), undated (1 calling card): no signature

Peter Bratti Associates, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Bratti, Peter (A. Tozzini Tile Works, Inc.), 1958 (1 letter)

Braun, Wolfgang, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Braziller, George, 1966 (1 letter)

Bremer, Paul and Nina, 1975 (2 letters)

Breuer, Constance (née Leighton), 1947-1982 (22 letters): from Breuer and Breuer's office; a 1967 letter, 1967, from French filmmaker Gerard Calisti is routed from Robert Osborn; an invitation from M. Knoedler and Company concerns reception for Lina Kandinsky

Breuer, Francesca, undated and 1966-1973 (3 letters): includes a letter of recommendation from Tician Papachristou

Breuer, Hermina, 1950 (1 telegram): from Breuer

Brewer-Cantelmo Company, Inc., 1966 (3 letters): from Breuer's office

Brewer, Joseph, 1965 (1 letter)

Brewster, George W. W., Jr., undated and 1946 (2 letters)

Brey, David M. (architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Breydert, Katherine, 1946 (1 letter)

Brickel/Eppinger, Inc., 1963 (3 letters)

Brigham, Richard C., 1954 (1 letter)

Brion, Maud (secretary to Eric Cercler), 1966-1972 (10 letters)

Brissenden, Norine (Mrs. P. R. Brissenden), 1947 (1 letter)

British Chair Company, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Brodovitch, Alexey (Harper's Bazaar), 1954-1961 (16): 13 letters from Breuer's office

Broner, Gisela (wife of Erwin Broner, architect), undated (1 letter)

Brooklyn College Library, 1958 (1 letter)

Brooklyn Museum, 1944 (1 letter)

Brooks, J. H. (Putnam & Company), 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer

Brooks, Kenneth, 1968 (2 letters)

Brown, Elliott, 1951 (4 letters)

Brown, Graham, 1954 (1 letter)

Brown, Helen M., 1958 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Brown, Jane M. (Mrs. Elliott Brown), 1975 (1 letter): letter is illustrated with drawing of Alexander Calder mobile

Brown, Joseph, 1955 (1 letter): includes transcript of

Brown's lecture at Princeton University

Browne, Robert Bradford (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Brumwell, Marcus, 1944 (1 letter)

Brun, Jacques D. (architect), 1958 (1 letter)

Bryn Mawr School for Girls, 1981 (1 letter): from Betsy Prioleau

Bryson, Clayton J., 1950 (1 letter)

Budapest Muszaki Egyetem (István Benke), 1970 (1 letter)

W. S. Budworth and Son, Inc., 1963 (1 letter): from Charles H. Sawyer

Builders Publishing Company, 1954 (1 letter): to Rufus Stillman

Building Progress, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bujdosó, Ferenc, 1963 (2 letters)

Bulova, Arthur, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Burchard, Charles (architect), 1945-1960 (10 letters)

Burchard, John E., 1967-1971 (2 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Burkland, Howard (Shere Naven Corporation), 1951 (1 letter): from Stamo Papadaki

Burton, Véra, undated (1 letter)

Buyoucos, James V., 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer

Byrd, Dale, 1950-1968 (5 letters)

Cabinet Norbert Guerle, 1953-1954 (10 letters)

Caesar, Harry I. (Leslie Stillman's father, married to sculptor Doris Caesar), 1954-1955 (4 letters): 3 from Breuer's office

Calder, Alexander, 1938-1975 (12 letters): a 1947 letter is illustrated with a map; a 1975 letter contains a typescript about

Calder

Calico Museum of Textiles, India, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

California Council, AIA, 1960 (5 letters)

California, University of, Berkeley, 1957-1964 (3 letters)

Calisti, Gerard (French filmmaker): see Breuer, Constance

Canaday, John (New York Times), 1959 (1 letter): from Rufus Stillman

Canadian Architect, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Canavesi, Schifra, undated and 1935-1957 (8 letters)

Candela, Felix (Cubiertas ALA S.A.) and Dorothy, undated and 1956 (3 letters)

Caplan, Frank (Creative Playthings), 1950 (1 letter)

Cardinal Stritch College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1970 (1 letter)

Cardot, Vera (photographer), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Carmel, Moty, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Carpanelli, Franco, 1951 (1 letter)

Carpentier, Jacques H., 1960 (1 letter)

Carré, Louis, 1964 (1 letter and 1 picture postcard): postcard shows map to Maison Carré and house designed by Alvar Aalto

Carreras, Guillermo and Margarita, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Carson, Alice Morgan (Museum of Modern Art), undated and 1943 (3 letters)

Carstensen, William (Carstensen, Inc.), 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Carter, Edward J. ("Bobby"; librarian, UNESCO): see, Architectural Association, London; see Project File for UNESCO

Carter, Stephen Newhall, 1976 (1 letter)

Cassinello, F. (Instituto Tecnico de la Construcción y de Cemento), 1960 (1 letter)

Catalano, Eduardo Fernando, 1945-1968 (8 letters)

Catan-Rose Institute of Art, 1965 (invitation): to reception at Gracie Mansion

Cavazzuti, Ugo, 1969-1970 (2 letters)

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1975-1976 (3 letters): from Breuer's office

Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, 1947-1950 (2 letters): includes an invitation to the school's presentation of diplomas by Sir Kenneth Clark

Central State AIA Conference, Omaha, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Century Association, 1976 (1 letter)

Century Club, 1974-1976 (3 letters): 2 letters from Breuer's office

Century Lighting Company, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office concerning Torrington, Connecticut factory

Cepero, Carlos Celis (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Cercle d'études Architecturales, 1953 (1 letter)

Cercler, Eric: see Brion, Maud

Chase Manhattan Bank, 1955-1965 (5 letters): from Breuer's office

Chatfield, Ayla K. (architect), 1975 (2 letters)

Checkman, Louis (photographer), 1955 (1 letter)

Cheever, John, 1967 (1 letter)

Chelsea Association for Planning and Action, 1941 (1 letter)

Cheng, Tzu-tsai, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Chermayeff and Cutting, Architects and Industrial Designers, 1956 (2 letters)

Chermayeff, Ivan, 1957-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office; a 1957 letter concerns a 70th birthday greeting for Le Corbusier

Chermayeff, Serge (Erich Mendelsohn & Serge Chermayeff, Architects), 1936-1978 (10 letters)

Cherry, Ned, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Chiang, Helen and Arthur, 1950 (envelope only) and 1970 (1 letter)

Chicago Housing Authority, 1946 (2 letters)

Chien, Alan Shue Shih, 1969 (2 letters)

Children's Recreation Foundation, Inc., 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Chinoy, Rustam, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Churchill, Henry S. (Churchill-Fulmer Associates), 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ciampi, Mario J. (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Cidor, Ruth, 1971 (1 letter)

Citizens Committee for a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963 (1 letter): see also Van Doren, Mark

City Club of New York, 1963-1964 (3 letters)

City Club of New York, Albert S. Bard Civic Award Trust Fund, 1968 (6 letters)

Ciudad Universitaria de México, 1952 (1 invitation): to VIII Congreso Panamericano de Arquitectos

Clark, Donald and Dallas (Associated Seed Growers), 1954 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Clarke, Arundell, 1950 (1 letter)

Clergue, Lucien (photographer), 1966-1967 (5 letters)

Cleveland Museum of Art, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Cleveland Trust Company, 1970 (1 letter)

Clyne, Harry, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Cochran, Alexander S. (architect), 1950-1967 (4 letters)

Coderch, J. A. (architect), 1961 (1 greeting card): includes photograph of exhibition

C. Coggeshall Design, 1944 (3 letters)

Cohen, Ken, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Cold Spring Granite Company, 1960-1965 (11 letters): a 1964 letter has a design for a candle holder

Cole, Howard I. (Rutgers University), 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

Coleman, Albert, 1945 (1 letter)

Colen, Eszter and Bruce, 1963 (2 letters)

Colorado, University of, Boulder, Student Chapter of AIA, 1958 (1 letter)

Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Columbia University, 1964-1977 (6 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Comité Français de l'American Field Service, 1956 (1 letter)

Comité Organizador de Los Juegos de la XIX Olimpiada, 1968 (4 letters)

Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI) of the American-Jewish Congress, 1945 (8 letters)

Compagnie Française de Transports Internationaux, 1954 (1 letter)

Compton, W. Danforth, 1950 (1 letter)

Concha, Gonzales, 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer

Concrete Industry Board, Inc., 1969 (2 letters)

Condé Nast Publications, Inc., 1955 (1 letter)

Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM),

Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning, 1944-1956 (27 letters)

Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne, Mars Group (British branch of CIAM), 1946-1947 (5 letters)

Conklin, George W. (architect), 1956 (2 letters)

Connecticut Chapter of AIA, 1963 (2 letters)

Connecticut Public School Building Commission, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer

Connecticut Society of Architects (Norman L. Raymond), 1963 (1 letter)

Contemporary Arts Association, 1952 (2 letters)

Contemporary Arts Center, 1965 (3 letters): concerning Josef Albers exhibition

Contemporary Authors, 1963 (1 letter)

Contini, Paolo and Jeanne, 1968 (1 letter)

Contreras, Carlos (XVI Congreso Internacional de Planificacion y de la Habitación, México), 1938 (2 letters)

Conway, Harvi, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Cooke, Maymay (Mrs. Francis Cooke), 1947 (1 letter)

Coolidge, Frederic S. and Anne, 1947 (1 letter)

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Cooper Union, 1958 (2 letters)

Cooper, Wyatt Emory, undated (1 letter): mentions Eugene J. McCarthy

Corcoran, Kostelanetz, Gladstone & Lowell, 1959 (1 letter)

Cordos, Stephan, undated (1 letter)

Corkran, D. C. (Charles F. Orvis Company), 1944 (5 letters)

Cornigliano S.p.A. ("Società per Azioni"; limited company which installs exhibitions), 1958 (3 letters)

Corson, Richard A., 1950 (1 letter)

Coulson, Anthony J., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

County Roofing Company, 1957 (1 letter)

Crampton, Nancy (photographer), 1975 (1 letter)

Creighton, Thomas H., 1950 (1 letter): written with Katherine Morrow Ford

Crohn, Norma and Richard, 1968 (1 letter)

Croll, Jean, 1939 (1 letter)

Cromley, Don, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Crotin, 1934-1935 (5 letters)

Crowther, J. G. (author) and Fransiska, 1936 (2 letters)

Csernyei, Zsuszi, 1939 (1 letter)

Cuevas de Vera, Adela ("Tota"), 1933-1934 (7 letters)

Cunningham, Allen, 1957 (1 letter)

Currie, Leonard (architect), undated and 1944-1978 (29 letters): see Architectural Forum

F. B. Curry Company (Frank B. Curry), 1945 (3 letters)

Cushing, Tom, 1937 (3 letters)

Cutler Farm (Lily C. Johanson), 1951 (1 letter)

Cutler, Robert W., 1968 (1 letter)

Czike, Dr. Gyuláné, 1957 (3 letters)

Dach, Joseph, 1944 (1 letter)

Daidone, Anthony J., 1958 (1 letter)

Damora, Robert (photographer), 1955-1967 (3 letters)

D'Andrea Brothers, Inc., 1957 (1 letter)

Bernard Danenberg Galleries, 1974-1975 (3 letters): from Breuer

Danielsson, Lars (Swedish architect), 1956 (3 letters)

D'Arcy, Frank (architect), 1957 (1 letter)

Dauber, Deanna L., 1975 (2 letters)

Daurel, Paul (architect), 1970 (1 letter)

Davenport, Keith H., 1946 (1 letter)

Daves, L. Joan, 1951 (1 letter)

Davis, Arthur, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Davis, Brody, Chermayeff, Geismar, deHarak, Associates, 1969 (2 letters)

Davis, Columbus, 1946 (1 letter)

Davis, Paul (photographer), 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

de Bever, Leo J., 1958-1960 (2 letters)

de Bodard, Connie, 1956 (1 letter)

De Carli, Carlo (Politecnico Milano), 1968 (1 letter)

Decima Triennale di Milano, 1954 (1 letter)

Decker, H. Carlton (architect), 1968 (1 letter): concerns Interama

DeCoene, Pierre, 1966-1968 (2 letters)

Dedet, Dr. Jacques (and Mme. Georges Cexier, Mme. Pierre

Dedet, Mme. André Laurenti), undated (1 letter)

De Hausner, Mrs. Djin Lilli S., undated and 1935-1936 (11 letters)

Deimel, Klöckner, Koebel, 1959 (1 letter)

Del Buttero Enzo (Vetro Italiano di Sicurezza [VIS], Milan), 1959 (1 letter)

De Leu Dulles, Mrs. J., undated (1 letter)

Delft Student Debating Society "Vrije Studie," 1957-1958 (6 letters)

DeMars, Vernon (DeMars and Wells), 1967 (1 letter)

Democratic National Committee, 1960 (1 letter)

De Rivera, José, 1946 (1 letter)

Derome, Leon, 1953 (1 letter)

Deschamps, Julio, 1950 (1 letter): includes 4 photographs of a house under construction

design magazine, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Design Quarterly, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Design Research, 1965 (2 letters)

de Spirlet, André (Cie. Belge de Chemins de Fer et d'Enterprises), 1963 (1 letter)

Dévényi, Iván, undated (1 letter)

De Vries & Company, 1953 (1 letter)

de Waldner, C. (IBM, France), 1970 (1 letter)

Dewey [Thomas E. Dewey], Ballantine, Bushby, Palmer & Wood, 1955-1969 (5 letters)

de Zwart, J., 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

d'Harnoncourt, René, 1950-1951 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Diamant-Berger, Renée, 1954 (2 letters): from Evelyn Rocourt

Dicke, Hendrik Adolph (civil engineer), 1976 (1 death announcement)

Dickey, Thomas A., 1954 (1 letter)

Eugene Dietzgen Company, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Dodd, Betty, undated (1 letter)

Dodd, Mead & Company (Edward Dodd), 1949-1960 (33 letters)

Doerr, Harold J. (interior decorating), 1975 (1 letter)

Doherty, Neil (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Domela, Cesar (Dutch artist who worked at the Bauhaus), 1961 (2 letters)

Dominick & Dominick, 1936 (1 letter)

Domus magazine, 1947 (1 letter)

Dorner, Alexander (Brown University), 1947 (1 letter)

Drabkin, Murray (Kaler, Worsley, Daniel & Hollman), 1970-1978 (10 letters)

