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W. Langdon Kihn papers

Creator:
Kihn, W. Langdon  Search this
Names:
National Geographic Society (U.S.)  Search this
Artzybasheff, Boris, 1899-1965  Search this
Barbeau, Marius, 1883-1969  Search this
Dale, Chester, b. 1883  Search this
Dale, Maud, 1875-1953  Search this
Dixon, Maynard, 1875-1946  Search this
Downs, Olin  Search this
Fisher, Franklin L.  Search this
Kihn, Alfred  Search this
Kihn, Helen Butler  Search this
Laubin, Gladys  Search this
Laubin, Reginald  Search this
Lecomte du Noüy, Marie  Search this
Lecomte du Noüy, Pierre, 1883-1947  Search this
Oakley, Thorton, 1881-1953  Search this
Skinner, Constance Lindsay, 1882-1939  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Wellcome, Henry S., Sir (Henry Solomon), 1853-1936  Search this
Wiggins, Guy C. (Guy Carleton), 1883-1962  Search this
Extent:
8.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Sketches
Photographs
Poetry
Writings
Date:
1904-1990
bulk 1904-1957
Summary:
The papers of painter and illustrator W. Langdon Kihn measure approximately 8.5 linear feet and date from 1904-1990, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1904-1957. Papers document Kihn's career and travels associated with his interests in documenting the native American tribal nations of the United States and Canada in portraiture and writings. Found here are biographical materials, voluminous correspondence, memoirs and writings, one travel diary, printed material, financial records, three sketchbooks, sketches, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter and illustrator W. Langdon Kihn measure approximately 8.5 linear feet and date from 1904-1990, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1904-1957. Papers document Kihn's career and travels associated with his interests in documenting the native American tribal nations of the United States and Canada in portraiture and writings. Found here are biographical material, voluminous correspondence, memoirs and writings, one travel diary, printed material, financial records, three sketchbooks, sketches, and photographs.

Biographical materials include address books, membership cards, exhibition and price lists, legal and travel documents, as well as biographical notes. Additional biographical sketches are found in the Writings and Notes series.

Correspondence is the largest series in the collection, almost half of the papers. In addition to letters to W. Langdon Kihn, this series include both originals and drafts of his outgoing letters; letters to his wife Helen from friends; third party business correspondence between his father, Alfred Kihn, and various parties undertaken on his son's behalf; and third party correspondence addressed to his friend and colleague, the Canadian ethnographer, Marius Barbeau. In addition to Barbeau, significant correspondents include Constance Lindsay Skinner, Chester and Maud Dale, Sir Henry Wellcome, Pierre and Marie "May" Lecompte du Noüy, and Reginald and Gladys Laubin. Although there is little correspondence with other artists, those represented with cards and letters in this collection include Boris Artzybasheff, Maynard Dixon, Olin Dows, Thornton Oakley, and Kihn's summer art school partner, Gus Wiggins. Correspondence with Franklin L. Fisher, Chief of National Geographic Magazine's Illustrated Division and Matthew W. Striling, Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution dominate the period spanning from 1935 - 1952, the years of Kihn's close association with the National Geographic Society.

Writings and notes includes manuscripts and typescripts of articles, poems, lectures, memoirs, and other writings by Kihn and others. There is one travel diary dated circa 1924-1925, and numerous writings about Kihn's travels and documentation of native American Indians.

Printed materials include exhibition catalogs, travel brochures, and magazine and newspaper clippings. Also found here are copies of Kihn's illustrations for books by other authors, including Beaver, Kings and Cabins, by Constance Lindsay Skinner, as well as proofs from the National Geographic series on American Indians arranged by geographic location. Financial records consist of invoices and receipts related to Kihn's artwork, traveling, and exhibitions.

Three sketchbooks and loose sketches include illustrated field notes and other drawings that document Kihn's travels and of native Americans. Photographs are of Kihn, and of Kihn at work. There are also photographs of Kihn's artwork.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1916-1957 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1904-1959 (Boxes 1-5; 4.0 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, circa 1920-1990 (Box 5-6; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, circa 1920-1957 (Boxes 6-8, OV 10; 2.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Financial Records, 1920-1955 (Box 8; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Sketchbooks and Sketches, circa 1922-1955 (Boxes 8-9, OV 10; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1920-1955 (Box 9; 5 folders)
Biographical Note:
Born in Brooklyn, New York, W. (Wilfred) Langdon Kihn (1898-1959) is best known for his portraits of American Indians and illustrations of their history, culture and rapidly disappearing way of life. In 1919, Kihn joined his art teacher Winold Reiss on a trip to the Blackfeet Reservation in Montana where he completed his first series of portraits. This marked the beginning of his lifelong career of documenting the tribal nations of the United States and Canada. Through commissions from Canadian and American Railroad companies, Kihn spent much of the 1920s traversing both the United States and Northwest Canada where he had the opportunity to record the members and lives of various tribes. During this period, his paintings also traveled the country in a one man exhibition of his American Indian portraits, which was arranged by the Brooklyn Museum, and traveled to about 40 institutions in the United States. However his largest and best known commission was a project to research and paint North American Indians for serial publication in National Geographic. Kihn received the commission in 1935 and his association with the organization spanned two decades, culminating in the 1955 exhibition of his work at the National Geographic Museum, Washington, D.C, and the publication Indians of the Americas, with copius illustrations derived from Kihn's paintings and drawings.

In addition to his travels and work in North America, Kihn enjoyed a brief stint between 1929-1932 painting in France and Spain. Upon his return he focused upon obtaining commercial work and enjoyed success as an illustrator, whose work was featured in Beaver, Kings and Cabins (1933) and Flat Tail (1935), among other books. Kihn also wrote articles about his travels; amateur painters, whom he specialized in teaching; and American Indian legends and tribal cultures. Between 1948-1951 he was a partner in the Guy Wiggins-W. Langdon Kihn Art School in Essex, Connecticut. He married Helen Butler in 1920 and in between their travels the couple eventually settled in East Haddam, Connecticut. W. Langdon Kihn died in 1957.
Provenance:
Helen Kihn, W. Langdon Kihn's widow, donated the bulk of the collection in 1959. In 1994 Phyllis Kihn, the artist's daughter, donated pages 1-8 of Kihn's original manuscript of his memoirs and a transcript of the complete memoirs.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Connecticut  Search this
Topic:
Book illustrators -- Connecticut  Search this
Indians of North America -- Pictorial works  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Sketches
Photographs
Poetry
Writings
Citation:
W. Langdon Kihn papers, 1904-1990, bulk 1904-1957. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kihnwlan
See more items in:
W. Langdon Kihn papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kihnwlan

Uriah A. Boyden Papers

Creator:
Boyden, Uriah A. (Uriah Atherton), 1804-1879  Search this
Francis, Joseph Sidney  Search this
Schultze, Bernhard  Search this
Names:
American Association for the Advancement of Science  Search this
Ames Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Amoskeag Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Atlantic Cotton Mills.  Search this
Boston and Lowell Railroad Corporation.  Search this
Boston and Roxbury Mill Corporation.  Search this
Boston and Worcester Railroad Corporation.  Search this
Hamilton Manufacturing Company (Lowell, Mass.).  Search this
Jackson Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Lawrence Company.  Search this
Lowell Appleton Company.  Search this
Lowell Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Manchester Printing Works.  Search this
Merrimack Manufacturing Company.  Search this
New England Glass Company.  Search this
Saco Water Power Company.  Search this
Salmon Falls Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Stark Mills  Search this
Suncook Mills Company.  Search this
Tilestons & Holllingsworth Upper Mill.  Search this
Boyden, Seth  Search this
Francis, James B. (James Bicheno), 1815-1892  Search this
Nobel, Alfred Bernhard, 1833-1896  Search this
Sawyer, Edward  Search this
Storrow, Charles S. (Charles Storer), 1809-1904  Search this
Straw, Ezekiel Albert, 1819-1882  Search this
Extent:
21 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Newspapers
Correspondence
Clippings
Articles
Drawings
Financial records
Legal documents
Notebooks
Place:
Nashua (N.H.)
Lowell (Mass.)—Industries
Manchester (N.H.)
Brookline (Mass.)
Brandon (Vt.)
Charlestown (Boston, Mass.)
Boston (Mass.)
Foxborough (Mass. : Town)
Date:
1806-1879
bulk 1830-1879
Summary:
Papers of Uriah A. Boyden (1804-1879), a Boston civil and mechanical engineer and the inventor of the Boyden turbine. Materials include correspondence, notes, calculations, articles, notebooks, legal documents, financial documents, patents and patent assignments, design drawings, newspaper clippings, pamphlets, business cards, and a print of a daguerreotype.
Scope and Content:
This collection documents the activities of Uriah Atherton Boyden (1804-1879), a Boston civil and mechanical engineer. The papers cover the span of Boyden's life, but the bulk of the papers date from between 1830 and 1879. The materials relate to his professional engineering life, including his work as an engineer for the Nashua and Lowell Railroad Corporation and his work with turbines at New England mills and manufacturing companies. The collection also contains papers that illustrate his scientific interests, including sound, meteorology, chemistry, and physics. Materials include correspondence, notes, calculations, articles, notebooks, legal documents, financial documents, patents and patent assignments, design drawings, newspaper clippings, pamphlets, business cards, and a print of a daguerreotype.

Series 1, Correspondence, 1823-1879, consists of three subseries: Subseries 1, Outgoing Correspondence, 1830-1879; Subseries 2, Incoming Correspondence, 1823-1879; and Subseries 3, Miscellaneous Correspondence, 1825-1879. The bulk of the series is comprised of letters, although some telegrams are included. The majority of Boyden's letters discuss his business dealings and scientific interests, but some correspondence is related to family matters. Family correspondents include his brothers Seth Boyden (1788-1870), William Pitts Boyden, Otis Boyden, Benjamin F. Boyden, and Alexander Boyden (1791-1881); his sisters Sarah Boyden (d. 1834) and Sabra Smith; and his parents Seth (1764-1840) and Susanna Boyden. He also corresponded with his niece Susan Boyden Burnet and sister-in-law Abigail Boyden. Subjects discussed include Seth Boyden's illness, death, and will in 1840 and Sarah Boyden's death in 1834.

Correspondence from the 1830s discusses the construction of the dry dock at the Charlestown Navy Yard, Massachusetts; experiments conducted at the Boston and Roxbury Mill Dam; Boyden's work as Chief Engineer for the Nashua and Lowell Railroad Corporation and his subsequent lawsuit against the Nashua and Lowell Railroad Corporation over a pay dispute; the employment of assistants; and the construction of a mill at the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company.

Frequent correspondents include William Livingston, who was deposed in Boyden's lawsuit of the Nashua and Lowell Railroad Company; F. George Stark of Amoskeag Village; John Jacques of Worcester, Massachusetts; R. Read of Amoskeag Manufacuring Company; and Ezekial Albert Straw (1819-1882), a civil engineer and agent for the Amoskeag Manufacuring Company and the governor of New Hampshire from 1872-1874. Correspondence from the 1840s is primarily about turbines. Subjects include the development of the Boyden Turbine at the Lowell Appleton Company and Boyden's patents (US Patents 5,068, 5,090, 5,114, 10,026, and 10,027).

Other topics include the Merrimack Manufacturing Company's new mill; the Stark Company's turbine; turbine pits for the Merrimack Company's Picking House; Boyden's design for a turbine built at the Lowell Machine Shop and used at Tilestons & Hollingsworth Upper Mill; and requests for books. During this period, Boyden sent letters to various manufacturing companies and mills, informing them he would be willing to sell his patent rights for turbine improvements and provide plans and specifications, although he would not oversee the construction of turbines. Recipients of these letters include hydraulic engineer James B. Francis, P. T. Jackson, treasurer of the Proprietors of Locks and Canals; T. G. Cary, treasurer of the Appleton Company; John Avery, agent of the Hamilton Manufacturing Company; Alexander Wright, agent of the Lowell Manufacturing Company; Charles T. Storrow, treasurer of the Essex Company and the Atlantic Cotton Mills; R. Read, agent of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company; Amos A. Lawrence, treasurer of Salmon Falls Manufacturing Company; John Mixer, treasurer of the Suncook Manufacturing Company; and William Dwight, treasurer of the Saco Water Power Company.

Letters relating to the Atlantic Cotton Mills turbine design, testing, and lawsuit comprise a portion of the correspondence from the late 1840s and 1850s. Other correspondence from the 1850s includes letters to and from Boyden's employee Norman W. Stearns, who traveled to California and Australia; discussion of the testing of a turbine at the Hamilton Manufacturing Company Mills at Lowell; an extract from a report on the power derived from the tides at the Boston and Roxbury Mill Dam; a letter from the Smithsonian Institution encouraging Boyden to publish his research on turbines; and the difficulties with turbine experiments at the Nashua Manufacturing Company's mills. Boyden continued to offer his patent rights to various companies, including James T. Ames, agent of the Ames Manufacturing Company, and Ezekial Albert Straw, agent of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company.

Some letters were written by assistant Edward Sawyer on behalf of Uriah Boyden. Letters from the 1860s include Boyden's correspondence with the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia concerning the prize he created for any resident of North America who could determine by experiment whether all rays of light are transmitted at the same velocity. Common subjects include turbines; physics; Henri Giffard's invention of the injector; an apparatus for atmospheric electrical experiments; expanding gas; and the purchase of chemical substances.

There are many letters to the Bailliere Brothers, importers of periodicals; and E. G. Wallis, the Assistant Assessor of the third district of Boston for taxes. In 1862, Boyden wrote a letter to Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew offering a letter of recommendation for hydraulic engineer James B. Francis. Boyden also paid for a lecture in 1862 given by George Boutwell on liberating some Southern slaves. Letters from the 1870s discuss a variety of topics, including patents, the New England Glass Company, and the purchase of books. Finally, a folder of miscellaneous materials includes several letters of recommendation and introduction for Boyden, and a few letters neither to nor from Boyden.

Series 2, Notes on Turbines, 1833-1870, contains primarily Boyden's notes and calculations relating to the design, development, construction, and testing of turbines. There are also drawings of turbines, excerpts from scholarly journals about turbines, and the manuscript article about turbines for American Cabinet authored by Boyden. A published copy of this article is located in Series 10, Printed Material, 1835-1879. Some materials are in French.

A large portion of the papers are the calculations and results of experiments on Turbine No. 3 of the Atlantic Cotton Mills. More information on these experiments can be found in the Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867, and Series 6, Lawsuits, 1836-1864. Experiments conducted at the Appleton Company, where Boyden developed the Boyden turbine, appear in this series.

The turbine notes also contain measurements and computations for turbines for the Chicopee Manufacturing Company; designs and calculations for the Tileston and Hollingsworth's turbine in Dorchester, Massachusetts; an estimate for installing turbines for the Jackson Company; and a report to the Boston Water Power Company on the estimate of power from the Boston and Roxbury Mill Dam. Boyden was assisted in his calculations and experiments by Maximilian L. G. Wilde, Edward Sawyer, [Neil?], W. Mertz, David Dows, and James Emerson. The series contains an oversize miscellaneous folder comprised of calculations and tables.

Series 3, Subject Files, circa 1827-1875, contains groups of papers that Boyden assembled into packets and numbered and labeled with topical categories. The papers cover a wide range of topics. A large portion of the materials are excerpts or notes from published sources, although some packets contain Boyden's own calculations, tables, and surveys. Some materials are in French, German, and Greek and some have been translated from French and German into English.

One subject Boyden explores in depth is tobacco, including the tobacco trade, taxes on tobacco, consumption statistics from the United States and Europe, different varieties of plants, and tobacco's effect on health, including whether or not it contributes to mental illness. In addition, he discusses alcohol's effect on health; whether crime is connected with drinking alcohol, liquor licensing laws, and the option of prohibition in Massachusetts. He was also interested in the early history of the Bible, including how it was translated from the original Hebrew and how Egyptian connects to Old Testament history. Boyden compares different religious practices, including Islam, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and ancient Greek and Egyptian religion.

Boyden collected a great deal of information from census data in the United States and Great Britain. In the Boston area, he looks at the number of births among Irish immigrants compared to native born Americans, and in particular explores whether tobacco use increases or decreases births among Irish immigrants. He also utilizes population statistics to discuss mental illness in both Europe and the United States. Like Series 4, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879, the Subject Files contain statistics on the cause of and response to fires in Boston.

Finally, the Subject Files include information on a variety of scientific subjects. For instance, a portion of materials discuss hydraulic lime, atomic theory and molecules, chemistry, thermoelectricity, meteorology, astronomy, batteries, and water pressure through pipes. Boyden quotes from Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species in his explorations of natural history. Several packets are comprised of surveys of property lots in Brookline, Massachusetts and the Longwood area of Boston. Sources Boyden utilized include publications such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Bible, the New York Herald, The Boston Daily Advertiser, L'Annales des Ponts et Chaussées (The Annals of the Department of Civil Engineering), Brockhaus's Encyclopaedia, Annals of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Les Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (The Proceedings of the French Academy of Sciences), Annales de Chimie et de Physique (Annals of Chemistry and Physics), Annales d'Hygiène (Annals of Hygiene), Appleton's Cyclopaedia, Hunt's Merchant's Magazine, Esquirol's Treatise on Mental Maladies, The London Times, and Poggendorff's Annals. The packets also contain call slips from the Boston Athenaeum and the Boston Public Library.

Series 4, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879, consists of a wide range of material. Some papers are in French and German, or translated from published French and German into English. The series encompasses notes from Boyden's scientific experiments and observations. One subject Boyden studied indepth was meteorology, and the series contains weather observations, recordings of temperature and air pressure, and eyewitness accounts of unusual weather.

In addition, Boyden conducted experiments on the effect of a dam in the Merrimack River, the specific heat of steam, electricity, the effects of rays on bisulphide of carbon, glass making, and oils. Five notebooks document experiments on the chemical combination of oxygen with liquids at atmospheric temperatures. Furthermore, the series contains information on sound experiments made at Chelsea, Massachusetts, and at the Charlestown, Massachusetts aqueduct, which are also discussed in Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867, and Series 9, Drawings, circa 1835-1872. Boyden conducted surveys of various industrial projects, including the Jackson Manufacturing Company's mill work and dam; the sewers of Lowell, Massachusetts; the Nashua Mills; the aqueduct, cistern and pumping apparatus for the Boston Iron Company; the Lewiston Water Power Company; the bursting of a locomotive for the Boston and Lowell Railroad; and the cold well at Brandon, Vermont.

The series consists of several folders of drawings, including sketches of an apparatus for making signal sounds, and a design for a mercurial pump, and various scientific instruments. There are also copies of drawings of a differential galvanometer, dynamometer, pneumatic apparatus, and pneumatic glasses. The originals are located in Series 9, Drawings, circa 1835-1872. A significant portion of the series consists of Boyden's investigations of the causes of fires in Boston, including statistics and eyewitness accounts. The series also contains Boyden's computations and design for a chronometer.

Boyden is the author of several published papers found in this series, including "Researches in Meteorology," "Paper on Mechanical force," "An Essay on Caloric's Repulsing Caloric and its Attracting Ponderable Matter," and "Paper on Sound." "Explosions produced by Niter in Burning Buildings" appeared in The Boston Post May 9, 1862. Boyden also wrote Researches in Physics, which was printed in 1863. The series also contains translations and copies of papers and articles on various scientific subjects, including magnetism, electricity, heat, light, meteorology, and physics. These include articles from the Annales de Chimie et de Physique (Annals of Chemistry and Physics), the Bulletin des Sciences Mathématiques (Bulletin of the Mathematical Sciences), the Annalen der Physik und Chemie (Annals of Physics and Chemistry), Mémoires de l'Academie Royale (Imperial) des Sciences de l'Institut de France, and Les Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (The Proceedings of the French Academy of Sciences). Boyden also collected single works, including A Treatise on the Heat of Permanent Gases by John Plana, New Branch of Physics, or Studies Concerning Bodies in the Spheroidal State by P. H. Boutigny, and Thermochrosis, or Calorific Coloration by Macedoine Melloni.

Nine miscellaneous folders contain citations from encyclopedias, notes from scientific articles and newspapers, calculations, notes on laws, notes from experiments, a tide table, accounts of the weather, directions for experiments, specifications for a section of a canal built in Lowell by the Proprietors of the Locks and Canals, and a description of a heliostat. One oversize miscellaneous folder contains a legal document concerning lease from the Boston and Roxbury Mill Corporation to Horace Gray, a plan of a screwdriver, a table of experiments made in grinding rye at the City Mills, and experiments on the flow of water over dams made at the Lower Locks in Lowell, Massachusetts.

Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867, consists of bound notebooks ranging in size from 5" x 7" to 7" x 8". The notebooks demonstrate Boyden's wide-ranging scientific interests. They contain primarily technical information, such as experiments on sound, electromagnetism, and thermometers and include drawings and tables with data. His notebooks include excerpts from scientific journals on physics and chemistry, including some materials in French.

The personal memoranda feature notes from his travels around New England and the Mid-Atlantic States, including descriptions of railroads, dams, and mills; bridges in Georgetown, Washington, District of Columbia; a smelting furnace in Pottsville, Pennsylvania; and the Baltimore Water Works aqueduct. Several additional personal notebooks document Boyden's property and expenditures. Many notebooks were written or corrected by others, presumably Boyden's assistants, including Edward Sawyer, Levi York, Maximilian S. G. Wilde, Charles Leonard, Charles Mason, Jeremiah Dickson, L.W. Cushing, and A. Neill. One common subject is Boyden's work with turbines and water-wheels at New England mills and manufacturing companies. Many notebooks record turbine experiments at the Lowell Appleton Company, where Boyden developed the Boyden turbine, and at the Atlantic Cotton Mills. For more information on Boyden's work at the Atlantic Cotton Mills, see Series 6, Lawsuits, 1836-1864 and Series 2, Notes on Turbines, 1833-1870.

Other notebooks document Boyden's involvement in the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester, New Hampshire, where he developed a hydraulic power system. Other mills Boyden studied include the Stark Mills, the Lawrence Company's mills, and the Boston and Roxbury Mill Dam. Boyden was interested in the construction of canals and locks, including the Weston Canal near Lowell, Massachusetts. Railroad surveys comprise a significant portion of the notebooks' content and include his work with railroad companies, including the Boston and Lowell Railroad Corporation and the Boston and Worcester Railroad Corporation. Boyden conducted a survey of a cold well at Brandon, Vermont. More information about that well can be found in Series 3, Subject Files, circa 1827-1875, and Series 3, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879.

Series 6, Lawsuits, 1836-1864, consists of legal materials related to lawsuits Boyden was involved in, both as a plaintiff and as a witness. The majority of the series is comprised of documents relating to Boyden's Atlantic Cotton Mills lawsuit, a conflict over whether Boyden had a right to conduct tests on turbines built from his design at the Atlantic Cotton Mills. The suit also involved a dispute over Boyden's patent rights to his turbine improvements used at the Atlantic Cotton Mills. On February 14, 1856, the court decided in favor of Boyden, and required the Atlantic Cotton Mills to award him reparations.

The series contains copies of correspondence related to Boyden's dealings with the Atlantic Cotton Mills, including letters to and from Charles S. Storrow and William Gray, treasurers of the Atlantic Cotton Mills. Also included are depositions; replies to allegations; Boyden's drafts of his answers to interrogatories; and calculations, notes, and drawings, presumably used as evidence in court. Bernhard Schultze (see Series 12, Bernhard Schultze Materials, 1837-1857) compared and corrected Boyden's November 21, 1855 reply to the answer of the Atlantic Cotton Mills and a statement of some expenses in measuring the power expended in actuating turbine No. 3 of the Atlantic Cotton Mills.

Also included are letters of reference for Boyden, probably related to his lawsuit of the Nashua and Lowell Railroad; Boyden's answers to interrogatories filed by the Boston Water Power Company in the case of Boston Water Power Company v. Horace Gray, which also includes his answers to interrogatories filed by the Boston and Worcester Railroad Company in regard to the receiving basin of the Boston Water Power Company; and Boyden's deposition in the case of Oswego Canal Company v. Henry M. Ames & Isaac L. Merriam.

Series 7, Financial Papers, 1820-1876, contains both personal and business financial papers. A large portion documents the New England Glass Company, including records of the stockholders meetings and end of year reports on the financial state of the company. There are also copies of receipts of bills Boyden sent to companies he worked for, including the Atlantic Cotton Mills, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, the Boston and Lowell Railroad Corporation, the Ames Manufacturing Company, the Salmon Falls Manufacturing Company, the Lowell Machine Shop, and the Holyoke Water Power Company. Boyden also received stock dividends from some of the same companies and others, including the Merrimack Manufacturing Company, the New England Glass Company, the Old Colony Railroad Company, Stark Manufacturing Company, the Lancaster Mills, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, the Boston and Lowell Railroad Corporation, and the Boston Gas Light Company.

Another aspect of the papers includes Boyden's requests to buy certain items, including metals, glass cylinders, and wire for his experiments; books in English, French and German; and periodicals. There are also reports of Boyden's income for the Internal Revenue Service dating from 1864-1871. One document is a quitclaim deed for the Savin Hill property in Dorchester, Massachusetts, which Boyden surveyed. Surveying records can be found in Series 3, Subject Files, circa 1827-1875.

Series 8, Patents, 1838-1847, consists of three subseries, Subseries 1, Boyden's Patents, 1843-1847; Subseries 2, Other Patents, 1838-1843; and Subseries 3, Patent Assignments, 1849-1856.

Subseries 1, Boyden's Patents, 1843-1847, consists of issued patents for Boyden's turbine improvements with attached drawings and specifications, including patents for improvement in turbines, September 20, 1843 (US Patent 10,026); improvement in hydraulic motors, September 20, 1843 (US Patent 10,027); improvements in hanging shafts of waterwheels, April 17, 1847 (US Patent 5,068); and improvement in diffuser for waterwheels, May 1, 1847 (US Patent 5,090).

Subseries 2, Other Patents, 1838-1843, consists of a patent granted to John R. Wheeler for an improved waterwheel on April 14, 1838, and a patent granted to Amasa B. Beckwith for improvement in waterwheels on October 20, 1843.

Subseries 3, Patent Assignments, 1849-1856, consists of legal documents giving various companies the right to use Boyden's patented turbine improvements in their mills in exchange for royalties. Companies include the Great Falls Manufacturing Company, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, the Appleton Company, the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, the Merrimack Manufacturing Company, the Lowell Manufacturing Company, and the Lowell Machine Shop.

Series 9, Drawings, circa 1835-1872, contains oversize drawings and some tables, ranging in size from approximately 48'' x 30'' to 21'' x 30''. Some of the papers are brittle and crumble easily. The series contains one work in German, "Werke Theorie und Bau der Wasserraeder" (A Work on the Theory and Construction of Waterwheels).

A significant portion of the series consists of Boyden's designs for turbines used at various mills throughout New England, including the Ames Manufacturing Company; the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company; the Appleton Company, the Atlantic Cotton Mills; the Hamilton Manufacturing Company; the Essex Company Machine Shop and Blacksmith Shop; the Lancaster Mill; the Manchester Printing Works; the Merrimack Manufacturing Company; the Merrimack Print Works; the Perkins Mills the Salmon Falls Manufacturing Company; the Stark Mills; and the New England Worsted Company and Suncook Manufacturing Company. More information on Boyden's work designing turbines for these companies can be found in Series 1, Correspondence, 1823-1879; Series 2, Notes on Turbines, 1833-1870; and Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867.

Of particular note are drawings from "Lowell Hydraulic Experiments", a work published in 1855 by James B. Francis. Francis developed an improved turbine based on the inward flow Poncelet turbine, which became known as the Francis turbine and was more efficient than the outward flow Boyden turbine. Boyden was an associate of Francis's, but it is unclear how closely involved he was in the development of the Francis turbine. One subseries, Boyden's improvements, contains drawings that demonstrate Boyden's development of new turbines.

The series also includes records from Boyden's experiments on sound in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Notes from other experiments on sound can be found in Series 4, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879, and Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867. Included in the series are designs for various tools, including a chronometer, differential galvanometer, hydraulic apparatus, and pneumatic glasses. Smaller copies of some of these drawings can be found in Series 4, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879.

Two folders of miscellaneous materials include several tables documenting people admitted to mental hospitals, the observation of tides made at the Charlestown Navy Yard; a table of fires in Boston; experiments on the wheel of the Poncelet System; a plan and sections for showing the results of surveys at the cold well in Brandon, Vermont; and designs for a brass apparatus, a rack of reflectors, an apparatus for measuring the heights of water, a glass scale, and a dynamometer. Nine folders contain unidentified drawings.

Series 10, Printed Material, 1835-1879, contains newspaper clippings and other printed material collected by Boyden. The major subjects covered by the newspaper clippings include a campaign to supply Boston with drinking water, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Smithsonian Institution. Other newspaper clippings discuss the career of Patrick Tracy Jackson, the founder of the Merrimack Manufacturing Company; Boyden's turbine wheel; railway accidents; a court case involving an escaped slave; the rotation of the earth; the establishment of a public library in Boston; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; the Louisiana imbroglio of 1874-1875; and smoking. Boyden frequently clipped from the Daily Evening Traveller, the Boston Advertiser, The Boston Atlas, the Boston Post, and the Boston Evening Transcript. Some newspapers have been saved and placed in a folder in a map case drawer.

The series also includes a pamphlet entitled Martin's Twenty-One Years in the Boston Stock Market, or Fluctuations Therein from January 1835 to January 1856, two bulletins of new books offered by the Boston Public Library and marked up by Boyden, patents for Alfred Nobel's new explosive compound, several of Boyden's business cards, a print portrait of Boyden, and a metal sign that hung outside his office in Boston. The series contains one miscellaneous file that includes items such as a price list for mechanists' tools, an article on the phenomena of sound, and a table of the work and expenses on the Boston and Lowell Railroad.

Series 11, Seth Boyden Materials, 1840-1841, is comprised of documents related to the death of Uriah Boyden's father, Seth Boyden (1764-1840). Included are drawings of the headstones for the graves of Seth Boyden (1764-1840) and Uriah Boyden's sister, Sarah Boyden; Seth Boyden's last will and testament; a poster for an executer's sale; and the account of Uriah Boyden and Benjamin F. Boyden, the executers of Seth Boyden's (1764-1840) last will and testament.

Series 12, Bernhard Schultze Materials, 1837-1857, contains the letters and papers of Bernhard Schultze, a man employed by Boyden as a translator from around November 26, 1853 until his death in August 1857. Schultze was a witness in the case of Boyden v. Atlantic Cotton Mills and compared and corrected materials related to the case. These can be found in Series 6, Lawsuits, 1836-1864. He died from a head injury that occurred in Boyden's offices at 81 Washington Street.

More information about the accident in Boyden's official statement, August 17, 1857, to the coroner and the jury investigating Schultze's death, in Series 1, Correspondence, 1823-1879. Half of the materials are in German and consist of correspondence, receipts, registered letter slips, a medical bill, and a program for the Paine Festival and Annual Ball in 1857. Several of the documents relate to politics in the late 1850s and the election of 1856. Included is a newspaper article reporting on a pro-German James Buchanan rally; a circular supporting John C. Fremont and William L. Dayton, the Republican ticket in the election of 1856; and the by-laws of the Boston Kansas Club.

Series 13, Joseph Sidney Francis Materials, circa 1855-1872, consists of drawings made by Joseph Sidney Francis while studying at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They are labeled as the property of James B. Francis, the hydraulic engineer and inventor of the Francis turbine who worked closely with Boyden. Included in this series are tables documenting the number of fires in Boston and the number of people admitted to French mental hospitals.
Arrangement:
The papers are arranged into thirteen series. The contents of each series or subseries is arranged chronologically, with the exception of Series 3, which is arranged numerically, and Series 9, which is arranged alphabetically by subject. The series and subseries arrangement of the papers are as follows:

Series 1, Correspondence, 1823-1879

Subseries 1, Outgoing, 1830-1879

Subseries 2, Incoming, 1823-1879

Subseries 3, Miscellaneous, 1825-1879

Series 2, Notes on Turbines, 1833-1870

Series 3, Subject Files, circa 1827-1875

Series 4, Notes and Papers, 1806-1879

Series 5, Notebooks, 1819-1867

Series 6, Lawsuits, 1836-1864

Series 7, Financial Papers, 1820-1876

Series 8, Patents, 1838-1847

Subseries 1, Boyden Patents, 1843-1847

Subseries 2, Other Patents, 1838-1843

Subseries 3, Patent Assignments, 1849-1856

Series 9, Drawings, circa 1835-1872

Series 10, Printed Material, 1835-1879

Series 11, Seth Boyden (1764-1840) Materials, 1840-1841

Series 12, Bernhard Schultze Materials, 1837-1857

Series 13, Joseph Sidney Francis Materials, circa 1855-1872
Administrative/Biographical History:
Civil and mechanical engineer and multi-faceted scientist, Uriah Atherton Boyden was born on February 17, 1804 in Foxborough, Massachusetts. His father Seth Boyden (1764-1849) was a farmer and blacksmith and invented a machine to split leather (Reynolds 2010). His brother Seth Boyden (1788-1870) was a noted inventor in Newark, New Jersey, and in 1825 Boyden worked for him in a "leather and sheepskin bookbinding business" (Reynolds 2010). Boyden moved back to Massachusetts in 1828 and worked with James Hayward on surveys for the Boston and Providence Railroad, and with Loammi Baldwin on a dry dock for the Charlestown Navy Yard (now Boston Navy Yard) (Reynolds 2010). In the 1830s he opened his own engineering practice and worked on mills in the growing industrial center of Lowell, Massachusetts and was the chief engineer from 1836-1838 on the Nashua and Lowell Railroad. He designed a hydraulic power system for the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester, New Hampshire around 1840 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 5).

Boyden is best known for inventing the Boyden turbine, "the first turbine to be manufactured in quantity in the United States"(American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 1). Boyden developed this turbine around 1844 while working for the Appleton Company in Lowell, Massachusetts(American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 5). Boyden improved the efficiency of the Fourneyron outward flow turbine by "providing a conical approach passage for the incoming water… providing guide vanes in the outlet passages and by adding a submerged diffuser" (American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 2). Boyden assigned his patent rights to a number of mills and manufacturing companies in New England and provided them with plans and specifications for turbines, although he did not oversee construction.

The Boyden turbine was superseded in 1849 by the more efficient inward flow Francis turbine, developed by James B. Francis with Boyden's assistance (American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 2-3). The Francis turbine is now used throughout the world (Reynolds 2010).

After 1850, Boyden focused on scientific pursuits, including chemistry, physics, and meteorology. His other interests included the causes of fires in Boston, tobacco's effect on people's health, and mental illness in Europe and the United States. However, he rarely published the results of his research (Reynolds 2010). In 1874, Boyden "deposited $1,000 with the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia to be awarded to any resident of North America who should determine by experiment whether light and other physical rays are transmitted at the same velocity" (American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1975, 5). No one has claimed the prize. Boyden died on October 17, 1879 in Boston. In his will, he bequeathed approximately $250,000 to Harvard University, which it used to build an observatory in Peru (Reynolds 2010). The Boyden Observatory is now located in South Africa.

Reference List

1975. The 102-inch Boyden Hydraulic Turbines at Harmony Mill No. 3, Cohoes, New York. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. http://files.asme.org/ASMEORG/Communities/History/Landmarks/5507.pdf, (accessed 18 July 2010).

Reynolds, Terry S. 2010. Boyden, Uriah Atherton. American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press. http://www.anb.org/articles/13/13-00178.html (accessed 18 July 2010).
Provenance:
Unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rules may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Water-wheels  Search this
Tobacco  Search this
Thermometers  Search this
Thermoelectricity  Search this
Specific heat  Search this
Sound  Search this
Religions  Search this
Railroads -- Surveying  Search this
Railroads -- Construction  Search this
Radiometers  Search this
Pneumatics  Search this
Physics  Search this
Optics  Search this
Ozone  Search this
Natural history  Search this
Mental illness  Search this
Mills and mill-work  Search this
Dividends  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Chronometer  Search this
Census  Search this
Atomic theory  Search this
Fires -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Drinking of alcoholic beverages -- Law and legislation  Search this
Hydraulic turbines  Search this
Inventions -- 19th century  Search this
Glass manufacture  Search this
Hydraulic engineering and engineers  Search this
Lawsuits  Search this
Inventors -- 19th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents -- 1840-1850
Newspapers
Correspondence -- 19th century
Clippings
Articles
Drawings
Financial records
Legal documents
Notebooks
Citation:
Uriah A. Boyden Papers, 1806-1879, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0982
See more items in:
Uriah A. Boyden Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0982
Online Media:

Ellen Hale and Hale Family papers

Creator:
Hale, Ellen Day, 1855-1940  Search this
Names:
Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909  Search this
Hale, Emily P.  Search this
Hale, Herbert Dudley, 1866-1909  Search this
Hale, Lilian Westcott, 1880-1963  Search this
Hale, Robert Beverly, 1901-1985  Search this
Hale, Susan, 1833-1910  Search this
Extent:
3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Sketches
Date:
circa 1860-1952
Summary:
The Ellen Hale and Hale family papers measure 3 linear feet and date from circa 1860 to 1952. Found within the papers are biographical material for Ellen Day and Edward Everett Hale; personal correspondence from Ellen Day and Lillian Westcott Hale; diaries by Ellen Day and Susan Hale; an appraisal of the Hale estate and personal business records for Ellen Day and Edward Everett Hale; printed material; sketchbooks and sketches by Ellen Day and Herbert Dudley Hale; and travel photographs of the Hale family.
Scope and Contents:
The Ellen Hale and Hale family papers measure 3 linear feet and date from circa 1860 to 1952. Found within the papers are biographical material for Ellen Day and Edward Everett Hale; personal correspondence from Ellen Day and Lillian Westcott Hale; diaries by Ellen Day and Susan Hale; an appraisal of the Hale estate and personal business records for Ellen Day and Edward Everett Hale; printed material; sketchbooks and sketches by Ellen Day and Herbert Dudley Hale; and travel photographs of the Hale family.

Biographical materials consist of publications related to Edward Everett Hale's 80th birthday celebration; Ellen Day Hale's calling cards, calendar, and engagement books; and Robert Beverly Hale's calendar.

Correspondence is primarily Ellen Day Hale's and Lillian Westcott Hale's personal and business correspondence, and a letter from Margaret C. Hale to Arthur Hale.

Writings include 9 diaries by Ellen Day Hale, 1 diary by Emily P. Hale, and 19 diaries by Susan Hale; an essay by Arthur Hale; Herbert Dudley Hale's word game book; Susan Hale's travel instructions to a niece; and a notebook listing the likes and dislikes of various Hale family members.

Personal business records consist of Edward Everett and Emily P. Hale's account and tax records; Ellen Day Hale's art supply receipts, royalty statements, tax records, and a check register; Lillian Westcott Hale's receipts; and Susan Hale's notes on an appraisal of the Hale estate.

Printed material includes various clippings, invitations, and programs kept by the Hale family, and Ellen Day Hale's travel postcards.

Artwork includes 22 sketchbooks by Ellen Day Hale, 5 sketchbooks by Herbert Dudley Hale; and 7 sketchbooks by other artists.

Photographs are travel snapshots taken during travels in Mexico.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series.

Series 1: Biographical materials, circa 1875-1925 (6 folders; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1861-1951 (4 folders; Box 1)

Series 3: Writings, 1878-1933 (0.9 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 4: Personal business records, 1909-1952 (8 folders; Box 2)

Series 5: Printed material, 1862-1933 (5 folders; Box 2)

Series 6: Artwork, circa 1860-1925 (1.5 linear feet; Box 2-3)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1890-1901 (1 folder; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
Writer, publisher, and clergyman Edward Everett Hale (1822-1909) and his wife, Emily Perkins Hale, were well regarded members of Boston society. After graduating from Boston Latin School at age 13, Hale enrolled directly into Harvard University and graduated second in his class in 1839. He became a licensed Unitarian minister in 1842 and was a church pastor from 1846 to 1899. In the 1860s, Hale began publishing short stories in the Atlantic Monthly, Harper's New Monthly Magazine, and other periodicals. In 1869, he co-founded the Christian Examiner, which later merged with Scribner's Magazine in 1875, and founded Lend a Hand in 1886. He and his wife had one daughter and eight sons. Three of those sons died in childhood, and a fourth, Robert Beverly Hale, died as a young adult.

Writer and artist Susan Hale (1833-1910) was schooled at home by tutors before enrolling in George B. Emerson's school. She was a self-taught artist who learned to paint and draw early in life. In 1872, she traveled to Europe to pursue formal art instruction and, upon her return to Boston, began giving lessons in watercolors. From 1873 to 1885, she maintained a studio at the Boston Art Club, wrote articles for Boston papers, edited literary collections for fundraisers, lectured on popular fiction, and eventually became a literary celebrity. Beginning in the mid-1880s, Hale began traveling the country and abroad giving lectures in the winter and visiting Edward Everett's family in Matunuck, Rhode Island in the summer. In between her travels, she continued to publish books, including a traveling series for young readers, and an instruction book on painting techniques.

Artist and teacher Ellen Day Hale (1854-1939) was the eldest of the Hale children. She received her early art training from her aunt, Susan Hale, and received formal art training from Boston artists William Rimmer, William Morris Hunt, and Helen Knowlton. Hale continued her education at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and in 1877, opened a portrait studio where she taught private students. In the early 1880s, Hale traveled through Europe before settling in Paris to study at the Académie Julian for three years. In 1883, she met fellow artist and lifelong companion Gabrielle de Veaux Clements. In 1893, they purchased a home near Gloucester, Massachusetts named "The Thickets," where they opened their studio to women artists and taught various painting, printing, and etching techniques. After the death of her mother, from 1904 to 1909, Hale moved to Washington, D.C. to act as hostess for her father, who had been appointed Chaplain of the U.S. Senate. After her father's death, Hale continued to produce paintings, and together with Clements, summered at the artists' colony at Folly Cove on Cape Ann, Massachusetts, and frequently traveled abroad in the winters.

Arthur Hale (1859-1939) was a general agent for the American Railway Association and an employee of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. In 1899, he married Camilla Conner, with whom he had one daughter.

Architect Herbert Dudley Hale (1866-1908) graduated from Harvard in 1888 and studied architecture abroad at the École des Beaux Art in Paris, where he graduated among the first in his class. After his return to Boston around the turn of the century, Hale married Margaret Marquand, with whom he had five children, and established the architecture firm Hale and Rogers with James Gamble Rogers.

Writer Robert Beverly Hale (1869-1895) graduated from Harvard in 1892 and published numerous stories and articles in the Atlantic Monthly, Harper's Weekly, and Youth's Companion. Elsie and Other Poems was published in 1894, and Six Stories and Some Verses was published posthumously after Hale's death in 1895.

Artist Lillian Westcott Hale (1881-1963) was the wife of fellow artist Philip Leslie Hale, the third eldest of the Hale children. Hale received a scholarship to attend the Boston Museum School of Fine Arts, where she met Philip and married him halfway through her studies. Hale held her first solo show in 1908, the same year her daughter was born, and continued to produce work for exhibitions through the 1920s. She was the recipient of the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition gold medal, the National Academy's Shaw Memorial Prize (1915), and the National Academy of Design's Altman Prize (1927). She continued producing works until her death in 1963.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds two collections related to the Hale family, including the Philip Leslie Hale papers and the Edward Everett Hale letter to an unidentified person. Smith College's Sophia Smith Collection also holds papers of the Hale family, including Nathan, Sr., and Sarah Preston Everett Hale; Edward Everett and Emily Perkins Hale; Ellen Day Hale; and Philip and Lilian Westcott Hale. .
Separated Materials:
Printed books and monographs in the collection were transferred to the National Portrait Gallery Library in 1978.
Provenance:
The Ellen Hale and Hale family papers were donated in 1978 and 1984 by Nancy Hale Bowers, the niece of Ellen Day Hale, and the grand-daughter of Edward Everett and Emily P. Hale.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters  Search this
Topic:
Women painters -- Massachusetts  Search this
Artists -- Massachusetts  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Watercolorists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Sketches
Citation:
Ellen Hale and Hale family papers, circa 1860-1952. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.halefami
See more items in:
Ellen Hale and Hale Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-halefami

Telegrams

Collection Creator:
Howard, Fred.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1911 September 22-27
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Fred Howard Vin Fiz Special Papers, NASM.2007.0002, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Fred Howard Vin Fiz Special Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2007-0002-ref14
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The Crisis Vol 13. No. 3

Published by:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
9 7/8 x 6 7/8 x 1/8 in. (25.1 x 17.5 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
January 1917
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Bobbie Ross in memory of Elizabeth Dillard
Object number:
2012.84.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd50347ba0e-cdc9-41b7-8139-ddcd306304c5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.84.10
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Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- France -- Paris  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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Online Media:

Chronological Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Kihn, W. Langdon  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1917-1959
Scope and Contents note:
Found in this subseries are letters to and from Kihn that document his career as an artist, illustrator, teacher, and writer. Scattered through out are personal correspondence, including letters addressed to his wife Helen from their mutual friends. There is also a cache of third party correspondence addressed to Marius Barbeau, a Canadian ethnologist who was a colleague and friend of Kihn's.

The earliest correspondence includes letters from his parents, particularly his father Alfred Kihn, who also trained as an artist and founded a steel engraving firm with his brother that specialized in bank note engraving. Kihn senior not only wrote proffering career advice, but also corresponded with his son's business and personal associates while Langdon Kihn was on extended trips. There are also letters from W. Langdon Kihn to his parents describing his trips, including his impressions of San Francisco, Glacier Park, experiences painting Indian portraits, as well as his 1929-1932 sojourn painting in Paris and Spain. These early letters also record exhibitions, primarily a traveling exhibition of his portraits of members of the Blackfeet Indian tribe, which was organized by the Brooklyn Museum of Art and traveled to over 40 institutions in the United States.

Letters to and from authors, publishers, advertisers, and collectors comprise a large amount of correspondence from late 1920s to the mid 1930s, which document his efforts at securing commissions for commercial work. During this time he also began to submit articles about his work and travels. Correspondents include the author Constance Lindsay Skinner; publishers Macmillan and Company; Little, Brown, and Company; Harcourt Brace and Company; and magazines including, Fortune and Story Parade.

The bulk of the chronological correspondence records his association with the National Geographic magazine, spanning from 1935-1955. The National Geographic Society commissioned Kihn to paint historical and contemporary scenes of the lives of over 35 tribal nations from the continental United States, Alaska, and the Northwest Territories. Engraved illustrations of his paintings were published in the magazine's ongoing series on American Indians between 1937 and 1949. Most of the related correspondence was between Kihn, Franklin L. Fisher, Chief of National Geographic's Illustrated Division and Matthew W. Striling, Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution, who also played an important role in this project.

See Appendix for a list of selected indivuduals, institutions, and organizations found in Series 2.2.
Arrangement note:
Letters have been arranged in folders in chronological order. However, there are examples of early correspondence in which the original letter and the later response letter have been glued together. No attempt has been made to separate them and in some cases they may disrupt the chronological arrangement.
Appendix: Selected Indivuduals, Institutions, and Organizations found in Series 2.2:
Ament, Robert S.

American Museum of Natural History, New York, N.Y.

American Federation of Arts, Washington, D.C.

Artzybasheff, Boris

Barbeau, Marius

Bill, Edward Lyman

Blassingame, Lurton

Bowles, Chester

Brooklyn Museum

Bye, George T.

Canadian Pacific Railway Company, Montreal

Cross, Wilbur L.

Dixon, Maynard

Eaton, Earle Hooker

Eggers, G. W.

Ennis, Howard

Explorers Club, New York, N.Y.

Fisher, Franklin

Gallup, Anna Billings

Great Northern Railroad Company, St. Paul, Minn.

Grosvenor, Gilbert

Halseth, Odd S.

Kihn, Alfred

Kihn, Helen

Kihn, W. Langdon

Kirk, Ruth

Laubin, Reginald and Gladys

Lecompte du Noüy, Marie (May)

Lecompte du Noüy, Pierre

Leechman, Douglas

Lummis Charles, F.

Macmillan Company

Museum of the American Indian

Niven, Frederick

Oakley, Thornton

Paisano, Ulysses

Reid, Russell

Schultz, Hart (Lone Wolf)

Skinner, Constance Lindsay

Standard, Paul

Steele, Captain Russell V.

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur

Stirling, Matthew W.

Watson, Elmo Scott

Wellcome, Sir Henry

White, D. Fedotoff

Wiggins, Guy

Ziegler, John
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
W. Langdon Kihn papers, 1904-1990, bulk 1904-1957. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kihnwlan, Subseries 2.2
See more items in:
W. Langdon Kihn papers
W. Langdon Kihn papers / Series 2: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kihnwlan-ref69

How a Railroad Engineer From Nebraska Invented the World's First Ski Chairlift

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 02 Feb 2021 14:38:34 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_3e3794a9d31086cc1e170d9af23f7197

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Breuer, Marcel, 1902-  Search this
Extent:
5.3 Linear feet (Boxes 1-6, OV 47; Reels 5708-5717)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1923-1986
Scope and Contents note:
Correspondents in this series include a wide range of international architects, designers, and artists who interacted with Breuer. The letters discuss his training and the execution of his hundreds of architectural projects and designs for furnishings. Researchers will find the letters between Breuer and his Bauhaus colleagues, including Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, Walter Gropius, and László Moholy-Nagy, of particular interest.

Appendix A: List of Notable Correspondents from Series 2: Correspondence
Arrangement note:
The files are arranged chronologically, with the undated letters arranged alphabetically according to the correspondents' surnames.
Appendix A: List of Notable Correspondents from Series 2: Correspondence:
Aalto, Alvar, 1964 (1 invitation): to reception honoring Aalto

Abercrombie, Stan (architect), 1964-1977 (8 letters)

Abramovitz, Max (Harrison & Abramovitz, Architects), 1947 (3 letters) and 1963 invitation from Brandeis University in honor of Abramovitz

Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office Académie d'Architecture, 1976-1979 (4 letters)

Acme Laboratory Equipment Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office ács, Gábor and Anikó, 1956 (1 letter)

Adelaide Festival of Arts, 1959 (1 letter)

Adler, Bruno, 1937 (1 letter) ágasvári, Vilmos, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Agel, Jerome B. (Agel & Friend), 1959 (1 letter): includes press release

Agostini, Edward (Becker and Becker Associates), 1969 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Airflow Refrigeration, 1954: (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 1947 (1 letter)

Albers, Josef ("Juppy") and Anni (Black Mountain College), 1933-1958 (11 letters): a 1956 letter includes miscellaneous typescripts by Albers and clippings; a 1965 letter to the Phoenix Art Museum from William A. Leonard of the Contemporary Arts Center concerns an Albers exhibition and includes a list of works; a 1967 letter from Breuer to National Institute of Arts and Letters includes a typescript concerning Albers

Albert, Edouard (architect), 1956-1958 (2 letters)

Albright Art Gallery, 1959 (3 letters)

Alexander, H. J. W. (Architectural Association), 1957-1958 (4 letters)

Alpern, Robert, 1964 (letter from Breuer)

B. Altman & Company, 1951 (1 letter)

Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA), 1946-1964 (2 letters)

Aluminum Import Corporation, 1946 (2 letters)

Alvarez, Raúl J., 1968 (1 letter)

American Academy in Rome, 1947-1961 (4 letters): request recommendations for Frederic S. Coolidge, Arthur Myhrum, and Thomas B. Simmons

American Academy of Arts and Letters, 1965-1978 (10 letters): a letter 1967 is a nomination by Walter Gropius for Sigfried Giedion's honorary membership in American Academy of Arts and Letters and National Institute of Arts and Letters; see National Institute of Arts and Letters

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1977 (1 letter)

American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1946 (1 letter)

American Arbitration Association, 1960-1968 (52 letters)

American Church in Paris, 1966 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

American Council for Emigres in the Professions, Inc., undated: letter introduces Viola Kondor

American Craftsmen's Council (Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb), 1967 (1 letter)

American Designer's Institute, 1947 (convention schedule)

American Export and Isbrandtsen Lines, 1963 (1 letter)

American Federation of Arts, 1958-1967 (8 letters)

American Field Service, 1956 (1 ): letter from Breuer on behalf of Danielle Eyquem

American Fork & Hoe Company, 1944 (1 letter)

American Hungarian Studies Foundation (August J. Molnár), 1964-1968 (10 letters): a 1967 invitation is to George Washington Awards Dinner in honor of Breuer, Watson Kirkconnel, and Hans Selye

American Institute of Architects, 1946-1976 (45 letters): membership applications for Edward Larrabee Barnes, Landis Gores, John MacL. Johansen, George Sherman Lewis, A. McVoy McIntyre, Robert Hays Rosenberg, Bernard Rudofsky); a 1963 letter from Breuer's office concerns a Skyscraper Architecture survey team from Japan; a 1968 letter concerns the Comité Organizador de Los Juegos de la XIX Olimpiada

American Institute of Architects, College of Fellows, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Institute of Architects, Jury of Fellows, 1960 (3 letters): from Breuer

American Institute of Architects, Library Buildings Award Program, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Institute of Architects, New York Chapter, 1945-1963 (16 letters)

American Institute of Decorators (Richard F. Bach), 1956 (1 letter)

American Institute of Interior Design in Switzerland (Charles D. Gandy and Susan Zimmermann), 1977-1978 (2 letters)

American-Jewish Congress: see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI)

American Library Association, 1951-1968 (2 letters)

American Planning and Civic Association, undated: membership notice

American Press Institute, 1974-1975 (5 letters): from Breuer

American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corporation, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

American Shakespeare Festival, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Society for Church Architecture, 1965-1966 (4 letters)

American Society for Friendship with Switzerland, 1969 (1 letter)

American Society of Interior Decorators, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA), 1945-1947 (12 letters)

Anderson, Lawrence B., 1945-1965 (2 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

András, Ivánka, 1957 (1 letter)

Andrews, Robert, 1956 (1 letter)

Aoyagi, Nobuo, 1964 (1 letter)

Aoyagi, Tetsu, 1965 (1 letter)

Arbelaez, Carlos, 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer)

Architects & Engineers Institute, 1959 (1 letter)

Architects' Collaborative, 1946-1959 (3 letters): see McMillan, Louis and Peggy

Architectural Association, London, 1965-1969 (7 letters): see project file for UNESCO for correspondence with Edward J. Carter Architectural Design, 1960 (1 letter): from Ernesto Fuenmayor and Manuel Sayago of Centro Profesional del Este)

Architectural Forum, 1960 (1 letter): from Leonard J. Currie

Architectural Group, (W. D. Wilson), 1947 (1 letter)

Architectural League of New York, 1947-1975: (26 letters and minutes from 6 meetings): see Ketchum, Morris

Architectural Record, 1946-1959 (9 letters)

Architectural Students Association, 1958 (1 letter)

Architecture Formes Fonctions, 1971 (3 letters): includes a typescript "Design Research in Concrete" for July 1971 magazine

Architektur + Wohnwelt, 1975 (3 letters)

Argan, Giulio Carlo, 1955-1957 (6 letters)

Arizona, University of, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Arnold, Randolph, undated: illustrated Christmas card

Arp, Hans Jean, 1954-1959 (5 letters): a 1959 letter on Arp's behalf from Marguerite Hagenbach; a 1959 wedding announcement for

Arp and Hagenbach

Arseniev, Milko, 1975 (1 letter)

Art Circus: see Long Beach Art Association, Inc.