Dreier, Theodore and Barbara, 1956 (1 letter)

Drew, Jane B. (Fry, Drew, Drake & Lasdun), 1958 (1 letter)

Dreyer-Dufer, B., 1953 (1 letter)

Duane, Duane & Cahill, Architects (Franklin J. Duane), 1969 (1 letter)

Fred S. Dubin Associates, 1954-1958 (12 letters): 9 letters from Breuer's office

Dubsky, Caroline (Svoboda & Company), 1968 (1 letter)

Dufau, Pierre, 1963 (2 letters): from Breuer

Duhart, Emile and Raquel, undated (1 illustrated Christmas card)

Dunkel, E., 1934 (1 letter)

Dunn, Frederick, 1955 (1 letter): from Marvin Halverson concerning Commission on Architecture meeting

Dunning, James O., 1969 (1 letter)

DuPont, Henry B., 1958 (1 letter): from Rufus Stillman

Eastern Schokbeton Corporation, 1969 (1 letter)

Edwards, David J. (Georgia Institute of Technology), 1951-1968 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Egender, Karl, 1947 (1 letter)

Eggington, Geoff, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Eken, Andrew J. (Starrett Brothers and Eken, Inc.), 1952 (1 letter): from Sherley W. Morgan, Princeton University; see Project File for UNESCO

Eldredge, Joseph L., 1948 (1 letter)

Electric Arts Intermix, Inc., 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Elkington, Robert (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Elliott, Edward Proctor, 1945 (calling card)

Ellis, W. A., 1936 (1 letter)

Ellwood, Craig, 1966 (1 letter)

Elsbree, E., 1947 (1 letter)

Elsner, Werner, 1968 (1 letter)

Elte, Hans (School of Architecture, University of Toronto), 1950 (2 letters)

Elzas, A. (architect) and Hermine, 1956-1978 (18 letters)

Embru-Werken, 1950 (2 letters)

Emery, P., 1947 (1 letter)

Emslie, Murray Sims, 1954-1964 (20 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1951-1964 (3 letters)

Engel de Janosi, Karl, 1950 (1 letter)

English-Speaking Union, 1951 (1 invitation): to reception in honor of Gerald Barry

Entenza, John D. (Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts), 1968 (1 letter)

Epler, Robert E., 1966 (1 letter)

Escoffier, Pierre, 1963 (1 letter)

Escrito Trading Post, New Mexico, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

European Investment Bank, Luxembourg, 1974-1978 (5 letters): 3 letters from Breuer

Evans, T. Randall (Yorke Rosenberg Mardall, Architects), undated and 1947-1965 (3 letters)

Eyquem, Danielle, 1956 (3 letters)

Fairweather, W. Ross, 1958 (1 letter)

Farkas, Nicholas (Farkas & Barron, consulting engineers), 1955-1969 (3 letters)

Farnsworth, S. W. (Torrington Manufacturing Company), 1956 (1 letter)

Farris, Mary E. (Breuer's secretary), 1964-1968 (13 letters)

Faudon, M. J. (European Investment Bank, Luxembourg), 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer

Fédération Internationale du Film d'Art (FIFA), 1956 (1 letter)

Fehér, Nicolaus, 1966-1967 (4 letters)

Fejér, George (Selection Engineering Company, Ltd.), 1946-1947 (2 letters)

Ferguson, E. S., 1946 (1 letter)

Ferry, W. Hawkins, 1963 (1 letter)

Ficks Reed Furniture Company, 1951 (1 letter)

Fifth Avenue Association, Inc., 1968 (2 letters)

Finger, Sally L. (Mrs. W. L. Finger), 1950 (2 letters)

Finn, Herman L. (Abbe & Finn), 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer

Finn, Michael (from Breuer's office), 1972 (3 letters)

Finsler, Hans (photographer), 1936-1937 (3 letters)

Fintel, Nat, 1976 (1 letter)

Fiocchi, Annibale (architect), 1955 (1 letter)

Firma l.u.c. arnold, 1934 (1 letter)

Firmage, Margaret ("Peg"; Mrs. Charles Firmage; Breuer's secretary), 1947-1964 (48 letters)

First Hanover Corporation, 1967 (1 letter)

Fischer, Edward L., 1943 (1 letter)

Fischer, Eta, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Fischer, John, 1956-1957 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Fischer, Joseph (Hungarian architect), undated and 1923-1966 (17 letters)

Fischer, Margrit (Mrs. Edward L.; sculptor at Bauhaus), undated and 1934-1950 (5 letters)

Fitzgibbons, Frank, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Fitzhugh, Greene, 1946 (1 letter)

Fjödl, Fjeinrich, 1964 (1 letter)

Flansburgh, Earl F. (Earl F. Flansburgh and Associates), 1976 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Fletcher, Jean Bodman (architect), 1947 (1 letter)

Flick, Miriam Hilliard (formerly Miriam Flick White), 1950 (1 letter)

Flos, Merano, 1963 (1 letter)

Földes, Dr. István ("Pista"), 1933-1934 (7 letters)

Foote, Elliott and Caroline, 1960-1967 (4 letters)

Forbàt, Alfréd ("Fred"; Hungarian architect), 1938 (2 letters): see Congrès, Les Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM)

Forberg, Kurt, 1975 (1 letter)

Forbes, E. W., undated (1 letter)

Forbes, Marla, 1939 (1 letter)

Forbes, R. E. and Pauline, undated (1 letter)

Ford, Katherine Morrow (Mrs. James Ford), 1950-1951 (2 letters): 1950 letter written with Thomas H. Creighton

Fornells-Pla, Francisco, 1969 (1 letter)

Forrest, Robert E. (Princeton University), 1952 (2 letters)

Forum of Contemporary Arts, 1958 (1 letter)

Foundation for the Arts and Humanities, 1967 (1 letter)

Foundation for the Arts, Religion and Culture, 1963-1965 (4 letters)

Fox, John P. (Murray Hill Assn., Inc.), 1949-1957 (2 letters)

Foyle, Christina, 1947 (1 letter)

France: French Embassy, Washington, D.C. (François De Laboulaye, ambassador), 1978 (1 invitation): to presentation of Médaille d'Or to Breuer

Frank, Oswald, 1947 (1 letter)

Frank, Mrs. Robert J., 1940 (1 letter)

Frantz, Al (Edward Gottlieb & Associates), 1958 (2 letters)

Franzen, Ulrich ("Rickey"; architect), 1956-1968 (2 letters)

Fratelli Salvadori, 1964 (1 letter)

Frazer, Peter M., 1950 (1 letter)

Freck, Byron, 1945 (1 letter)

Freeman, Elizabeth E. (Wellfleet Real Estate), 1947 (1 letter)

Freeth, Evelyn (Royal West of England Academy), 1958 (2 letters)

Frey, Emil (Motorfahrzeuge), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Friedman, B. H. (Bob), 1970 (1 letter)

Friedrich, Clara, 1935 (1 letter)

Frost, Frederick G. (Frederick G. Frost Jr. & Associates, Architects), 1960 (1 letter)

Frost, Henry A. (Harvard University), 1947 (2 letters)

Fry, Louis Edwin (architect), 1945-1946 (3 letters)

Fry, Lynn W. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), 1951 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Fry, Maxwell, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Fuenmayor, Ernesto (Centro Profesional del Este), 1960 (3 letters)

Fulde, Philip, 1965 (1 telegram): from Breuer

Fürbeth, Albrecht, 1974 (1 letter)

Gabetti, Gianluigi, 1969 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gabo, Naum, 1938 (2 letters)

Gábor, László ("Laci"; graphic designer for Kaufmann), undated and 1938 (3 letters)

Gagarin, Andrew (Torrington Manufacturing Company) and Jamie, 1953-1975 (15 letters)

Galhidy, László, undated and 1960-1963 (4 letters)

Gambaro, E. James (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Gane, Crofton Endres, undated and 1945-1967 (25 letters)

Gantschi, Edith, 1934 (1 letter)

Gardella, Ignazio, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gardner-Medwin, R. J. (Liverpool School of Architecture), 1957-1959 (5 letters): see also Selwood, Christopher

Gargas, Klára, 1970 (3 letters)

Gastón, Miguel (Gastón y Dominguez, S.A.), 1950-1967 (6 letters): 1951 letter contains 2 floor plans and 7 photographs of Gastón's house

Gatje Papachristou & Smith, 1984-1985 (3 letters)

Gatje, Robert Frederick, undated and 1954-1982 (45 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Gautschi, Dr. Georg, 1936 (1 letter)

Gavina, Dino (furniture manufacturer), 1962-1976 (111 letters)

Geberta, Victor F., undated (1 letter)

Geisler, Howard, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gelb, Mr., 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Gelland, Carolyn (Breuer's secretary), 1972-1974 (8 letters)

Geller, Bert and Phyllis, 1963-1968 (2 letters)

General Electric Appliances, Inc., 1947 (1 letter)

General Electric Company, 1943-1950 (6 letters)

General Fireproofing Company, 1943-1946 (4 letters)

Georges, Alexandre (photographer), 1974-1976 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Geraghty, Margaret, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Gerbman, Joyce, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Giedion-Welcker, Sigfried and Carola, undated and 1932-1976 (62 letters): see Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM; Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning)

Girsberger, H., 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Glazier, Helen, 1946 (1 letter)

Gogolák, Ludwig, 1958 (1 letter)

Goldinger, Harry, 1946 (1 letter)

Goldings, Morris M. (Mahoney, McGrath, Atwood, Piper & Goldings), 1970 (1 letter)

Goldman, Paul (Plymold Corporation), 1945 (2 letters): from Breuer

Goldman Sokolow Copeland, 1984-1985 (3 letters)

Gömöri, Herman Iván, 1956-1957 (2 letters)

Goodman, Mrs. Alvin Malcolm, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer

Goodman, Charles, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Goodman, Percival, 1968 (1 letter)

B. F. Goodrich Company, 1965 (1 letter)

Goodwin, Philip L. (architect), 1947-1955 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Gores, Landis, 1947-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer

Gorlich Editore, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Gorn, Samuel G. (Gorn Brothers, Inc.), 1956 (1 letter)

Gottscho-Schleisner (photographer), 1955-1956 (2 letters): from Breuer

Goudsmit, Alfred and Gertie, 1963-1970 (2 letters)

Gould, Eleanor J. (Mrs. J. Howard Gould), 1966 (1 letter)

Graber, Rudolf (Wohnbedarf furniture store), undated and 1938-1969 (21 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Gramling, Hdikó, 1975 (1 letter)

Grand Coulee Dam Project, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer; see United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

Grant, Barbara, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Grayboff, Ira, 1955 (2 letters)

Green, Lynda, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Grefe, Richard (McDonald & Smart, Inc.), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Grieco, Vito (Grieco Bros., Inc.), 1958-1959 (3 letters)

Griffis, Nixon (Hemphill, Noyes & Company), 1946 (1 letter)

Griffith, J. Neal, undated (1 letter)

Grimball, Henry G. (Harvard University), 1950 (1 letter)

Gropius, Walter ("Pius") and Ise ("Pia"), undated and 1933-1969 (120 letters): see Harvard University, Graduate School of Design; Project File for UNESCO

Grosse Pointe Public Library, 1960 (1 letter)

Grossi, Olindo (Architectural League of New York), 1957 (4 letters): see Pratt Institute; see Project File for UNESCO

Grosswirth, M. (New York University, College of Engineering), 1958 (1 letter)

Gröte, Dr. Andreas and Laura, 1961-1967 (3 letters)

Gröte, Ludwig and Gertrud Maud, 1956-1967 (5 letters)

Groupe Espace, 1952-1954 (5 letters)

Gruber, Gerd, 1965-1967 (2 letters)

Gruber, Richard D. (Independent Oil Company of Connecticut, Inc.), 1970 (1 letter)

Gruzen, Barney Sumner, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gstrein, Kassian, 1936 (1 letter)

Guenther, Carl Frederic, 1958 (1 letter)

Guerrero, Pedro E. (photographer), 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1964 (1 letter): concerns the loan from Breuer of an Alexander Calder work

Guilford Leather Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gumbel, Robert W., 1950 (1 letter)

Gutheim, Polly (Mrs. Frederick A. Gutheim), 1946 (1 letter)

Haas, Robert (Ram Press), 1954-1957 (8 letters): from Breuer's office

Hächler, W. (architect), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hack, Lynda, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hackett, Gabriel D. (photographer), 1963 (1 letter)

Hackley Art Museum, 1977 (3 letters)

Hagenbach, Marguerite: see Arp, Hans Jean

Hagerty, Francis (Hagerty Company), 1945 (2 letters)

Hagerty, John, 1958 (1 letter)

Haggerty, Brian (Sacred Heart Seminary), 1964 (1 letter)

Hagmann, John S. (and Robert A. M. Stern), undated (1 letter)

Hagood, M. Lindsey (Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Architectural Speakers Committee), 1952 (3 letters)

Hahn, Alexander, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Halász, Dezso (International Union of Local Authorities), 1957-1959 (3 letters)

Halász, Ferenc, 1959 (2 letters)

Halborg, Rev. John E. (Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Advent), 1968 (1 letter)

Hall, John Hughes (Nardin & Radoczy), 1956-1957 (2 letters)

Halprin, Lawrence, 1966-1970 (2 letters)

Halverson, Marvin (National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA), 1955-1956 (4 letters)

Halvorson, Roy E., 1956-1971 (4 letters)

Hambuechen, Dr. Eva-Dorothee, 1937 (1 letter)

Hamer, R. D. (Aluminium Laboratories Ltd.), 1946 (1 letter)

Hammett, Ralph W., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hancy, L., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hansen, Thomas L. (University of Colorado, Boulder), 1956 (1 letter)

Hanson, B. (Mrs. John Hanson), 1955-1967 (3 letters)

Haraszty, Eszter, undated and 1956 (2 letters)

Harbert, Guido, 1950 (1 letter)

Hardoy, Jorge Ferrari (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Hardy, Holzmann, Pfeiffer (Christine Donovan), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Harkness, Elaine, 1960 (2 letters)

Harnischmacher, Paul and Marianne, undated and 1933-1964 (41 letters)

Harper's Bazaar, 1954-1955 (4 letters)

Harris, James L., 1946 (1 letter)

Harris, S. I. (Keasbey & Mattison Company), 1956 (1 letter)

Harrison, Wallace K. (architect) and Ellen, 1937-1956 (3 letters)

Hars, Anthony, 1964 (1 letter)