Art Directors Club, Inc., 1975 (5 letters)

Artek-Pascoe (Clifford Pascoe), 1941-1946 (2 letters)

Artigas, Josep Llorens (ceramist colleague of Joan Miró), undated and 1960-1963 (5 letters)

Arts Council of Great Britain, 1962 (4 letters): concern an

Alexander Calder sculpture

Art Squad, Inc. (Ernest Costa), 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Asfia, H. E. Dr. Safi (Iranian deputy prime minister), 1974 (1 telegram): from Breuer

Ashihara, Yoshinobu ("Yosh"), undated and 1954-1970 (26 letters): a 1955 letter encloses a photograph of Ashihara and a model of his project

Association of Hungarian Students in North America, undated and 1958 (4 letters)

Atelier International, Ltd., 1968 (2 phone messages)

Atkin, William Wilson (Silvermine Publishers), 1965 (1 letter)

Atlanta Central Library, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Atlantic Refining Company, Inc., 1956 (1 letter)

Atlas Tile & Marble Company, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Auchincloss, Lily and Douglas, undated and 1963 (5 letters)

Auckland University College, 1945 (2 letters): 1 letter from Walter Gropius

Aufricht, Gustave and Maria, 1955-1970 (4 letters)

Aujame, Roger and Edith (and María Feuyo McVitty), undated (1 letter)

Australian National Gallery, Canberra, 1975 (3 letters): from Breuer

Austrian Consulate General, 1951 (2 letters)

Austrian Institute and Mrs. Schlag, 1964 (invitation to reception)

Auzelle, Robert (architect), 1956 (1 letter): see Académie d'Architecture

Babarovic, Gretchen and John, undated and 1963 (2 letters)

Bacal, Jacob, 1967 (1 letter)

Bachem, Hans Peter (architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Baer, David C. (AIA), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Bak, Joseph, 1950 (1 letter)

Baker, James (Tower Development), 1981 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Baldes, Jeannette, 1948 (1 letter)

Baldwin, Benjamin, undated (2 letters)

Ballard, Robert F. R., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bard Civic Award Trust Fund: see City Club of New York, Albert S. Bard Civic Award Trust Fund

Bárdos, Tamés, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Barnes, Belva Jane ("B. J."), undated and 1956-1957 (4 letters)

Barnes, Edward Larrabee (architect), 1945-1955 (5 letters)

Barnett, Steven G., 1966 (1 letter)

Barroso, Nicolás Mariscal (VIII Congreso Panamericano de Arquitectos, México), 1952 (2 letters)

Barry, Gerald, 1951 (1 invitation): mentions Barry

Bartholdy & Klein, 1933 (1 letter)

Bartlett, Allan J., 1950 (1 letter): from Robert W. Gumbel

Bartolozzi, Goffredo (Vetro Italiano di Sicurezza, Milan [VIS]), 1959 (1 letter)

Bassetti, Fred (Bassetti & Morse, Architects), 1951 (2 letters)

Bauen + Wohnen, 1974-1975 (5 letters): from Breuer

Baughman, George F. (New York University), 1959 (1 letter)

Bauhaus-Archiv, Bibliothek und Schausammlung, 1972 (1 letter): to Knoll International

Bauhaus Archiv E. V., 1960 (1 letter)

Bayer, Herbert and Joella, undated and 1933-1966 (87 letters)

Beaux Arts Club, 1968 (1 letter)

Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, 1946-1947 (3 letters)

B.E.B. Consultants, 1982 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Bechtol, Ron (Lance Larcade & Bechtol), 1968-1976 (3 letters)

Beck, Martin (New York University), 1962-1964 (2 letters): from Hamilton Smith

Beckhard, Herbert and Ellie and Susan, undated and 1954-1980 (45 letters)

Bee, Anton, 1957 (1 letter)

Beekman, Rev. Gerardus, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

Begrow, Harold J., 1954 (3 letters)

Behar, Esther, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Belgiojoso, Lodovico (Lodovico B. Belgiojoso, Enrico Peressutti, Ernesto N. Rogers, architects), 1950 (1 letter)

Belluschi, Pietro (MIT School of Architecture and Planning), 1954-1968 (3 letters)

Bemis, Frances, 1954 (1 letter)

Bemo Shipping Company, 1954-1956 (2 letters)

Bender, Richard (Harvard University), 1952 (2 letters)

Benesch, Edward M. (Gomprecht & Benesch), 1955 (1 letter)

Benglia, Christine (architect; married architect Alistair Bevington), 1964 (1 letter)

Bennett, Richard M. (Loebl, Schlossman & Bennett), 1958 (1 letter)

Benton & Bowles, Inc., Advertising, 1955 (1 letter)

Beothy, E., undated (1 letter)

Bergen County Cut Stone Company, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bergen, Emiel, 1956 (1 letter)

Berger, Donald (North Dakota Agricultural College), 1953 (1 letter)

Berger, George, 1950 (1 letter)

Berger, Otti, undated and 1934-1937 (7 letters)

Berger, Sanford and Helen (architects), 1945 (1 letter): from

Breuer to László Moholy-Nagy and Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe introducing the Bergers

Berger, Stephen E., 1959 (1 letter)

Berizzi, Sergio, 1959 (4 letters): letters of introduction

Berko, Franz, 1946-1947 (5 letters): including one from László Moholy-Nagy

Berlin Interbau, (International Building Exhibition), 1957 (1 letter): from mayor of Berlin

Berndt, Marianne, 1933 (1 letter)

Berti, Vincent, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Better-Philadelphia Exhibition (Richard A. Protheroe, Harry

B. Nason, Hugh B. Sutherland), 1947 (1 letter)

Bevington, Alistair M., 1959 (1 letter): includes résumé

Bevington, Mariette (stained-glass designer), 1967 (1 letter): to Herbert Beckhart

Bharadwaj, Ajaya, 1955 (2 letters)

Biasini, E. J. (French prime minister), 1972 (1 letter)

Biddle, Mrs. Francis, 1962-1968 (3 letters): includes a funeral announcement for her husband)

Biddle, George, 1965 (4 letters): 3 from Breuer

Bier, Justus (University of Louisville), 1938 (3 letters)

Bigeleisen, Jacob (University of Rochester), 1970 (1 letter) Ronald S. Biggins and Associates, 1958 (1 letter)

Bijenkorfbeheer N.V., Amsterdam, 1967-1974 (2 letters): from Breuer

Bill, Alexander H., Jr., undated (1 calling card)

Blake, Peter (architect), undated and 1950-1976 (41 letters): a 1958 letter from Breuer is illustrated with a hand-drawn map by

Blake of Easthampton property

Blanton, John A., 1951 (1 letter)

Blaustein, Morton K., 1963-1965 (2 letters)

Bliss, Douglas P. (Glasgow School of Art), 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Bloeme, Sidney, 1963 (1 memorandum): from James S. Plaut

Blum, Kurt (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bode, Paul (architect), 1956 (1 letter)

Bodri, Ferenc, 1967-1975 (3 letters): 2 1975 letters from Breuer

Boehringer Ingelheim, Ltd., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Bogner, Walter, 1938-1960 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Boissonnas, Eric and Sylvie, undated and 1960-1978 (20 letters)

Bollingen Foundation, 1964 (1 invitation): to reception in honor of Sigfried Giedion

Bonaparte, Mrs. Robert L., 1955 (1 letter)

Bonomi, Maria, undated and 1958 (2 letters)

Bookman, Mrs. John, 1964 (1 letter)

Borbíró, Virgil (Hungarian architect), 1945-1956 (2 letters): includes Borbíró's obituary

Borglum, Paul, 1950 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Born, Karl, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Borsódy, István ("Stephen"; historian; Hungarian Legation) and Zsóka, 1946-1965 (5 letters): 1951 letter includes a biographical sketch of Borsódy by Aladár Szegedy-Maszák

Bortfeldt, Hermann (Büro Willy Brandt), 1963 (1 letter)

Bosch, Robert, 1934 (2 letters)

Bosserman, Joseph Norwood, 1963-1967 (2 letters)

Bosshard, J., 1956 (1 letter)

Boston Architectural Center, 1968 (1 letter)

Boston Redevelopment Authority, 1970 (1 letter)

Boston Society of Architects, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer to John R. Abbott

Botond, Stephen G. ("Pista"; architect), 1958-1960 (2 letters): includes wedding announcement for Botond and Patricia Potter Luce

Bouchet, Maxime, 1953 (5 letters)

Bourget, Inc., 1955 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Bower, John, 1954 (1 letter)

Bozzola, Vittorio, 1964 (2 letters)

Bradford, Carol (Mrs. Amory H. Bradford), 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer

Brandon-Jones, John, 1958 (1 letter)

Brandstätter, Elsbeth, 1936-1937 (2 letters)

Brassaï, Gyula Halász (Romanian photographer), undated (1 calling card): no signature

Peter Bratti Associates, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Bratti, Peter (A. Tozzini Tile Works, Inc.), 1958 (1 letter)

Braun, Wolfgang, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Braziller, George, 1966 (1 letter)

Bremer, Paul and Nina, 1975 (2 letters)

Breuer, Constance (née Leighton), 1947-1982 (22 letters): from Breuer and Breuer's office; a 1967 letter, 1967, from French filmmaker Gerard Calisti is routed from Robert Osborn; an invitation from M. Knoedler and Company concerns reception for Lina Kandinsky

Breuer, Francesca, undated and 1966-1973 (3 letters): includes a letter of recommendation from Tician Papachristou

Breuer, Hermina, 1950 (1 telegram): from Breuer

Brewer-Cantelmo Company, Inc., 1966 (3 letters): from Breuer's office

Brewer, Joseph, 1965 (1 letter)

Brewster, George W. W., Jr., undated and 1946 (2 letters)

Brey, David M. (architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Breydert, Katherine, 1946 (1 letter)

Brickel/Eppinger, Inc., 1963 (3 letters)

Brigham, Richard C., 1954 (1 letter)

Brion, Maud (secretary to Eric Cercler), 1966-1972 (10 letters)

Brissenden, Norine (Mrs. P. R. Brissenden), 1947 (1 letter)

British Chair Company, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Brodovitch, Alexey (Harper's Bazaar), 1954-1961 (16): 13 letters from Breuer's office

Broner, Gisela (wife of Erwin Broner, architect), undated (1 letter)

Brooklyn College Library, 1958 (1 letter)

Brooklyn Museum, 1944 (1 letter)

Brooks, J. H. (Putnam & Company), 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer

Brooks, Kenneth, 1968 (2 letters)

Brown, Elliott, 1951 (4 letters)

Brown, Graham, 1954 (1 letter)

Brown, Helen M., 1958 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Brown, Jane M. (Mrs. Elliott Brown), 1975 (1 letter): letter is illustrated with drawing of Alexander Calder mobile

Brown, Joseph, 1955 (1 letter): includes transcript of

Brown's lecture at Princeton University

Browne, Robert Bradford (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Brumwell, Marcus, 1944 (1 letter)

Brun, Jacques D. (architect), 1958 (1 letter)

Bryn Mawr School for Girls, 1981 (1 letter): from Betsy Prioleau

Bryson, Clayton J., 1950 (1 letter)

Budapest Muszaki Egyetem (István Benke), 1970 (1 letter)

W. S. Budworth and Son, Inc., 1963 (1 letter): from Charles H. Sawyer

Builders Publishing Company, 1954 (1 letter): to Rufus Stillman

Building Progress, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Bujdosó, Ferenc, 1963 (2 letters)

Bulova, Arthur, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Burchard, Charles (architect), 1945-1960 (10 letters)

Burchard, John E., 1967-1971 (2 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Burkland, Howard (Shere Naven Corporation), 1951 (1 letter): from Stamo Papadaki

Burton, Véra, undated (1 letter)

Buyoucos, James V., 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer

Byrd, Dale, 1950-1968 (5 letters)

Cabinet Norbert Guerle, 1953-1954 (10 letters)

Caesar, Harry I. (Leslie Stillman's father, married to sculptor Doris Caesar), 1954-1955 (4 letters): 3 from Breuer's office

Calder, Alexander, 1938-1975 (12 letters): a 1947 letter is illustrated with a map; a 1975 letter contains a typescript about

Calder

Calico Museum of Textiles, India, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

California Council, AIA, 1960 (5 letters)

California, University of, Berkeley, 1957-1964 (3 letters)

Calisti, Gerard (French filmmaker): see Breuer, Constance

Canaday, John (New York Times), 1959 (1 letter): from Rufus Stillman

Canadian Architect, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Canavesi, Schifra, undated and 1935-1957 (8 letters)

Candela, Felix (Cubiertas ALA S.A.) and Dorothy, undated and 1956 (3 letters)

Caplan, Frank (Creative Playthings), 1950 (1 letter)

Cardinal Stritch College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1970 (1 letter)

Cardot, Vera (photographer), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Carmel, Moty, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Carpanelli, Franco, 1951 (1 letter)

Carpentier, Jacques H., 1960 (1 letter)

Carré, Louis, 1964 (1 letter and 1 picture postcard): postcard shows map to Maison Carré and house designed by Alvar Aalto

Carreras, Guillermo and Margarita, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Carson, Alice Morgan (Museum of Modern Art), undated and 1943 (3 letters)

Carstensen, William (Carstensen, Inc.), 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Carter, Edward J. ("Bobby"; librarian, UNESCO): see, Architectural Association, London; see Project File for UNESCO

Carter, Stephen Newhall, 1976 (1 letter)

Cassinello, F. (Instituto Tecnico de la Construcción y de Cemento), 1960 (1 letter)

Catalano, Eduardo Fernando, 1945-1968 (8 letters)

Catan-Rose Institute of Art, 1965 (invitation): to reception at Gracie Mansion

Cavazzuti, Ugo, 1969-1970 (2 letters)

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1975-1976 (3 letters): from Breuer's office

Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, 1947-1950 (2 letters): includes an invitation to the school's presentation of diplomas by Sir Kenneth Clark

Central State AIA Conference, Omaha, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Century Association, 1976 (1 letter)

Century Club, 1974-1976 (3 letters): 2 letters from Breuer's office

Century Lighting Company, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office concerning Torrington, Connecticut factory

Cepero, Carlos Celis (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Cercle d'études Architecturales, 1953 (1 letter)

Cercler, Eric: see Brion, Maud

Chase Manhattan Bank, 1955-1965 (5 letters): from Breuer's office

Chatfield, Ayla K. (architect), 1975 (2 letters)

Checkman, Louis (photographer), 1955 (1 letter)

Cheever, John, 1967 (1 letter)

Chelsea Association for Planning and Action, 1941 (1 letter)

Cheng, Tzu-tsai, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Chermayeff and Cutting, Architects and Industrial Designers, 1956 (2 letters)

Chermayeff, Ivan, 1957-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office; a 1957 letter concerns a 70th birthday greeting for Le Corbusier

Chermayeff, Serge (Erich Mendelsohn & Serge Chermayeff, Architects), 1936-1978 (10 letters)

Cherry, Ned, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Chiang, Helen and Arthur, 1950 (envelope only) and 1970 (1 letter)

Chicago Housing Authority, 1946 (2 letters)

Chien, Alan Shue Shih, 1969 (2 letters)

Children's Recreation Foundation, Inc., 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Chinoy, Rustam, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Churchill, Henry S. (Churchill-Fulmer Associates), 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ciampi, Mario J. (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Cidor, Ruth, 1971 (1 letter)

Citizens Committee for a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963 (1 letter): see also Van Doren, Mark

City Club of New York, 1963-1964 (3 letters)

City Club of New York, Albert S. Bard Civic Award Trust Fund, 1968 (6 letters)

Ciudad Universitaria de México, 1952 (1 invitation): to VIII Congreso Panamericano de Arquitectos

Clark, Donald and Dallas (Associated Seed Growers), 1954 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Clarke, Arundell, 1950 (1 letter)

Clergue, Lucien (photographer), 1966-1967 (5 letters)

Cleveland Museum of Art, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Cleveland Trust Company, 1970 (1 letter)

Clyne, Harry, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Cochran, Alexander S. (architect), 1950-1967 (4 letters)

Coderch, J. A. (architect), 1961 (1 greeting card): includes photograph of exhibition

C. Coggeshall Design, 1944 (3 letters)

Cohen, Ken, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Cold Spring Granite Company, 1960-1965 (11 letters): a 1964 letter has a design for a candle holder

Cole, Howard I. (Rutgers University), 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

Coleman, Albert, 1945 (1 letter)

Colen, Eszter and Bruce, 1963 (2 letters)

Colorado, University of, Boulder, Student Chapter of AIA, 1958 (1 letter)

Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Columbia University, 1964-1977 (6 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Comité Français de l'American Field Service, 1956 (1 letter)

Comité Organizador de Los Juegos de la XIX Olimpiada, 1968 (4 letters)

Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI) of the American-Jewish Congress, 1945 (8 letters)

Compagnie Française de Transports Internationaux, 1954 (1 letter)

Compton, W. Danforth, 1950 (1 letter)

Concha, Gonzales, 1952 (1 letter): from Breuer

Concrete Industry Board, Inc., 1969 (2 letters)

Condé Nast Publications, Inc., 1955 (1 letter)

Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM),

Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning, 1944-1956 (27 letters)

Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne, Mars Group (British branch of CIAM), 1946-1947 (5 letters)

Conklin, George W. (architect), 1956 (2 letters)

Connecticut Chapter of AIA, 1963 (2 letters)

Connecticut Public School Building Commission, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer

Connecticut Society of Architects (Norman L. Raymond), 1963 (1 letter)

Contemporary Arts Association, 1952 (2 letters)

Contemporary Arts Center, 1965 (3 letters): concerning Josef Albers exhibition

Contemporary Authors, 1963 (1 letter)

Contini, Paolo and Jeanne, 1968 (1 letter)

Contreras, Carlos (XVI Congreso Internacional de Planificacion y de la Habitación, México), 1938 (2 letters)

Conway, Harvi, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Cooke, Maymay (Mrs. Francis Cooke), 1947 (1 letter)

Coolidge, Frederic S. and Anne, 1947 (1 letter)

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Cooper Union, 1958 (2 letters)

Cooper, Wyatt Emory, undated (1 letter): mentions Eugene J. McCarthy

Corcoran, Kostelanetz, Gladstone & Lowell, 1959 (1 letter)

Cordos, Stephan, undated (1 letter)

Corkran, D. C. (Charles F. Orvis Company), 1944 (5 letters)

Cornigliano S.p.A. ("Società per Azioni"; limited company which installs exhibitions), 1958 (3 letters)

Corson, Richard A., 1950 (1 letter)

Coulson, Anthony J., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

County Roofing Company, 1957 (1 letter)

Crampton, Nancy (photographer), 1975 (1 letter)

Creighton, Thomas H., 1950 (1 letter): written with Katherine Morrow Ford

Crohn, Norma and Richard, 1968 (1 letter)

Croll, Jean, 1939 (1 letter)

Cromley, Don, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Crotin, 1934-1935 (5 letters)

Crowther, J. G. (author) and Fransiska, 1936 (2 letters)

Csernyei, Zsuszi, 1939 (1 letter)

Cuevas de Vera, Adela ("Tota"), 1933-1934 (7 letters)

Cunningham, Allen, 1957 (1 letter)

Currie, Leonard (architect), undated and 1944-1978 (29 letters): see Architectural Forum

F. B. Curry Company (Frank B. Curry), 1945 (3 letters)

Cushing, Tom, 1937 (3 letters)

Cutler Farm (Lily C. Johanson), 1951 (1 letter)

Cutler, Robert W., 1968 (1 letter)

Czike, Dr. Gyuláné, 1957 (3 letters)

Dach, Joseph, 1944 (1 letter)

Daidone, Anthony J., 1958 (1 letter)

Damora, Robert (photographer), 1955-1967 (3 letters)

D'Andrea Brothers, Inc., 1957 (1 letter)

Bernard Danenberg Galleries, 1974-1975 (3 letters): from Breuer

Danielsson, Lars (Swedish architect), 1956 (3 letters)

D'Arcy, Frank (architect), 1957 (1 letter)

Dauber, Deanna L., 1975 (2 letters)

Daurel, Paul (architect), 1970 (1 letter)

Davenport, Keith H., 1946 (1 letter)

Daves, L. Joan, 1951 (1 letter)

Davis, Arthur, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Davis, Brody, Chermayeff, Geismar, deHarak, Associates, 1969 (2 letters)

Davis, Columbus, 1946 (1 letter)

Davis, Paul (photographer), 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

de Bever, Leo J., 1958-1960 (2 letters)

de Bodard, Connie, 1956 (1 letter)

De Carli, Carlo (Politecnico Milano), 1968 (1 letter)

Decima Triennale di Milano, 1954 (1 letter)

Decker, H. Carlton (architect), 1968 (1 letter): concerns Interama

DeCoene, Pierre, 1966-1968 (2 letters)

Dedet, Dr. Jacques (and Mme. Georges Cexier, Mme. Pierre

Dedet, Mme. André Laurenti), undated (1 letter)

De Hausner, Mrs. Djin Lilli S., undated and 1935-1936 (11 letters)

Deimel, Klöckner, Koebel, 1959 (1 letter)

Del Buttero Enzo (Vetro Italiano di Sicurezza [VIS], Milan), 1959 (1 letter)

De Leu Dulles, Mrs. J., undated (1 letter)

Delft Student Debating Society "Vrije Studie," 1957-1958 (6 letters)

DeMars, Vernon (DeMars and Wells), 1967 (1 letter)

Democratic National Committee, 1960 (1 letter)

De Rivera, José, 1946 (1 letter)

Derome, Leon, 1953 (1 letter)

Deschamps, Julio, 1950 (1 letter): includes 4 photographs of a house under construction

design magazine, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Design Quarterly, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Design Research, 1965 (2 letters)

de Spirlet, André (Cie. Belge de Chemins de Fer et d'Enterprises), 1963 (1 letter)

Dévényi, Iván, undated (1 letter)

De Vries & Company, 1953 (1 letter)

de Waldner, C. (IBM, France), 1970 (1 letter)

Dewey [Thomas E. Dewey], Ballantine, Bushby, Palmer & Wood, 1955-1969 (5 letters)

de Zwart, J., 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

d'Harnoncourt, René, 1950-1951 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Diamant-Berger, Renée, 1954 (2 letters): from Evelyn Rocourt

Dicke, Hendrik Adolph (civil engineer), 1976 (1 death announcement)

Dickey, Thomas A., 1954 (1 letter)

Eugene Dietzgen Company, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Dodd, Betty, undated (1 letter)

Dodd, Mead & Company (Edward Dodd), 1949-1960 (33 letters)

Doerr, Harold J. (interior decorating), 1975 (1 letter)

Doherty, Neil (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Domela, Cesar (Dutch artist who worked at the Bauhaus), 1961 (2 letters)

Dominick & Dominick, 1936 (1 letter)

Domus magazine, 1947 (1 letter)

Dorner, Alexander (Brown University), 1947 (1 letter)

Drabkin, Murray (Kaler, Worsley, Daniel & Hollman), 1970-1978 (10 letters)

Dreier, Theodore and Barbara, 1956 (1 letter)

Drew, Jane B. (Fry, Drew, Drake & Lasdun), 1958 (1 letter)

Dreyer-Dufer, B., 1953 (1 letter)

Duane, Duane & Cahill, Architects (Franklin J. Duane), 1969 (1 letter)

Fred S. Dubin Associates, 1954-1958 (12 letters): 9 letters from Breuer's office

Dubsky, Caroline (Svoboda & Company), 1968 (1 letter)

Dufau, Pierre, 1963 (2 letters): from Breuer

Duhart, Emile and Raquel, undated (1 illustrated Christmas card)

Dunkel, E., 1934 (1 letter)

Dunn, Frederick, 1955 (1 letter): from Marvin Halverson concerning Commission on Architecture meeting

Dunning, James O., 1969 (1 letter)

DuPont, Henry B., 1958 (1 letter): from Rufus Stillman

Eastern Schokbeton Corporation, 1969 (1 letter)

Edwards, David J. (Georgia Institute of Technology), 1951-1968 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Egender, Karl, 1947 (1 letter)

Eggington, Geoff, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Eken, Andrew J. (Starrett Brothers and Eken, Inc.), 1952 (1 letter): from Sherley W. Morgan, Princeton University; see Project File for UNESCO

Eldredge, Joseph L., 1948 (1 letter)

Electric Arts Intermix, Inc., 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Elkington, Robert (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Elliott, Edward Proctor, 1945 (calling card)

Ellis, W. A., 1936 (1 letter)

Ellwood, Craig, 1966 (1 letter)

Elsbree, E., 1947 (1 letter)

Elsner, Werner, 1968 (1 letter)

Elte, Hans (School of Architecture, University of Toronto), 1950 (2 letters)

Elzas, A. (architect) and Hermine, 1956-1978 (18 letters)

Embru-Werken, 1950 (2 letters)

Emery, P., 1947 (1 letter)

Emslie, Murray Sims, 1954-1964 (20 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1951-1964 (3 letters)

Engel de Janosi, Karl, 1950 (1 letter)

English-Speaking Union, 1951 (1 invitation): to reception in honor of Gerald Barry

Entenza, John D. (Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts), 1968 (1 letter)

Epler, Robert E., 1966 (1 letter)

Escoffier, Pierre, 1963 (1 letter)

Escrito Trading Post, New Mexico, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

European Investment Bank, Luxembourg, 1974-1978 (5 letters): 3 letters from Breuer

Evans, T. Randall (Yorke Rosenberg Mardall, Architects), undated and 1947-1965 (3 letters)

Eyquem, Danielle, 1956 (3 letters)

Fairweather, W. Ross, 1958 (1 letter)

Farkas, Nicholas (Farkas & Barron, consulting engineers), 1955-1969 (3 letters)

Farnsworth, S. W. (Torrington Manufacturing Company), 1956 (1 letter)

Farris, Mary E. (Breuer's secretary), 1964-1968 (13 letters)

Faudon, M. J. (European Investment Bank, Luxembourg), 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer

Fédération Internationale du Film d'Art (FIFA), 1956 (1 letter)

Fehér, Nicolaus, 1966-1967 (4 letters)

Fejér, George (Selection Engineering Company, Ltd.), 1946-1947 (2 letters)

Ferguson, E. S., 1946 (1 letter)

Ferry, W. Hawkins, 1963 (1 letter)

Ficks Reed Furniture Company, 1951 (1 letter)

Fifth Avenue Association, Inc., 1968 (2 letters)

Finger, Sally L. (Mrs. W. L. Finger), 1950 (2 letters)

Finn, Herman L. (Abbe & Finn), 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer

Finn, Michael (from Breuer's office), 1972 (3 letters)

Finsler, Hans (photographer), 1936-1937 (3 letters)

Fintel, Nat, 1976 (1 letter)

Fiocchi, Annibale (architect), 1955 (1 letter)

Firma l.u.c. arnold, 1934 (1 letter)

Firmage, Margaret ("Peg"; Mrs. Charles Firmage; Breuer's secretary), 1947-1964 (48 letters)

First Hanover Corporation, 1967 (1 letter)

Fischer, Edward L., 1943 (1 letter)

Fischer, Eta, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Fischer, John, 1956-1957 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Fischer, Joseph (Hungarian architect), undated and 1923-1966 (17 letters)

Fischer, Margrit (Mrs. Edward L.; sculptor at Bauhaus), undated and 1934-1950 (5 letters)

Fitzgibbons, Frank, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Fitzhugh, Greene, 1946 (1 letter)

Fjödl, Fjeinrich, 1964 (1 letter)

Flansburgh, Earl F. (Earl F. Flansburgh and Associates), 1976 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Fletcher, Jean Bodman (architect), 1947 (1 letter)

Flick, Miriam Hilliard (formerly Miriam Flick White), 1950 (1 letter)

Flos, Merano, 1963 (1 letter)

Földes, Dr. István ("Pista"), 1933-1934 (7 letters)

Foote, Elliott and Caroline, 1960-1967 (4 letters)

Forbàt, Alfréd ("Fred"; Hungarian architect), 1938 (2 letters): see Congrès, Les Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM)

Forberg, Kurt, 1975 (1 letter)

Forbes, E. W., undated (1 letter)

Forbes, Marla, 1939 (1 letter)

Forbes, R. E. and Pauline, undated (1 letter)

Ford, Katherine Morrow (Mrs. James Ford), 1950-1951 (2 letters): 1950 letter written with Thomas H. Creighton

Fornells-Pla, Francisco, 1969 (1 letter)

Forrest, Robert E. (Princeton University), 1952 (2 letters)

Forum of Contemporary Arts, 1958 (1 letter)

Foundation for the Arts and Humanities, 1967 (1 letter)

Foundation for the Arts, Religion and Culture, 1963-1965 (4 letters)

Fox, John P. (Murray Hill Assn., Inc.), 1949-1957 (2 letters)

Foyle, Christina, 1947 (1 letter)

France: French Embassy, Washington, D.C. (François De Laboulaye, ambassador), 1978 (1 invitation): to presentation of Médaille d'Or to Breuer

Frank, Oswald, 1947 (1 letter)

Frank, Mrs. Robert J., 1940 (1 letter)

Frantz, Al (Edward Gottlieb & Associates), 1958 (2 letters)

Franzen, Ulrich ("Rickey"; architect), 1956-1968 (2 letters)

Fratelli Salvadori, 1964 (1 letter)

Frazer, Peter M., 1950 (1 letter)

Freck, Byron, 1945 (1 letter)

Freeman, Elizabeth E. (Wellfleet Real Estate), 1947 (1 letter)

Freeth, Evelyn (Royal West of England Academy), 1958 (2 letters)

Frey, Emil (Motorfahrzeuge), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Friedman, B. H. (Bob), 1970 (1 letter)

Friedrich, Clara, 1935 (1 letter)

Frost, Frederick G. (Frederick G. Frost Jr. & Associates, Architects), 1960 (1 letter)

Frost, Henry A. (Harvard University), 1947 (2 letters)

Fry, Louis Edwin (architect), 1945-1946 (3 letters)

Fry, Lynn W. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor), 1951 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Fry, Maxwell, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Fuenmayor, Ernesto (Centro Profesional del Este), 1960 (3 letters)

Fulde, Philip, 1965 (1 telegram): from Breuer

Fürbeth, Albrecht, 1974 (1 letter)

Gabetti, Gianluigi, 1969 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gabo, Naum, 1938 (2 letters)

Gábor, László ("Laci"; graphic designer for Kaufmann), undated and 1938 (3 letters)

Gagarin, Andrew (Torrington Manufacturing Company) and Jamie, 1953-1975 (15 letters)

Galhidy, László, undated and 1960-1963 (4 letters)

Gambaro, E. James (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Gane, Crofton Endres, undated and 1945-1967 (25 letters)

Gantschi, Edith, 1934 (1 letter)

Gardella, Ignazio, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gardner-Medwin, R. J. (Liverpool School of Architecture), 1957-1959 (5 letters): see also Selwood, Christopher

Gargas, Klára, 1970 (3 letters)

Gastón, Miguel (Gastón y Dominguez, S.A.), 1950-1967 (6 letters): 1951 letter contains 2 floor plans and 7 photographs of Gastón's house

Gatje Papachristou & Smith, 1984-1985 (3 letters)

Gatje, Robert Frederick, undated and 1954-1982 (45 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Gautschi, Dr. Georg, 1936 (1 letter)

Gavina, Dino (furniture manufacturer), 1962-1976 (111 letters)

Geberta, Victor F., undated (1 letter)

Geisler, Howard, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gelb, Mr., 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Gelland, Carolyn (Breuer's secretary), 1972-1974 (8 letters)

Geller, Bert and Phyllis, 1963-1968 (2 letters)

General Electric Appliances, Inc., 1947 (1 letter)

General Electric Company, 1943-1950 (6 letters)

General Fireproofing Company, 1943-1946 (4 letters)

Georges, Alexandre (photographer), 1974-1976 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Geraghty, Margaret, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Gerbman, Joyce, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Giedion-Welcker, Sigfried and Carola, undated and 1932-1976 (62 letters): see Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM; Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning)

Girsberger, H., 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Glazier, Helen, 1946 (1 letter)

Gogolák, Ludwig, 1958 (1 letter)

Goldinger, Harry, 1946 (1 letter)

Goldings, Morris M. (Mahoney, McGrath, Atwood, Piper & Goldings), 1970 (1 letter)

Goldman, Paul (Plymold Corporation), 1945 (2 letters): from Breuer

Goldman Sokolow Copeland, 1984-1985 (3 letters)

Gömöri, Herman Iván, 1956-1957 (2 letters)

Goodman, Mrs. Alvin Malcolm, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer

Goodman, Charles, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Goodman, Percival, 1968 (1 letter)

B. F. Goodrich Company, 1965 (1 letter)

Goodwin, Philip L. (architect), 1947-1955 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Gores, Landis, 1947-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer

Gorlich Editore, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Gorn, Samuel G. (Gorn Brothers, Inc.), 1956 (1 letter)

Gottscho-Schleisner (photographer), 1955-1956 (2 letters): from Breuer

Goudsmit, Alfred and Gertie, 1963-1970 (2 letters)

Gould, Eleanor J. (Mrs. J. Howard Gould), 1966 (1 letter)

Graber, Rudolf (Wohnbedarf furniture store), undated and 1938-1969 (21 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Gramling, Hdikó, 1975 (1 letter)

Grand Coulee Dam Project, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer; see United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

Grant, Barbara, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Grayboff, Ira, 1955 (2 letters)

Green, Lynda, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Grefe, Richard (McDonald & Smart, Inc.), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Grieco, Vito (Grieco Bros., Inc.), 1958-1959 (3 letters)

Griffis, Nixon (Hemphill, Noyes & Company), 1946 (1 letter)

Griffith, J. Neal, undated (1 letter)

Grimball, Henry G. (Harvard University), 1950 (1 letter)

Gropius, Walter ("Pius") and Ise ("Pia"), undated and 1933-1969 (120 letters): see Harvard University, Graduate School of Design; Project File for UNESCO

Grosse Pointe Public Library, 1960 (1 letter)

Grossi, Olindo (Architectural League of New York), 1957 (4 letters): see Pratt Institute; see Project File for UNESCO

Grosswirth, M. (New York University, College of Engineering), 1958 (1 letter)

Gröte, Dr. Andreas and Laura, 1961-1967 (3 letters)

Gröte, Ludwig and Gertrud Maud, 1956-1967 (5 letters)

Groupe Espace, 1952-1954 (5 letters)

Gruber, Gerd, 1965-1967 (2 letters)

Gruber, Richard D. (Independent Oil Company of Connecticut, Inc.), 1970 (1 letter)

Gruzen, Barney Sumner, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gstrein, Kassian, 1936 (1 letter)

Guenther, Carl Frederic, 1958 (1 letter)

Guerrero, Pedro E. (photographer), 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1964 (1 letter): concerns the loan from Breuer of an Alexander Calder work

Guilford Leather Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Gumbel, Robert W., 1950 (1 letter)

Gutheim, Polly (Mrs. Frederick A. Gutheim), 1946 (1 letter)

Haas, Robert (Ram Press), 1954-1957 (8 letters): from Breuer's office

Hächler, W. (architect), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hack, Lynda, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hackett, Gabriel D. (photographer), 1963 (1 letter)

Hackley Art Museum, 1977 (3 letters)

Hagenbach, Marguerite: see Arp, Hans Jean

Hagerty, Francis (Hagerty Company), 1945 (2 letters)

Hagerty, John, 1958 (1 letter)

Haggerty, Brian (Sacred Heart Seminary), 1964 (1 letter)

Hagmann, John S. (and Robert A. M. Stern), undated (1 letter)

Hagood, M. Lindsey (Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Architectural Speakers Committee), 1952 (3 letters)

Hahn, Alexander, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Halász, Dezso (International Union of Local Authorities), 1957-1959 (3 letters)

Halász, Ferenc, 1959 (2 letters)

Halborg, Rev. John E. (Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Advent), 1968 (1 letter)

Hall, John Hughes (Nardin & Radoczy), 1956-1957 (2 letters)

Halprin, Lawrence, 1966-1970 (2 letters)

Halverson, Marvin (National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA), 1955-1956 (4 letters)

Halvorson, Roy E., 1956-1971 (4 letters)

Hambuechen, Dr. Eva-Dorothee, 1937 (1 letter)

Hamer, R. D. (Aluminium Laboratories Ltd.), 1946 (1 letter)

Hammett, Ralph W., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hancy, L., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hansen, Thomas L. (University of Colorado, Boulder), 1956 (1 letter)

Hanson, B. (Mrs. John Hanson), 1955-1967 (3 letters)

Haraszty, Eszter, undated and 1956 (2 letters)

Harbert, Guido, 1950 (1 letter)

Hardoy, Jorge Ferrari (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Hardy, Holzmann, Pfeiffer (Christine Donovan), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Harkness, Elaine, 1960 (2 letters)

Harnischmacher, Paul and Marianne, undated and 1933-1964 (41 letters)

Harper's Bazaar, 1954-1955 (4 letters)

Harris, James L., 1946 (1 letter)

Harris, S. I. (Keasbey & Mattison Company), 1956 (1 letter)

Harrison, Wallace K. (architect) and Ellen, 1937-1956 (3 letters)

Hars, Anthony, 1964 (1 letter)

Hartgen, Vincent A. (University of Maine, Orono), 1956-1957 (4 letters)

Hartung, Herrn Dipl. Eng. (Staatshochbauamt Dusseldorf), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Harvard Club of New Canaan, Connecticut, 1951 (1 letter)

Harvard Club of New York City, 1946-1950 (6 letters)

Harvard University, Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, 1966-1970 (10 letters)

Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, 1938-1953 (49 letters)

Harvard University Society of Fellows, 1967-1970 (5 letters)

Harvard-Yenching Library, 1954 (1 letter)

Haskell, Douglas (architect; Architectural Forum), 1958 (1 letter)

Hassenpflug, Gustav (architect), undated and 1933-1955 (20 letters)

Hatje, Gerd (Verlag Gerd Hatje GMBH), 1955-1964 (111 letters): see Kaspar, Karl

Hauf, Harold D. (Edwards Street Laboratory, Yale University) and Dorothy, 1951-1954 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Haughwout, John L., 1950 (1 letter)

Havinden, Ashley, 1969 (2 letters)

Hayes, Mrs. Alfred Hayes, undated (2 letters)

Hayes, Bartlett H. (Addison Gallery of American Art), 1955 (2 letters)

Hayes, Peggy, 1963 (1 letter)

Hayes, Thom, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hayoz, Marcel, 1957 (2 letters)

Headquarters First Service Command, 1945 (1 letter)

Healy, Estelle, undated (1 letter)

Hebert, Elmer T., 1951-1974 (3 letters): from Breuer

Heckscher, August, undated and 1962-1970

Hedrich, E. (Hedrich-Blessing Photographers), 1967-1975 (2 letters)

Heinz, H. J. and Drue Maher, undated and 1954 (3 letters)

Heiser, Bruce, 1950 (1 invitation): for luncheon honoring Heiser

Helsel, Marjorie (M. Helsel Interiors), 1966 (1 letter)

Helseth, Glenn, undated (1 letter)

Henderson, Priscilla A. B., 1954 (1 letter)

Hendry, Charles E. ("Chick"; University of Tornoto), 1950 (2 letters): see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI) of the American Jewish Congress

Henin, Mme. S., 1956 (2 letters)

Henze, Wilfried, 1964 (1 letter)

Herbe, Paul (architect), 1963 (1 letter)

Herford, Julius G., 1945 (1 letter)

Herman, Harold M., undated (1 letter)

Hermanson, Ray T. (Trynor & Hermanson, Architects), 1957 (1 letter)

Herrera, Alberto Rodriguez (El Recreo, Centro Profesional del Este), 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Herrey, Hermann (architect), 1946-1947 (3 letters)

Herter, Susan and Chris, undated (1 letter)

Hertner, W. (architect), 1939 (1 letter)

Hertzell, Tage (Meningsblad for Unge Arkitekter), 1956 (1 letter)

Hervé, Lucien, 1960 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Herz, Alexandra, 1965-1967 (2 letters)

Hess, Orvan W., 1976 (1 letter)

Hester, James M. (New York University, Washington Square), 1963-1970 (2 letters)

Hetényi, George, 1954 (1 letter)

Heyer, Paul O., 1965-1970 (11 letters)

Heyman, Marla, undated (1 letter)

Heywood-Wakefield Company (Mr. Greenwood, Mr. Paul Posser), 1944 (6 letters)

Higgins, Ambrose S. (architect), 1947 (1 letter)

Hill, Albert Henry, 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Hill and Knowlton, Inc., 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hill, Henry and Heather, 1950-1964 (7 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Hirschfeld, Ludwig, undated and 1935-1963 (18 letters)

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, Jr., 1937-1938 (4 letters)

Hobart Manufacturing Company (KitchenAid Home Dishwasher Division), 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hockaday Associates, Inc., 1954 (2 letters)

Hödl, Heinrich, 1964 (1 letter)

Hoffman, Mildred, 1966 (1 letter)

Hoffman, Tom, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hoffmann, Alfred, 1938 (1 letter)

Hofmann, Hans (from Weimar), 1947 (1 letter)

Julius Hoffmann Verlag Stuttgart, 1955-1961 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Hoffmeyer, Ted (Marcel Breuer and Associates field office), 1963-1970 (3 letters)

Hogan, P. A., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Holden, Thomas S. (F. W. Dodge Corporation), 1954-1958 (3 letters)

Holland Shade Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Holzmann, Philipp, 1975-1977 (2 letters)

Hooper, Edith Ferry, undated and 1963 (2 letters)

Hooper, Elizabeth, 1969 (1 letter)

Hooykaas, J. A. (Nederlandse Natuursteen Importeurs), 1957 (1 letter)

Hopfe, Charles T. (Hop-Mac, Inc.), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Horizon, 1970 (1 letter)

Hosei University, 1954 (1 letter)

House & Garden -- , 1970 (1 letter)

House and Home magazine, 1954 (1 letter)

Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Department of, 1968 (1 invitation): to dedication

Houston, University of, Architectural Society, 1953-1955 (4 letters)

Edward F. Howard Company, 1956 (1 letter)

Howard, Herbert Seymour, 1946 (1 letter)

Howe, George (Yale University), 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer

Howland, Mrs. John, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Hsin-Yieh Architects & Associates, undated (1 letter)

Hu, Kuang-Yu, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Huber, Karl, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hudnut, Joseph ("Vi"; Harvard University) and Claire, undated and 1946-1947 (3 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA); Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM), Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning; Harvard University, Graduate School of Design

Hug, Hattula Moholy-Nagy (daughter of László Moholy-Nagy), 1976 (1 letter)

Hughes, Ella C., 1937 (1 letter)

Hughes, Jennifer, 1964 (2 letters)

Hughes, K. E., undated (1 letter)

Hultberg, Hilary (Rudi Blesh's daughter ?), 1957 (3 letters)

Hungarian Alumni Association, undated (1 letter): includes a hand-drawn map, 8 photographs of Hungarian cityscapes, 4 photographs of city views, and a drawing of the facade of a building

Hunter, Louise, 1947 (1 letter)

Hurley, Jane C., 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hurwitz, Joe, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Hutchhausen, Walther, 1937 (1 letter)

Hutchins, John Jay (Law Offices of S. G. Archibald), 1963-1969 (14 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Hutton: E. F. Hutton Company, 1946-1951 (7 letters)

Huygens, W., 1957 (1 letter)

Ichban [?], Hans ("Zero"), undated and 1939 (2 letters)

Ikuta, Tsutomu, 1951 (1 letter)

Illinois, University of, Chapter of AIA, 1959 (2 letters)

Illinois, University of, Urbana, 1957-1964 (4 letters)

Ilmanen, J. William, 1955-1956 (2 letters)

Immanuel, M., 1946 (2 letters)

India, ambassador from, 1965 (1 invitation): to Nehru

N.V. Induventa, 1935 (1 letter)

Ingrand, Max, undated (2 letters)

Institute der Schwestern, Baldegg, Switzerland, 1970-1975 (5 letters): 4 from Breuer

Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, 1970 (1 letter)

Institute of Contemporary Art, 1954-1956 (3 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Institute of Contemporary Art, Department of Design in Industry, 1951 (3 notices of meetings)

Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1953-1959 (6 letters)

Institute of International Education, 1960-1961 (4 letters)

Instituto Internazionale di Arte Liturgica, 1970 (1 letter)

Interiors Incorporated, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Interiors International, 1963 (4 letters)

Interiors magazine, 1950 (1 letter)

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), 1963-1974 (4 letters): 2 from Breuer

International Business Machines (IBM) Deutschland, 1970 (1 letter)

International Congress for Engineering Education, 1947 (2 letters)

International Congress for Modern Architecture: see Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM)

International Contract Furnishings, Inc., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

International Design Conference, Aspen, Colorado, 1953-1955 (4 letters)

International Lighting Review, 1961 (1 letter)

International Rescue Committee, Inc., undated (1 letter)

Iowa State College, 1960 (1 letter): see Myers, John S.

Iran, empress of, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Irving & Casson/A. H. Davenport Company, 1945 (1 letter): see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI)

Irving, Michael H. (Irving and Jacob), undated and 1968-1971 (4 letters)

Isokon (Lawn Road) Limited, 1936-1966 (2 letters)

Istituto Italiano di Cultura, 1967 (1 letter)

Jackson, Huson (Plan-Tech Associates), 1945-1958 (3 letters)

Jacobs, Robert Allan (Kahn & Jacobs), 1958 (2 letters)

Jacobson, Egbert (Container Corporation of America), 1950 (1 letter)

Janis Gallery (Sidney Janis), 1955-1970 (2 letters): concerning Josef Albers exhibition

Japan Architect Company, Ltd., 1977 (2 letters)

Japan House Gallery, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Japan Society, Inc., 1964-1975 (3 letters)

Jaredat, Nizar and Ellen, 1946-1958 (4 letters)

Jaritz, András, 1934 (1 letter)

Jarrell, Katherine O., 1960 (2 letters)

Jefferson Foundation Medal in Architecture, 1968 (1 letter)

G. A. Jellicoe & Partners, Architects, undated (1 letter)

Georg Jensen, Inc., 1946-1947 (4 letters)

Jewish Community Center of Cleveland, 1965 (3 letters)

Jobco Incorporated, 1980 (1 letter): from Herbert Beckhard

Johansen, John MacL.("Jo") and Mary Ellen, undated and 1947-1970 (7 letters)

Johns Hopkins University, 1981 (2 letters)

Johnson, Dan Rhodes, 1965 (1 letter)

Johnson, Frances, 1950-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer

Johnson, Lyndon Baines, 1965 (1 invitation): to presidential inauguration

Johnson, Marian Willard: see Willard, Marian G.

Johnson, Philip (architect), 1945-1948 (10 letters): 4 letters from Breuer: see Project File for UNESCO

Johnson, Reid B., 1964 (1 letter)

Johnstone, William (Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center), 1949 (1 letter)

Joly, Pierre (photographer), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Jomain, Pierre, 1960 (1 letter)

Jones, Adolph (U.S. Embassy, The Hague), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Jones, Cranston and Jean, 1958-1966 (10 letters)

Jones, Cyrus C., 1945 (1 letter): from Breuer

Jones, Douglas (University of Bristol, U.K.), 1967 (1 letter)

Jones, Noel W. (district engineer, OCS), 1968 (1 letter)

Jones, Paul K. (mayor of Shaker Heights, Ohio), 1970 (1 letter)

Jones, Theodore S. (Institute of Contemporary Art), 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Joraschek, Josef (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Jordi, Beat, 1970-1976 (13 letters): 12 from Breuer

Jordy, William H. (Yale University), 1951 (2 letters)

Jossa, Mario, 1966-1976 (37 letters): 28 from Breuer

Joyce, Nora, 1934 (1 letter)

Junyer, Joan [?]1961 (1 letter)

Kacmarcik, Frank, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Kaffka, Péter (C. E. Pratt & Péter Kaffka, Architects), 1950 (1 letter)

Kahlen, Wolfgang, 1965 (1 letter)

Kahn, Hugo, 1968 (1 letter)

Kahn, Louis I. (Oscar Stonorov and Louis I. Kahn Associated Architects), 1945-1966 (5 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Kalmai, K., 1924 (1 letter)

Kálmán, Timon, 1967 (2 letters)

Kalnay, Ferenc, 1938 (1 letter)

Kamer, Henri A. (Kamer, Inc.), 1964-1966 (2 letters)

Kamphoefner, Henry L. (School of Design, North Carolina State College), 1951-1954 (6 letters)

Kandinsky, Lina, 1969-1976 (mentioned in 2 letters from Constance Breuer)

Kane, Ervin (Viewtone Television), 1946 (2 letters)

Kaneko, Masanori (Kagawa Prefectural Government, Japan), 1970 (1 letter)

Kann, Henry Robert, 1951 (1 letter)

Karajabey, Ayla, 1966 (telegram from Breuer)

Karlock, Michael (Benton & Bowles), 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Karsten, Thomas and Marilyn (American Trading Company), 1963-1975 (8 letters)

Kaspar, Karl (Verlag Gerd Hatje GMBH), 1955 (2 letters)

Kass, Gertrud [?], 1939 (1 letter)

Katsuyama, S., undated (1 letter)

Kaufman, Stanley Lloyd, 1950 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Kaufmann, Edgar J. (Kaufmann Department Store), 1954-1963 (2 letters)

Kazi, Abdul-Rassak, 1966 (2 letters)

Kazin, Alfred, 1971 (1 letter)

W. R. Keating & Company, 1962 (1 letter): concerns shipment of Alexander Calder sculpture

Keller, Dieter, 1965 (2 letters)

Kelly, John Terence (architect), 1964 (1 letter)

Kelly, Virginia Whitmore, 1949 (1 letter)

Kennedy, Edith (Robert Woods Kennedy's mother), 1939 (1 letter)

Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 1961-1963 (3 letters): from the White House

Kennedy, Robert Woods (first architect in Gropius-Breuer office, Cambridge, Massachusetts), undated and 1950 (3 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Kennerly, Albert (Kennerly Construction Company, Inc.), 1947 (1 letter)

Keogh, Eugene J. (Halpin, Keogh & St. John), 1970 (1 letter)

Kepes, György (architect) and Juliet, undated and 1924-1978 (29 letters)

Kertész, André, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Kertész, Gyula, 1938 (1 letter)

Kessler-Gallacher & Burton, Seagram-Distillers Corporation, 1954-1963 (5 letters)

Ketchum, Morris (Ketchum, Gina & Sharp, Architects), 1957-1963 (25 letters)

Ketchum, Phillips (Ketchum Building Corporation), 1967 (4 letters)

Keyser, William, 1964 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kida, Miho, 1975 (2 letters)

Kiley, Dan, 1955 (1 letter)

Kilham, Walter H. (R. B. O'Connor and W. H. Kilham, Architects), 1951-1960 (2 letters)

Kimura, Akira, 1965 (1 letter): includes photograph of family E. & F. King & Company, 1946 (2 letters)

King, Helen (William Morrow & Company, Inc., Publishers), 1951 (1 letter)

Kipnis, Leonid (Leonid Kipnis Gallery), 1954 (1 letter)

Kirkconnell, Watson, 1967 (1 invitation): to George Washington Awards Dinner in honor of Breuer, Kirkconnell, and Hans Selye

Kistler, Daniel, undated and 1964 (2 letters)

Kivett & Myers & McCallum (Architects - Engineers), undated (1 letter)

Kleyer, Bertel and Erwin Kleyer, 1946-1954 (10 letters)

Klöckner (Deimel, Klöckner, Koebel), 1959 (1 letter)

Kniffin, Ogden ("Nif"; inventor of Colorforms) and Kitty, 1950-1960 (5 letters): 3 from Breuer

Knoll, Hans G. and Florence (H. G. Knoll Associates, Inc.), undated and 1945-1961 (12 letters); see Project File for UNESCO

Knoll International, Inc., 1971-1977 (7 letters): see Vidal, Yves

Knox, Sanka (New York Times), 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kobler, John (Saturday Evening Post), 1959 (1 letter)

Koch, Alexander, 1948-1961 (2 letters)

Koerfer, Jacques and Christina, undated and 1964-1977 (18 letters)

Kolozsváry-Kiss, árpád, 1957 (2 letters)

Kondor, E. ("Pista"), 1937 (1 letter)

König, Dr. Heinrich, 1954-1959 (3 letters)

Konwiser, Inc., 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kootz, Samuel B. (Kootz Art Gallery), 1954-1956 (2 letters)

Koran, Spencer, 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer's office

Korn, Arthur (Architectural Association School of Architecture), 1947-1956 (2 letters)

Kornfeld, Albert, 1956 (1 letter)

Kortan, Enis (Turkish architect), 1956-1960 (3 letters)

Koudela, E. Hugi (Deeter Ritchey Sippel), 1968 (1 letter)

Koyama, Shin (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Kósa, Zoltán, 1962 (1 letter)

Kozlowski, Jean Paul and Shirley, 1960-1972 (2 letters)

Kraemer, Friedrich Wilhelm (architect), 1955 (1 letter)

Kramer, Edwin R., 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Krausz, László, 1957-1968 (2 letters)

Krivátsky-Szüts, ádám (Hungarian architect), 1960 (1 letter)

Kri anac, Dr. Matko, 1974 (1 letter)

Ku, Danna Morison, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Kuenzle, Creed (Swiss architect), 1959 (1 letter)

Kuh, Katharine (Art Institute of Chicago), undated and 1951 (2 letters)

Kulkarni, Ashok, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Keith R. Kunhardt Associates, Inc., 1966 (1 letter)

Kunst Kabinett Klihm, Munich, 1956 (1 letter)

Kuwayama, A. (Kuwayama & Company, Inc.), 1945 (1 letter)

Laaff, George, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Laboratoires Sarget, 1970 (1 letter)

Lacey, Joseph (Eero Saarinen Associates), 1957 (2 letters)

Ladd, Fred, 1965 (1 letter)

LaFarge, Bancel: see American Institute of Architects

La Joie Par Les Livres, 1964 (1 letter)

Lalonde, Gisele and Jean-Louis, undated and 1955 (2 letters)

Laminated Veneers, Inc., 1948 (2 letters)

Lamson, Jarvis (Functional Furniture, Inc.), 1947-1948 (9 letters): see Noyes, Eliot

Landram, Fred, 1947 (1 letter)

M. Landsberg Stationery Company, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Landsberg, William W., 1953-1959 (5 letters)

Lang, George E. (Restaurant & Waldorf Associates, Inc.), 1967-1968 (2 letters)

Lányi, George, 1939-1946 (2 letters)

L'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, 1954 (3 letters)

La Rinascente Compasso d'Oro, 1955-1965 (43 letters)

Larson, Else M. (Mrs. Arthur W. Larson), 1963 (2 letters)

Laseau, Paul, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

László, Carl, 1964 (1 letter)

Lauck, Peter (Morton Sundour Company, Inc.), 1950 (1 letter)

Lauper, Peter (Fraser's), 1955 (1 letter)

Laurenti, André, 1959-1968 (8 letters)

Lautman, Robert C. (photographer), 1973 (1 letter): from Herbert Beckhard

La Verne Originals, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Lavigueur, Gilles (architect), 1967 (1 letter): includes 2 photographs of a chair

Lawrence, John W. (Tulane University), 1953 (1 letter)

Le Corbusier, 1957 (1 letter): from Walter Gropius to friends concerning Le Corbusier's 70th birthday; see also Project File for UNESCO

Lee, Duk, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Lee, Richard C. (mayor of New Haven), 1964 (1 letter): from Breuer

Al Paul Lefton Company, Inc., Advertising, 1949-1950 (2 letters)

Lehigh Furniture Corporation, 1951 (1 letter)

Leibowitz, Matthew, 1946 (1 letter)

Leight, Lillian, 1972 (1 letter)

Leighton, O. S., 1946-1951 (11 letters)

Lemm, H. J. , undated (1 letter)

Lennon, Jacques E., 1975 (1 letter)

Leontieff, Wassily, 1947 (1 letter)

Lercaro, His Eminence Jacques Cardinal, 1969-1970 (2 letters)

Lescaze, William (architect), 1954 (1 letter)

Lever, Lance, 1966 (1 letter)

Levin, Arnold B., 1954 (1 letter)

Levine, Leon, 1971 (1 letter)

Lévy, Vilmos (Hungarian sculptor), undated and 1938 (2 letters)

Lewin, Kurt and G., 1944-1947 (4 letters)

Lewis, George Sherman (architect), 1946-1954 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Li, Ying, 1947 (1 letter)

Liberman, Tatiana and Alexander, 1969 (1 invitation): for cocktails with Helen Frankenthaler Librairie d'Art Ancien et Moderne, 1962-1963 (2 letters)

Librairie Ernest Flammarion, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Lili, S. Braun, 1936-1939 (8 letters)

Lilinthal, Benjamin, 1956 (1 letter)

Limbach, Scott (Limbach Company), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Lincoln Warehouse Corporation, 1951 (1 letter)

Lindsay, John V. (mayor of New York) and Mary, 1967-1969 (5 letters)

L'Industria Italiana del Cemento, 1975 (2 letters)

Linke, Siegfried, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Lionni, Leonardo and Nora, 1962 (1 letter): see also International Design Conference, Aspen

Littke, George, 1950 (1 letter)

Liverant, Mrs. M. J., 1960 (1 letter)

Lloyd, Eleanor B. (Mrs. H. Gates Lloyd), 1959 (1 letter)

Lloyd, Miss M. E., 1939 (1 letter)

Lobell, Mimi, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

L'Oeil, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer

Lohse, Richard P. (editor, Bauen + Wohnen), 1950 (1 letter)

Lombard, M. A. (M. A. Lombard & Son, Company, General Contractors), 1966 (1 letter)

Long Beach Art Association, Inc., 1954 (1 letter)

Longmans, Green & Company, Ltd., 1958 (1 letter)

Lortz, R., 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Louisiana State University, Department of Architecture, 1964 (1 letter)

Lubroth, I. (Lubroth y Henriquez, Estudio de Arquitectura), 1975 (1 letter)

Ludolf, H. G., 1933-1934 (2 letters)

Lundy, Victor A., 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Lunning, Just, 1956 (1 letter)

Lurie, H. Lee, 1946-1947 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Lutz, Pierre, 1961-1968 (2 letters): from Breuer Lydakis, George (Precision Metal Model Corporation), 1950-1955 (2 letters)

Lydon, Ken, 1972 (1 letter)

Lyles, Bissett, Carlisle & Wolff, 1955 (2 letters)

Lyman, Bill, 1946 (3 letters)

Lyn, Robert J., 1951 (2 letters)

Lyndon, Maynard (architect), 1965 (1 letter)

Maas, Carl ("Happy"/"Hap"; editor, House Beautiful), 1937-1946 (6 letters)

Maas, Walter, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Macomber, George A. (Cambridge Trust Company), 1947 (2 letters)

Madison, Bob, 1951 (1 letter)

I. Magnin, San Francisco, 1961 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Magyar Album, 1956 (1 letter)

Magyar épitomuvészek Szövetsége magazine, 1956-1977 (4 letters)

Maki, Fumihiko (Harvard University), 1963 (1 letter) George E. Mallison Importing Company, 1950-1955 (2 letters)

Manders, Dave, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Mandl, Zoltán, 1939 (1 letter)

Manfred, Ernest F., 1966 (1 letter)

Mang, Karl (architect), 1967 (1 letter)

Manitoba, University of, Students' Architectural Society, 1953 (1 letter)

Mantel, H. J., 1951 (1 letter)

Manton, Mr. and Mrs. John, 1967 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Marbleloid, Inc., 1946 (1 letter)

Marine-Air-Research Corporation, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Maroy, Jean-Paul, 1981 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje William L. Marshall, Ltd., 1944-1947 (8 letters)

Marson, Bernard A. (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Marston, Natalie (Institute of Contemporary Art), 1951 (1 letter)

Martens, Michel (Hedendaagse Kerkelijke Kunst), 1956-1957 (2 letters)

Martignetti, Antonio, 1956 (1 letter)

Martin, J. L. (architect), 1938 (1 letter)

Martin, Leslie and Sadie, undated and 1954 (3 letters)

Mary College and the Annunciation Priory, 1963-1976 (6 letters)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Art Committee, 1968 (1 letter)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Office of the President, 1961-1965 (2 letters)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Planning, 1958-1960 (4 letters)

Massachusetts, University of, Amherst, 1968 (1 letter)

Massenot, J. P. (éditions Techniques), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office Master, Dipak C. (Master Sathe and Kothari, Architects), 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Mathews, Joseph F., 1956 (1 letter)

Maucher, Helmut, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Maurer, Laurie, undated (3 letters)

Mauser Kommandit-Gesellschaft, 1966 (1 letter)

Mayekawa, Kunio, 1963 (1 letter)

McClean-Smith, Betty, 1940 (1 letter)

McComb, Peter K. and Karen, 1954-1956 (4 letters)

McGarry, Ann M., 1947 (1 letter)

McGill University, Montreal, 1967 (1 letter)

McGlynn Associates, Inc., 1956 (1 letter)

McGrath, Raymond (Office of Public Works, Dublin, Ireland), 1937-1969 (9 letters)

McGraw-Hill Publications, 1967 (1 letter)

McGuinness, William J. (Pratt Institute), 1951 (1 letter)

McIntyre, A. McVoy, 1950-1951 (2 letters)

McLaughlin, Peter, 1959 (1 letter)

McMillan, Louis and Peggy (Architects' Collaborative), 1945-1946 (2 letters)

McVitty, John D., 1946 (1 letter)

John O. Meadows Associates, Ltd., 1984-1985 (2 letters)

Medical Economics, 1960 (1 letter)

Meier, Richard Alan, undated and 1957-1967 (5 letters)

Meldrum, Andrew, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Meller, Herbert, 1969-1970 (4 letters)

Mellon, Mary, 1938 (1 letter)

Meng, John J. (Hunter College), 1963 (1 letter)

Menken, Julian (Julian Menken and Associates), 1964 (1 letter)

Merit Studios, Inc., 1965 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Merle, André (André Merle Associates, Architectural Engineers), 1946 (1 letter)

Merrill and Holmbren, Architects, 1954 (1 letter): concerns Campbell Building Company

Merrill, Ruth P., 1950-1964 (2 letters)

Metropolitan Milwaukee War Memorial, Inc., 1945 (4 letters): 1 to Walter Gropius

Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1944-1975 (8 letters)

Metropolitan Structures, Inc., 1974 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Metropolitan Washington Board of Trade, 1969 (2 letters)

Meunier, John, 1957 (1 letter)

México, Consulado Honorario de, 1938 (2 letters)

Meyer-Bohe, Walter, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Michaëlis, Lorenz S. (Swiss doctor), undated (1 letter)

Michaelis-Lenolt, Ilse, 1937 (1 letter)

Michaud, Marcel (Stylclair), 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Michel, John (General American Transportation Corporation), 1947-1948 (2 letters)

Michelson, Val (architect), 1970 (1 letter)

Michigan, University of, Ann Arbor, 1957-1963 (19 letters)

Middelhauve, Dr. F. G., 1963 (1 letter)

Mies Van der Rohe, Ludwig, 1945 (1 letter): from Breuer introducing Sanford L. and Helen Berger, architects

Mihályfy, Károlyné, 1966 (1 letter)

Millar, L. R., 1935 (1 letter)

Millard, Charles W., 1957 (1 letter)

Miller Company, 1945-1947 (2 letters)

Miller, Flora W. (Mrs. G. MacCulloch Miller), undated (1 letter)

Miller, H. Wisner, 1968-1969 (2 letters)