Hartgen, Vincent A. (University of Maine, Orono), 1956-1957 (4 letters)

Hartung, Herrn Dipl. Eng. (Staatshochbauamt Dusseldorf), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Harvard Club of New Canaan, Connecticut, 1951 (1 letter)

Harvard Club of New York City, 1946-1950 (6 letters)

Harvard University, Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, 1966-1970 (10 letters)

Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, 1938-1953 (49 letters)

Harvard University Society of Fellows, 1967-1970 (5 letters)

Harvard-Yenching Library, 1954 (1 letter)

Haskell, Douglas (architect; Architectural Forum), 1958 (1 letter)

Hassenpflug, Gustav (architect), undated and 1933-1955 (20 letters)

Hatje, Gerd (Verlag Gerd Hatje GMBH), 1955-1964 (111 letters): see Kaspar, Karl

Hauf, Harold D. (Edwards Street Laboratory, Yale University) and Dorothy, 1951-1954 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Haughwout, John L., 1950 (1 letter)

Havinden, Ashley, 1969 (2 letters)

Hayes, Mrs. Alfred Hayes, undated (2 letters)

Hayes, Bartlett H. (Addison Gallery of American Art), 1955 (2 letters)

Hayes, Peggy, 1963 (1 letter)

Hayes, Thom, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hayoz, Marcel, 1957 (2 letters)

Headquarters First Service Command, 1945 (1 letter)

Healy, Estelle, undated (1 letter)

Hebert, Elmer T., 1951-1974 (3 letters): from Breuer

Heckscher, August, undated and 1962-1970

Hedrich, E. (Hedrich-Blessing Photographers), 1967-1975 (2 letters)

Heinz, H. J. and Drue Maher, undated and 1954 (3 letters)

Heiser, Bruce, 1950 (1 invitation): for luncheon honoring Heiser

Helsel, Marjorie (M. Helsel Interiors), 1966 (1 letter)

Helseth, Glenn, undated (1 letter)

Henderson, Priscilla A. B., 1954 (1 letter)

Hendry, Charles E. ("Chick"; University of Tornoto), 1950 (2 letters): see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI) of the American Jewish Congress

Henin, Mme. S., 1956 (2 letters)

Henze, Wilfried, 1964 (1 letter)

Herbe, Paul (architect), 1963 (1 letter)

Herford, Julius G., 1945 (1 letter)

Herman, Harold M., undated (1 letter)

Hermanson, Ray T. (Trynor & Hermanson, Architects), 1957 (1 letter)

Herrera, Alberto Rodriguez (El Recreo, Centro Profesional del Este), 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Herrey, Hermann (architect), 1946-1947 (3 letters)

Herter, Susan and Chris, undated (1 letter)

Hertner, W. (architect), 1939 (1 letter)

Hertzell, Tage (Meningsblad for Unge Arkitekter), 1956 (1 letter)

Hervé, Lucien, 1960 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Herz, Alexandra, 1965-1967 (2 letters)

Hess, Orvan W., 1976 (1 letter)

Hester, James M. (New York University, Washington Square), 1963-1970 (2 letters)

Hetényi, George, 1954 (1 letter)

Heyer, Paul O., 1965-1970 (11 letters)

Heyman, Marla, undated (1 letter)

Heywood-Wakefield Company (Mr. Greenwood, Mr. Paul Posser), 1944 (6 letters)

Higgins, Ambrose S. (architect), 1947 (1 letter)

Hill, Albert Henry, 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Hill and Knowlton, Inc., 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hill, Henry and Heather, 1950-1964 (7 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Hirschfeld, Ludwig, undated and 1935-1963 (18 letters)

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, Jr., 1937-1938 (4 letters)

Hobart Manufacturing Company (KitchenAid Home Dishwasher Division), 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hockaday Associates, Inc., 1954 (2 letters)

Hödl, Heinrich, 1964 (1 letter)

Hoffman, Mildred, 1966 (1 letter)

Hoffman, Tom, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hoffmann, Alfred, 1938 (1 letter)

Hofmann, Hans (from Weimar), 1947 (1 letter)

Julius Hoffmann Verlag Stuttgart, 1955-1961 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Hoffmeyer, Ted (Marcel Breuer and Associates field office), 1963-1970 (3 letters)

Hogan, P. A., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Holden, Thomas S. (F. W. Dodge Corporation), 1954-1958 (3 letters)

Holland Shade Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Holzmann, Philipp, 1975-1977 (2 letters)

Hooper, Edith Ferry, undated and 1963 (2 letters)

Hooper, Elizabeth, 1969 (1 letter)

Hooykaas, J. A. (Nederlandse Natuursteen Importeurs), 1957 (1 letter)

Hopfe, Charles T. (Hop-Mac, Inc.), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Horizon, 1970 (1 letter)

Hosei University, 1954 (1 letter)

House & Garden -- , 1970 (1 letter)

House and Home magazine, 1954 (1 letter)

Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Department of, 1968 (1 invitation): to dedication

Houston, University of, Architectural Society, 1953-1955 (4 letters)

Edward F. Howard Company, 1956 (1 letter)

Howard, Herbert Seymour, 1946 (1 letter)

Howe, George (Yale University), 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer

Howland, Mrs. John, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hsin-Yieh Architects & Associates, undated (1 letter)

Hu, Kuang-Yu, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Huber, Karl, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hudnut, Joseph ("Vi"; Harvard University) and Claire, undated and 1946-1947 (3 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA); Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM), Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning; Harvard University, Graduate School of Design

Hug, Hattula Moholy-Nagy (daughter of László Moholy-Nagy), 1976 (1 letter)

Hughes, Ella C., 1937 (1 letter)

Hughes, Jennifer, 1964 (2 letters)

Hughes, K. E., undated (1 letter)

Hultberg, Hilary (Rudi Blesh's daughter ?), 1957 (3 letters)

Hungarian Alumni Association, undated (1 letter): includes a hand-drawn map, 8 photographs of Hungarian cityscapes, 4 photographs of city views, and a drawing of the facade of a building

Hunter, Louise, 1947 (1 letter)

Hurley, Jane C., 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hurwitz, Joe, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hutchhausen, Walther, 1937 (1 letter)

Hutchins, John Jay (Law Offices of S. G. Archibald), 1963-1969 (14 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Hutton: E. F. Hutton Company, 1946-1951 (7 letters)

Huygens, W., 1957 (1 letter)

Ichban [?], Hans ("Zero"), undated and 1939 (2 letters)

Ikuta, Tsutomu, 1951 (1 letter)

Illinois, University of, Chapter of AIA, 1959 (2 letters)

Illinois, University of, Urbana, 1957-1964 (4 letters)

Ilmanen, J. William, 1955-1956 (2 letters)

Immanuel, M., 1946 (2 letters)

India, ambassador from, 1965 (1 invitation): to Nehru

N.V. Induventa, 1935 (1 letter)

Ingrand, Max, undated (2 letters)

Institute der Schwestern, Baldegg, Switzerland, 1970-1975 (5 letters): 4 from Breuer

Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, 1970 (1 letter)

Institute of Contemporary Art, 1954-1956 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Institute of Contemporary Art, Department of Design in Industry, 1951 (3 notices of meetings)

Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1953-1959 (6 letters)

Institute of International Education, 1960-1961 (4 letters)

Instituto Internazionale di Arte Liturgica, 1970 (1 letter)

Interiors Incorporated, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Interiors International, 1963 (4 letters)

Interiors magazine, 1950 (1 letter)

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), 1963-1974 (4 letters): 2 from Breuer

International Business Machines (IBM) Deutschland, 1970 (1 letter)

International Congress for Engineering Education, 1947 (2 letters)

International Congress for Modern Architecture: see Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM)

International Contract Furnishings, Inc., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

International Design Conference, Aspen, Colorado, 1953-1955 (4 letters)

International Lighting Review, 1961 (1 letter)

International Rescue Committee, Inc., undated (1 letter)

Iowa State College, 1960 (1 letter): see Myers, John S.

Iran, empress of, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Irving & Casson/A. H. Davenport Company, 1945 (1 letter): see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI)

Irving, Michael H. (Irving and Jacob), undated and 1968-1971 (4 letters)

Isokon (Lawn Road) Limited, 1936-1966 (2 letters)

Istituto Italiano di Cultura, 1967 (1 letter)

Jackson, Huson (Plan-Tech Associates), 1945-1958 (3 letters)

Jacobs, Robert Allan (Kahn & Jacobs), 1958 (2 letters)

Jacobson, Egbert (Container Corporation of America), 1950 (1 letter)

Janis Gallery (Sidney Janis), 1955-1970 (2 letters): concerning Josef Albers exhibition

Japan Architect Company, Ltd., 1977 (2 letters)

Japan House Gallery, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Japan Society, Inc., 1964-1975 (3 letters)

Jaredat, Nizar and Ellen, 1946-1958 (4 letters)

Jaritz, András, 1934 (1 letter)

Jarrell, Katherine O., 1960 (2 letters)

Jefferson Foundation Medal in Architecture, 1968 (1 letter)

G. A. Jellicoe & Partners, Architects, undated (1 letter)

Georg Jensen, Inc., 1946-1947 (4 letters)

Jewish Community Center of Cleveland, 1965 (3 letters)

Jobco Incorporated, 1980 (1 letter): from Herbert Beckhard

Johansen, John MacL.("Jo") and Mary Ellen, undated and 1947-1970 (7 letters)

Johns Hopkins University, 1981 (2 letters)

Johnson, Dan Rhodes, 1965 (1 letter)

Johnson, Frances, 1950-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer

Johnson, Lyndon Baines, 1965 (1 invitation): to presidential inauguration

Johnson, Marian Willard: see Willard, Marian G.

Johnson, Philip (architect), 1945-1948 (10 letters): 4 letters from Breuer: see Project File for UNESCO

Johnson, Reid B., 1964 (1 letter)

Johnstone, William (Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center), 1949 (1 letter)

Joly, Pierre (photographer), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Jomain, Pierre, 1960 (1 letter)

Jones, Adolph (U.S. Embassy, The Hague), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Jones, Cranston and Jean, 1958-1966 (10 letters)

Jones, Cyrus C., 1945 (1 letter): from Breuer

Jones, Douglas (University of Bristol, U.K.), 1967 (1 letter)

Jones, Noel W. (district engineer, OCS), 1968 (1 letter)

Jones, Paul K. (mayor of Shaker Heights, Ohio), 1970 (1 letter)

Jones, Theodore S. (Institute of Contemporary Art), 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Joraschek, Josef (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Jordi, Beat, 1970-1976 (13 letters): 12 from Breuer

Jordy, William H. (Yale University), 1951 (2 letters)

Jossa, Mario, 1966-1976 (37 letters): 28 from Breuer

Joyce, Nora, 1934 (1 letter)

Junyer, Joan [?]1961 (1 letter)

Kacmarcik, Frank, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Kaffka, Péter (C. E. Pratt & Péter Kaffka, Architects), 1950 (1 letter)

Kahlen, Wolfgang, 1965 (1 letter)

Kahn, Hugo, 1968 (1 letter)

Kahn, Louis I. (Oscar Stonorov and Louis I. Kahn Associated Architects), 1945-1966 (5 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Kalmai, K., 1924 (1 letter)

Kálmán, Timon, 1967 (2 letters)

Kalnay, Ferenc, 1938 (1 letter)

Kamer, Henri A. (Kamer, Inc.), 1964-1966 (2 letters)

Kamphoefner, Henry L. (School of Design, North Carolina State College), 1951-1954 (6 letters)

Kandinsky, Lina, 1969-1976 (mentioned in 2 letters from Constance Breuer)

Kane, Ervin (Viewtone Television), 1946 (2 letters)

Kaneko, Masanori (Kagawa Prefectural Government, Japan), 1970 (1 letter)

Kann, Henry Robert, 1951 (1 letter)

Karajabey, Ayla, 1966 (telegram from Breuer)

Karlock, Michael (Benton & Bowles), 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Karsten, Thomas and Marilyn (American Trading Company), 1963-1975 (8 letters)

Kaspar, Karl (Verlag Gerd Hatje GMBH), 1955 (2 letters)

Kass, Gertrud [?], 1939 (1 letter)

Katsuyama, S., undated (1 letter)

Kaufman, Stanley Lloyd, 1950 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Kaufmann, Edgar J. (Kaufmann Department Store), 1954-1963 (2 letters)

Kazi, Abdul-Rassak, 1966 (2 letters)

Kazin, Alfred, 1971 (1 letter)

W. R. Keating & Company, 1962 (1 letter): concerns shipment of Alexander Calder sculpture

Keller, Dieter, 1965 (2 letters)

Kelly, John Terence (architect), 1964 (1 letter)

Kelly, Virginia Whitmore, 1949 (1 letter)

Kennedy, Edith (Robert Woods Kennedy's mother), 1939 (1 letter)

Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 1961-1963 (3 letters): from the White House

Kennedy, Robert Woods (first architect in Gropius-Breuer office, Cambridge, Massachusetts), undated and 1950 (3 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Kennerly, Albert (Kennerly Construction Company, Inc.), 1947 (1 letter)

Keogh, Eugene J. (Halpin, Keogh & St. John), 1970 (1 letter)

Kepes, György (architect) and Juliet, undated and 1924-1978 (29 letters)

Kertész, André, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Kertész, Gyula, 1938 (1 letter)

Kessler-Gallacher & Burton, Seagram-Distillers Corporation, 1954-1963 (5 letters)

Ketchum, Morris (Ketchum, Gina & Sharp, Architects), 1957-1963 (25 letters)

Ketchum, Phillips (Ketchum Building Corporation), 1967 (4 letters)

Keyser, William, 1964 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kida, Miho, 1975 (2 letters)

Kiley, Dan, 1955 (1 letter)

Kilham, Walter H. (R. B. O'Connor and W. H. Kilham, Architects), 1951-1960 (2 letters)

Kimura, Akira, 1965 (1 letter): includes photograph of family E. & F. King & Company, 1946 (2 letters)

King, Helen (William Morrow & Company, Inc., Publishers), 1951 (1 letter)

Kipnis, Leonid (Leonid Kipnis Gallery), 1954 (1 letter)

Kirkconnell, Watson, 1967 (1 invitation): to George Washington Awards Dinner in honor of Breuer, Kirkconnell, and Hans Selye

Kistler, Daniel, undated and 1964 (2 letters)

Kivett & Myers & McCallum (Architects - Engineers), undated (1 letter)