Herman Miller Furniture Company, 1951-1954 (4 letters): from Breuer

Miller, Rev. John (St. Charles Seminary), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Miller, Richard J., 1955 (1 letter)

Miller, Steve, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Milliken, W. H. (Binney & Smith Company), 1951 (1 letter)

Mills, Mrs. Edward E., 1954 (1 letter): from William W. Landsberg

Mills, Willis N. (Sherwood, Mills and Smith, Architects), 1960-1969 (2 letters)

Ministre d'état Chargé des Affaires Culturelles, 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer

Minnesota Society of Architects, 1958 (1 letter)

Minnesota, State of, Board of Registration, 1954 (2 letters)

Minnesota, University of, 1953 (1 letter)

Miró, Joan, 1959-1963 (2 letters): 1 from Breuer

Mitchell and Ritchey, 1947 (2 letters)

Mitchell, Mary, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Miya & Company, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Modern Industry, 1947 (1 letter)

Modern Master Tapestries, Inc., 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer's office

Moffett, Toby, 1974 (1 letter)

Moholy, Lucia, 1957-1958 (5 letters)

Moholy-Nagy, László ("Lakci") and Sibyl, 1934-1955 (40 letters): includes a 1946 exhibition catalog for a Walter Gropius exhibition at the School of Design, Chicago; see also Hug, Hattula Moholy-Nagy

Moldcast Products, Inc., 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Molitor, Joseph W. (photographer), 1955-1975 (5 letters): 4 from Breuer

Molnár, Farkas (Hungarian architect), undated and 1933-1940 (25 letters)

Mongan, Agnes, 1938 (1 letter)

Montague, Harvey, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Montgomery, Elizabeth (Mrs. Wilmot), 1950 (1 letter)

Moore, Henry, 1946-1962 (13 letters): 6 from Breuer

Moore, Joe A., 1945 (2 letters)

Moore, Paul S. (architect), 1966-1967 (3 letters)

Morassutti, Mangiarotti, 1961 (1 letter)

Moretti, Bruno, 1936 (1 letter)

Morgan, Alice, 1939 (1 letter)

Morgan, Sherley W. (Princeton University), 1952 (3 letters)

Móricz, Miklós, 1947 (1 letter)

Morrell, Mrs. Ben, 1965 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Sydney Morrell & Company, Inc., 1973-1976 (4 letters)

Morris, Walter (Fuller & Smith & Ross, Inc.), 1950 (1 letter)

Morrow, Margot, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Mory, Bob, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Moschette, Angela, 1950 (1 letter)

Motherwell, Robert, 1968 (1 letter)

Muguruza Otaño, José María (architect), 1935-1967 (3 letters)

Mulford, Edwin H., 1966 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Müller-Rehm, Klaus (architect), 1951 (1 letter)

Mundipharma GmbH, Frankfurt, 1975-1976 (4 letters)

Eduard Munz & Company, 1954-1959 (3 letters)

Murray, J. A. (University of Toronto School of Architecture), 1947-1956 (3 letters)

Murrow, Mrs. Edward R., 1961 (1 letter)

Musée des Arts Décoratifs, 1969 (2 letters)

Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro, 1954 (1 letter)

Museu de Arte Moderna do São Paulo, 1956 (1 letter concerning IV Bienal de S. Paulo)

Museum of Contemporary Crafts, 1967 (7 letters)

Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1941-1976 (49 letters)

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, 1967 (3 letters)

Museum of the City of New York, 1959 (2 letters)

Muskat, Irving E., 1968 (2 letters)

Mutsu, Masako, 1964-1965 (2 letters): from Breuer

Myers, John S. and Shirlee, 1955-1959 (4 letters)

Myers, Ralph E., 1958 (2 letters)

Myers, Robert L., 1950 (1 letter)

Nadeau, Eleanor Saxe, 1950 (1 letter)

Nader, Fouzieh, 1972 (2 letters)

Nagare, Masayuki, 1963-1965 (6 letters): 5 letters from Breuer

Nagel, Chester (architect), 1968 (1 letter)

Nagy Iván, Dr. Vitéz (Ministry Secretary), undated (1 letter)

Najibullah, Yousof, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Napier, Frieda (Mrs. Ian Napier), undated and 1937 (7 letters)

Nathan, Carl H. (Suncraft), 1945 (1 letter)

National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, undated (1 letter)

National Citizens for Johnson and Humphrey, 1964 (1 letter)

National Committee of Arts, Letters and Sciences for John F. Kennedy for President, 1960 (2 letters)

National Concrete Masonry Association, 1958-1959 (7 letters)

National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Architects' Committee, 1944-1945 (13 letters)

National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Building Industry Committee, 1946 (6 letters)

National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, 1946-1959 (5 letters): request recommendations for Jean Bodman Fletcher, I. M. Pei, and Richard G. Stein

National Council of Churches, 1955 (1 letter)

National Council on Schoolhouse Construction, 1951 (1 letter)

National Institute of Arts and Letters, 1965-1968 (47 letters): 1967 letter from Breuer includes typescripts concerning Josef Albers and Constantino Nivola; 1968 encloses a letter from Philip Johnson; see American Academy of Arts and Letters National Society of Interior Designers, Inc., 1958 (1 letter) National Terrazzo & Mosaic Association, 1955 (1 letter from Murray S. Emslie)

National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Nedberg, Björn, 1951 (1 letter)

Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Fundatie, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Neighbour, Keith, 1955 (1 letter)

Neiman Marcus, Dallas, Texas, 1961 (1 letter)

Nelson, George (architect), undated and 1958 (2 letters)

Nemeny, George (architect), 1945 (2 letters): from Breuer

Nervi, Mario (son of Pier Luigi Nervi), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Nervi, Pier Luigi, undated and 1960-1978 (5 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Neski, Joe and Barbara, 1957 (1 letter)

Neski, Julian (architect), 1967-1970 (2 letters)

Neufert, Ernst, 1946 (1 letter)

Neumann, J. B., 1950 (1 card): sent jointly with Elsa Schmid

Neumann, Lena, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Neumann, Vera (Scarves by Vera), 1970 (1 letter)

Nevendorff, Peter (construction supervisor for Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Museum of the 20th Century), 1967 (1 office message)

Newark Museum, 1954-1955 (5 letters)

New Canaan Advertiser, 1974 (1 letter)

New Canaan Committee for Shakespearean Festival, undated (1 invitation): from Francis A. Sunderland to meet Sir Cedric and Lady Hardwicke

New Canaan Community Nursery School, Inc., 1955 (1 letter)

New Canaan Country School, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

New Haven Festival of Arts, Inc., 1959 (4 letters)

New Hungarian Quarterly, 1967 (1 letter)

Newman, Robert B. (Bolt Beranek and Newman), 1951 (1 letter)

Newport, Charles W. (R. S. Noonan, Inc.), 1945 (2 letters)

Newsome, Carroll V. (Prentice-Hall, Inc.), 1962 (1 letter)

Newsweek, 1955 (1 letter)

New York Association of Consulting Engineers, Inc., 1970 (1 letter)

New York Division of Housing and Community Renewal, 1964 (1 letter)

New Yorker, 1967-1975 (3 letters)

New York Institute of Technology AIA Chapter, 1976 (1 letter)

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company, 1951-1963 (6 letters)

New York Public Library, 1966 (1 letter)

New York State Council on Architecture, 1975 (1 letter)

New York World's Fair 1964-1965, 1964 (1 invitation): for cocktails at Pavilion of Spain

Nicholson, Christopher (architect), 1946 (2 letters)

Nicholson's Sports Apparel, 1945 (1 letter)

Nivola, Constantine, 1966 (1 letter): from Breuer

Noever, Peter (Svoboda and Company), 1958-1968 (4 letters)

Noirot, Genevieve, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Nolen, James A., 1970 (1 letter)

Nolen-Swinburne and Associates, 1970 (1 letter): from Herbert Beckhard concerning Department of Housing and Urban Development

Nordmann, Christian, 1934 (1 letter)

North Dakota Agriculture College, AIA, 1959 (1 letter)

North Dakota State College, 1960 (2 letters)

Northey, Ned H., 1956 (1 letter)

Norton, Clifford, undated (1 letter)

Norton, Noël E. ("Peter"; Lady Clifford Norton), undated and 1933-1965 (36 letters)

Norweb, Emery May (Mrs. R. Henry Norweb), 1970 (1 letter)

Noyes, Eliot Fette (architect), undated and 1946-1974 (13 letters)

N.V. Ingenieurs - Bureau Voor Bouwnijverheid, 1960 (2 letters)

Ochs, Fritz, 1950 (1 letter)

O'Connor, Vincent A. G., 1963 (5 letters)

Oehler, Erma L. (Fuller & Smith & Ross, Inc., Advertising), 1947 (3 letters)

Oestreicher, W. L., 1947 (1 letter)

Ohye, Hiroshi, 1954 (1 letter): of introduction from Hyoe Ouchi

Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1950 (1 letter)

Oklahoma, University of, School of Architecture, 1966 (2 letters)

Okudaira, Kozo, 1954-1955 (6 letters)

Olgyay, Aladár (Hungarian architect; twin brother Viktor Olgyay) and Elizabeth, undated and 1939-1960 (12 letters)

Olivetti, Adriano, 1956 (1 letter)

Olivetti, Dino, 1963 (1 letter)

Olivetti, Roberto, 1970 (1 letter)

Olsen, Don and Helen, 1947 (1 letter)

Olsen, Ralph, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Omega Marble, 1965 (1 letter)

O'Neill, John C. R., and Marvin H. Segner (consulting engineers), undated (1 letter)

On Site, 1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Oppenheim, Dennis, 1968 (1 letter)

Ordre des Architectes, Paris, 1964 (1 letter from Robert F. Gatje)

Originators, The, 1977 (1 letter)

Ortega, Alvaro (Colombian architect, student of Breuer), 1960-1972 (3 letters): 1972 letter from Leonard Currie concerns a recommendation for Ortega

Osborn, Elodie and Robert, undated and 1946-1971 (18 letters)

Osborne, Stafford, 1963 (1 memorandum): from James S. Plaut

Otto, Marguerite, 1946 (1 letter)

Oud, J. J. P. (architect), undated (1 calling card)

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, 1959 (2 letters)

Owurowa, Saji, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Oxford University Press, Inc., 1954 (1 letter)

Pabst, Robert E. (Mabaco Marine), 1956 (1 letter)

Pach Brothers, 1965 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pack, Isabelle (Breuer's secretary), 1958 (3 letters)

Pack, Nancy (Mrs. Howard Meade Pack), undated and 1953 (2 letters)

Paine Furniture Company, 1946 (1 letter)

Pajor, Zoltán, 1938-1947 (7 letters)

Palestrant, Stephen, 1963 (1 letter)

Palmer Physical Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, 1945 (1 letter)

Papachristou, Tician and Judy, undated and 1967-1974 (6 letters)

Papadaki, Stamo, 1945-1951 (14 letters): see Commission on Community Interrelations (CCI) of the American-Jewish Congress; Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM), Chapter for Relief and Post-War Planning

Papadakis, Stanis (architect), 1935-1936 (2 letters)

Papock, Herbert (Wylie F. L. Tuttle Company), 1970 (1 letter)

Papp, Leslie G., 1957 (1 letter)

Paquin, G., 1938 (1 letter)

Parkin, John B., 1950 (1 letter)

Parkinson (Cobb), Eliza, undated (2 letters)

Parkinson, Elizabeth, 1969 (1 letter)

Parsons School of Design, 1956 (1 letter)

Passonneau, Joseph R. (Washington University, St. Louis), 1956-1958 (3 letters)

Paterson State Teachers College, undated and 1954 (7 letters)

Payer, Ernst, undated (1 letter)

Pázmándi, Margó (Hungarian architect), 1974 (1 letter)

Pearman, Charles, 1964 (2 letters)

I. M. Pei & Associates, undated and 1959 (6 letters): 1959 letter is letter of recommendation by Breuer for Pei

Pella Rolscreen Company, 1966 (1 letter)

Pennsylvania State University, 1958 (5 letters)

Pennsylvania, University of, 1958-1959 (2 letters)

Pepper, Eleanor (and Alta Grant Samuels), undated (1 letter)

Peressutti, Enrico (Banfi Belgiojoso Peressutti Rogers, architects), 1949-1959 (4 letters)

Perkins, G. Holmes (Harvard University), 1940-1947 (6 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

Perrin, Luis (architect), 1957 (1 letter)

Peter, J. A., 1945 (1 letter)

Peter, John, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Peterson, Cynthia, undated (1 letter)

Peterson, G. H., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Philco Corporation, 1950 (1 letter)

Phoenix Art Museum, 1965 (1 letter): concerns a Josef Albers exhibition

Pichler, Albrecht, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Picker, Fred, 1974 (4 letters): from Breuer's office

John B. Pierce Foundation, 1945 (1 letter)

Pignot, Gilbert (architect), 1971 (1 letter)

Pilchik, Ely E. (Congregation B'nai Jeshurun), 1962 (1 letter)

Pilzer, Leopold (Thonet Brothers, Inc.), 1943-1954 (9 letters): see also Project File for UNESCO

Pinkus, Dr. Felix, 1933-1934 (3 letters)

Pinter, Anthony S. (Study Abroad, Inc.), 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Pinter, Margit, 1946 (1 letter)

Pintori, Giovanni (Pubblicità Olivetti), 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pisenti, Oreste, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, 1947 (1 letter): from Breuer

Plaut, James S. (Institute of Contemporary Art) and Mary, 1947-1963 (5 letters)

Polak, Jean and André, 1969-1970 (3 letters)

Polányi, Cecil, 1935 (1 letter)

Polieri, Jacques, 1957-1958 (2 letters)

Pomerance, Ralph, 1968 (1 letter)

Centre Georges Pompidou (P. Hussen), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ponti, Gio (architect), 1963-1967 (2 letters)

Poon, Sze-chiu, 1958 (3 letters): includes a photograph of Poon

Pope and Evans (consulting engineers), 1956 (1 letter)

Porter, Bernice, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Porter, Lucy (Mrs. A. Kingsley Porter), 1950 (1 letter)

Porter, Tom, 1974-1976 (3 letters): from Breuer

Portland Cement Association, 1959 (1 letter): from Breuer

Pospischil, Ernest, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Posse, Ricardo Muratorio, 1956 (1 letter)

Postman, Art, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Potter, Arnold and Selma, undated (1 letter)

Potts, Del G. (Fred H. Towery Equipment Company), 1947 (1 letter)

Pouget, Cl. (Cie. IBM, France), 1961-1970 (2 letters)

Pradelle, T. and D., undated (1 letter)

Praeger, Frederick A. (Frederick A. Praeger, Inc.), 1959-1969 (19 letters): includes a 1959 transcript of Praeger's conversation with Breuer concerning the publication of a book on Breuer's life work

Pratt Institute, 1953-1969 (11 letters)

Présentè, G. M., 1954 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Prestressed Concrete Institute, 1970 (1 letter)

Price, Thomas M., 1946 (1 letter)

Prichard, Theodore J. (University of Idaho), 1946-1950 (3 letters)

Princeton University, 1954-1959 (12 letters)

Princeton University, Graduate Council, 1954 (1 letter)

Princeton University School of Architecture, 1955-1963 (3 letters)

Pritchard, J. C. ("Jack"; producer of Isokon furniture) and Molly, 1944-1977 (56 letters)

Producers' Council, Inc., 1958-1967 (6 letters)

Progressive Architecture, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Pullman Company, 1945-1946 (2 letters)

Pusztai, György, 1963 (2 letters)

Quale, Marcia, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Quigley, T. T. (Wallace and Tiernan Company), 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Quinn, Robert H. (Attorney General of Massachusetts), 1970 (1 letter)

Raab, Martin D. (MIT School of Architecture), 1954 (2 letters)

Raabe, Sally (Harvard University, School of Design), 1947-1960 (4 letters): from Breuer

Rachlin, Abraham H. (Union Building Company), 1944 (2 letters)

Radcliffe Club of Long Island, 1954 (1 letter)

Radich, Stephen J. (Stephen Radich Gallery), 1967 (1 letter)

Rado, Ladislav L. ("Laco"; architect), 1943-1945 (6 letters)

Radwany, Emery L. and Helen, 1951-1954 (2 letters)

Rafferty, James B. (RCA Communications, Inc.), 1954 (1 letter)

Raffo, Nestor, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Rakatansky, Ira (architect), 1954-1959 (7 letters)

Ram Press, Inc., 1954 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Rand, Ann, 1951 (1 letter)

Randinsky, Nina, 1963 (1 letter)

Rapson, Ralph (University of Minnesota, School of Architecture), 1954-1959 (5 letters)

Rather, Lillian Townsend (Mrs. James Rather), 1966 (1 letter)

Rauschenback, Esther, 1951 (1 letter)

Read, Sir Herbert, 1955 (3 letters)

Réalitiés, 1964 (1 letter)

Rebay, Baroness, 1936 (1 letter)

Rédèr, J. M., 1956 (1 letter)

Reed & Barton, Silversmiths, 1963-1964 (7 letters)

Reed, Joe, 1958 (1 letter): from Breuer concerning the first tubular steel chair

Reese, Ilse Meissner, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Reidy, Affonso Eduardo, 1963 (1 letter)

Reilly, Ambassador (of Great Britain) and Lady, 1965 (1 invitation): to reception for the Fourth Biennale de Paris

Reinwald, Karl, 1969 (1 letter)

Rendy, Lili, undated (1 letter)

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1950 (1 letter)

Renz, Wilhelm (Wilhelm Renz K G, Moebelfabrik), 1966 (1 letter)

Republic, The, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Residence Lighting Forum (Illuminating Engineering Society), 1953 (1 letter)

Rettaliata, John (Illinois Institute of Technology), 1955 (1 letter)

Rév, Lajos, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Reynolds Metals Company, undated and 1946-1956 (9 letters)

Rhode Island Chapter of AIA, 1959 (1 letter)

Rhode Island School of Design, 1956-1959 (4 letters)

Richards, Jim M. and Peggy, undated and 1936-1939 (5 letters)

Richards, Steve, 1966 (1 letter)

Richlan, Frank, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Richman, Robert (Institute of Contemporary Art), 1952 (2 letters): from Breuer

Richmond, C. R., 1941 (1 letter)

Richmond Radiator Company (A. A. Marks), 1944 (2 letters): from Breuer

Rietkerk, William, 1956 (1 letter)

John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, 1956 (1 letter)

Ritchey, Dahlen K. (Deeter Ritchey Sippel, Architects), 1968 (1 letter)

Rivers, Shavaun, 1950 (1 letter)

Roberts, Russell (opera singer who bought Breuer's first New Canaan house), 1951-1955 (7 letters): 6 letters from Breuer

Robinson, Frank S., 1969 (2 letters)

Robinson, Mrs. Preston, 1946-1960 (2 letters)

Roche, Mme. Yolande, 1966-1967 (4 letters)

Rockefeller, Blanchette (Mrs. John D. Rockefeller III), 1962 (1 letter)

Rockefeller, John Davison, IV, 1967 (1 wedding announcement): for Rockefeller and Sharon Lee Percy

Rockefeller, Nelson A., undated and 1967 (2 printed invitations)

Rocourt, Evelyn, 1954-1955 (4 letters)

Rodgers, Paul C. (Burton-Rodgers, Inc.), 1946 (13 letters)

Roffman, Edward A. Roffman Associates, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office mentioning György Kepes

Rogers, Ernesto N. (Banfi Belgiojoso Peressutti Rogers, architects), undated and 1938-1950 (6 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Rombro, Louise, 1950 (1 letter)

Root, Ballantine, Harlan, Bushby & Palmer, 1952 (1 letter)

Rosenberg, E., 1956 (1 letter)

Rosenthal, Julius, 1950 (2 letters)

Rosenthal, Richard Laurence, 1969 (1 letter)

Ross, Janet (Vassar College), 1950 (1 letter)

Rossi, Irving, 1944 (2 letters)

Rossum, Cheryl (photographer), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Roth, Alfred (architect), 1933-1963 (9 letters)

Roth, Gordon (builder), 1946-1947 (3 letters)

Roth, Joan, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Rothschild, Sigmund, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Roux, Alina (Photograph Department, UNESCO), 1960 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Rowe, James (Corcoran, Foley, Youngman & Rowe), 1970 (1 letter)

Royal Society of Arts, 1969 (4 letters)

Rudert, Anton, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Rudofsky, Bernard, 1946-1950 (2 letters)

Russell, Gordon, 1936-1947 (3 letters)

Russell, Véra, 1969 (1 letter)

Rutherford, Eric, 1964-1967 (6 letters)

Rutledge, Dick, 1951 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Saarinen, Eero, undated and 1946-1954 (5 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Eero Saarinen & Associates, 1955 (1 letter)

Sackler, Raymond R., 1972 (1 letter)

Ed Sacks Company, 1950 (1 letter)

Saidenberg, Eleanore (Mrs. Daniel Saidenberg), undated (1 letter)

Sailer, John, 1968 (1 letter)

St. Francis de Sales Church, 1965-1966 (2 letters)

St. James Press, Ltd., 1977 (2 letters)

St. John's Abbey, 1953-1978 (9 letters)

Sakakura, Junzo, 1968 (1 letter)

Sakakura, Miho, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Salzano, Baron de Ferraris (Italian Consulate General), 1956 (2 letters): from Breuer

Salzman, Stanley (architect), 1947-1971 (2 letters)

Sampson, Thérèse (Mrs. Richard Sampson), 1954 (1 letter)

Samuely, Felix J. (consulting engineer), 1954 (3 letters)

Sanchez, Sergio, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Sanders & Malsin, Architects, 1949 (1 letter)

Krausz J. Sándor és Jeno, 1933 (1 letter)

San Francisco Redevelopment Agency, 1961 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Sarabhai, Gera, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Sarah Lawrence College, 1961-1976 (4 letters): 3 from Breuer

Sarton, May, undated (1 letter)

Sato, Chikafusa, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Satterlee, Nicholas, 1965 (1 letter)

Saturday Home Magazine, 1947 (1 letter)

Saxl, Erwin J. (Saxl Instrument Company), 1945 (1 letter)

Sayago, Manuel (Centro Profesional del Este), 1960 (2 letters)

Saybolt, Cleland & Alexander, Inc., 1945-1946 (2 letters)

Schaaf, Miv (Architectural Panel), 1958 (1 letter)

Scharff, Stephen L., 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Schawinsky, Xanti and Irene, undated and 1934-1964 (14 letters)

Schecter, Jack H. (architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Schendell, Hal, 1947 (2 letters): to Eliot Noyes

Schickel, William J., 1964 (1 letter)

Schillinger, Emilio F., 1964 (1 letter)

Schleifer, Fritz, 1934 (1 letter)

Schlemmer, Tut (Mrs. Oscar Schlemmer), 1960-1965 (3 letters)

Schlesinger, Alajos, undated (1 letter)

Schmalenbach, Werner (Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen), 1976 (2 letters)

Schmid, Elsa, 1950 (1 card): sent jointly with J. B. Neumann

Schmidt, Benno C. (J. H. Whitney & Company), 1970 (1 letter)

Schmidt-Gellerau, Karl, 1934 (3 letters)

Schmieg & Kotzian, 1945 (1 letter)

Architekturbüro Joachim Schmitz, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Schnall, Ben (photographer), undated (2 letters) vSchneck, Adolf G. (architect), 1947-1950 (2 letters)

Schneider-Manzell, Toni (Biennale Christlicher Kunst der Gegenwart Salzburg), 1964 (2 letters)

Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, undated (1 invitation): to meet Walker Evans

Schoendorff, Ellen G., 1937 (1 letter)

Schömer, Ervin (architect), 1974-1975 (6 letters)

Schorer, Mark, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer

Schultz, Lili, 1964 (1 letter)

F. Schumacher & Company, 1954-1964 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Schuster, Mathias and Gerda (Schuster & Geiger), 1950-1964 (3 letters)

Schweighofer, Dr. Fritz, 1960 (1 letter)

Science Illustrated, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer

Scitorszky, Hanna, 1966 (1 letter)

Scott, Stuart N. (Dewey, Gallantine, Bushby, Palmer & Wood), 1958 (1 letter)

Seagram-Distillers Corporation: see Kessler-Gallacher & Burton

Sears, Roebuck and Company (Arthur M. Wood), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer concerning luncheon for Alexander Calder

Segal, Georgette, 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Seghers, Pierre, 1963 (1 letter)

Segner, Marvin H., and John C. R. O'Neill (consulting engineers), undated (1 letter)

Segre, Mr., 1959 (2 letters): from Breuer

Seidel, Bert (architect), 1955 (2 letters)

Seidler, Harry (architect, Black Mountain College), 1946-1978 (24 letters)

Sekey, Sue, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Selinger, Hans, 1956 (1 letter)

Selwood, Christopher, 1958-1959 (2 letters): see also Gardner-Medwin, R. J.

Selye, Hans, 1967 (1 invitation): to George Washington Awards Dinner in honor of Breuer, Selye, and Watson Kirkconnell

Semrad, Peter H., 1957 (1 letter)

Senix Aerial (Don Preuss), 1947 (1 letter)

Sert, José Luis (architect) and Moncha, 1945-1970 (7 letters): see National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Architects' Committee; Project File for UNESCO

Setzer, H. O. (Spartan Tire & Recapping Company), 1947 (3 letters)

Sevely, Marvin, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Seyton, Mrs., 1954 (1 letter)

Shackleton, Edwin, 1951 (1 letter)

Shand, James (Art and Technics, Ltd.), 1950 (1 letter)

Shankland, Graeme, 1939 (1 letter)

Shannon, Edgar Finley (University of Virginia), 1967 (1 invitation): to Founder's Day Exercises

Sharon Forest Service Company, Inc., 1950 (5 letters)

Shattuck, George, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Shelton Roofing Company, Inc., 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Shepley, Anna L., undated (2 letters)

Shinoda, Toko, 1964 (2 letters)

Shokokusha Publishing Company, 1961-1964 (10 letters)

Shook, Ken, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Shuster, George N. (University of Notre Dame), 1962 (1 letter)

Sichel, Miss Cuy, 1964 (1 letter): from Breuer concerning Eric Rutherford's artwork

Siepman, Charles, 1956 (1 letter)

Siesel, Harold J. (Harold J. Siesel Company, Advertising), 1947 (1 letter)

Simha, O. Robert (Fulbright scholar), 1958 (1 letter)

Simon, Eva, 1934 (1 letter)

Simon, Steph (Ateliers Jean Prouvé), 1953-1956 (7 letters)

Simonson, Lee, 1955 (1 letter)

Simpson, Robert (Chemical Bank), 1975 (1 letter)

Simpson, William (New York University), 1960 (1 letter): from Robert F. Gatje

Sindicato Nacional de la Construcción (Jorge Fernández de Cuevas, architect), 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer

Sive, André (architect), 1947 (1 letter)

Skidmore College, 1954 (1 letter)

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, 1959-1965 (3 letters)

Skouras, Odyssia A. and Federico Quadrani, 1964 (1 exhibition announcement): for Francesco Somaini

Slayton, William L. (Urban America, Inc.), 1967-1968 (2 letters)

Sloth, Finn (Milieu Company), 1966-1967 (5 letters)

Smith, Christina, 1963 (2 letters)

Smith, Elbert G. (University of Denver), 1946 (1 letter)

Smith, Hamilton and Caroline, 1954-1978 (34 letters): see Gatje Papachristou & Smith; Project File for UNESCO

Smith, Linus Burr, 1956 (1 letter)

Smithsonian Institution: 1981 (4 letters)

Snyder, J. Rowland, 1968 (1 letter)

Sobelsohn, Jacob (CPA), 1945-1946 (3 letters)

Sociedad de Art Moderno, México, 1944 (1 letter)

Società degli Ingegneri e degli Architetti in Torino, 1960 (3 letters)

Society of Student Architects (Polytechnic, London), 1955 (2 letters)

Somaini, Francesco, 1964 (exhibition announcement)

Somerville, City of, Massachusetts, 1950 (1 letter)

Charles W. Sommer & Bro., Inc. (importers), 1946 (2 letters)

Sonnenberg, Benjamin (and John L. Loeb), undated (1 invitation): to birthday for Armond Eiff [?]