Kleyer, Bertel and Erwin Kleyer, 1946-1954 (10 letters)

Klöckner (Deimel, Klöckner, Koebel), 1959 (1 letter)

Kniffin, Ogden ("Nif"; inventor of Colorforms) and Kitty, 1950-1960 (5 letters): 3 from Breuer

Knoll, Hans G. and Florence (H. G. Knoll Associates, Inc.), undated and 1945-1961 (12 letters); see Project File for UNESCO

Knoll International, Inc., 1971-1977 (7 letters): see Vidal, Yves

Knox, Sanka (New York Times), 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kobler, John (Saturday Evening Post), 1959 (1 letter)

Koch, Alexander, 1948-1961 (2 letters)

Koerfer, Jacques and Christina, undated and 1964-1977 (18 letters)

Kolozsváry-Kiss, árpád, 1957 (2 letters)

Kondor, E. ("Pista"), 1937 (1 letter)

König, Dr. Heinrich, 1954-1959 (3 letters)

Konwiser, Inc., 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kootz, Samuel B. (Kootz Art Gallery), 1954-1956 (2 letters)

Koran, Spencer, 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer's office

Korn, Arthur (Architectural Association School of Architecture), 1947-1956 (2 letters)

Kornfeld, Albert, 1956 (1 letter)

Kortan, Enis (Turkish architect), 1956-1960 (3 letters)

Koudela, E. Hugi (Deeter Ritchey Sippel), 1968 (1 letter)

Koyama, Shin (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kósa, Zoltán, 1962 (1 letter)

Kozlowski, Jean Paul and Shirley, 1960-1972 (2 letters)

Kraemer, Friedrich Wilhelm (architect), 1955 (1 letter)

Kramer, Edwin R., 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Krausz, László, 1957-1968 (2 letters)

Krivátsky-Szüts, ádám (Hungarian architect), 1960 (1 letter)

Kri anac, Dr. Matko, 1974 (1 letter)

Ku, Danna Morison, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Kuenzle, Creed (Swiss architect), 1959 (1 letter)

Kuh, Katharine (Art Institute of Chicago), undated and 1951 (2 letters)

Kulkarni, Ashok, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Keith R. Kunhardt Associates, Inc., 1966 (1 letter)

Kunst Kabinett Klihm, Munich, 1956 (1 letter)

Kuwayama, A. (Kuwayama & Company, Inc.), 1945 (1 letter)

Laaff, George, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Laboratoires Sarget, 1970 (1 letter)

Lacey, Joseph (Eero Saarinen Associates), 1957 (2 letters)

Ladd, Fred, 1965 (1 letter)

LaFarge, Bancel: see American Institute of Architects

La Joie Par Les Livres, 1964 (1 letter)

Lalonde, Gisele and Jean-Louis, undated and 1955 (2 letters)

Laminated Veneers, Inc., 1948 (2 letters)

Lamson, Jarvis (Functional Furniture, Inc.), 1947-1948 (9 letters): see Noyes, Eliot

Landram, Fred, 1947 (1 letter)

M. Landsberg Stationery Company, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Landsberg, William W., 1953-1959 (5 letters)

Lang, George E. (Restaurant & Waldorf Associates, Inc.), 1967-1968 (2 letters)

Lányi, George, 1939-1946 (2 letters)

L'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, 1954 (3 letters)

La Rinascente Compasso d'Oro, 1955-1965 (43 letters)

Larson, Else M. (Mrs. Arthur W. Larson), 1963 (2 letters)

Laseau, Paul, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

László, Carl, 1964 (1 letter)

Lauck, Peter (Morton Sundour Company, Inc.), 1950 (1 letter)

Lauper, Peter (Fraser's), 1955 (1 letter)

Laurenti, André, 1959-1968 (8 letters)

Lautman, Robert C. (photographer), 1973 (1 letter): from Herbert Beckhard

La Verne Originals, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Lavigueur, Gilles (architect), 1967 (1 letter): includes 2 photographs of a chair

Lawrence, John W. (Tulane University), 1953 (1 letter)

Le Corbusier, 1957 (1 letter): from Walter Gropius to friends concerning Le Corbusier's 70th birthday; see also Project File for UNESCO

Lee, Duk, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Lee, Richard C. (mayor of New Haven), 1964 (1 letter): from Breuer

Al Paul Lefton Company, Inc., Advertising, 1949-1950 (2 letters)

Lehigh Furniture Corporation, 1951 (1 letter)

Leibowitz, Matthew, 1946 (1 letter)

Leight, Lillian, 1972 (1 letter)

Leighton, O. S., 1946-1951 (11 letters)

Lemm, H. J. , undated (1 letter)

Lennon, Jacques E., 1975 (1 letter)

Leontieff, Wassily, 1947 (1 letter)

Lercaro, His Eminence Jacques Cardinal, 1969-1970 (2 letters)

Lescaze, William (architect), 1954 (1 letter)

Lever, Lance, 1966 (1 letter)

Levin, Arnold B., 1954 (1 letter)

Levine, Leon, 1971 (1 letter)

Lévy, Vilmos (Hungarian sculptor), undated and 1938 (2 letters)

Lewin, Kurt and G., 1944-1947 (4 letters)

Lewis, George Sherman (architect), 1946-1954 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Li, Ying, 1947 (1 letter)

Liberman, Tatiana and Alexander, 1969 (1 invitation): for cocktails with Helen Frankenthaler Librairie d'Art Ancien et Moderne, 1962-1963 (2 letters)

Librairie Ernest Flammarion, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Lili, S. Braun, 1936-1939 (8 letters)

Lilinthal, Benjamin, 1956 (1 letter)

Limbach, Scott (Limbach Company), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Lincoln Warehouse Corporation, 1951 (1 letter)

Lindsay, John V. (mayor of New York) and Mary, 1967-1969 (5 letters)

L'Industria Italiana del Cemento, 1975 (2 letters)

Linke, Siegfried, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Lionni, Leonardo and Nora, 1962 (1 letter): see also International Design Conference, Aspen

Littke, George, 1950 (1 letter)

Liverant, Mrs. M. J., 1960 (1 letter)

Lloyd, Eleanor B. (Mrs. H. Gates Lloyd), 1959 (1 letter)

Lloyd, Miss M. E., 1939 (1 letter)

Lobell, Mimi, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

L'Oeil, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Lohse, Richard P. (editor, Bauen + Wohnen), 1950 (1 letter)

Lombard, M. A. (M. A. Lombard & Son, Company, General Contractors), 1966 (1 letter)

Long Beach Art Association, Inc., 1954 (1 letter)

Longmans, Green & Company, Ltd., 1958 (1 letter)

Lortz, R., 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Louisiana State University, Department of Architecture, 1964 (1 letter)

Lubroth, I. (Lubroth y Henriquez, Estudio de Arquitectura), 1975 (1 letter)

Ludolf, H. G., 1933-1934 (2 letters)

Lundy, Victor A., 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Lunning, Just, 1956 (1 letter)

Lurie, H. Lee, 1946-1947 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Lutz, Pierre, 1961-1968 (2 letters): from Breuer Lydakis, George (Precision Metal Model Corporation), 1950-1955 (2 letters)

Lydon, Ken, 1972 (1 letter)

Lyles, Bissett, Carlisle & Wolff, 1955 (2 letters)

Lyman, Bill, 1946 (3 letters)

Lyn, Robert J., 1951 (2 letters)

Lyndon, Maynard (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Maas, Carl ("Happy"/"Hap"; editor, House Beautiful), 1937-1946 (6 letters)

Maas, Walter, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Macomber, George A. (Cambridge Trust Company), 1947 (2 letters)

Madison, Bob, 1951 (1 letter)

I. Magnin, San Francisco, 1961 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Magyar Album, 1956 (1 letter)

Magyar épitomuvészek Szövetsége magazine, 1956-1977 (4 letters)

Maki, Fumihiko (Harvard University), 1963 (1 letter) George E. Mallison Importing Company, 1950-1955 (2 letters)

Manders, Dave, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Mandl, Zoltán, 1939 (1 letter)

Manfred, Ernest F., 1966 (1 letter)

Mang, Karl (architect), 1967 (1 letter)

Manitoba, University of, Students' Architectural Society, 1953 (1 letter)

Mantel, H. J., 1951 (1 letter)

Manton, Mr. and Mrs. John, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Marbleloid, Inc., 1946 (1 letter)

Marine-Air-Research Corporation, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Maroy, Jean-Paul, 1981 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje William L. Marshall, Ltd., 1944-1947 (8 letters)

Marson, Bernard A. (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Marston, Natalie (Institute of Contemporary Art), 1951 (1 letter)

Martens, Michel (Hedendaagse Kerkelijke Kunst), 1956-1957 (2 letters)

Martignetti, Antonio, 1956 (1 letter)

Martin, J. L. (architect), 1938 (1 letter)

Martin, Leslie and Sadie, undated and 1954 (3 letters)

Mary College and the Annunciation Priory, 1963-1976 (6 letters)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Art Committee, 1968 (1 letter)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Office of the President, 1961-1965 (2 letters)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Planning, 1958-1960 (4 letters)

Massachusetts, University of, Amherst, 1968 (1 letter)

Massenot, J. P. (éditions Techniques), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office Master, Dipak C. (Master Sathe and Kothari, Architects), 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Mathews, Joseph F., 1956 (1 letter)

Maucher, Helmut, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Maurer, Laurie, undated (3 letters)

Mauser Kommandit-Gesellschaft, 1966 (1 letter)

Mayekawa, Kunio, 1963 (1 letter)

McClean-Smith, Betty, 1940 (1 letter)

McComb, Peter K. and Karen, 1954-1956 (4 letters)

McGarry, Ann M., 1947 (1 letter)

McGill University, Montreal, 1967 (1 letter)

McGlynn Associates, Inc., 1956 (1 letter)

McGrath, Raymond (Office of Public Works, Dublin, Ireland), 1937-1969 (9 letters)

McGraw-Hill Publications, 1967 (1 letter)

McGuinness, William J. (Pratt Institute), 1951 (1 letter)

McIntyre, A. McVoy, 1950-1951 (2 letters)

McLaughlin, Peter, 1959 (1 letter)

McMillan, Louis and Peggy (Architects' Collaborative), 1945-1946 (2 letters)

McVitty, John D., 1946 (1 letter)

John O. Meadows Associates, Ltd., 1984-1985 (2 letters)

Medical Economics, 1960 (1 letter)

Meier, Richard Alan, undated and 1957-1967 (5 letters)

Meldrum, Andrew, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Meller, Herbert, 1969-1970 (4 letters)

Mellon, Mary, 1938 (1 letter)

Meng, John J. (Hunter College), 1963 (1 letter)

Menken, Julian (Julian Menken and Associates), 1964 (1 letter)

Merit Studios, Inc., 1965 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Merle, André (André Merle Associates, Architectural Engineers), 1946 (1 letter)

Merrill and Holmbren, Architects, 1954 (1 letter): concerns Campbell Building Company

Merrill, Ruth P., 1950-1964 (2 letters)

Metropolitan Milwaukee War Memorial, Inc., 1945 (4 letters): 1 to Walter Gropius

Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1944-1975 (8 letters)

Metropolitan Structures, Inc., 1974 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Metropolitan Washington Board of Trade, 1969 (2 letters)

Meunier, John, 1957 (1 letter)

México, Consulado Honorario de, 1938 (2 letters)

Meyer-Bohe, Walter, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Michaëlis, Lorenz S. (Swiss doctor), undated (1 letter)

Michaelis-Lenolt, Ilse, 1937 (1 letter)

Michaud, Marcel (Stylclair), 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Michel, John (General American Transportation Corporation), 1947-1948 (2 letters)

Michelson, Val (architect), 1970 (1 letter)

Michigan, University of, Ann Arbor, 1957-1963 (19 letters)

Middelhauve, Dr. F. G., 1963 (1 letter)

Mies Van der Rohe, Ludwig, 1945 (1 letter): from Breuer introducing Sanford L. and Helen Berger, architects

Mihályfy, Károlyné, 1966 (1 letter)

Millar, L. R., 1935 (1 letter)

Millard, Charles W., 1957 (1 letter)

Miller Company, 1945-1947 (2 letters)

Miller, Flora W. (Mrs. G. MacCulloch Miller), undated (1 letter)

Miller, H. Wisner, 1968-1969 (2 letters)

Herman Miller Furniture Company, 1951-1954 (4 letters): from Breuer

Miller, Rev. John (St. Charles Seminary), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Miller, Richard J., 1955 (1 letter)

Miller, Steve, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Milliken, W. H. (Binney & Smith Company), 1951 (1 letter)

Mills, Mrs. Edward E., 1954 (1 letter): from William W. Landsberg

Mills, Willis N. (Sherwood, Mills and Smith, Architects), 1960-1969 (2 letters)

Ministre d'état Chargé des Affaires Culturelles, 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer

Minnesota Society of Architects, 1958 (1 letter)

Minnesota, State of, Board of Registration, 1954 (2 letters)

Minnesota, University of, 1953 (1 letter)

Miró, Joan, 1959-1963 (2 letters): 1 from Breuer

Mitchell and Ritchey, 1947 (2 letters)

Mitchell, Mary, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Miya & Company, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Modern Industry, 1947 (1 letter)

Modern Master Tapestries, Inc., 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer's office

Moffett, Toby, 1974 (1 letter)

Moholy, Lucia, 1957-1958 (5 letters)

Moholy-Nagy, László ("Lakci") and Sibyl, 1934-1955 (40 letters): includes a 1946 exhibition catalog for a Walter Gropius exhibition at the School of Design, Chicago; see also Hug, Hattula Moholy-Nagy

Moldcast Products, Inc., 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Molitor, Joseph W. (photographer), 1955-1975 (5 letters): 4 from Breuer

Molnár, Farkas (Hungarian architect), undated and 1933-1940 (25 letters)

Mongan, Agnes, 1938 (1 letter)

Montague, Harvey, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Montgomery, Elizabeth (Mrs. Wilmot), 1950 (1 letter)

Moore, Henry, 1946-1962 (13 letters): 6 from Breuer

Moore, Joe A., 1945 (2 letters)

Moore, Paul S. (architect), 1966-1967 (3 letters)

Morassutti, Mangiarotti, 1961 (1 letter)

Moretti, Bruno, 1936 (1 letter)

Morgan, Alice, 1939 (1 letter)

Morgan, Sherley W. (Princeton University), 1952 (3 letters)