Sorensen, Abel (Von der Lancken, Lundquist and Sorensen), 1954 (1 letter)

Soupault, Ré Philippe, 1946-1950 (2 letters)

Southern California, University of, 1947-1958 (2 letters)

Sovik, Mathre and Madson, Architects, 1966 (1 letter)

Speert, Harry A., 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Spencer, William A. (New York University), 1960 (2 letters): from Robert F. Gatje

Speyer, Darthea (American Legation), 1950 (1 letter)

Spilman, Raymond, 1955 (1 letter)

Spinelli, Pat, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Spring, Bernard Polmer, 1945 (1 letter)

Stadler-Stölzl, G., 1967 (1 letter)

Staehelin, William R. and Marina, 1959-1977 (11 letters)

Staempfli, George, 1965-1966 (2 letters)

Stanpat Company, 1954 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Starkey, Mrs. Robert James, 1960 (1 letter): from Breuer

Starr, Polly (Mrs. Donald Starr), 1937-1938 (2 letters)

Stattelman, Richard, 1966 (1 letter)

Stein, Richard G. (architect), undated and 1951 (2 letters)

Steinberg, Saul, 1951-1965 (2 letters): from Breuer

Stendig, Charles (Contract Furniture), 1963-1967 (5 letters)

Stern, Alfred (U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of International Trade Fairs), 1957-1958 (4 letters)

Stern, Andor, 1950 (1 letter)

Stern, Max, 1963 (2 letters)

Sternberg, Charles (International Rescue Committee), 1956 (1 letter): of introduction for ádám Krivátsky-Szüts

Stevens, Edmund, 1960 (2 letters)

Stillman, Edgar and Kate [?] ("B + J"), 1953-1965 (2 letters)

Stillman, Jean, 1965 (1 letter)

Stillman, Kathy, 1965 (1 letter)

Stillman, Rufus C. ("Ruf") and Leslie, undated and 1951-1975 (60 letters): 1954 letter from Breuer's office encloses Stillman's outline for a book

Stockton, Sue, undated and 1964 (2 letters)

Stoddard, Whitney S. (Society of Alumni of Williams College), 1951 (1 letter)

Stoller, Ezra (photographer) and Helen, undated and 1945-1967 (8 letters)

Stonorov, Oskar (architect) and Elizabeth, 1944-1946 (4 letters)

Storch, Samuel (Astorloid Manufacturing Company/Astor-Ramel Manufacturing Company), 1945 (6 letters)

Storrow, Helen (Mrs. James Jackson Storrow), undated (4 letters)

Strenger, József, 1963 (2 letters)

Strettell, Marguerita (Rita), undated (1 letter)

Strohbach, Susi, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Strudwick Board of Trade, 1945 (1 letter)

Strunk, Granville B. (Santa Ana City Schools), 1946 (1 letter)

Stubbins, Hugh A. (architect), 1950-1977 (6 letters)

Stylos, Architectural Students Association at Delft, 1954 (1 letter)

Sugár, Stephen, 1947-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer

Sunderland, Mrs. Francis A., 1954 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Suter-Moser, Claude, 1956: see Project File for UNESCO

Sutnar, Ladislav, 1951-1965 (2 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Suzuki, Shizuo, 1975 (1 letter including résumé)

Swan, Robert Andrew, 1960-1963 (2 letters)

Swanson & Brey, Architects, 1961 (1 letter)

Swanson, Dean, 1963 (1 letter): to Charles H. Sawyer

Sweeney, James J., 1938 (2 letters): from Breuer

George J. Switzer Company, 1954-1956 (4 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Syracuse University Library, 1968 (1 letter)

Syracuse University, School of Architecture, 1959 (8 letters)

Syska and Hennessy, Inc., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Szabó, Albert, 1947-1950 (2 letters)

Szabó, Eva Mary (master weaver), 1966 (1 letter)

Szabó, G. (African Hide Trading Corporation), 1964 (1 letter)

Szak, László, 1957 (2 letters)

Szegedy-Maszák, Aladár (minister of Hungary), 1947 (1 letter)

Székely, Sándor, 1957-1959 (5 letters)

Székely, Tamás István (Wohnbedarf furniture store), 1956-1965 (10 letters): see Project File for UNESCO

Szüle, Peter János, 1975 (2 letters)

Tadashi, Iijima, 1963 (1 letter)

Tange, Kenzo and Toshike, 1960-1968 (3 letters)

Tanier, George (George Tanier, Inc.), 1961 (2 letters)

Tapia, Raúl, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tate, Allen and Helen, 1966-1967 (2 letters)

Tate, Isabella (Bella), 1963 (1 letter)

Taylor, Harold, 1951-1968 (3 letters)

Tech Reps, Inc., 1966 (1 letter)

Teller, Mrs. Walter M., 1945 (1 letter)

Terminal Radio Corporation, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Tesla, S., 1961 (1 letter)

Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1962-1963 (2 letters)

Theband, Polly, 1964-1965 (3 letters)

Thebond [?], Sacha, 1959 (1 letter)

Thole, Henry G. (Seaboard Surety Company), 1947 (1 letter)

J. Walter Thompson Company, 1956 (1 letter)

Thompson, Marion Gordon (Mrs. A. W. Thompson), 1950 (1 letter): see Project File for UNESCO

Thompson, Rolland, 1955-1969 (3 letters)

Thonet Brothers, Inc., 1966-1968 (3 letters): see also Pilzer, Leopold

Thost, Eberhard, undated and 1934-1937 (4 letters)

Throop, Mortimer, 1959 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Thun, Ole, 1976 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Thurman, Marie Christophe de Menil, undated (1 letter)

Thürmer, Ludwig and Marie Luise, 1965-1970 (8 letters)

Tibby, Jack, 1954-1956 (4 letters)

Tice & Lynch, Inc., 1953 (1 letter)

Tieger, Robert M.., 1946 (1 letter)

Tildy, Mrs. Zoltán, 1947 (1 invitation): to her honorary dinner

Tillinger, Jerry D. (Ferendino, Grafton, Spillis, Candela), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Time magazine, 1954-1960 (6 letters): see also Jones, Cranston

Tischler, Julie [?], 1934 (1 letter)

Tizzone [?], Joe, 1967 (1 letter)

Todd, Charles I. (Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company), 1958 (1 letter)

Tolnay, Károly ("Carl"), 1959 (1 letter)

Tompkins, Gilbert Calyer, undated and 1941-1968 (7 letters)

Torin Corporation, 1974-1975 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Torok, László (engineer), 1933 (1 letter)

Toronto, University of, Architectural Society of, 1958-1960 (7 letters)

Touche, A., 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tourneroche, R. (Comptoir Artisanal du Maroc), 1956 (2 letters)

Towers, Mrs. Henry, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Townsend-Chatterton Company, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tragseil, Karl (Austrian architect), 1950 (1 letter)

Tralau, Walter (Gerhard Marcks/Wera Mayer-Waldeck/Walter Tralau), 1953 (1 letter): includes a printed statement about Walter Gropius

Treseder, Frank C., 1946 (2 letters)

W. F. Tubbs Company, 1944 (1 letter): from Breuer

Tuchman, Barbara (Mrs. Lester Tuchman), 1970 (1 letter)

Turner, Howard (Turner Construction Company), 1968 (1 letter)

Mark Twain Journal (Cyril Clemens), 1969 (1 letter)

Tyroler, József ("José"), 1938-1940 (2 letters)

Uda, William, 1951 (1 letter)

Ugarte, Federico A. (architect), 1963 (1 letter)

Undicesima Triennale di Milano, 1957 (5 letters)

UNESCO Centrum Nederland, 1954 (1 letter)

UNESCO, Paris, 1958-1961 (4 letters)

Union Carbide Building, 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Union pour le Recouvrement des Cotisations de Sécurité Sociale et d'Allocations Familiales (URSSAF), 1953 (1 letter): from Breuer

United Nations, New York, 1966 (2 letters)

United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office concerning Grand Coulee Dam

United States Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization, 1938-1959 (4 letters from Breuer)

United States Department of State, 1946-1974 (4 letters)

United States Embassy, London, 1960-1961 (2 letters): from Breuer concerning Jo Yorke and Jane Susannah Yorke

United States General Services Administration (GSA), 1963-1977 (3 letters)

United States Government Printing Office, 1947 (2 letters): from Breuer

United States Information Agency, 1957-1964 (7 letters)

United States National Commission for UNESCO, 1951 (information for a conference)

United States Plywood Corporation, 1946 (1 letter)

United States Postmaster General, 1955 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

United States Selective Service, 1942 (notice of classification)

United States Social Security Administration, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Untermeyer, Louis, 1964 (1 letter)

Urbahn, Max O. (architect), 1965-1975 (2 letters)

Ustinov, Nadie, undated (1 letter)

Vachon, Judy and David, undated and 1964 (2 letters)

Valentin, Kurt (Buchholz Gallery), 1944 (1 letter)

Valle, Tommaso and Gilberto, undated (1 letter)

Van Altena, Edward, 1951 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Van den Broek, Professor J. H. (architect), undated (1 letter)

van der Straeten, Jean (CBR Cimenteries Bruxelles), 1970 (1 letter)

Van der Wal, Dr. G., undated and 1961-1966 (6 letters)

Van Doren, Mark, 1963 (2 letters): see also Citizens Committee for a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

van Eesteren, C. (architect), 1951 (1 letter)

van Leer, Oscar, 1970 (1 letter)

van Westen, J. H., 1960 (1 letter)

Varèse, Edgard (composer), 1956 (1 letter)

Vargha, László I., 1967 (2 letters)

Vecchione, Robert, 1964-1970 (2 letters)

Véghelyi, Péter (Acta Paediatrica, Hungarian Science Academy), 1963-1972 (5 letters)

Ventris, Dora (and Michael), undated (1 letter)

Vergun, Alexei, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Verlag Girsberger, 1956 (1 letter): from Breuer

Viasz, Andor Safed ("Bendj"), 1962 (1 letter)

Vidal, Yves, 1956-1971 (7 letters)

Vincent, Mr., 1963 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Violich, Francis, 1955 (1 letter)

Virág, Csaba (Hungarian architect), 1965-1974 (3 letters)

Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 1960 (2 letters)

Virginia, University of, 1967-1970 (18 letters)

Vissière, A. (architect), undated (1 letter)

Visy, Béla, 1957 (1 letter)

Vitrum magazine (Centro Informazioni e Studi per le Applicazioni del Vetro nell'Edilizia e nell'Arredamento; C.I.S.A.V.), 1955 (1 letter)

Vogel, George S. (Temple Israel, Cortlandt), 1951 (1 letter)

Voigt, James D. (Voigt and Fourré, Architects), 1958 (4 letters)

Volante, Julio C., 1955-1963 (2 letters)

von Debschitz, Irene, 1935 (1 letter)

von Erffa, H., 1951-1968 (2 letters)

von Meyerburg, Henrietta [?], undated (1 letter)

von Moltke, Wilhelm Viggo, 1946-1958 (4 letters)

von Segesser, Beat and Francisca, 1968-1975 (1 letter, plus 4 from Breuer)

Wachsmann, Konrad (architect/designer, General Panel Corporation), 1945-1965 (8 letters): see National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., Architects' Committee

Wadsworth, Suzanne G., 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Wagner, Martin (Harvard University), 1946 (2 letters)

Senator Wagner Memorial Dinner, 1965 (1 invitation): from mayor of New York

Walker and Company, 1966-1967 (2 letters): includes a typescript about Breuer; see also Heyer, Paul O.

Walker Art Center, Center Arts Council, 1959-1962 (12 letters)

Walker, H. E. L. (Universal Moulded Products Company, Ltd.), 1943 (1 letter)

Walker, Ralph (AIA), 1951 (1 letter): from Walter Gropius

Walker, Vicki, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ward, Ernest and Priscilla (Sprague Electric Company), 1946 (2 letters)

Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Watson, Arthur K. (U.S. Embassy, Paris), 1970-1972 (2 letters)

Watson, Thomas, 1970 (1 letter)

Wattjes, Professor J. G., 1935 (1 letter)

Webb & Knapp (Canada), Ltd., 1963 (3 letters)

Weidler, Charlotte (Bauhaus Ausstellung), 1968 (1 letter)

Weidlinger, Paul, 1946: see Project File for UNESCO

Weidlinger Associates, 1983-1984 (2 letters)

Weiner, Paul L., 1950-1966 (2 letters)

Weinstein, Jerry, 1945 (1 letter)

William H. Weintraub & Company, Inc., 1943-1947 (3 letters)

Weiz [?], Tiberio, 1939 (1 letter)

Weizenblatt, Sprinza, 1946-1963 (20 letters)

Wenzler, William P. (architect), 1965-1968 (4 letters)

Weren, Edward C., 1946 (1 letter)

Werner, Ingrid, 1963 (3 letters)

Wertz, Mr. (Der Finanzminister des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen), 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

West China Development Corporation, 1947 (1 letter)

West Coast Stained Shingle Company, 1950 (1 letter): from Breuer

Westcott and Mapes, Inc. (architects and engineers), 1970 (1 letter)

Western Arts Association, 1959 (4 letters)

Western Reserve University, 1958 (5 letters)

Westport Public Library, 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

Wetter, Barbara, 1980 (1 letter): concerns traveling exhibition

Wheaton, William L. (Pomona College), 1960 (1 letter)

White, George (architect of the Capitol), 1975 (1 letter): from Breuer

White House (Letitia Baldridge), 1963 (1 letter): mentions Jacqueline Kennedy

White, J. G. (Peerless Flooring Company), 1955 (1 letter)

Whitney, Charles E. (Publications, Inc.), 1954-1956 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Whitney Museum of American Art, 1968-1976 (19 letters): 1 from Jean Lipman; 14 from Breuer and a typescript about Alexander Calder

Who's Who in America, 1947 (2 letters)

Wieland, Albert, 1963 (1 letter)

Wiener, Paul Lester and Ingebord, 1944-1955 (3 letters)

Wiesenfeld, David, 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Wieser, U. P. (Wohnbedarf furniture store), 1959-1960 (3 letters)

Wigglesworth, Isabella C., 1946 (1 letter)

Wilcox & Company, 1972 (1 letter)

Wilder, Hugo, 1946 (1 letter): from E. S. Ferguson

Wiley, Chuck, 1950 (1 letter)

Wilhelm, Günter, 1949 (1 letter)

Wilinski, Erich, 1935 (2 letters)

Willard, Marian G. ("Viva Villa"; East River Gallery), undated and 1935-1965 (25 letters)

Williams, Amancio (architect), 1955 (1 letter)

Williams, Daniel, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer's office

Williams, Peter C., 1956 (1 letter)

Williams, Preston, 1958 (2 letters)

Wilson, Dr. and Mrs. Julius Lane, 1965 (1 letter)

Wilson, June P. (Mrs. Kenneth Wilson), 1968 (1 letter)

Wilson, Marjorie (Mrs. Will Wilson), 1956 (1 letter)

Winde, McCormick & Chapin, 1945 (1 letter)

Wingler, Hans, undated and 1966-1980 (23 letters): 14 from Breuer; see also Bauhaus Archiv E.V.

Winkler, Robert, 1955 (1 letter)

Winsten, Steve, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Winston, E., 1950 (1 letter)

Winter, Edward, 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Wisconsin Chapter of AIA, 1960 (1 letter)

Wisconsin, University of, 1960 (2 letters)

Wisdom Encyclopedia, 1966 (1 letter)

Wogner, Charles, 1951 (2 letters)

Wohlstetter, Albert (Atlas Aircraft Products Corporation), 1944-1946 (7 letters)

Wohlstetter, Marjorie, 1946 (1 letter)

Wolf, Albin, 1933 (5 letters)

Wolf, Ferenc, 1963-1965 (4 letters)

Wolfe, James F. (Ketchum, MacLeod & Grove, Inc.), 1960 (2 letters)

Wolff, Robert Jay, 1956-1975 (3 letters): 1 from Breuer

Wolfson, Sidney, 1954-1955 (2 letters): from Breuer's office; 1975 letter is from Nicholas P. Appy, executor of Sidney Wolfson's will

Wollowick, David P., 1947 (1 letter)

Wong, Andy, 1968 (1 letter): from Breuer

Wong, Tommy (UCLA), 1974 (1 letter)

Worcester Art Museum, 1954 (1 letter)

Working, Jane, undated and 1961 (5 letters)

Wright, Irving S. and Lois, 1963-1968 (2 letters)

Wright, Russell (pottery), 1950-1951 (2 letters): from Breuer's office

Wu, King-lui, 1945-1950 (7 letters): 6 from Breuer

Wunderlich, Carlos Asensio, 1946 (1 letter): from Breuer

Wundrich-Meissen, 1934 (1 letter)

Wurster, William W. (architect) and Catherine, 1946-1960 (6 letters): see American Society of Planners and Architects (ASPA)

X Functie, 1953-1957 (3 letters)

Yale University, 1945-1976 (4 letters)

Yamawaki, Iwao, 1954 (2 letters)

Yasko, Karel, 1968 (1 letter)

Yorke, F. R. S. (Francis Reginald Stevens Yorke; architect), 1944-1962 (31 letters)

Yorke, Thelma and Kay, 1938-1939 (2 letters)

Yoshimura, Junzo (architect), undated (1 letter): to Yoshimura from Pella Rolscreen Company

Yoshioka, Yasugoro, undated (1 letter)

Young, Edward L., 1966 (1 letter)

Young, Hamilton, 1938 (1 letter)

Yu, Jane, 1964-1965 (3 letters)

Yurchenco, Basil ("Chenk"; Goldwater & Yurchenco Associates), 1947-1950 (3 letters)

Zahedi, H. E. Ardeshir (ambassador of Iran), 1974-1975 (4 letters): from Breuer

Zanuso, Marco (architect; Olivetti), 1957 (1 letter): from Breuer

Zechlin, Hans Josef, 1950 (1 letter)

Ziegler, Barbara, 1947 (1 letter)

Ziegler, Frank, 1974 (1 letter): from Breuer

Ziegler, Richard, undated (1 letter)

Zwick, Virgil J., 1959 (1 letter)
Collection Restrictions:
The microfilm for this collection has been digitized and is available online via the Archives of American Art website.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Marcel Breuer papers, 1920-1986. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.breumarc, Series 2
See more items in:
Marcel Breuer papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-breumarc-ref54

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records

Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Author:
Garrett, John W. (John Work), 1820-1884  Search this
Latrobe, Benj. H. (Benjamin Henry), 1807-1878  Search this
Creator:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company  Search this
Extent:
33 Cubic feet (76 boxes, 46 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tracings
Correspondence
Drawings
Date:
1827-1987
Summary:
The collection consists of correspondence, invoices, drawings, photographs, and negatives and other printed literature documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence, engineering drawings, notes, photographs, transparencies, negatives, glass plate negatives, printed materials, and newspaper clippings documenting the Baltimore and Ohio railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio in the 1960s.
Arrangement:
The records are arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1827-1987

Series 2, Bridge Histories, 1867-1966

Series 3, President's Office, 1826-1880

Series 4, Correspondence, 1826-1859

Series 5, Business Records, 1894-1914, and undated

Series 6, Agreement, 1870

Series 7, Drawings, 1858-1957, and undated

Subseries 7.1, Indices and Lists, 1924-1943, undated

Subseries 7.2, Bailey's Station, 1887; 1899; 1901

Subseries 7.3, Baltimore Belt Railroad, 1895, undated

Subseries 7.4, Bay View and Canton Bridges, 1884-1885

Subseries 7.5, Big Seneca Creek Viaduct, 1905

Subseries 7.6, Bollman Bridges, undated

Subseries 7.7, Boyds, Maryland Station, 1886; 1927

Subseries 7.8, Bridewell Station, undated

Subseries 7.9, Bridges (general), 1893-1917

Subseries 7.10, Brunswick, Maryland, 1890-1907

Subseries 7.11, Building Materials List, undated

Subseries 7.12, Building Signs, 1911-1912

Subseries 7.13, Camden Station, 1881-1942 (not inclusive)

Subseries 7.14, Camden Station (related), 1881-1915

Subseries 7.15, Centenary Bridge Models, 1927

Subseries 7.16, Central Office Building, undated

Subseries 7.17, Chestnut Street Station, 1925-1952

Subseries 7.18, Coaling facilities, water tanks, turntables, and miscellaneous structures, 1888-1912

Subseries 7.19, Cumberland Station, 1910-1955

Subseries 7.20, Curtis Bay Branch, 1900-1911

Subseries 7.21, Frederick Station, 1908-1915

Subseries 7.22, Hyattsville Station, 1913

Subseries 7.23, Keedysville Station, undated

Subseries 7.24, Laurel Station, undated

Subseries 7.25, Ledger, undated

Subseries 7.26, Lieperville Station, 1889

Subseries 7.27, Locust Point, 1881-1957

Subseries 7.28, Maps, 1862; 1918

Subseries 7.29, Martinsburg, West Virginia, 1913-1927

Subseries 7.30, Miscellaneous Buildings, 1875-1956

Subseries 7.31, Miscellaneous Large Photographs, undated

Subseries 7.32, Miscellaneous Structures, 1890-1916

Subseries 7.33: Mt. Clare (general)

Subseries 7.34, Mt. Clare New Blue Line Stable, 1899; 1905

Subseries 7.35, Mt. Clare New Car Shops, undated

Subseries 7.36, Mt. Royal Station, undated

Subseries 7.37, Newton Falls and Fairpoint, Ohio, 1909

Subseries 7.38, Patapsco River Bridge, 1883

Subseries 7.39, Plans for house no. 1846 (N. Gay Street, Baltimore, Maryland), undated

Subseries 7.40, Point of Rocks Station, 1951

Subseries 7.41, Scales, 1903

Subseries 7.42, Signal towers, 1900-1908

Subseries 7.43, Stations (general), 1866-1907

Subseries 7.44, Sykesville Station, undated

Subseries 7.45, Untitled, undated

Subseries 7.46, Warnings, 1894-1911

Subseries 7.47, Woodstock Station, undated

Subseries 7.48, Miscellaneous (rolled), 1858-1930 (not inclusive)

Series 8, Photographs and Copy Prints, 1872-1980s (not inclusive)

Subseries 8.1, Photographs, 1872-1980s

Subseries 8.2, Copy prints, 1901-1931, undated

Subseries 8.3, Indices and Lists, 1909-1920

Series 9, Negatives, 1850-1983 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.1, Glass plate negatives (unidentified), undated

Subseries 9.2, Glass plate negatives (numbered), 1850-1957 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.3, Negatives by number, undated

Subseries 9.4, Negatives by location, 1870; 1978-1983

Subseries 9.5, Negatives by subject, 1922-1930s, undated

Series 10, Stations and Buildings, 1884-1982
Biographical / Historical:
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was the nation's first extensive steam powered railroad. It was founded by Baltimore merchants in 1827 as a means of promoting trade and making Baltimore competitive with other east coast ports. The original intent of the founders was to provide direct and fast access to the Ohio River, and the markets that the river reached. The railroad, however, went beyond the Ohio River and its lines went as far west as St. Louis and Chicago. The B&O was also known for its use of an electric locomotive in the mid 1890s. It also had a completely air conditioned train, and it was a forerunner in the use of diesel-electric locomotives. Company activities paralleled those of other American railroads and over the course of its life included expansion, near bankruptcy, innovations, regulations, and finally buy out. In February 1963, the Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) completed its purchase of the B&O. Today, B&O is part of the CSX Transportation (CSX) network.

John Work Garrett president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 1858-1884, was born in Baltimore, Maryland July 31, 1820. He was the second son of Elizabeth Stouffer and Robert Garrett. He married Rachel Ann Harrison, the daughter of Thomas Harrison, a Baltimore merchant. They had one daughter, Mary and two sons Robert and Thomas Harrison Garrett.

After attending Lafayette College (Pennsylvania) for two years John W. Garrett left in 1836 to become associated with his father's commission business in Baltimore. The commission house which dealt in wholesale groceries, produce, forwarding and a commission business expanded to establish direct connections with Latin America, seek outlets in Europe and develop its own banking operations. In time its financial operations overshadowed the commission and shipping business.

When John W. Garrett began to invest heavily in Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stock, the road was in competition with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the stock was not popular. Its value rose steadily over the years. Mr. Garrett was elected a director of the railroad in 1855. His report as chairman of a subcommittee on the need for additional funds to complete the line to the Ohio River led to his election to the presidency of the road on November 17, 1858, a position he held for 26 years. New policies with emphasis on economy, personal supervision and gradual expansion were inaugurated and consistently maintained, in spite of a general financial crisis, Mr. Garrett's first year in office showed a net gain in earnings.

Sympathetic to his southern friends during the Civil War, Mr. Garrett nevertheless supported the Union. He recognized the inevitability of Confederate defeat by superior northern resources. Confederate leaders blamed him for their inability to seize Washington and he received warm appreciation for his services to the Union cause from President Lincoln. The railroad stretched along the theater of war and twice crossed Confederate territory. It was, therefore, a main objective for southern attack. Branches were frequently damaged by Confederate raids, but the main line to Washington became important for the transport of troops and supplies. The Baltimore and Ohio carried out the first military rail transport in history and the transfer of 20,000 men from the Potomac to Chattanooga in 1863 was a major triumph for its president.

With the advent of peace Mr. Garrett turned to rebuilding and strengthening the railroad. He replaced equipment and track damaged by the war, then extended the system by securing direct routes to Pittsburgh and Chicago and arranging an independent line into New York. Wharves were built at Locust Point for ocean liners and a system of elevators erected. The B&O. built its own sleeping and dining cars, established hotels in the mountains and created its own express company. By 1880, after battles over rates with other trunk lines, a costly rivalry with the Pennsylvania Railroad over the eastern route and charges of discrimination against local shippers Mr. Garrett was at the height of his success. He cooperated in establishing the B. and 0. Employees Relief Association for accident and life insurance, a hospital system, saving and building funds, and arrangements for improving sanitation in the work place. He was on friendly terms with Johns Hopkins, a trustee of John Hopkins Hospital, and with George Peabody, founder of the Peabody institute of which he was also a trustee. Garrett County, Maryland was named in his honor.

John W. Garrett died on September 26, 1884 within a year of his wife's death in a carriage accident. During his connection with the railroad the stock increased from $57 to $200; at the outbreak of the Civil War the railroad was operating 514 miles of rail, gross earnings were $4,000,097 and net per mile was $4246.1 By 1864 gross earnings were $10,138,876 and net per mile, $7113.2 By the end of his presidency mileage had increased to 1711 miles and net earnings were $4535 per mile.3

References

1 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

2 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

3 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Maryland Historical Society

Baltimore and Ohio Museum
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs and glass plate negatives with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Engineering -- 19th century  Search this
Repairing -- Railroads  Search this
Railway engineering -- 1860-1890  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tracings
Correspondence -- 19th century
Drawings -- 1860-1890
Citation:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1086
See more items in:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1086
Online Media:

Harry A. McBride Railroad Photographs

Donor:
McBride, Harry A.  Search this
Collector:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
ca. 1940s-1950s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approxiamtely 3,000 views of railroads, railroad equipment, stations, yards and employees. The emphasis is on American railroads, but the collection includes a few views of railroad subjects in Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Europe, Scandinavia and several island nations.
Arrangement:
1 series, arranged by railroad.
Biographical / Historical:
McBride was a foreign service officer and museum official. He was also a railroad enthusiast.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Colonel Harry A. McBride, Date Unknown
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Railroads -- Trains  Search this
Railroad stations  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Railroads -- Rolling-stock  Search this
Railroads -- Employees  Search this
Citation:
Harry A. McBride Railroad Photographs, 1940s-1950s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1171
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1171
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tours

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
3.68 Cubic feet (consisting of 8 boxes, 1 folder, 3 oversize folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Travel brochures
Commercial correspondence
Letterheads
Receipts
Print advertising
Business cards
Invoices
Business letters
Publications
Business records
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Correspondence
Advertising fliers
Advertisements
Advertising
Advertising mail
Advertising cards
Printed ephemera
Place:
Australia -- Description and Travel
Austria -- description and travel
Spain -- description and travel
Scotland -- description and travel
Colorado -- description and travel
Ireland -- description and travel
England -- description and travel
Europe -- description and travel -- 1910-1950
China -- Description and Travel
Mexico -- description and travel
Europe -- description and travel
Canada -- Description and Travel
United States -- description and travel
Date:
1844-1966
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Tours consists of business records and advertisements created by tourism companies and rail lines, travel guides to varied countries and geographic areas, and other select items such as travel advice, resources on hotels and resorts, and travel-related events or lectures.

No expansive business documentation exists for any company represented within the records. The strength of the collection lies in its breadth of information about other countries, states, or geographic locations provided for the purposes of informing travelers. While no substantial material concerning the history and development of the tourism industry exists within the collection, this subject category provides substantial resources for researchers interested in sorts of information that was made available to tourists, types of travel and tours available, and background about resources and perceptions of promoted vacation destinations over a long time period.
Arrangement:
Tours is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Tours is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Health resorts  Search this
Automobile travel  Search this
Railroads -- 1860-1900  Search this
Railroads -- 1874-1910  Search this
Travel  Search this
Hotels  Search this
Automobile travel -- United States  Search this
Railroads -- Dining-car service  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Tourist trade -- 1900-1910  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Maps, Tourist  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Railroads -- History  Search this
Railroads -- Trains  Search this
Sleeping cars (Railroads)  Search this
Air travel  Search this
Travel -- 1890-1930  Search this
Tourist trade -- Postcards  Search this
Travel -- 1910-1920  Search this
Railroad travel  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Family vacations  Search this
Tourist trade -- 1910-1940  Search this
Railroad stations  Search this
Tourist trade -- 1900-1910 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
advertising -- Transportation  Search this
Vacations  Search this
Railroad passenger cars  Search this
Genre/Form:
Travel brochures
Commercial correspondence
Letterheads
Receipts
Print advertising
Business cards
Invoices
Business letters
Publications -- Business
Business records
Publications
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Correspondence
Advertising fliers
Advertisements
Advertising
Advertising mail
Advertising cards
Printed ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tours, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Tours
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tours
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-tours

The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 6

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
George Padmore, Trinidadian, 1903 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 7/8 x 6 5/16 in. (22.5 x 16 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
South Africa, Africa
Guyana, Caribbean, South America
Trinidad and Tobago, Caribbean, South America
Jamaica, Caribbean, North and Central America
Liberia, West Africa, Africa
Kenya, Africa
Place made:
Hamburg, Germany, Europe
Cultural Place:
England, Europe
Date:
1932
Topic:
African American  Search this
Colonialism  Search this
Decolonization  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
U.S. History, 1919-1933  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Movement:
Pan Africanism
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5dfd877c2-c600-4962-995e-594a795e9f8c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.6
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William R. Hutton Papers

Creator:
Hutton, William R., 1826-1901  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (33 boxes, 21 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Cashbooks
Business records
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books
Books
Family papers
Financial records
Cyanotypes
Correspondence
Deeds
Printed material
Contracts
Harlem river bridge
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Place:
France
Maryland
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
Panama Canal (Panama)
New Jersey
New York (N.Y.)
Hudson River
Baltimore (Md.)
Georgetown (Washington, D.C.)
New York
Washington Bridge
New Croton Aqueduct
Kanawha River Canal
Washington Aqueduct
Potomac River -- 19th century
Washington Memorial Bridge
Hudson River Tunnel
Date:
1830-1965
Summary:
The papers document the life and work of William R. Hutton, a civil engineer during the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Materials include diaries, notebooks, correspondence, letterpress copy book, printed materials, publications, specifications, photographs, drawings, and maps that document the construction of several architectural and engineering projects during this period. Most notable are the records containing information related to the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington Aqueduct, the Kanawha River Canal, and the Washington/Harlem River Bridge. There are also several records about railroads in the state of Maryland, the District of Columbia and elsewhere, including the Western Maryland Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Colorado Midlands Railway, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, and the Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad. The records can be used to track the progression of these projects, and engineering innovation during the late 1800s to the early 1900s.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William R. Hutton's professional career as a civil engineer and his personal affairs. Although the personal materials in the collection provide insight into a man and a family that have been largely forgotten by biographers, it is the professional materials that are perhaps the most interesting to researchers. They provide a compelling narrative of the push to the West that occurred in 19th century America and the internal improvements movement typified by the American System plan proposed by Henry Clay. Perhaps best remembered for the high tariffs that accompanied it, the American System plan was also concerned with the advancement of internal improvements, such as canals, that would unite the East and West in communication, travel, and trade. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal can be seen as one of the products of this movement (1) and was in fact initially heralded as the first great work of national improvement (2).