Móricz, Miklós, 1947 (1 letter)

Morrell, Mrs. Ben, 1965 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Sydney Morrell & Company, Inc., 1973-1976 (4 letters)

Morris, Walter (Fuller & Smith & Ross, Inc.), 1950 (1 letter)

Morrow, Margot, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Mory, Bob, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Moschette, Angela, 1950 (1 letter)

Motherwell, Robert, 1968 (1 letter)

Muguruza Otaño, José María (architect), 1935-1967 (3 letters)

Mulford, Edwin H., 1966 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Müller-Rehm, Klaus (architect), 1951 (1 letter)

Mundipharma GmbH, Frankfurt, 1975-1976 (4 letters)

Eduard Munz & Company, 1954-1959 (3 letters)

Murray, J. A. (University of Toronto School of Architecture), 1947-1956 (3 letters)

Murrow, Mrs. Edward R., 1961 (1 letter)

Musée des Arts Décoratifs, 1969 (2 letters)

Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro, 1954 (1 letter)

Museu de Arte Moderna do São Paulo, 1956 (1 letter concerning IV Bienal de S. Paulo)

Museum of Contemporary Crafts, 1967 (7 letters)

Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1941-1976 (49 letters)

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, 1967 (3 letters)

Museum of the City of New York, 1959 (2 letters)

Muskat, Irving E., 1968 (2 letters)

Mutsu, Masako, 1964-1965 (2 letters): from Breuer

Myers, John S. and Shirlee, 1955-1959 (4 letters)

Myers, Ralph E., 1958 (2 letters)

Myers, Robert L., 1950 (1 letter)

Nadeau, Eleanor Saxe, 1950 (1 letter)

Nader, Fouzieh, 1972 (2 letters)

Nagare, Masayuki, 1963-1965 (6 letters): 5 letters from Breuer

Nagel, Chester (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Nagy Iván, Dr. Vitéz (Ministry Secretary), undated (1 letter)

Najibullah, Yousof, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Napier, Frieda (Mrs. Ian Napier), undated and 1937 (7 letters)

Nathan, Carl H. (Suncraft), 1945 (1 letter)

National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, undated (1 letter)

National Citizens for Johnson and Humphrey, 1964 (1 letter)

National Committee of Arts, Letters and Sciences for John F. Kennedy for President, 1960 (2 letters)

National Concrete Masonry Association, 1958-1959 (7 letters)

National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Architects' Committee, 1944-1945 (13 letters)

National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Building Industry Committee, 1946 (6 letters)

National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, 1946-1959 (5 letters): request recommendations for Jean Bodman Fletcher, I. M. Pei, and Richard G. Stein

National Council of Churches, 1955 (1 letter)

National Council on Schoolhouse Construction, 1951 (1 letter)

National Institute of Arts and Letters, 1965-1968 (47 letters): 1967 letter from Breuer includes typescripts concerning Josef Albers and Constantino Nivola; 1968 encloses a letter from Philip Johnson; see American Academy of Arts and Letters National Society of Interior Designers, Inc., 1958 (1 letter) National Terrazzo & Mosaic Association, 1955 (1 letter from Murray S. Emslie)

National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Nedberg, Björn, 1951 (1 letter)

Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Fundatie, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Neighbour, Keith, 1955 (1 letter)

Neiman Marcus, Dallas, Texas, 1961 (1 letter)

Nelson, George (architect), undated and 1958 (2 letters)

Nemeny, George (architect), 1945 (2 letters): from Breuer

Nervi, Mario (son of Pier Luigi Nervi), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Nervi, Pier Luigi, undated and 1960-1978 (5 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Neski, Joe and Barbara, 1957 (1 letter)

Neski, Julian (architect), 1967-1970 (2 letters)

Neufert, Ernst, 1946 (1 letter)

Neumann, J. B., 1950 (1 card): sent jointly with Elsa Schmid

Neumann, Lena, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Neumann, Vera (Scarves by Vera), 1970 (1 letter)

Nevendorff, Peter (construction supervisor for Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Museum of the 20th Century), 1967 (1 office message)

Newark Museum, 1954-1955 (5 letters)

New Canaan Advertiser, 1974 (1 letter)

New Canaan Committee for Shakespearean Festival, undated (1 invitation): from Francis A. Sunderland to meet Sir Cedric and Lady Hardwicke

New Canaan Community Nursery School, Inc., 1955 (1 letter)

New Canaan Country School, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

New Haven Festival of Arts, Inc., 1959 (4 letters)

New Hungarian Quarterly, 1967 (1 letter)

Newman, Robert B. (Bolt Beranek and Newman), 1951 (1 letter)

Newport, Charles W. (R. S. Noonan, Inc.), 1945 (2 letters)

Newsome, Carroll V. (Prentice-Hall, Inc.), 1962 (1 letter)

Newsweek, 1955 (1 letter)

New York Association of Consulting Engineers, Inc., 1970 (1 letter)

New York Division of Housing and Community Renewal, 1964 (1 letter)

New Yorker, 1967-1975 (3 letters)

New York Institute of Technology AIA Chapter, 1976 (1 letter)

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company, 1951-1963 (6 letters)

New York Public Library, 1966 (1 letter)

New York State Council on Architecture, 1975 (1 letter)

New York World's Fair 1964-1965, 1964 (1 invitation): for cocktails at Pavilion of Spain

Nicholson, Christopher (architect), 1946 (2 letters)

Nicholson's Sports Apparel, 1945 (1 letter)

Nivola, Constantine, 1966 (1 letter): from Breuer

Noever, Peter (Svoboda and Company), 1958-1968 (4 letters)

Noirot, Genevieve, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Nolen, James A., 1970 (1 letter)

Nolen-Swinburne and Associates, 1970 (1 letter): from Herbert Beckhard concerning Department of Housing and Urban Development

Nordmann, Christian, 1934 (1 letter)

North Dakota Agriculture College, AIA, 1959 (1 letter)

North Dakota State College, 1960 (2 letters)

Northey, Ned H., 1956 (1 letter)

Norton, Clifford, undated (1 letter)

Norton, Noël E. ("Peter"; Lady Clifford Norton), undated and 1933-1965 (36 letters)

Norweb, Emery May (Mrs. R. Henry Norweb), 1970 (1 letter)

Noyes, Eliot Fette (architect), undated and 1946-1974 (13 letters)

N.V. Ingenieurs - Bureau Voor Bouwnijverheid, 1960 (2 letters)

Ochs, Fritz, 1950 (1 letter)

O'Connor, Vincent A. G., 1963 (5 letters)

Oehler, Erma L. (Fuller & Smith & Ross, Inc., Advertising), 1947 (3 letters)

Oestreicher, W. L., 1947 (1 letter)

Ohye, Hiroshi, 1954 (1 letter): of introduction from Hyoe Ouchi

Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1950 (1 letter)

Oklahoma, University of, School of Architecture, 1966 (2 letters)

Okudaira, Kozo, 1954-1955 (6 letters)

Olgyay, Aladár (Hungarian architect; twin brother Viktor Olgyay) and Elizabeth, undated and 1939-1960 (12 letters)

Olivetti, Adriano, 1956 (1 letter)

Olivetti, Dino, 1963 (1 letter)

Olivetti, Roberto, 1970 (1 letter)

Olsen, Don and Helen, 1947 (1 letter)

Olsen, Ralph, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Omega Marble, 1965 (1 letter)

O'Neill, John C. R., and Marvin H. Segner (consulting engineers), undated (1 letter)

On Site, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Oppenheim, Dennis, 1968 (1 letter)

Ordre des Architectes, Paris, 1964 (1 letter from Robert F. Gatje)

Originators, The, 1977 (1 letter)

Ortega, Alvaro (Colombian architect, student of Breuer), 1960-1972 (3 letters): 1972 letter from Leonard Currie concerns a recommendation for Ortega

Osborn, Elodie and Robert, undated and 1946-1971 (18 letters)

Osborne, Stafford, 1963 (1 memorandum): from James S. Plaut

Otto, Marguerite, 1946 (1 letter)

Oud, J. J. P. (architect), undated (1 calling card)

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, 1959 (2 letters)

Owurowa, Saji, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Oxford University Press, Inc., 1954 (1 letter)

Pabst, Robert E. (Mabaco Marine), 1956 (1 letter)

Pach Brothers, 1965 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pack, Isabelle (Breuer's secretary), 1958 (3 letters)

Pack, Nancy (Mrs. Howard Meade Pack), undated and 1953 (2 letters)

Paine Furniture Company, 1946 (1 letter)

Pajor, Zoltán, 1938-1947 (7 letters)

Palestrant, Stephen, 1963 (1 letter)

Palmer Physical Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, 1945 (1 letter)

Papachristou, Tician and Judy, undated and 1967-1974 (6 letters)

Papadaki, Stamo, 1945-1951 (14 letters): see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI) of the American-Jewish Congress; Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM), Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning

Papadakis, Stanis (architect), 1935-1936 (2 letters)

Papock, Herbert (Wylie F. L. Tuttle Company), 1970 (1 letter)

Papp, Leslie G., 1957 (1 letter)

Paquin, G., 1938 (1 letter)

Parkin, John B., 1950 (1 letter)

Parkinson (Cobb), Eliza, undated (2 letters)

Parkinson, Elizabeth, 1969 (1 letter)

Parsons School of Design, 1956 (1 letter)

Passonneau, Joseph R. (Washington University, St. Louis), 1956-1958 (3 letters)

Paterson State Teachers College, undated and 1954 (7 letters)

Payer, Ernst, undated (1 letter)

Pázmándi, Margó (Hungarian architect), 1974 (1 letter)

Pearman, Charles, 1964 (2 letters)

I. M. Pei & Associates, undated and 1959 (6 letters): 1959 letter is letter of recommendation by Breuer for Pei

Pella Rolscreen Company, 1966 (1 letter)

Pennsylvania State University, 1958 (5 letters)

Pennsylvania, University of, 1958-1959 (2 letters)

Pepper, Eleanor (and Alta Grant Samuels), undated (1 letter)

Peressutti, Enrico (Banfi Belgiojoso Peressutti Rogers, architects), 1949-1959 (4 letters)

Perkins, G. Holmes (Harvard University), 1940-1947 (6 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Perrin, Luis (architect), 1957 (1 letter)

Peter, J. A., 1945 (1 letter)

Peter, John, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Peterson, Cynthia, undated (1 letter)

Peterson, G. H., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Philco Corporation, 1950 (1 letter)

Phoenix Art Museum, 1965 (1 letter): concerns a Josef Albers exhibition

Pichler, Albrecht, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Picker, Fred, 1974 (4 letters): from Breuer's office

John B. Pierce Foundation, 1945 (1 letter)

Pignot, Gilbert (architect), 1971 (1 letter)

Pilchik, Ely E. (Congregation B'nai Jeshurun), 1962 (1 letter)

Pilzer, Leopold (Thonet Brothers, Inc.), 1943-1954 (9 letters): see also Project File for UNESCO

Pinkus, Dr. Felix, 1933-1934 (3 letters)

Pinter, Anthony S. (Study Abroad, Inc.), 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Pinter, Margit, 1946 (1 letter)

Pintori, Giovanni (Pubblicità Olivetti), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pisenti, Oreste, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Plaut, James S. (Institute of Contemporary Art) and Mary, 1947-1963 (5 letters)

Polak, Jean and André, 1969-1970 (3 letters)

Polányi, Cecil, 1935 (1 letter)

Polieri, Jacques, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Pomerance, Ralph, 1968 (1 letter)

Centre Georges Pompidou (P. Hussen), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ponti, Gio (architect), 1963-1967 (2 letters)

Poon, Sze-chiu, 1958 (3 letters): includes a photograph of Poon

Pope and Evans (consulting engineers), 1956 (1 letter)

Porter, Bernice, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Porter, Lucy (Mrs. A. Kingsley Porter), 1950 (1 letter)

Porter, Tom, 1974-1976 (3 letters): from Breuer

Portland Cement Association, 1959 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pospischil, Ernest, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Posse, Ricardo Muratorio, 1956 (1 letter)

Postman, Art, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Potter, Arnold and Selma, undated (1 letter)

Potts, Del G. (Fred H. Towery Equipment Company), 1947 (1 letter)

Pouget, Cl. (Cie. IBM, France), 1961-1970 (2 letters)

Pradelle, T. and D., undated (1 letter)

Praeger, Frederick A. (Frederick A. Praeger, Inc.), 1959-1969 (19 letters): includes a 1959 transcript of Praeger's conversation with Breuer concerning the publication of a book on Breuer's life work

Pratt Institute, 1953-1969 (11 letters)

Présentè, G. M., 1954 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Prestressed Concrete Institute, 1970 (1 letter)

Price, Thomas M., 1946 (1 letter)

Prichard, Theodore J. (University of Idaho), 1946-1950 (3 letters)

Princeton University, 1954-1959 (12 letters)

Princeton University, Graduate Council, 1954 (1 letter)

Princeton University School of Architecture, 1955-1963 (3 letters)

Pritchard, J. C. ("Jack"; producer of Isokon furniture) and Molly, 1944-1977 (56 letters)

Producers' Council, Inc., 1958-1967 (6 letters)

Progressive Architecture, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Pullman Company, 1945-1946 (2 letters)

Pusztai, György, 1963 (2 letters)

Quale, Marcia, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Quigley, T. T. (Wallace and Tiernan Company), 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Quinn, Robert H. (Attorney General of Massachusetts), 1970 (1 letter)

Raab, Martin D. (MIT School of Architecture), 1954 (2 letters)

Raabe, Sally (Harvard University, School of Design), 1947-1960 (4 letters): from Breuer

Rachlin, Abraham H. (Union Building Company), 1944 (2 letters)

Radcliffe Club of Long Island, 1954 (1 letter)

Radich, Stephen J. (Stephen Radich Gallery), 1967 (1 letter)

Rado, Ladislav L. ("Laco"; architect), 1943-1945 (6 letters)

Radwany, Emery L. and Helen, 1951-1954 (2 letters)

Rafferty, James B. (RCA Communications, Inc.), 1954 (1 letter)

Raffo, Nestor, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Rakatansky, Ira (architect), 1954-1959 (7 letters)

Ram Press, Inc., 1954 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Rand, Ann, 1951 (1 letter)

Randinsky, Nina, 1963 (1 letter)

Rapson, Ralph (University of Minnesota, School of Architecture), 1954-1959 (5 letters)

Rather, Lillian Townsend (Mrs. James Rather), 1966 (1 letter)

Rauschenback, Esther, 1951 (1 letter)

Read, Sir Herbert, 1955 (3 letters)

Réalitiés, 1964 (1 letter)

Rebay, Baroness, 1936 (1 letter)

Rédèr, J. M., 1956 (1 letter)

Reed & Barton, Silversmiths, 1963-1964 (7 letters)

Reed, Joe, 1958 (1 letter): from Breuer concerning the first tubular steel chair

Reese, Ilse Meissner, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Reidy, Affonso Eduardo, 1963 (1 letter)

Reilly, Ambassador (of Great Britain) and Lady, 1965 (1 invitation): to reception for the Fourth Biennale de Paris

Reinwald, Karl, 1969 (1 letter)

Rendy, Lili, undated (1 letter)

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1950 (1 letter)

Renz, Wilhelm (Wilhelm Renz K G, Moebelfabrik), 1966 (1 letter)

Republic, The, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Residence Lighting Forum (Illuminating Engineering Society), 1953 (1 letter)

Rettaliata, John (Illinois Institute of Technology), 1955 (1 letter)

Rév, Lajos, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Reynolds Metals Company, undated and 1946-1956 (9 letters)

Rhode Island Chapter of AIA, 1959 (1 letter)

Rhode Island School of Design, 1956-1959 (4 letters)

Richards, Jim M. and Peggy, undated and 1936-1939 (5 letters)

Richards, Steve, 1966 (1 letter)

Richlan, Frank, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Richman, Robert (Institute of Contemporary Art), 1952 (2 letters): from Breuer

Richmond, C. R., 1941 (1 letter)

Richmond Radiator Company (A. A. Marks), 1944 (2 letters): from Breuer

Rietkerk, William, 1956 (1 letter)

John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, 1956 (1 letter)

Ritchey, Dahlen K. (Deeter Ritchey Sippel, Architects), 1968 (1 letter)

Rivers, Shavaun, 1950 (1 letter)

Roberts, Russell (opera singer who bought Breuer's first New Canaan house), 1951-1955 (7 letters): 6 letters from Breuer

Robinson, Frank S., 1969 (2 letters)

Robinson, Mrs. Preston, 1946-1960 (2 letters)

Roche, Mme. Yolande, 1966-1967 (4 letters)

Rockefeller, Blanchette (Mrs. John D. Rockefeller III), 1962 (1 letter)

Rockefeller, John Davison, IV, 1967 (1 wedding announcement): for Rockefeller and Sharon Lee Percy

Rockefeller, Nelson A., undated and 1967 (2 printed invitations)

Rocourt, Evelyn, 1954-1955 (4 letters)

Rodgers, Paul C. (Burton-Rodgers, Inc.), 1946 (13 letters)

Roffman, Edward A. Roffman Associates, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office mentioning György Kepes

Rogers, Ernesto N. (Banfi Belgiojoso Peressutti Rogers, architects), undated and 1938-1950 (6 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Rombro, Louise, 1950 (1 letter)

Root, Ballantine, Harlan, Bushby & Palmer, 1952 (1 letter)

Rosenberg, E., 1956 (1 letter)

Rosenthal, Julius, 1950 (2 letters)

Rosenthal, Richard Laurence, 1969 (1 letter)

Ross, Janet (Vassar College), 1950 (1 letter)

Rossi, Irving, 1944 (2 letters)

Rossum, Cheryl (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Roth, Alfred (architect), 1933-1963 (9 letters)

Roth, Gordon (builder), 1946-1947 (3 letters)

Roth, Joan, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Rothschild, Sigmund, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Roux, Alina (Photograph Department, UNESCO), 1960 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Rowe, James (Corcoran, Foley, Youngman & Rowe), 1970 (1 letter)

Royal Society of Arts, 1969 (4 letters)

Rudert, Anton, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Rudofsky, Bernard, 1946-1950 (2 letters)

Russell, Gordon, 1936-1947 (3 letters)

Russell, Véra, 1969 (1 letter)

Rutherford, Eric, 1964-1967 (6 letters)

Rutledge, Dick, 1951 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Saarinen, Eero, undated and 1946-1954 (5 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Eero Saarinen & Associates, 1955 (1 letter)

Sackler, Raymond R., 1972 (1 letter)

Ed Sacks Company, 1950 (1 letter)

Saidenberg, Eleanore (Mrs. Daniel Saidenberg), undated (1 letter)

Sailer, John, 1968 (1 letter)

St. Francis de Sales Church, 1965-1966 (2 letters)

St. James Press, Ltd., 1977 (2 letters)

St. John's Abbey, 1953-1978 (9 letters)

Sakakura, Junzo, 1968 (1 letter)

Sakakura, Miho, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Salzano, Baron de Ferraris (Italian Consulate General), 1956 (2 letters): from Breuer

Salzman, Stanley (architect), 1947-1971 (2 letters)

Sampson, Thérèse (Mrs. Richard Sampson), 1954 (1 letter)

Samuely, Felix J. (consulting engineer), 1954 (3 letters)

Sanchez, Sergio, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Sanders & Malsin, Architects, 1949 (1 letter)

Krausz J. Sándor és Jeno, 1933 (1 letter)

San Francisco Redevelopment Agency, 1961 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Sarabhai, Gera, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Sarah Lawrence College, 1961-1976 (4 letters): 3 from Breuer

Sarton, May, undated (1 letter)

Sato, Chikafusa, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Satterlee, Nicholas, 1965 (1 letter)

Saturday Home Magazine, 1947 (1 letter)

Saxl, Erwin J. (Saxl Instrument Company), 1945 (1 letter)

Sayago, Manuel (Centro Profesional del Este), 1960 (2 letters)

Saybolt, Cleland & Alexander, Inc., 1945-1946 (2 letters)

Schaaf, Miv (Architectural Panel), 1958 (1 letter)

Scharff, Stephen L., 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Schawinsky, Xanti and Irene, undated and 1934-1964 (14 letters)

Schecter, Jack H. (architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Schendell, Hal, 1947 (2 letters): to Eliot Noyes

Schickel, William J., 1964 (1 letter)

Schillinger, Emilio F., 1964 (1 letter)

Schleifer, Fritz, 1934 (1 letter)

Schlemmer, Tut (Mrs. Oscar Schlemmer), 1960-1965 (3 letters)

Schlesinger, Alajos, undated (1 letter)

Schmalenbach, Werner (Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen), 1976 (2 letters)

Schmid, Elsa, 1950 (1 card): sent jointly with J. B. Neumann

Schmidt, Benno C. (J. H. Whitney & Company), 1970 (1 letter)

Schmidt-Gellerau, Karl, 1934 (3 letters)

Schmieg & Kotzian, 1945 (1 letter)

Architekturbüro Joachim Schmitz, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Schnall, Ben (photographer), undated (2 letters) vSchneck, Adolf G. (architect), 1947-1950 (2 letters)

Schneider-Manzell, Toni (Biennale Christlicher Kunst der Gegenwart Salzburg), 1964 (2 letters)

Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, undated (1 invitation): to meet Walker Evans

Schoendorff, Ellen G., 1937 (1 letter)

Schömer, Ervin (architect), 1974-1975 (6 letters)

Schorer, Mark, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer

Schultz, Lili, 1964 (1 letter)

F. Schumacher & Company, 1954-1964 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Schuster, Mathias and Gerda (Schuster & Geiger), 1950-1964 (3 letters)

Schweighofer, Dr. Fritz, 1960 (1 letter)

Science Illustrated, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

Scitorszky, Hanna, 1966 (1 letter)

Scott, Stuart N. (Dewey, Gallantine, Bushby, Palmer & Wood), 1958 (1 letter)

Seagram-Distillers Corporation: see Kessler-Gallacher & Burton

Sears, Roebuck and Company (Arthur M. Wood), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer concerning luncheon for Alexander Calder

Segal, Georgette, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Seghers, Pierre, 1963 (1 letter)

Segner, Marvin H., and John C. R. O'Neill (consulting engineers), undated (1 letter)

Segre, Mr., 1959 (2 letters): from Breuer

Seidel, Bert (architect), 1955 (2 letters)

Seidler, Harry (architect, Black Mountain College), 1946-1978 (24 letters)

Sekey, Sue, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Selinger, Hans, 1956 (1 letter)

Selwood, Christopher, 1958-1959 (2 letters): see also Gardner-Medwin, R. J.

Selye, Hans, 1967 (1 invitation): to George Washington Awards Dinner in honor of Breuer, Selye, and Watson Kirkconnell

Semrad, Peter H., 1957 (1 letter)

Senix Aerial (Don Preuss), 1947 (1 letter)

Sert, José Luis (architect) and Moncha, 1945-1970 (7 letters): see National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Architects' Committee; Project File for UNESCO

Setzer, H. O. (Spartan Tire & Recapping Company), 1947 (3 letters)

Sevely, Marvin, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Seyton, Mrs., 1954 (1 letter)

Shackleton, Edwin, 1951 (1 letter)

Shand, James (Art and Technics, Ltd.), 1950 (1 letter)

Shankland, Graeme, 1939 (1 letter)

Shannon, Edgar Finley (University of Virginia), 1967 (1 invitation): to Founder's Day Exercises

Sharon Forest Service Company, Inc., 1950 (5 letters)

Shattuck, George, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Shelton Roofing Company, Inc., 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Shepley, Anna L., undated (2 letters)

Shinoda, Toko, 1964 (2 letters)

Shokokusha Publishing Company, 1961-1964 (10 letters)

Shook, Ken, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Shuster, George N. (University of Notre Dame), 1962 (1 letter)

Sichel, Miss Cuy, 1964 (1 letter): from Breuer concerning Eric Rutherford's artwork

Siepman, Charles, 1956 (1 letter)

Siesel, Harold J. (Harold J. Siesel Company, Advertising), 1947 (1 letter)

Simha, O. Robert (Fulbright scholar), 1958 (1 letter)

Simon, Eva, 1934 (1 letter)

Simon, Steph (Ateliers Jean Prouvé), 1953-1956 (7 letters)

Simonson, Lee, 1955 (1 letter)

Simpson, Robert (Chemical Bank), 1975 (1 letter)

Simpson, William (New York University), 1960 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Sindicato Nacional de la Construcción (Jorge Fernández de Cuevas, architect), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Sive, André (architect), 1947 (1 letter)

Skidmore College, 1954 (1 letter)

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, 1959-1965 (3 letters)

Skouras, Odyssia A. and Federico Quadrani, 1964 (1 exhibition announcement): for Francesco Somaini

Slayton, William L. (Urban America, Inc.), 1967-1968 (2 letters)

Sloth, Finn (Milieu Company), 1966-1967 (5 letters)

Smith, Christina, 1963 (2 letters)

Smith, Elbert G. (University of Denver), 1946 (1 letter)

Smith, Hamilton and Caroline, 1954-1978 (34 letters): see Gatje Papachristou & Smith; Project File for UNESCO

Smith, Linus Burr, 1956 (1 letter)

Smithsonian Institution: 1981 (4 letters)

Snyder, J. Rowland, 1968 (1 letter)

Sobelsohn, Jacob (CPA), 1945-1946 (3 letters)

Sociedad de Art Moderno, México, 1944 (1 letter)

Società degli Ingegneri e degli Architetti in Torino, 1960 (3 letters)

Society of Student Architects (Polytechnic, London), 1955 (2 letters)

Somaini, Francesco, 1964 (exhibition announcement)

Somerville, City of, Massachusetts, 1950 (1 letter)

Charles W. Sommer & Bro., Inc. (importers), 1946 (2 letters)

Sonnenberg, Benjamin (and John L. Loeb), undated (1 invitation): to birthday for Armond Eiff [?]

Sorensen, Abel (Von der Lancken, Lundquist and Sorensen), 1954 (1 letter)

Soupault, Ré Philippe, 1946-1950 (2 letters)

Southern California, University of, 1947-1958 (2 letters)

Sovik, Mathre and Madson, Architects, 1966 (1 letter)

Speert, Harry A., 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Spencer, William A. (New York University), 1960 (2 letters): from Robert F. Gatje

Speyer, Darthea (American Legation), 1950 (1 letter)

Spilman, Raymond, 1955 (1 letter)

Spinelli, Pat, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Spring, Bernard Polmer, 1945 (1 letter)

Stadler-Stölzl, G., 1967 (1 letter)

Staehelin, William R. and Marina, 1959-1977 (11 letters)

Staempfli, George, 1965-1966 (2 letters)

Stanpat Company, 1954 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Starkey, Mrs. Robert James, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer

Starr, Polly (Mrs. Donald Starr), 1937-1938 (2 letters)

Stattelman, Richard, 1966 (1 letter)

Stein, Richard G. (architect), undated and 1951 (2 letters)

Steinberg, Saul, 1951-1965 (2 letters): from Breuer

Stendig, Charles (Contract Furniture), 1963-1967 (5 letters)

Stern, Alfred (U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of International Trade Fairs), 1957-1958 (4 letters)

Stern, Andor, 1950 (1 letter)

Stern, Max, 1963 (2 letters)

Sternberg, Charles (International Rescue Committee), 1956 (1 letter): of introduction for ádám Krivátsky-Szüts

Stevens, Edmund, 1960 (2 letters)

Stillman, Edgar and Kate [?] ("B + J"), 1953-1965 (2 letters)

Stillman, Jean, 1965 (1 letter)

Stillman, Kathy, 1965 (1 letter)

Stillman, Rufus C. ("Ruf") and Leslie, undated and 1951-1975 (60 letters): 1954 letter from Breuer's office encloses Stillman's outline for a book

Stockton, Sue, undated and 1964 (2 letters)

Stoddard, Whitney S. (Society of Alumni of Williams College), 1951 (1 letter)

Stoller, Ezra (photographer) and Helen, undated and 1945-1967 (8 letters)

Stonorov, Oskar (architect) and Elizabeth, 1944-1946 (4 letters)

Storch, Samuel (Astorloid Manufacturing Company/Astor-Ramel Manufacturing Company), 1945 (6 letters)

Storrow, Helen (Mrs. James Jackson Storrow), undated (4 letters)

Strenger, József, 1963 (2 letters)

Strettell, Marguerita (Rita), undated (1 letter)

Strohbach, Susi, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Strudwick Board of Trade, 1945 (1 letter)

Strunk, Granville B. (Santa Ana City Schools), 1946 (1 letter)

Stubbins, Hugh A. (architect), 1950-1977 (6 letters)