The papers in this collection that are related to the construction and maintenance of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal are an invaluable documentation of efforts during this turbulent time to unite the eastern and western United States. They provide details of the canal from its initial construction to its decline with the incline at Georgetown project. The canal also serves as an example, or perhaps a warning against, federal involvement in state improvement efforts as it was the first project to be directly funded and staffed by the federal government (3). The groundbreaking ceremony was attended by then President John Quincy Adams whose toast, "to the canal: perseverance," (4) became an ironic omen, as construction of the canal took over twenty-two years to be completed. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal materials can be used as a case study for the problems encountered during canal building (5). These problems are best typified in the collection by the papers relating to the Georgetown incline. This project was headed by Hutton and was plagued with construction problems, boating accidents, and obsolescence from the moment of its completion. Despite these issues, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal remains a structure of historical significance in America. As the third and last effort to construct an all-water route to the West (6), the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is an important artifact of 19th century attitudes and efforts towards commerce, trade, travel, and communication between the eastern and western United States. Other significant canals and water structures represented in the collection are the Kanawha Canal, the Washington Aqueduct, and a large collection of materials relating to the Kingston Water Supply (New York).

One of the most significant internal improvements made during this time was the railroad. The legal conflicts that arose between the canal companies and railroads is also represented in the materials relating to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. These materials specifically deal with the legal conflict's between the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The development and construction of the railroads is also represented in the materials documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, the Western Maryland Railroad, the Mexican National Railroad, the Colorado Midlands Railroad, and the Columbia Railroad.

The collection also demonstrates the spirit of innovation and invention that was prevalent in the engineering field in the nineteenth century. Joseph Gies writes, "...one of the distinctive characteristics of the great nineteenth century engineering adventurers was their readiness to gamble on the translation of theory into practice" (7). In this quote, he is speaking of the civil engineer Dewitt Clinton Haskins and a project that truly encapsulates engineering invention in the nineteenth century, the Hudson River Tunnel. Responding to the increase in the population of the City of New York in the late nineteenth century from sixty thousand to three and a half million, the Hudson River Tunnel was originally devised as a way to alleviate traffic and to transport train passengers directly across the Hudson River (8). Beginning with records dating from 1881 to 1901, the Hutton papers can be used to document not only the advances in engineering during this time but also the costs of progress. Haskins' initial efforts to build the tunnel using submerged air pressurized caissons were marked by failure and in some cases fatalities. Workers on the tunnel often suffered from what came to be known as "caisson disease" or "the bends," caused by the immense forces of compression and decompression experienced while working in the tunnels (9). This problem was so prevalent that as construction progressed the rate of worker deaths caused by "the bends" rose to twenty-five percent (10). Materials in the collection document worker complaints and deaths resulting from this disease as well as providing a technical record of the construction of the tunnel. The highlight of the materials relating to the Hudson River Tunnel is an album that contains photographs of workers in the tunnel and a detailed daily report of the construction progress on the tunnel that was maintained by Hutton's assistant, Walton Aims. The first hand account in these reports provides insight not only into the construction of the tunnel, but also the problems encountered.

Another project featured in the Hutton collection that was devised in response to the population explosion in the City of New York in the nineteenth century is the Harlem River Bridge, or as it is now known, the Washington Bridge. Known as one of the longest steel arch bridges of its time, the Harlem River Bridge also represents that spirit of invention and innovation that was prevalent in the civil engineering field during the nineteenth century. The collection provides an invaluable resource for those wishing to track the construction of the bridge from early concept drawings and proposals to finalized plans. Also present are photographs of the construction and workers. Societal response to the bridge in the form of newspaper and magazine clippings help to create the narrative of the Washington Bridge, and these are supplemented by correspondence from the builders, suppliers, and planners.

This collection also includes diaries, 1866-1901; letterpress copybooks, 1858-1901; correspondence on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Bridge over the Harlem River, and Maryland and Colorado railroads, 1861-1901, and on Hutton's financial and real estate affairs, 1835-1921; construction photographs of the Harlem River, Cairo, Poughkeepsie, Niagara bridges and the Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Aqueduct, and Capitol Dome (in the form of albumen, cyanotype, salted paper print); data and drawings; rolled land profile drawings; canal notes, 1828-1892; Hudson River Tunnel construction reports, 1889-1891; publications, drawings, and maps of railroad routes; pamphlets and reprints on hydraulic works and water supply; road, railway, bridge, and hydraulic construction specifications, 1870-1900; drawings (linen, oil cloth, and heavy drawing paper), and blueprints; account books, 1891-1899; and plans, drawings, field notebooks, and publications on American and European construction projects, especially in Maryland, New York, and France; personal correspondence detailing his role as executor for the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and the Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt and his relationships with his children, siblings, cousins, and colleagues, 1850-1942.

Materials are handwritten, typed, and printed.

Special note should be made that any materials dated after the year 1901 were added to the collection by another creator who is unidentified. It can be speculated that professional materials added after this date were contributed by his brother and colleague Nathanial Hutton or his son Frank Hutton. Personal materials contributed after this date may have been added by his wife, daughters, or other members of his extended family.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901, consists of twenty seven letterpress copybooks containing correspondence between Hutton and other engineers, architects, and building suppliers. The letterpress copybooks in this series have been arranged chronologically. The books involve a process by which ink is transferred through direct contact with the original using moisture and pressure in a copy press. The majority of the correspondence is business- related. Some letterpress copybooks are devoted to specific projects such as the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The letterpress copybooks provide a record of correspondence written by Hutton, which makes it distinctive from the other correspondence in the collection. Most of the other correspondence has Hutton as recipient.

The letterpress copybooks also document Hutton's various residences throughout his life and provide a glimpse into the civil engineering profession at the time by demonstrating how engineers shared ideas and comments about projects. This can be supplemented with the printed materials in the collection as many of the authors also appear in the correspondence. Other topics covered in the letterpress copybooks include business reports (specifically the report of the president and directors of the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad), records of people and companies involved in projects, pasted in engineering sketches, engineering specifications and notes, travel expenses and estimates, construction histories and progress, legal issues with family estates, tax information, Colorado Railroad, payment certificate schedules, St. Paul Railroad, personal correspondence, title guarantees, Hudson River Tunnel, financial matters, real estate matters, insurance information, sketches and drawings, supply lists, cost estimates, the Memorial Bridge, Coffin Valve Company, engineering expenses, engineering calculations, payroll notes for Kingston Water Supply, proposals, account information, Hutton Park, reservoirs, contract drafts, French Society of Civil Engineers, inspection results (specifically Piedmont Bridge), land descriptions, damage reports, Morse Bridge, Illinois Central Railroad, North Sea Canal, moveable dams, iron works, site histories, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Kanawha River canal (lock quantities, specifications, payroll information), Pennsylvania Canal, and bills for services.

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901, consists of correspondence that relates to Hutton's architectural and engineering projects. This series is further subdivided into two subseries: Project Correspondence and General Correspondence. Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899, correspondence is divided by project and arranged alphabetically. Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901, is arranged chronologically. Both series contain handwritten and typed letters. Some letters are on letterpress copybook pages and are most likely copies. Some materials are in French and Spanish. Special note should be made that this series does not contain all of the professional correspondence in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to project and placed in Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, in order to make it easier for researchers to access materials related to those subjects.

Subseries 1, professional correspondence topics include comparisons between construction projects (specifically comparisons of the Kanawha River Canal to other canals), supply lists, location recommendations, sketches, construction plans and modifications, bills for supplies and works, leaks in the gates, cost estimates, Brooklyn Water Supply, use of lake storage (Ramapo Water Supply), water supply to states and counties, damages to water supply pipes, estimates of water quantities, responses to construction reports, legal issues related to projects, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and payment for services.

Subseries 2, general correspondence topics include employment opportunities, committee meetings and elections, land surveys, sketches, engineering plans and ideas, work on projects, dismissal from projects, notes on supplies, Washington Aqueduct, construction progress, land purchases, Civil War, Jones Falls, cost of water pumps, steam drills, lots divisions and prices, repairs, report of the engineering bureau, tidewater connection at Annapolis, bridge construction, construction costs, statement of vessels that entered and cleared Baltimore, technical questions from colleagues, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, supply costs, letters of introduction, requests for reference, changes to plans and designs, survey reports, St. Andrew's lot, Canal Coal Company, publication process, American Society of Civil Engineers and its members, responses to project inquiries, Graving Dock gross revenue, job offers, specifications, trade figures, contracts, water levels, appointment dates and times, moveable dams, proposals for membership, salaries, Piedmont Coal Lands, maps, land profiles, Washington Bridge, board payments, Nicaragua Canal, Grant Coal Company, statistics, engineering notes, Hartford Bridge, water pressures, coal deposits, Colorado Coal, pipe lines, reservoirs, boat costs for canals, floods, bridges, letters of resignation, engines, Ruxton Viaduct, Colorado and Midland Railroad, Morse Bridge, share values, railroad locations, membership invitations, call for submissions, structural tests, record of accounts for room and board, appointments, water rights (Putnam County), publications, blueprints, visitation programs, cotton compresses, street trenches, pressures in dams, level tests, Portland Transportation bureau, trade information, concrete steel, Chicago drainage canal, ship canals, Augusta Cotton and Compress Company, Sooysmith case, Consolidated Gas Company, masonry, book binding, Columbia Railway Company, jetties, land grades, Chesapeake and Delaware canal, water wheels, pneumatic lock, tunnel arches, rifton power, Hutton's health, elevators, Brooklyn Bridge Terminals, girder weights, legal issues and their results, rating table for the Potomac, land profiles, transmission lines, transformers, water turbines, and water power on the Potomac River.

Correspondents for this series include the following: Captain Montgomery C. Meigs, Captain T.W. Symons, William Bryan, Ernest Flagg, John Hurd, Jake Wolfe, J.C. Saunders, J.H. Dolph, Charles J. Allen, G.H. Mendell, Virgil S. Bogue, B.A. Mounnerlyn, Edward Burr, H.G. Prout, R. William, H. Dodge, C.R. Suter, M. Mink, W.R. King, John Lyons, Alex Brown and Sons, John G. Butler, D. Condon, Bernard Carter, R.P. McCormick, D.R. Magruder, Andrew Banks, Isaac Solomon, C.J. Mayer, C.W. Kern, John Herring, James S. Mackie, D.R. Magunde, D. Rittaguide, R.S. Stevens, J.L. Raudolph (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), J.M. Lane, W.D. Stuart, W.G.P. Palmer (Committee Church of the Ascension), C. Crozet, General W. Hughes, V.R. Maus, J.M. Hood (Western Maryland Railroad Company), Ernest Pontzen, M. Haus, William F. Craighill, Harry Hutton, John W. Pearce, Reverend James A. Harrald, William Watson, A.L. Rives, Thomas Monro, A.F. Croswan (Commander United States Navy), H.R. Garden, William McAlpine, James Forrest, Wm. Bloomsfield, Daniel Ammen, Linel Wells, A. and Otto Sibeth, Alfred Noble, Clemens Hershel, Sidney Warner, E.H. de Rheville, Theodore Cooper, William Findlay Shunk, Lewis S. Wolfe, Rufus Mead, Theodore F. Taylor, John Bogart, J. Whaler, B. Williamson, Colonel F.V. Greene, Robert H. Sayre (Lehigh Valley Railroad Company), Charles W. Pussey, Louis Q. Rissel, V.C. Bogue, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville E.G. Leston, Edwin Parson, Rudolph Hering, R.S. Hale, F.M. Turner, Thosl Martindale, Justus C. Strawbridge, William M. Ayresm, R.L. Austin, A.M. Miller, P. Livingston Dunn, T.J. Cleaver, C.S. Dutton, H.A. Carson, William Bainbridge Jaudon, H.A. Presset, Thomas H. McCann, Russel Sturgis, H.G. Prout, Alexis H. French, John K. Cowen, F.W. Williams, J. Waldorf, B.H. Byrant, B.H. Jones, M.H. Rogers, J.W. Ogden, General W. Cashing, William Longhudge, A.J. Cameron, T.L. Patterson, J.J. Hagerman, H. Wigglesworth, Charles B. Rowland, E. Bantz, W.G. Lathrop, Clarence King, George Rowland, George A. Tibbals (Continental Iron Works), George N. Vanderbilt, Eugene C. Lewis, F.P. Burt, Colonel John C. Clarke, Lieutenant Thomas Turtle, W.S.M. Scott, E. Bates Dorsey, Bernard Carter, George M. Shriver (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), Russel Sturgis, Macmillan Publishing, James Abernethy, B. Baker, J.G.W. Fynje, A. Mallet, Jean Hersuy, L.F. Vernon Horcourt, Robert Lilley, A.J. Johnson, F.M. Colby, Henry D. Loney, A.S. Cameron, James A. Harrald, William Watson, John B. Lervis, A.L. Rives, Edwin F. Bidell, Frank H. Stockett, E. McMahon, C.F. Elgin, Enrique Budge, G. Clayton Gardiner, Dwight Porter, William A. Chapman, T.E. Sickels, Theodore Cooper, C.J. Warner, Institution of Civil Engineers, Robert Gordon, United States Coast of Geodetic Survey Office, C.P. Pattun, J.N. Putnam, Sidney B. Warner, H.D. Fisher, Union Pacific Railway Company, Lewis S. Wolle, George E. Waring Junior, The American Exhibition, G.F. Swain, American Society of Civil Engineers, N.H. Whitten, U.S. Engineer Office, Government Works Committee, J.J. Hagerman, D. Jackson, Sterling Iron and Railway Company, E.P. Alexander, E. Williamson, Central Railway Company of New Jersey, William A. Underwood, F. Collingwood, James Dun (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company), Henry F. Kilburn, Louis A. Bissell, Virgil G. Boque, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville Egleston, Charles Parson, George Swain, Continental Iron Works, Rudolph Hering, J.B. Gordon, Mayor's Office (Baltimore), Harry Robinson, Pennsylvania Railway Company, W.H. Gahagan, L. Luiggi, B.H. Bryant, T.J. Cleaver (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company), H.A. Carson, H.A. Presset (Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey), John K. Cowen, Vernon H. Brown, J. Waldorf, B.H. Bryant, L.F. Root, P.W. White, Metropolitan Railroad Company, Charles F. Mayer (Consolidated Coal Company, Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad Company), J.M. Lane (Western Maryland Railroad), Dr. R.S. Stewart (Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad), Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad (John Lyons, John G. Butler, D. Candon, R.P. McCormick, Andrew Banks), Thomas F. Rowland, J.A. Bensel, Walton Aims, S.D. Coykendall, H.C. Rogers, John F. Ward, T.B. Jewell, H.A. Pressey, C.S. Armstrong, J. Nennett, V.G. Bague.

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, contains correspondence with immediate and extended family, specifically the heirs to the Benjamin H. Hutton and Joseph Hutton estates and Adele Gorman. Correspondence is primarily arranged chronologically, but some files have been divided based on subject or author (the Deer Park and Adele Gorman files), or by form (the Telegrams, and Cablegrams file). Special note is made of the posthumous correspondence file, which includes correspondence both relating to Hutton's death and correspondence that was written by family members after the years of his death. The series contains both hand written and typed letters. Some correspondence is in French. The correspondence demonstrates his relationship with his children specifically Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, and illuminates his role in his family. This series also provides details about nineteenth century upper class society and activities. Special note should be made that this folder does not contain all of the personal correspondence contained in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to recipient, or subject in order to make researching these recipients or subjects easier.

Series 3 correspondence topics include: estate payments, distribution of assets, funds transfers, estate lines, conflicts with tenants, sketches, lot maintenance, real estate sales, deeds, real estate sales negotiations, congratulations wishes on new babies, family illnesses, family affairs and travels, traveling directions, personal investments, invitations for social occasions, family debts, professional interests, professional and personal appointments, family issues, requests for money, sketches, advice to children (specifically Frank Hutton), life insurance, books, letters of introduction, legal issues, funeral expenses, charity donations, advertisements, minutes from professional organizations, army enlistment, deaths of friends and family, recipes, estimates of personal expenses, renovations, stock certificates (Great Northern Railway Company, New York), food, social activities, the weather, marriages, real estate and construction plans, and loan agreements.

Correspondents include the following: Frank Hutton, Thomas B. Brookes, J.L. Marcauley, C.M. Matthews, Edward J. Hancy, John M. Wilson, H.A. Carson, William H. Wiley (of John Wiley and Sons Scientific Publishers, New York), Georgina Hutton, Pierre and Jane Casson, George McNaughlin, Henrietta Hutton, Aaron Pennington Whitehead, J.B. Wheeler, B. Williamson, Robert De Forest, Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, Grace Beukard, J.C. Saunders, Mary Hutton, William J. Pennington, C.S. Hurd, Henry C. Cooper, Henry J. Segers, S.F. Miller, Annie Theller, Alfred Noble, Maria Burton, Joseph Hobson, E. Lennon, F. Hulberg, Charles Gordon Hutton, Edward C. Ebert, A. William Lewin, E.R. Dunn, William P. Craighill, Theodore Cooper, P.I. Chapelle, Anita McAlpine, Clarence King, Victoria Raymond, and Adele Gorman.

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946, contains documentation about Hutton's personal finances, role as executor of the Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt estates, Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Frank Hutton, John Caulfield (son-in-law), and B.F. and C.H. Hutton. The series has been divided into four subseries: Financial Records, 1876-1901, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, Other Huttons, 1876-1936, and Personal Material, 1878-1946. Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, contains correspondence relating to specific family estates and family members. This correspondence was separated from Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, to make it easier for researchers to access all records relating to the family estates. This series includes hand written, typed, and printed materials. Some materials are in French. All material dated after 1901 has been added to the collection by other creators such as Hutton's wife and children.

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901, includes account books, account records, correspondence related to bank accounts, bank statements, financial notes, bills and proofs of payment, rent receipts, tax bills (New York, Flatbush, Montgomery County), checks, money exchanges, receipts for tax payments, real estate receipts, stock and bond certificates, loan agreements, executor accounts, rebate calculation sheet, and tax and insurance payments.

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, includes property maps and information (rent, mortgage costs, deeds), correspondence, notes on estate distribution, estate assets, value of estate and estate payments, account records, loan agreements, receipts, proof of payments, checks, financial records, legal documents, insurance documents, tax bills, auction receipts, and wills relating to the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Countess H. de Moltke-Hivtfeldt, Annie Theller, and William R. Hutton. Also included are correspondence, property maps and information, and deeds and mortgages on Hutton properties.

Subseries 2, the estate and real estate records correspondence topics include: Virginia state building codes, construction costs, construction notices, purchasing offers for property, real estate prices, receipts of payments, property lines, real estate purchases and sales, real estate sales negotiations, deeds insurance estimates and costs, loan costs, property estimates, renovation costs, mortgages, property damages and repairs, property tax payments, insurance rates and payments, rent payments, telephone installation, building permits, rental agreements, reports on property condition, contracts of sale, conflicts with tenants, changes of address, deeds, distribution of estate monies, details about the Countess' illness, estate arrangements, changes of address, problems arising out of estate distribution, payment of debts, will details, selling of mortgage shares, accounts, estate settlement, money cables and transfers, dealings with lawyers, rent on Hutton Park property, legal and accounting fees, power of attorney transfer, investments, property security, land appraisals, lists of assets, legacy taxes, mortgages transfers, property management, Flatbush property, property rent and values, and physicians bills.

Correspondents include the following: A.C. Weeks, Walter I. Green, John D. Probsh, A.G. Darwin, Thomas H. McCann, Allan Farguhar, Thomas Dawson, Potter and Crandall Real Estate and Insurance Brokers, George C. Tilyou, H.D. Olephant, F. Winston, Richard E. Calbraith, Frank P. Martin, Henry DeForest, Henry C. Cooper, Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company, John Ecker, C.K. Avevill, Georgina Hutton, Edward J. Hancy, Robert Graham, W.M. Bennett, Willis E. Merriman, Nathan L. Miller, Harry Hutton, Marquise de Portes (Adele Gorman), Annie Theller, Samuel L. Theller, Mrs. R. Locke, Frank Z. Adams, John Palmer (Secretary of State, New York), J.T. Cammeyer, Frank P. Martin, Florence Theller, Francis H. Seger, Henry C. Cooper, D.W.G. Cammeyer, Campbell W. Adams, Jane Casson, Elizabeth Hutton, Rene de Portes, H.G. Atkins, Grace Beukard, Aaron Pennington Muikhead, J.E. Delapalme, T.H. Powers, Egerton L. Winthrop Junior, George B. Glover, William Jay and Robert W. Candler, B. Williamson, J.E. Knaff, Cornelius C. Vermeule, S.V. Hayden, Charles G. Landon[?], H.A. Hurlbert, F.A. Black, John L. Calwalder, the Health Department of New York, A.G. Darwin, William Laue, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Charles S. Brown, Henrietta Hutton, Edward Gelon.

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936, includes professional drawings and proposals, checks, insurance information, correspondence, tax information, medical information, tax bills, relating to Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Henry and Harry Hutton, Frank Hutton (son), John Caulfield (son-in-law), B.F. Hutton, and C.H. Hutton.

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946, contains handwritten property notes, school notes, sermons, travel documents, menus, Christmas cards, jewelry box, postal guide, typed religious materials and flyers.

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901, contains twenty nine diary books that document both Hutton's personal and professional life. These diaries provide not only a record of Hutton's life, but were also used by Hutton himself as a reference tool. When working on projects he would refer to notes and observations he made in his diary (as evidenced by notes made in his diaries). The first pages of the diaries often list his height, weight and clothing sizes as they varied from year to year. A researcher could probably use the cashbooks (see Series 7) and the diaries in conjunction as both detail the purchases made by Hutton. Many of the diaries also include a short record of accounts in the back. The diaries are arranged chronologically.

Topics found in the diaries include short form accounts of daily activities and appointments, records of the weather, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, construction progress on projects, steam pumps, sketches and calculations, extension of Washington railroads, cost of food, work supplies, travel costs, costs of goods and food, work deadlines, home renovations, visits to family, cash accounts, accounts of household duties, produce on Woodlands property, records of deaths, debts owed, account of clearing Woodlands property, church visits, Hancock and Tonoloway Aqueduct, canals, Drum Point Railroad, Montgomery C. Meigs, Washington Aqueduct, Annapolis Water Works, telegram costs, wages for Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, William Craighill, Morris Canal, Annapolis Railroad and Canal, professional duties (inspections), Kanawha River Canal, travel schedules, professional expenses, cash received from Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, John's Dam, cathedral construction (St. Patricks?), Piedmont Bridge, Cumberland, account of farm property belonging to Major Campbell Bruns, Cunard Pier, Marquise de Portes, rent costs, Baltimore Canal, Kingston Water Supply, Croton Orange Estate, Pierre Casson, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, entertainment costs, Greenwood cemetery, train schedule, notes on illness, real estate sales, Hutton Park, Benjamin H. Hutton estate and heirs, estimates, accounts of correspondence received and sent, Central Railroad, rent on Orange properties, addresses, contracts and building supplies for projects, personal finances, Joseph Hutton property on Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, amounts paid and received, medical appointments, Ramapo Water Company, drawing progress of maps and diagrams, Harbor Board (New York), property repairs, inspection and test reports, reservoirs, lists of birthdays, Boston Tunnel, family financial issues, tax payments, and prayers.

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900, document the engineering and architectural projects worked on by Hutton. The series has been divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899; Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886; and Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900. Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899, contains sixteen field notebooks used by Hutton. Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886, contains seven notebooks. Subseries three, Notes, 1863-1900, contains four documents.

Some notebooks correspond to specific projects such as the Kanawha River Canal (lockgate and Phoenix Waterline), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Buffalo Reservoir, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Northern Adirondack Railroad account, Washington Aqueduct, Little Rock Bridge, Wilson-Adam Dock, Croten Brick Works, Hutton Park, Centennial Iron Works, Cumberland Canal, Williamsport Aqueduct, Catoctin Aqueduct, Alexandria Canal, Miller's Saw Mill, Seneca Dam, Union Tunnel, Cumberland Waterworks, Victoria Bridge, Welland Canal, North Sea Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Annapolis Water Company, Antietam Aqueduct, Interoceanic Canal, San Quentin Canal, Suez Canal, Amsterdam Canal, Harlem Bulkhead, Morris Canal, Blue Lake Canal, and Nicaragua Canal.

These notebooks should be used in conjunction with the other materials in the collection related to professional projects, as they often provide more detailed accounts of the construction and land surveys. Some of the notebooks contain entries from several different sources. The notebooks were probably shared among the engineers working on these projects. The notebooks also contain looseleaf ephemera such as hand written calculations, newspaper clippings, and blueprints. Languages found in this series are English and French.

Notebook topics include construction projects, supply needs, costs for labor, sketches (Woodland Mills, landscapes, dams, railway cars, Noland Tunnel), costs of crops, survey measurements, cost of livestock, aqueducts, inspections, canal bridges, seed prices, dams, measurements, coffer dam, canal maintenance, worker salaries, calculations, towpath sketches and measurements, shipping rates, worker accidents, water and coal used, geometrical sketches (Washington Aqueduct), locks, damage reports, interactions with other engineers (William Reading), coal shipments on the canal, travel expenses, land survey notes, drafts for correspondence, William Craighill, Victoria docks, lists of personal supplies used, construction time estimates, surveying expenses, telegram costs, sand pump, canal from Sherling to Tuxedo Bay, analysis of several artificial lakes and reservoirs, distances of reservoirs to main pipes, calculations for the Austin Wheel, engine construction, bridges, gauging water depth, results and observations of tests and performance, problems with construction, to-do lists, cost of land surrounding towpaths, Fawcett's Lock, Tarman's Lock, comparison of costs in transporting coal by water and by rail, inspection notes, iron work, drainages, leaks, cost of supplies, watergates, harbor ferries, railroad station distances, flood protection, Panama Canal via the Nicaraguan route, cost of jetties, water levels, pressure of steam, boilers, steam and water cycle, water depth, cement, Great Falls, Virginia, waterflow, soundings, time of floats, flow of currents, rain fall measurements, tunnel measurements, cost of trenching San Francisco water supply, record of livestock, cost of food, rates of sawing woods and mills, preliminary railroad line measurements, profile of final line, and railroad line profiles.

Series 7, Cash Books, 1856-1899, contains seven cashbooks which list prices for personal items purchased by Hutton. Topics include groceries, church dues, clothes, hygiene products, cigars, some short journal entries about his work (Williamstown), concerts, dinners, family addresses, cakes, meals, cars, stamps, office supplies (pencils and papers), valentines, glasses, gloves, fabric, medicine, needles, diapers, tobacco, shoes (adult and childrens), travel expenses, telegrams, candles, newspapers, liquor, coal oil, jewelry, allowances given to family members, bank deposits, monies paid and received, taxes, subscriptions, tailoring costs, deposits and payments into estate trusts, and notes about payments to Benjamin H. Hutton heirs. The cashbooks also contain some personal loose leaf ephemera such as prayers, sketches, and engineering notes collected by Hutton.

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, contains documents about engineering and architectural projects throughout Hutton's career, including information about the professional organizations and the legal issues in which he was involved. This series has been divided into eight subseries based on project, document form, and document subject. Some materials are in French and Italian.

Series 8, Professional Projects, also includes correspondence related to specific projects, primarily the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, and the Georgetown Incline.

Topics include construction and repair to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, engineering and use of Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, worker contracts, supply and labor purchases, design plans and proposals, construction and repair costs, supply notes and costs of supplies, water pressure and power, shipping materials and routes (specifically the shipping of coal), inspections and their findings, condition of canal dam and locks, water supply, drainage, sketches, board proceedings, business meetings, deeds, cost comparisons to other shipping methods, hiring processes, wages, cost estimates, Hutton's consulting fees, measurements and calculations, funding issues, worker conflicts, negotiations with municipal governments, payment schedules, bills for services, air pressure in Hudson River Tunnel, permission for construction, specifications, mortality rate among workers on the Hudson River Tunnel, construction reports, outlet incline, proposals for construction, letters of introduction, railroad versus water for trade, controversy with Tiersey, construction contracts, construction schedules, construction issues, construction progress, construction damage, basis for estimates, supply requests, internal politics, changes to construction plans, contract and price adjustments, issues with suppliers, construction delays, work permits, bills, worker issues, engineering notes, construction excavations, expenses, construction instructions, Union Bridge Company, lighting installations, construction processes, hiring practices, electrical conductors, water proofing, hydraulics, cement, concrete, payment of contributors, processes of approval for construction, meeting dates of the Harlem River Bridge Commission, and contract restrictions.