Stylos, Architectural Students Association at Delft, 1954 (1 letter)

Sugár, Stephen, 1947-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer

Sunderland, Mrs. Francis A., 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Suter-Moser, Claude, 1956: see Project File for UNESCO

Sutnar, Ladislav, 1951-1965 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Suzuki, Shizuo, 1975 (1 letter including résumé)

Swan, Robert Andrew, 1960-1963 (2 letters)

Swanson & Brey, Architects, 1961 (1 letter)

Swanson, Dean, 1963 (1 letter): to Charles H. Sawyer

Sweeney, James J., 1938 (2 letters): from Breuer

George J. Switzer Company, 1954-1956 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Syracuse University Library, 1968 (1 letter)

Syracuse University, School of Architecture, 1959 (8 letters)

Syska and Hennessy, Inc., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Szabó, Albert, 1947-1950 (2 letters)

Szabó, Eva Mary (master weaver), 1966 (1 letter)

Szabó, G. (African Hide Trading Corporation), 1964 (1 letter)

Szak, László, 1957 (2 letters)

Szegedy-Maszák, Aladár (minister of Hungary), 1947 (1 letter)

Székely, Sándor, 1957-1959 (5 letters)

Székely, Tamás István (Wohnbedarf furniture store), 1956-1965 (10 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Szüle, Peter János, 1975 (2 letters)

Tadashi, Iijima, 1963 (1 letter)

Tange, Kenzo and Toshike, 1960-1968 (3 letters)

Tanier, George (George Tanier, Inc.), 1961 (2 letters)

Tapia, Raúl, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tate, Allen and Helen, 1966-1967 (2 letters)

Tate, Isabella (Bella), 1963 (1 letter)

Taylor, Harold, 1951-1968 (3 letters)

Tech Reps, Inc., 1966 (1 letter)

Teller, Mrs. Walter M., 1945 (1 letter)

Terminal Radio Corporation, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Tesla, S., 1961 (1 letter)

Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1962-1963 (2 letters)

Theband, Polly, 1964-1965 (3 letters)

Thebond [?], Sacha, 1959 (1 letter)

Thole, Henry G. (Seaboard Surety Company), 1947 (1 letter)

J. Walter Thompson Company, 1956 (1 letter)

Thompson, Marion Gordon (Mrs. A. W. Thompson), 1950 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Thompson, Rolland, 1955-1969 (3 letters)

Thonet Brothers, Inc., 1966-1968 (3 letters): see also Pilzer, Leopold

Thost, Eberhard, undated and 1934-1937 (4 letters)

Throop, Mortimer, 1959 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Thun, Ole, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Thurman, Marie Christophe de Menil, undated (1 letter)

Thürmer, Ludwig and Marie Luise, 1965-1970 (8 letters)

Tibby, Jack, 1954-1956 (4 letters)

Tice & Lynch, Inc., 1953 (1 letter)

Tieger, Robert M.., 1946 (1 letter)

Tildy, Mrs. Zoltán, 1947 (1 invitation): to her honorary dinner

Tillinger, Jerry D. (Ferendino, Grafton, Spillis, Candela), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Time magazine, 1954-1960 (6 letters): see also Jones, Cranston

Tischler, Julie [?], 1934 (1 letter)

Tizzone [?], Joe, 1967 (1 letter)

Todd, Charles I. (Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company), 1958 (1 letter)

Tolnay, Károly ("Carl"), 1959 (1 letter)

Tompkins, Gilbert Calyer, undated and 1941-1968 (7 letters)

Torin Corporation, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Torok, László (engineer), 1933 (1 letter)

Toronto, University of, Architectural Society of, 1958-1960 (7 letters)

Touche, A., 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tourneroche, R. (Comptoir Artisanal du Maroc), 1956 (2 letters)

Towers, Mrs. Henry, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Townsend-Chatterton Company, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tragseil, Karl (Austrian architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Tralau, Walter (Gerhard Marcks/Wera Mayer-Waldeck/Walter Tralau), 1953 (1 letter): includes a printed statement about Walter Gropius

Treseder, Frank C., 1946 (2 letters)

W. F. Tubbs Company, 1944 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tuchman, Barbara (Mrs. Lester Tuchman), 1970 (1 letter)

Turner, Howard (Turner Construction Company), 1968 (1 letter)

Mark Twain Journal (Cyril Clemens), 1969 (1 letter)

Tyroler, József ("José"), 1938-1940 (2 letters)

Uda, William, 1951 (1 letter)

Ugarte, Federico A. (architect), 1963 (1 letter)

Undicesima Triennale di Milano, 1957 (5 letters)

UNESCO Centrum Nederland, 1954 (1 letter)

UNESCO, Paris, 1958-1961 (4 letters)

Union Carbide Building, 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Union pour le Recouvrement des Cotisations de Sécurité Sociale et d'Allocations Familiales (URSSAF), 1953 (1 letter): from Breuer

United Nations, New York, 1966 (2 letters)

United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office concerning Grand Coulee Dam

United States Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization, 1938-1959 (4 letters from Breuer)

United States Department of State, 1946-1974 (4 letters)

United States Embassy, London, 1960-1961 (2 letters): from Breuer concerning Jo Yorke and Jane Susannah Yorke

United States General Services Administration (GSA), 1963-1977 (3 letters)

United States Government Printing Office, 1947 (2 letters): from Breuer

United States Information Agency, 1957-1964 (7 letters)

United States National Commission for UNESCO, 1951 (information for a conference)

United States Plywood Corporation, 1946 (1 letter)

United States Postmaster General, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

United States Selective Service, 1942 (notice of classification)

United States Social Security Administration, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Untermeyer, Louis, 1964 (1 letter)

Urbahn, Max O. (architect), 1965-1975 (2 letters)

Ustinov, Nadie, undated (1 letter)

Vachon, Judy and David, undated and 1964 (2 letters)

Valentin, Kurt (Buchholz Gallery), 1944 (1 letter)

Valle, Tommaso and Gilberto, undated (1 letter)

Van Altena, Edward, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Van den Broek, Professor J. H. (architect), undated (1 letter)

van der Straeten, Jean (CBR Cimenteries Bruxelles), 1970 (1 letter)

Van der Wal, Dr. G., undated and 1961-1966 (6 letters)

Van Doren, Mark, 1963 (2 letters): see also Citizens Committee for a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

van Eesteren, C. (architect), 1951 (1 letter)

van Leer, Oscar, 1970 (1 letter)

van Westen, J. H., 1960 (1 letter)

Varèse, Edgard (composer), 1956 (1 letter)

Vargha, László I., 1967 (2 letters)

Vecchione, Robert, 1964-1970 (2 letters)

Véghelyi, Péter (Acta Paediatrica, Hungarian Science Academy), 1963-1972 (5 letters)

Ventris, Dora (and Michael), undated (1 letter)

Vergun, Alexei, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Verlag Girsberger, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Viasz, Andor Safed ("Bendj"), 1962 (1 letter)

Vidal, Yves, 1956-1971 (7 letters)

Vincent, Mr., 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Violich, Francis, 1955 (1 letter)

Virág, Csaba (Hungarian architect), 1965-1974 (3 letters)

Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 1960 (2 letters)

Virginia, University of, 1967-1970 (18 letters)

Vissière, A. (architect), undated (1 letter)

Visy, Béla, 1957 (1 letter)

Vitrum magazine (Centro Informazioni e Studi per le Applicazioni del Vetro nell'Edilizia e nell'Arredamento; C.I.S.A.V.), 1955 (1 letter)

Vogel, George S. (Temple Israel, Cortlandt), 1951 (1 letter)

Voigt, James D. (Voigt and Fourré, Architects), 1958 (4 letters)

Volante, Julio C., 1955-1963 (2 letters)

von Debschitz, Irene, 1935 (1 letter)

von Erffa, H., 1951-1968 (2 letters)

von Meyerburg, Henrietta [?], undated (1 letter)

von Moltke, Wilhelm Viggo, 1946-1958 (4 letters)

von Segesser, Beat and Francisca, 1968-1975 (1 letter, plus 4 from Breuer)

Wachsmann, Konrad (architect/designer, General Panel Corporation), 1945-1965 (8 letters): see National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Architects' Committee

Wadsworth, Suzanne G., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Wagner, Martin (Harvard University), 1946 (2 letters)

Senator Wagner Memorial Dinner, 1965 (1 invitation): from mayor of New York

Walker and Company, 1966-1967 (2 letters): includes a typescript about Breuer; see also Heyer, Paul O.

Walker Art Center, Center Arts Council, 1959-1962 (12 letters)

Walker, H. E. L. (Universal Moulded Products Company, Ltd.), 1943 (1 letter)

Walker, Ralph (AIA), 1951 (1 letter): from Walter Gropius

Walker, Vicki, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ward, Ernest and Priscilla (Sprague Electric Company), 1946 (2 letters)

Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Watson, Arthur K. (U.S. Embassy, Paris), 1970-1972 (2 letters)

Watson, Thomas, 1970 (1 letter)

Wattjes, Professor J. G., 1935 (1 letter)

Webb & Knapp (Canada), Ltd., 1963 (3 letters)

Weidler, Charlotte (Bauhaus Ausstellung), 1968 (1 letter)

Weidlinger, Paul, 1946: see Project File for UNESCO

Weidlinger Associates, 1983-1984 (2 letters)

Weiner, Paul L., 1950-1966 (2 letters)

Weinstein, Jerry, 1945 (1 letter)

William H. Weintraub & Company, Inc., 1943-1947 (3 letters)

Weiz [?], Tiberio, 1939 (1 letter)

Weizenblatt, Sprinza, 1946-1963 (20 letters)

Wenzler, William P. (architect), 1965-1968 (4 letters)

Weren, Edward C., 1946 (1 letter)

Werner, Ingrid, 1963 (3 letters)

Wertz, Mr. (Der Finanzminister des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

West China Development Corporation, 1947 (1 letter)

West Coast Stained Shingle Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Westcott and Mapes, Inc. (architects and engineers), 1970 (1 letter)

Western Arts Association, 1959 (4 letters)

Western Reserve University, 1958 (5 letters)

Westport Public Library, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Wetter, Barbara, 1980 (1 letter): concerns traveling exhibition

Wheaton, William L. (Pomona College), 1960 (1 letter)

White, George (architect of the Capitol), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

White House (Letitia Baldridge), 1963 (1 letter): mentions Jacqueline Kennedy

White, J. G. (Peerless Flooring Company), 1955 (1 letter)

Whitney, Charles E. (Publications, Inc.), 1954-1956 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Whitney Museum of American Art, 1968-1976 (19 letters): 1 from Jean Lipman; 14 from Breuer and a typescript about Alexander Calder

Who's Who in America, 1947 (2 letters)

Wieland, Albert, 1963 (1 letter)

Wiener, Paul Lester and Ingebord, 1944-1955 (3 letters)

Wiesenfeld, David, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Wieser, U. P. (Wohnbedarf furniture store), 1959-1960 (3 letters)

Wigglesworth, Isabella C., 1946 (1 letter)

Wilcox & Company, 1972 (1 letter)

Wilder, Hugo, 1946 (1 letter): from E. S. Ferguson

Wiley, Chuck, 1950 (1 letter)

Wilhelm, Günter, 1949 (1 letter)

Wilinski, Erich, 1935 (2 letters)

Willard, Marian G. ("Viva Villa"; East River Gallery), undated and 1935-1965 (25 letters)

Williams, Amancio (architect), 1955 (1 letter)

Williams, Daniel, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Williams, Peter C., 1956 (1 letter)

Williams, Preston, 1958 (2 letters)

Wilson, Dr. and Mrs. Julius Lane, 1965 (1 letter)

Wilson, June P. (Mrs. Kenneth Wilson), 1968 (1 letter)

Wilson, Marjorie (Mrs. Will Wilson), 1956 (1 letter)

Winde, McCormick & Chapin, 1945 (1 letter)

Wingler, Hans, undated and 1966-1980 (23 letters): 14 from Breuer; see also Bauhaus Archiv E.V.

Winkler, Robert, 1955 (1 letter)

Winsten, Steve, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Winston, E., 1950 (1 letter)

Winter, Edward, 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Wisconsin Chapter of AIA, 1960 (1 letter)

Wisconsin, University of, 1960 (2 letters)

Wisdom Encyclopedia, 1966 (1 letter)

Wogner, Charles, 1951 (2 letters)

Wohlstetter, Albert (Atlas Aircraft Products Corporation), 1944-1946 (7 letters)

Wohlstetter, Marjorie, 1946 (1 letter)

Wolf, Albin, 1933 (5 letters)

Wolf, Ferenc, 1963-1965 (4 letters)

Wolfe, James F. (Ketchum, MacLeod & Grove, Inc.), 1960 (2 letters)

Wolff, Robert Jay, 1956-1975 (3 letters): 1 from Breuer

Wolfson, Sidney, 1954-1955 (2 letters): from Breuer's office; 1975 letter is from Nicholas P. Appy, executor of Sidney Wolfson's will

Wollowick, David P., 1947 (1 letter)

Wong, Andy, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Wong, Tommy (UCLA), 1974 (1 letter)

Worcester Art Museum, 1954 (1 letter)

Working, Jane, undated and 1961 (5 letters)

Wright, Irving S. and Lois, 1963-1968 (2 letters)

Wright, Russell (pottery), 1950-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Wu, King-lui, 1945-1950 (7 letters): 6 from Breuer

Wunderlich, Carlos Asensio, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Wundrich-Meissen, 1934 (1 letter)

Wurster, William W. (architect) and Catherine, 1946-1960 (6 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

X Functie, 1953-1957 (3 letters)

Yale University, 1945-1976 (4 letters)

Yamawaki, Iwao, 1954 (2 letters)

Yasko, Karel, 1968 (1 letter)

Yorke, F. R. S. (Francis Reginald Stevens Yorke; architect), 1944-1962 (31 letters)

Yorke, Thelma and Kay, 1938-1939 (2 letters)

Yoshimura, Junzo (architect), undated (1 letter): to Yoshimura from Pella Rolscreen Company

Yoshioka, Yasugoro, undated (1 letter)

Young, Edward L., 1966 (1 letter)

Young, Hamilton, 1938 (1 letter)

Yu, Jane, 1964-1965 (3 letters)

Yurchenco, Basil ("Chenk"; Goldwater & Yurchenco Associates), 1947-1950 (3 letters)

Zahedi, H. E. Ardeshir (ambassador of Iran), 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer

Zanuso, Marco (architect; Olivetti), 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

Zechlin, Hans Josef, 1950 (1 letter)

Ziegler, Barbara, 1947 (1 letter)

Ziegler, Frank, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ziegler, Richard, undated (1 letter)

Zwick, Virgil J., 1959 (1 letter)
Collection Restrictions:
The microfilm for this collection has been digitized and is available online via the Archives of American Art website.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Marcel Breuer papers, 1920-1986. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.breumarc, Series 2
See more items in:
Marcel Breuer papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw94269a410-353a-4450-a036-6d5688d6cf20
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-breumarc-ref54

Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection

Creator:
Norrell, Thomas, 1899-1985  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (84 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Ephemera
Date:
circa 1840-circa 1960
bulk 1870-1940
Summary:
Approximately 11,000 images collected by Thomas Norrell consisting of original photographic prints and photographic postcards, original film and glass plate negatives, and duplicate/copy photographic prints and negatives. The majority are external views of single locomotive engines of North American railroad and industrial companies. Images of international railroad company locomotives and of representative locomotives from various locomotive works and builders are also included. The collection contains a small number of subject-specific images covering such topics as train wrecks, funeral trains, experimental locomotives, miniature trains, and locomotives at the 1933 and 1939 World's Fairs.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains material related primarily, but not exclusively, to early North American railroad locomotives. Photographs and negatives comprise the bulk of the material in the collection, with the number of individual images well exceeding 10,000. While the collection is particularly valuable for its images of locomotives from smaller or relatively obscure railroad lines and industrial concerns (such as mining and lumber companies), it also includes a substantial number of images from the leaders of the railroad industry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (such as the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad).