Correspondents include the following: W.W.M. Kaig, Henry Dodge, E. Mulvany, John Shay, James Clarke, H.D. Whitcomb, Horace Benton, J. Rellan, J.R. Maus, W.E. Merrill, A.P. Gorman, J.H. Staats, Vernon H. Brown, Charles H. Fisher (New York Central and Hudson River Railway Company), B. Baker, John Fowler, Benjamin and John Dos Passos, Charles B. Colby, Charles B. Brush, S. Pearson, Stanford White, Horace E. Golding, R.H. Smith, Daniel Lord, A. Fteley, Herbert Hinds, J.R. Bartlett, D.M. Hirsch, M.H. Bartholomew, Thomas O. Driscoll, W.E. Porter, Thomas F. Rowland, George Edward Harding, R.H. Dames, William Watson, James B. Eads, J.D. Bright, H. Aston, Charles Suley, A.M. Maynard, W.R. Henton, G. Geddes, H.P. Gilbut, Malcolm W. Niver (Secretary of the Harlem River Bridge Commission), J.D. Patterson, George Devin (Assistant Engineer Washington/ Harlem River Bridge), J.B. Wheeler, John Bogart, Charles Burns, J. McClellon, Rob Bassee, B. Williamson, Theodore Cooper, Lewis Cass Ledyard, R.M. Hunt, John Cooper, Henry Wilson, A.A. Caille, Myles Tierney, W. Pentzen, L.B. Cantfield, George Q. Grumstaid Junior, M.J. Funton, George Pierce, W.O. Fayerweather, Noah S. Belthen, Herbert Steward, W.M. Habirsham. Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965, consists of plans, blueprints, land profiles, drawings, boat rates, contract forms, order forms, descriptions of the canal, design information, engineering data, sketches, cost estimates, land titles, microfilm, business papers, supply bills, patent bills, news clippings, reports, specifications, stockholder's reports, receipts, water leases, printed materials, and correspondence.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project was started in 1828 and completed twenty two years later in 1850. The canal's main objective was to connect Georgetown to the coal banks above Cumberland, Maryland, providing a short and cheap trade route between the eastern and western United States. It was also hoped that the canal would provide greater communication and travel between these two regions. Plagued by natural disasters, and construction setbacks, the canal was never completed in time to be useful and became obsolete shortly after its completion. Canal trade was eventually put out of business by the increase of railroads. Although it was an important development in engineering at its inception, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is no longer in use and has become what locals affectionately refer to as "the old ditch." The canal was designated a National Historical Park in 1971 and consists of 184.5 miles of hiking and biking trails.

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901, consists of agreements for construction, certificates, contracts, and cost estimates, construction reports, engineering notebooks, engineering notes, sketches, land profiles, maps, progress profiles, plans, proposals, printed material, statements of expenses, and correspondence.

The Hudson River Tunnel project was started in 1874, and the final tubes were opened in 1910 after several construction setbacks. The tunnel connects Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City. Today the Hudson River Tunnel, known as the North River Tunnels is used by Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit rail lines.

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1982, consists of blueprints, printed materials, photographs, engineer's estimates, schedules, costs, reports, proposals, contracts, specifications, and correspondence.

The Harlem River Bridge project was started in 1885 and was completed in 1889. It spans the Harlem River in New York City, New York and connects the Washington Heights section of Manhattan with the Bronx. It was later named and is still known as the Washington Bridge and has been adapted over time to carry highway traffic. These adaptations have allowed the bridge to remain in use today.

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1832, consists of drawings, maps, blueprints, plans, proposals, cost estimates, bills, correspondence, sketches, land profiles, dimensions, engineering notes, account records, photostats, supply lists, calculations, legal documents, surveys, inspection reports, financial data, and measurements on architectural and engineering projects. Highlights of this subseries include: Western Maryland Railroad, Washington Aqueduct, Panama Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Piedmont Bridge, Northern Adirondack Railroad, Columbia Railroad, Morris Canal, Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad, Suez Canal, St. Gothard Canal, Tansa Dam, Colorado Midland Railroad Company, Memorial Bridge, Mersey Tunnel, Little Rock Bridge, Kingston Water Supply, Kanawha River Canal, Florida Ship Canal, East Jersey Water Company, Consolidated Coal Company, Dismal Swamp Canal, Boston and Baltimore Tunnels, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Annapolis Water Company, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad Company, and the Baltimore Beltline.

Subseries 5, Unidentified Project Files, 1872-1900, consists of bills of sale, engineering forms and regulations, cement test results and methods, census bulletin, contracts, cost estimates, correspondence, notes on publications, engineering data and notes, drawings, surveys, sketches, payrolls, photographs, and reports.

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900, consists of documents related to some of Hutton's projects, including specifications for bridges, reservoirs, canals, viaducts, docks, buildings, water works, and tunnels. Some specifications are more general, and some are blank proposal/specification forms. There are also proposals for estimates and a "call" or advertisement to contractors to bid on certain projects. Many of the specifications deal with projects in New York State, but projects in Pennsylvania, the City of Baltimore, and Europe are represented. The materials are arranged alphabetically by project name. There is one folder of documentation for the Potomac River Bridge (Arlington Memorial Bridge) in Washington, D.C. The Arlington Memorial Bridge was part of the 1901 McMillan Commission's plan for restoring Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's original plan for the capital. Two decades passed before construction was initiated by the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White. The documentation for the Memorial Bridge consists of calculations and monetary figures for materials such as granite.

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886, contains documents related to a patent infringement suit for moveable dams involving Alfred Pasqueau vs. the United States. This file contains both a printed version of the case and a handwritten statement from Hutton.

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902, contains documents related to professional organizations where Hutton held membership. Specific organizations represented are American Institute of Architects, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institution of Civil Engineers, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, Librarie Polytechnique, American Agency of "Engineering" in London, Imperial Institute, League of Associated Engineers, Railroad Corporation, American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Century Association. Material in the subseries includes correspondence, candidates for membership, membership payments, membership lists, meeting minutes, schedule of terms, professional practices, charges, articles of association, invitations for membership, and election notes. Some materials are in French.

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1850-1913, contains a variety of printed materials relating to engineering and architectural projects written by Hutton and fellow engineers. This series can be used to examine not only professional developments of the period and responses to those developments, but also to track how ideas were transferred between engineers across countries and continents. This series should be used in conjunction with the professional correspondence found in this collection, as many of the authors also appear there. Some materials are in French, German, Spanish, and Italian.

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900, includes printed papers on the Missouri flood wave, the Ravine du Sud, the Potomac waterfront, the Colorado midlands, and the application of water supply machinery.

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913, includes printed materials on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canals, Tehuantec Ship Railway, Interoceanic canals and railways, jetties, Nicaragua Canal, uses of cements, mortars, concretes, steam power, harbors, Niagara Falls, Kanawha River canal, Mississippi River, Hudson River Bridge, sewage disposal, Washington Aqueduct, specifications, construction progress reports, hydraulic experiments, water supply, drainage, road surfacing, sea walls, water-cooling apparatus, pollution reports, bridges, pipes, channels, reservoirs, irrigation, water power, and sewers.

Subseries 2 contains an issue of The North American Review in which Hutton has specifically highlighted an article entitled, "The Inter-Oceanic Canal." Please see the container list for names of authors.

Subseries 3, Printed Materials with No Author, 1852-1903, includes printed materials on harbor reports, Annapolis Water Company, Ramapo Water Company, water departments and boards, maps, engineer's reports, sea walls, preservation of structures, annual reports, Coal and Iron Railway Company, sewers, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, contract specifications, proposals, social club life, Croton Water Supply, law suits, water supplies, moveable dams, reservoirs, East River Bridge, Eastern Canal, water filtration, Kingston New Water Supply, water pipes, locks, docks, contracts, construction reports, Croton Water Supply, and surveys. Also included are issues of journals such as Le Correspondant, Circular of the Office of Chief Engineers, The Club, VIII Congres International de Navigation, Journal of the Association of Engineering Studies, and Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Subseries 4, Newspaper, Journals and Magazine Clippings, 1873-1900, contains clippings from a variety of newspapers such as Scientific American, andRailroad Gazette. Subjects included are the Union Tunnel opening in Baltimore, Drum Point Railroad, railroad company conflicts, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Metropolitan Railroad, Western Maryland Railroad, crop prospects, lumber trade, North Avenue Bridge, Nicaraguan Canal, harbors, river improvements, reactions to engineering projects, Belt tunnel, city transit, Washington, D.C. flood in 1880, tunnel shields, Springfield Bridge, railroad patents, Panama Canal, jetties, Hudson Tunnel, steel boilers, composition and use of cement, and the Brooklyn Bridge.

Subseries 5, Oversized Printed Materials, 1889-1892, contains large printed materials related to the Washington Aqueduct, General Post Office Building, subway arches, cornices, Warwick's Castle, Neuschwanstein Castle, Renaissance paintings, botanical drawings, school buildings, church architecture, the Hospital for the Insane of the Army and Navy and the District of Columbia, the Panama Canal, Morningside Park, and the Mississippi Jetties. Also includes engravings of Hutton, T.N. Talfound, and F. Jeffrey and photographs of Montgomery C. Meigs, and Hutton. Some materials are in German and French.

References:

1. Ward, George Washington, "The Early Development of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Project," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series XVII, no. 9-11 (1899): 8.

2. Ibid., 88.

3. Ibid., 55.

4. Ibid., 90.

5. Sanderlin, Walter S., "The Great National Project: A History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series LXIV, no. 1 (1946): 21.

6. Ibid., 282.

7. Gies, Joseph, Adventure Underground (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1962): 134.

8. Ibid., 131-132.

9. Ibid., 135-136.

10. Ibid., 145.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901

Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899

Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900

Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899

Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886

Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900

Series 7, Cashbooks, 1856-1899

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965

Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1892

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1932

Subseries 5, Identified Project Files, 1872-1900

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1826-1913

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913

Subseries 3, Newspaper, Journals, and Magazine Clippings, 1855-1901

Subseries 4, Oversized Printed Material, 1889-1892

Series 10: Drawings, 1875, 1883
Biographical / Historical:
Not much is known about the history of William Rich Hutton outside of his role in architectural and engineering projects of the late 1800s and early 1900s. In many cases, he is spoken of only in reference to his projects, and the short biographies that have been written read more like a resume than a life story. Because of this lack of information, this note will focus on Hutton's professional accomplishments, but will attempt to make some comments on his personal life.

William Rich Hutton was born on March 21, 1826 in Washington, D.C., the eldest son of James Hutton (died 1843) and his wife, the former Salome Rich (1). He was educated at the Western Academy (Washington, D.C.) from 1837-1840 under George J. Abbot and then at Benjamin Hallowell's School in Alexandria, Virginia, where he received special training in mathematics, drawing, and surveying (2). Hutton began his professional career in California when he, along with his younger brother James, accompanied their uncle William Rich to work for the United States Army. His uncle was a paymaster for the army and Hutton became his clerk. They traveled around the new state paying the various platoons stationed there, but Hutton also occupied his time by drawing the landscapes and structures he saw in the settlements of Los Angeles, San Francisco, La Paz, Mazatlan, Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Pedro, San Diego, and Cape San Lucas (3). These drawings are now held by the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. Hutton held the position of clerk until the spring of 1849, and in July of that year he began working with Lieutenant Edward O.C. Ord and completed the first survey of Los Angeles and its surrounding pueblo lands and islands. Hutton continued surveying in California from 1850-1851. He was hired by William G. Dana to survey the Nipomo Ranch in San Luis Obispo County and also surveyed the ranches Santa Manuela and Huer-Huero, both owned by Francis Z. Branch. After his employment with Dana, he became the county surveyor for San Luis Obispo County, where he prepared the first survey and map of the region. He also continued to survey ranches for Captain John Wilson during this time. In August 1851, he resigned from his position as county surveyor and moved to Monterey where he worked as an assistant to Captain (later General) Henry W. Hallack, superintendent of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine in Santa Clara County (4). He remained in this position until March, 1853 when he returned to Washington, D.C. by way of Mexico (5).

Hutton began his career as a civil engineer in Washington, D.C. He was first assigned to the position of assistant engineer on a survey of the projected Metropolitan Railroad in 1853, which was chartered to connect Washington, D.C. with the mainline of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1855 he began his professional relationship with Montgomery C. Meigs when he was appointed to the position of assistant engineer on the Washington Aqueduct. He also served as division engineer on this project until construction was shut down in 1861 because of the outbreak of the Civil War. Fortunately for Hutton, the construction on the Aqueduct was resumed in 1862, and when Congress transferred the supervision of the aqueduct project from the War Department to the Department of the Interior, Hutton was made chief engineer. By the end of the Civil War, Hutton's reputation as a civil engineer was established (6).

During this decade Hutton also served as the chief engineer for the Annapolis Water Works (1866) and as chief engineer for one of his most famous projects, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (1869-1871). Although some historians minimize Hutton as just one of many engineers to work on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, he did make one major contribution to its construction: the Georgetown Canal Incline. Perhaps the final effort of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal company to compete with the emerging and fast expanding railroad, the Georgetown Incline was designed to allow canal boats to travel through the canal with low water levels and to alleviate canal congestion. Unfortunately, by the time the incline was completed use of the canal had decreased so significantly that it was no longer needed to help control traffic (7). Despite this, Hutton continued to work as a consulting engineer for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company until 1881, when he was let go because of the dwindling fortunes of the company (7).

In the 1870s and 1880s Hutton was busy with several engineering projects. During 1871-1873, he was the chief engineer in the completion of the Western Maryland Railroad to Hagerstown and Williamsport (9). He also practiced as an architect with his brother, the prominent Baltimore architect Nathanial Henry Hutton, during the years 1873-1880. He relocated to New York in 1880, serving as chief engineer for the Washington Bridge in 1888 and 1889 and the Hudson River Tunnel from 1889 to 1891. In 1886, he became the consulting engineer for the New Croton Aqueduct and served in the same position for the Colorado Midland Railway between the years of 1886-1889 (10).

As his personal and professional correspondence shows, Hutton continued to work on various engineering and architectural projects until his death on December 11, 1901. In addition to these projects, he also invented the innovative system of locks and moveable dams used in the Kanawha River Canal. He was awarded the Diplome d'Honneur for this featat the Paris Exposition in 1878 (11). His correspondence also demonstrates how Hutton was respected within his professional community. These letters refer to the accuracy of his work, his willingness to help other colleagues and supply them with reference materials and information, and, in addition to all this, his politeness. It seems that these qualities defined not only his personality but also his ideology. In one of the cashbooks in the collection, dated 1899, a hand written note contains a religious parable of "The Straw." The phrase in this parable that speaks most to Hutton's work ethic, and to the spirit of inventors everywhere, is this: "Even so however lowly may be the act, however little opportunities we may have of assisting others, we may still do something. Let us beg to fulfil our duty in this regards by making ourselves useful to others by some little act of thoughtful charity..." (12). Hutton, in his dedication to civil engineering, seems to have lived up to this virtue, and in his work he changed the landscape of Washington, D.C. and New York.

The Fairy Godfather: Hutton's Personal History

His professional records reveal a man who was fiercely dedicated to his work. His obituary references his professional life more than his personal life (13). Despite his reputation in the professional engineering community, his personal records demonstrate that Hutton was also dedicated to his family and children. In 1855, he married Montgomery County native Mary Augusta Clopper (died 1915). Together they lived on her family's estate known as the Woodlands, and had five children: Frank C. Hutton, Mary Hutton, Elizabeth Hutton (later Caulfield), Rosa Hutton, and Annie Salome Hutton (14). It is at this estate that Hutton died and was buried. The personal letters to his wife found in the Woodlands Collection held at the Montgomery County Historical Society show a man in love and willing to take time from his work to write to his wife. His letters to his children show a similar interest and compassion. In the many letters found in this collection from his daughter Elizabeth (Bessie) one can see a father who is interested in not only his daughter's activities abroad, but also in her opinion. This interest also extends to his son Frank Hutton, as their correspondence shows Hutton offering his son advice on his own engineering projects.

Hutton also served as executor to many of his extended family's estates. Many letters show the conflicts that Hutton had to mediate and the dependence of his cousins on him for advice and money. Although his family was wealthy (his cousin was Benjamin H. Hutton whose daughters married into the court of Napoleon III), they were volatile, and his records seem to indicate that he served as a mediator for many of their disputes. In addition to this, as his nickname of Fairy Godfather suggests, Hutton was always willing to lend his family either financial or moral support when needed. Unfortunately, little other documentation concerning Hutton's personal life exists outside of this collection and the one held at the Montgomery County Historical Society.

References:

1. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

2. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): ix.

3. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942). and Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): x-xi.

4. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

5. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii.

6. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii-xviii.

7. Skramstad, Harold, "The Georgetown Canal Incline," Technology and Culture, Vol. 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1969): 555.

8. Business Correspondence, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 22 February 1881, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 27, folder number 29.

9. "William Rich Hutton," The Club: A Journal of Club Life for Men and Women,(July 1894):37

10. Ibid.

11. Monzione, Joseph, "William R. Hutton," A.P.W.A. Reporter (Sept. 1977): 7.

12. Cashbook, 1899, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 23, folder number 5.

13. The Woodlands Collection, Montgomery County Historical Society.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1870-1890, (AC0987). Contains materials relating to the construction of the Washington Aqueduct including a book of drawings illustrating reservoirs, tunnels, culverts, and other structural elements, a Government Senate Document relating to construction progress, scrapbooks created by Meigs that include newspaper clippings about the Washington Aqueduct project, water supply, engineering projects, building construction, architecture and other subjects. Collection is currently unprocessed, but is available for research.

Materials in Other Organizations:

The William Rich Hutton Papers, 1840-1961, are located at the Huntington Library in California (see http://catalog.huntington.org).

The collection contains 95 drawings, 13 letters, and 39 facsimile copies of letters and manuscripts. The illustrative material includes both watercolor and pencil drawings of California (including Los Angeles, Monterey, San Francisco, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, and the California missions), Baja California, Mexico, and Peru. There are also five pieces in the collection related to the author María Amparo Ruiz de Burton. In 1942, the Huntington Library published Glances at California 1847--853: Diaries and Letters of William Rich Hutton, Surveyor and California 1847--852: Drawings by William Rich Hutton.

The Hutton family papers are located at the Montgomery County Historical Society, Sween Library (see http://www.montgomeryhistory.org/sites/default/files/Family_Files.pdf).

The collection contains account books from the Woodlands estate, recipe books, livestock records, records of Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary and Rose Hutton (daughters), newspaper clippings (including his obituary), correspondence, record books, deeds, bills and receipts, engineering papers, religious momentos (funeral service cards), and insurance papers.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mr. and Mrs. James J. Madine, a relative of Hutton's and last owners of the Woodlands estate; the Department of Forests and Parks, Maryland; Louis Fischer; and Mr. and Mrs. Mayo S. Stuntz, 1965-1966, 1974.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dams  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Canals  Search this
Underwater tunnels  Search this
Railroad bridges  Search this
Railroad construction  Search this
Water-supply  Search this
Construction workers  Search this
Construction equipment  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Concrete  Search this
Coal -- Transportation  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Canals -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Canals -- Maryland  Search this
Canals -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridges -- United States  Search this
Waterworks  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Tunnels -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Construction -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Underground construction  Search this
Locks and dams  Search this
Shipping  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Sewage disposal  Search this
Railroads -- Maryland  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroad engineering  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Aqueducts  Search this
Arch bridges  Search this
Architects -- 19th century  Search this
Books  Search this
Bridges -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridge construction industry -- United States  Search this
Engineering notebooks  Search this
Docks  Search this
Domestic and family life  Search this
Architecture -- United States  Search this
Architecture -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Western Maryland Railroad  Search this
Annapolis Waterworks  Search this
Steam engineering  Search this
Harlem River Bridge Commission  Search this
Washington (D.C.) -- 19th century  Search this
Reservoirs  Search this
Patents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Photographs -- 19th century
Cashbooks
Business records -- 19th century
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps -- 19th century
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books -- 19th century
Books -- 19th century
Family papers -- 18th century
Financial records -- 19th century
Diaries -- 19th century
Drawings -- 19th century
Cyanotypes
Correspondence -- 19th-20th century
Deeds
Printed material
Correspondence
Contracts
Harlem River Bridge
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Citation:
William R. Hutton Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0987
See more items in:
William R. Hutton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0987
Online Media:

Correspondence

Collection Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Author:
Garrett, John W. (John Work), 1820-1884  Search this
Latrobe, Benj. H. (Benjamin Henry), 1807-1878  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1826-1859
Scope and Contents:
Series 4, Correspondence, 1826-1859, contains primarily correspondence, but also some reports and longer communications from B&O railroad executives and railroad executives in England. Of note is the correspondence with Benjamin Latrobe. This series also contains maps, opinions, and the discussion of railroad routes. The series is arranged chronologically.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs and glass plate negatives with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1086, Series 4
See more items in:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1086-ref114

Jesse Hartley letter, Liverpool, England

Collection Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Author:
Garrett, John W. (John Work), 1820-1884  Search this
Latrobe, Benj. H. (Benjamin Henry), 1807-1878  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 32
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1826-1827
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs and glass plate negatives with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records / Series 4: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1086-ref116

Price list of iron materials from Sevons and Sons in Liverpool, England

Collection Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Author:
Garrett, John W. (John Work), 1820-1884  Search this
Latrobe, Benj. H. (Benjamin Henry), 1807-1878  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 50
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1827 December
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs and glass plate negatives with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records / Series 4: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1086-ref134

Rebuilding Coal Trestle at Mt. Clare Russia, , plan, elevation, and section

Collection Collector:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Author:
Garrett, John W. (John Work), 1820-1884  Search this
Latrobe, Benj. H. (Benjamin Henry), 1807-1878  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company  Search this
Container:
Map-folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
10/29/1901
General note:
13 1/4" x 8 ½"
blue print
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs and glass plate negatives with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records / Series 7: Drawings / 7.18: Coaling facilities, water tanks, turntables, and miscellaneous structures
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1086-ref1578

Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records

Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Names:
American Society of Civil Engineers.  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (25 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Place:
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Date:
1884-1952 and undated
Scope and Contents:
The Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records consists primarily of correspondence and business records documenting Robert A. Cummings' firm, consulting work, and participation in professional associations, especially the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1892-1893, circa 1900-1939; technical data and publications on soils testing, 1900-1939; and drawings, blueprints, and photographs and glass negatives of construction projects.

Series 1, Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated documents the professional life of Robert A. Cummings. There are three subseries within this series: Subseries 1, Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated; Subseries 2, Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated; and Subseries 3, Writings, 1908-1939 and undated. This series includes documents related to the Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, including patents, photographs, and advertisements. The series also includes documents relating to professional organizations such as the Allegheny County Authority, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the World Engineering Congress. Cummings was also a member of the Soils Committee for the American Society of Civil Engineers, and those documents are included in this series. Cummings wrote published and unpublished articles regarding concrete, soil, and construction methods. His writings are also included in this series.

Series 2, Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated consists of six subseries: Subseries 1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated; Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated; Subseries 3, Contracts (for projects), 1902-1930 and undated; Subseries 4, Legal Materials, 1907-1916; Subseries 5, Financial, 1894-1921 and undated; and Subseries 6, Personnel, 1918-1921. This series contains the bulk of the information about Cummings' concrete business. Within this series are administrative materials that document the running of the business, including daily reports, bond and insurance papers, specifications, supply notes, field requisitions, and design notebooks. Also included is correspondence to and from Cummings. Recipients of the correspondence include company employees and corporations that did business with the company. A portion of the correspondence is divided topically into subjects such as soil sampling apparatus and barge claims.

The bulk of this series consists of contracts for projects on which Cummings worked. The majority of the projects consist of bridges, water tanks, commercial buildings, and retaining walls. Materials include correspondence, receipts from vendors, hand-written notes, accident reports, blueprints, sketches, and laboratory test reports on materials. The contracts are arranged by contract number as assigned by Cummings. The unnumbered contracts are listed alphabetically. The legal materials consist of documentation that relate to legal matters Cummings dealt with, including the lawsuits Robert Cummings vs. William J. Stewart, Alexander Melville vs. Robert Cummings, andLock Joint Pipe Company vs. Frederick Melber and Electric Welding Company. This series also contains financial and personnel records, including account books, bills, receipts, proposals, estimates, and business journals, as well as applications for employment, correspondence, and weekly progress reports.

Series 3, Subject Files, 1891-1949 and undated consists of correspondence, pamphlets, printed materials, and drawings. The topics within the subject files include soil testing and standards, roads, railroads, minerals, electricity, and concrete barges.

Series 4, Publications, 1887-1955, includes published material related concrete. The series is divided into two subseries: publications by title and publications by subject. Included are booklets, articles of incorporations, charters and by-laws, journals, and government publications. Some of the materials are in German or French.

Series 5, Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated includes 3" x 5", 8" x 10" and other various sizes of photographic prints. The series contains black and white and sepia toned prints. Some of the prints have been mounted onto cardboard or cloth, and some prints have tape on the corners. Some of the prints are annotated on the back. Most of the images are of construction sites in various stages of progress, the interiors of buildings being constructed, manufacturing equipment, and laborers working. Some of these images document early twentieth century methods of manufacturing, such as the use of rope pulleys.

Series 6, Photograph Negatives, undated includes about 75 photograph film negatives. The images in these negatives are primarily of construction scenes, including workers, equipment and work sites.

Series 7, Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated includes 8" x 10", 5" x 8", and 3" x 4" glass plate negatives containing images of bridges, slabs of concrete, construction scenes, the interiors and exteriors of hotels, and the interiors and exteriors of railroad stations.

Series 8, Lantern Slides, undated includes images of the work of the Cummings Structural Concrete Company on 4.5" x 5" glass slides. The images are of industrial machinery, construction sites, and workers.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.1: Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated

Subseries 1.2: Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.3: Writings, 1908-1939 and undated

Series 2: Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated

Subseries 2.2: Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.3: Project Contracts, 1902-1930 and undated

Subseries 2.4: Legal Materials, 1907-1916

Subseries 2.5: Financial, 1894-1921 and undated

Series 3: Subject Files, 1891-1970 and undated

Subseries 3.1: Alphabetical, 1891-1970

Subseries 3.2: Testing, 1904-1916

Series 4: Publications, 1887-1955

Subseries 4.1: By title, 1887-1953

Subseries 4.2: By subject, 1902-1940 and undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated

Series 6: Photograph Negatives, undated

Series 7: Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated

Series 8: Lantern Slides, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Augustus Cummings (1866-1962) was a consulting civil engineer who worked primarily in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was born in Norfolk, England and attended the Gresham School at Holt in Norfolk. He trained as a civil engineer with William J. Brewster in his offices, located in Westminster, London, England. During his early career, he worked as a surveyor and field examiner at the Ordinance Survey of Great Britain and Ireland before he relocated to Canada to conduct engineering work on the Grand Trunk Railroad. During the late 1880s and early 1890s, Cummings was employed as a general draftsman for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in Philadelphia. He worked later as a designer of heavy dredging machinery for the Bucyrus (Ohio) Steam Shovel and Dredge Company and as an assistant engineer of the Norfolk and Western Railroad in Roanoke, Virginia. Cummings established a firm as a civil and consulting engineer in Philadelphia in 1893 before relocating to Pittsburgh in 1899. He founded the Cummings Structural Concrete Company and the Electric Welding Company in 1900, and in 1902 he founded the Lehigh Valley Testing Laboratory, all of which were located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1936, he partnered with his son in the consulting firm of Robert A. Cummings, Jr. and Associates.

During his career, Cummings worked on the design and construction of a variety of projects, including bridges, warehouses, filtration systems, private residences, machine shops, dry docks and piers, factories, dams, and locks. He additionally conducted railroad and land surveys, researched various types of cement, and designed rock, hydraulic, and elevator dredges. Cummings is best known for inventing the "Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete," in which iron or steel bars are embedded within a mixture of Portland cement, water, sand, and gravel or broken stone. As Cummings stated in a 1904 presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, reinforced concrete "makes an excellent paint for preserving iron or steel, adhering to the metal very firmly and protecting it thoroughly against corrosion. It can easily be made water tight, and its durability is beyond question. These properties of cement mortar can be utilized in re-enforced concrete. This material is well adapted for molding into a monolithic structure, which does not disintegrate when subjected to shocks such as are produced by railroad trains and vibrates much less for a given load than structural steel. Correctly designed re-enforced concrete structures are not liable to sudden failures, as is the case with ordinary concrete, but gives warning by the falling off of the surface concrete long before the point of failure is reached."

Cummings belonged to a number of professional organizations, including the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Engineering Societies Library Board, the American Railway Engineering Association, the American Society for Testing Materials, and the Institution of Civil Engineers of London, England. He married Mary Eloise Hood on December 14, 1892, and had two children, Robert Augustus Jr. and Eloise Hood. Robert A. Cummings died on October 21, 1962, in Pittsburgh.

References

Cummings, Robert A. Presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, Meeting of Structural Section. November 22, 1904.

Hool, George A. Concrete Engineers Handbook, Data for the Design and Construction of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Structures. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1918.
Provenance:
Unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0218
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0218
Online Media:

Annual Reports

Collection Author:
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1826-1961
undated
bulk 1913-1929
Scope and Contents:
This series includes unbound copies of the annual report of the Mining Department of Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company. There are also printed and bound office copies along with a few condensed versions of the annual report of the Board of Managers to the stockholders. There are several annual reports on appropriations for mine development and operation jobs and also a 1923 annual report of the stockholders of the Lehigh and New England Railroad Company. After 1929, this series is almost exclusively Mining Department reports and reports on appropriations for mine development. The Mining Department reports for 1940 through 1948 include handwritten tables.

Annual Operating Reports and related correspondence, 1945-1949, of the Panther Valley and Summit Hill Water companies is included. A report, dated 1946, by the superintendent of the Panther Valley Water Company on the separation of the property into two general systems is included with the operating report. There is correspondence, 1942-1948, concerning annual reports, specifically, letters from servicemen (previous employees of LCNC) commenting on copies of the annual report that the company sent to them. A small group of annual reports, 1941-1952, from domestic and foreign coal companies and other manufacturers is included.

Reports are generally arranged chronologically.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0071, Series 1
See more items in:
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0071-ref216

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