Norrell's organization of the collection reflects his technical knowledge of railroad engines and his familiarity with various railroad companies. His use of Whyte notation as an organizational schema gives evidence to this. Whyte notation is broadly utilized by the railroad industry as a way to classify locomotives based on their wheel configuration. A count of leading (non-driving) wheels, middle driving wheels, and trailing wheels (non-driving) is represented by a three-digit hyphenated number. For example, a locomotive with four leading wheels, four driving wheels, and two trailing wheels would be classified as a 4-4-2. Norrell utilized this convention when subdividing railroad companies for which he had collected many images, such as the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Central Railroad of New Jersey, Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad, and the Lehigh Valley Railroad, among others. Norrell subdivided portions of his collection of Pennsylvania Railroad images based on that company's distinct classification system, where letters of the alphabet corresponded to different Whyte notations.

Norrell used other criteria to help subdivide larger assemblages of single-company railroad images, and these have been maintained. In some instances, he used the company number designation found on the locomotive itself (as in the case of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad). Other times, subject designations were used to distinguish rail yards, passenger cars, and special or prominent locomotives. Because the Pennsylvania Railroad comprised such a large segment of images, Norrell organized it according to a number of subdivision types (including year, Whyte notation, and subject) rather than any single one.

The collection is arranged into three series: Series 1, Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, Series 2, Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960, and Series 3, Ephemera, undated.

Series 1, Negatives, 1831-1967, undated,contains photographic negatives and is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, and Subseries 2, Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated.

The series contains original negative images, copy negatives of other printed images, and copy negatives of printed material, such as book illustrations. The inclusive dates for the series reflect the subject of the material photographed (as in the case of copy negatives) rather than the date the negative was created.

The negatives primarily depict views of single locomotive engines from various North American and international mainline and short line railroads. Interspersed among these are views of company-owned locomotives representing such North American industries as mining (coal, iron, limestone, copper, gold, quartz, zinc), lumber (timber, pulp, paper), metallurgical production (coke, iron, steel), stone/brick production (masonry, cement, gravel), utilities (power, light, telephone), chemical production, leather production, automotive production, and food service. A number of military railroad locomotives as well as early metropolitan transit systems are also represented among the negatives. Most of the images depict steam locomotives, though some diesel engines, diesel-electric hybrid engines, passenger and freight cars, and assorted repair/service vehicles are also spread throughout.

Subseries 1, Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated consists of polyester film negatives ranging in size from 2 1/4" x 4 1/4" to 5" x 7". Additional larger polyester film negatives are interfiled with the glass plate negatives of Subseries 2 and range in size from 5" x 7" to 8" x 10".

The negatives are physically arranged by size, then by the negative series number originally assigned to them by the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation. This numbering system generally, but not always, follows an alphabetical order by name of railroad company (North American and international) or industrial company. The majority of the film negatives are 5" x 7" or smaller, and the number series for this size of negative begins with 85-20939 and ends with 85-31126.

Film negatives larger than 5" x 7" are separated and interfiled with the glass plate negatives of Subseries 2. As such, the negative series number range for these larger film negatives is not always consecutive. The first series number range begins at 82-4189 and ends at 82-4429. The second range begins at 82-13786 and ends at 82-13795. A printed, item-level index of the negatives containing an alphabetical list of railroad and industrial company names and associated negative numbers is available for consultation in the Archives Center.

The envelope enclosures for all negatives generally include the name of the railroad or industrial company, the engine/locomotive number, the engine/locomotive builder, the Whyte classification (wheel arrangement), the year of the engine/locomotive's construction, a brief description of the image, the size of the negative, and the negative series number.

Subseries 2, Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated, consists of glass plate negatives ranging in size from 5" x 7" to 10" x 12". Three broken glass plate negatives have been re-housed and are stored separately. Otherwise the plates are arranged by size, then by original negative series number as assigned by the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation. This number range is not always consecutive because the glass plate negatives are interfiled with the larger film negatives of Subseries 1. A printed, item-level index of the negatives containing an alphabetical list of railroad and industrial company names and associated negative numbers is available for consultation in the Archives Center.

The 8" x 10" glass plate negative number series begins with 82-4168 and ends with 82-4424.

The 5" x 7" glass plate negatives contain series numbers 82-13783 to 82-13785.

The 12" x 10" glass plate negatives contain series numbers 82-4430 to 82-4452.

The envelope enclosures for the negatives generally include the name of the railroad or industrial company, the engine/locomotive builder, the Whyte classification (wheel arrangement), in some cases a brief description of the image, and the negative series number.

Series 2, Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960,consists of visual material, including photographic postcards, illustrated postcards, photographic prints (made through a variety of photographic processes), and a photograph album. It contains five subseries: Subseries 1, North American Railroad Companies; Subseries 2, International Railroad Companies; Subseries 3, Railroad Builders; Subseries 4, Subjects; and Subseries 5, Duplicate Images.

Subseries 1, North American Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960 includes photographic and illustrated postcards and photographic prints of North American railroad companies, industrial railroads, and urban transit companies. The images range in size from 2 1/4" x 4 1/4" to 8" x 10," with the majority being silver gelatin prints. Occasional albumen prints, cyanotype prints, and salted paper prints are found in the collection. The majority of the images are views of single locomotive engines, though some images of railroad stations, roundhouses, rail yards, and passenger cars are interspersed throughout. While the majority of the photographs are 4" x 6" or smaller, there are prints larger than 4" x 6" which are arranged alphabetically by railroad or industrial company name. In some cases multiple larger images from railroad companies with names close to each other alphabetically are filed together in a single folder and identified with the first common letters of the company names.

Norrell's original alphabetical organization by railroad or industrial company name has been preserved. In some instances where a substantial number of images for a particular railroad company exist, Norrell subidivided the images either by Whyte notation (wheel arrangement) or by subject. This usually follows either an alphabetical or numerical organization, but not in every case. In many instances, hand-written notes and postage appear on the reverse of the photographic postcards. Addresses and salutations indicate that many of the postcards were not sent to Thomas Norrell directly, but were acquired by him at a later date.

Subseries 2, International Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960, includes photographs, illustrated postcards, and a photograph album depicting international railroads and railroad locomotives. Of particular interest is the photograph album compiled by Thomas Norrell containing sixty individual photographs of steam locomotive engines from eighteen assorted British, continental European, and South American railroad companies. The images are all approximately 14" x 10," and each corresponds to an identification chart mounted in the front of the album indicating the railroad company, engine number, Whyte notation (wheel arrangement), and special notes about each engine.

Subseries 3, Railroad Builders, circa 1850-1960 consists photographic prints and photographic postcards containing images of locomotives separated by builder. Norrell's original alphabetical arrangement of the images by locomotive works or manufacturing company name has been preserved.

Subseries 4, Subjects, 1804-1940, contains photographic prints and photographic postcards organized by subject. The images are arranged chronologically by date of the subject of the images. Of particular interest are Norrell's photographs of locomotives at the 1933-1934 Chicago and 1939-1940 New York World's Fairs.

Subseries 5, Duplicate Images, circa 1850-1960, contains duplicate photographic prints and duplicate copy prints created from the either the photographs in Series 2 or from the film and glass plate negatives from Series 1. The duplicate images, including photographic postcards and photographic prints, are subdivided by first letter of the name of the railroad or industrial company. The duplicate copy prints created from the negatives are arranged numerically by a negative number recorded on the negative itself.

Series 3, Ephemera, undated,consists of an unidentified and undated piece of railroad track.

References

Staufer, Alvin F. Pennsy Power III 1847-1968. Medina, OH: Alvin F. Staufer, 1993.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in three series.

Series 1: Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Subseries 1: Film Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Subseries 2: Glass Plate Negatives, 1831-1967, undated

Series 2: Photographic Prints, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 1: North American Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 2: International Railroad Companies, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 3: Railroad Builders, circa 1850-1960

Subseries 4: Subjects, 1804-1940

Subseries 5: Duplicate Images, circa 1850-1960

Series 3: Ephemera, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Norrell was born in West Ham (Essex County) England on November 11, 1899. He emigrated to the United States as a young man and became a naturalized citizen in 1911. He took an apprenticeship at the Baldwin Locomotive Works around 1920. Although the Baldwin works benefited from a boom in the export of steam locomotives meant to replenish foreign rail systems impacted by use during the First World War, the upswing was short-lived. Business at Baldwin slowed considerably in the 1920s as diesel engines began replacing steam locomotives. Recognizing that opportunities for advancement within Baldwin were scarce, Norrell moved out of railroad work completely and into the paper box industry. He married his wife Wilhelmina in 1929, and they resided in Cranston, Rhode Island and later Silver Spring, Maryland.

Despite his shift away from railroads as a vocation, Norrell maintained a life-long interest in trains and was a collector of photographic and print material related to locomotive engines, train cars, and industrial railroads. He contributed a number of articles to various railroad periodicals and was generous in providing images from his collection to other authors for reproduction in their publications. Norrell also influenced and supported a number of prominent railroad historians, including John H. White Jr., curator of the Division of Transportation in the Smithsonian National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History). It was through White's efforts that Norrell's collection became part of the Smithsonian Institution.

In 1942 Norrell gained some degree of notoriety for having rediscovered the famed Brady Civil War negatives in the vault of the Phelps Publishing Company in Springfield, Massachusetts while searching for an unrelated daguerreotype of an early Massachusetts locomotive. The locomotive had been identified from a wood-engraving made by an artist for a Phelps subsidiary publication, and Norrell secured permission to search the Phelps Company's vault for the image. During his search, Norrell stumbled upon and recognized the famed Civil War collection from earlier printed publications of the images. He brought the collection to the attention of the National Archives, which deferred to the Library of Congress. The storage fees for the images had been unpaid for many years by their owner, and the Phelps Company, interested only in recovering compensation for the use of the space, seized the images and sold them at cost to the Library of Congress in 1944.

Norrell later lived in Fredericksburg, Virginia, close to his daughter Elise Mann. He died there on February 1, 1985.

References

Bell, Kurt R. "On the Shoulders of a Giant: A Profile of John H. White, Jr.," Railroad History, 204 (Spring-Summer 2011): 6-23.

Hodge, Robert, comp. An Index to the Death Notices in the Free Lance-Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia), 1981-1991. Fredericksburg, VA: Robert A. Hodge (1992).

Norrell, Thomas. "The Norris Construction Record," Railroad and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, 150 (1983): 57-XX.

Norrell, Thomas. "Uriah Wells, Locomotive Builder of Petersburg," Railroad and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, 124 (1969): 40-XX.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930: Population Schedule. Massachusetts Enumeration District 9-169, Supervisor's District 10, Sheet 4-1, 1930.

Vanderbilt, Paul, comp. Guide to the Special Collections of Prints and Photographs in the Library of Congress. Washington D.C.: The Library of Congress, 1955.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Baldwin Locomotive Works Collection (Engine Registers and Order Books), 1833-1956, (AC0157)

Baldwin Locomotive Works Drawings, 1870-1890, (AC0353)

John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection, 1880s-1990, (AC0523)

Materials Held by the National Museum of American History, Division of Work and Industry

Three images from the collection, including an 1848 daguerreotype image of the locomotive "Tioga", an 1855 daguerreotype image of a locomotive on the Niagara Falls, and a circa 1870 daguerreotype image of a Rome, Watertown, and Ogdensburgh locomotive.

Materials Held by Other Institutions

Thomas Norrell photographic album, and other views of rail transportation in Canada and the United States, circa 1920-1979, R5500-27-4-E, Andrew Audubon Merrilees fonds. Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the United States National Museum, Division of Transportation (now known as the National Museum of American History, Division of Work and Industry) by Thomas Norrell on April 19, 1966.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Some glass plate negatives are broken and may require special handling care.Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Copyright status unknown, though most images are in the public domain.
Topic:
Railroad companies -- Europe  Search this
Railroad companies -- Africa  Search this
Railroad companies -- North America  Search this
Railroad companies -- South America  Search this
Railroad accidents  Search this
Mine railroads  Search this
Locomotive builders  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th-20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Ephemera
Citation:
Thomas Norrell Railroad Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1174
See more items in:
Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c88d07e2-86c6-4337-9ccd-62a0ee8e3f11
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1174
Online Media:

"Central-"

Collection Creator:
Norrell, Thomas, 1899-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 79, Folder 25
Type:
Archival materials
Graphic Materials
General:
Central Iowa Railway Company

Central New England Railway

Central New England and Western Railroad

Central Railroad of Long Island

Central Railroad of New Jersey

Central Valley Railroad
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Some glass plate negatives are broken and may require special handling care.Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status unknown, though most images are in the public domain.
Collection Citation:
Thomas Norrell Railroad Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection
Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection / Series 2: Photographic Prints / 2.1: North American Railroad Companies
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep833618a7e-b199-4f0d-a7e5-6424d7c428c8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1174-ref1214

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