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Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona

Photographer:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Owner:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Source:
Lumholtz, Carl, 1851-1922  Search this
Names:
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Former owner:
Lumholtz, Carl, 1851-1922  Search this
Extent:
588 Photographic prints
190 copy negatives
Culture:
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Opata  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui)  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Cora  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Seri  Search this
Nahua  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Tepecano  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Place:
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Arizona -- photographs
Mexico -- Photographs
Date:
1898-1902
Summary:
This collection contains photographic prints and copy negatives taken by Ales Hrdlicka in Arizona and Mexico between 1898 and 1902. The majority of the photographs were donated by George Pepper to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1923. Native communities that Hrdlicka photographed during his research include--Purepecha (Tarasco), Yoeme (Yaqui), Hualapai (Walapai), Havasupai (Coconino), Piipaash (Maricopa), Mojave (Mahave), Tohono O'odham (Papapgo), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Tepecano, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Opata, Cora, Seri, Wixarika (Huichol), Nahua, Otomi and Yoreme (Mayo). Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in the Czech Republic moved to the United States in 1881. Hrdlicka became known as the "Father" of Physical Anthropology and worked at the U.S. National Museum (now the National Museum of Natural History).
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains photographic prints taken by Ales Hrdlicka in Arizona and Mexico between 1898 and 1902. It is likely that many of the photographs were taken in 1902 as a part of the Hyde exploring expeditions on behalf of the American Museum of Natural History. Some of these photographs were taken by Carl Lumholtz and not Hrdlicka. Native communities that Hrdlicka photographed during his research include--Purepecha (Tarasco), Yoeme (Yaqui), Hualapai (Walapai), Havasupai (Coconino), Piipaash (Maricopa), Mojave (Mahave), Tohono O'odham (Papapgo), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Tepecano, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Opata, Cora, Seri, Wixarika (Huichol), Nahua, Otomi, and Yoreme (Mayo). Locations photographed in Mexico include--Michoacán, Sonora, Mesa del Encanto and the Ruins of Totoate in Jalisco, Ruins of La Quamada and Ruins of Teul in Zacatecas, Nayarit State, and the central altiplano. Locations photographed in Arizona include--Casa Grande in Pinal County, Fort Yuma Reservation, Supai in Coconino County and the Mission San Xavier del Bac.

The photographs include a large amount of posed portraits of men and women, none of them identified in our collection. Hrdlicka often posed his subjects both facing forward and in profile so that he could better examine their physical attributes.There are some group portraits as well as scenic shots of houses, churches and village views. Hrdlicka also photographed archaeological ruins inlcuding Casa Grande, Mesa del Encanto, Totoate, La Quamada and Teul.

The copy negatives that were made from the prints in the late 1960s by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
Arrangement:
The majority of the photographs have been left in the order that they were originally cataloged. Photographs from the various tribal communities in Arizona and Mexico are in Series 1-16, each community with its own series. The final series, Series 17, contains photographs from various archaeological ruins in Arizona and Mexico.
Biographical / Historical:
Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in Bohemia in and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State hospitals, Hrdlicka went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington, of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlicka arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He furthermore came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

Hrdlicka became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. Following this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlicka was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum in 1903.

In 1905, Hrdlicka returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Native American tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

Between 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlicka amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlicka founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president in 1928-1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association in 1925-1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences in 1928-1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlicka was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Biographical note courtesy of the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History. See Ales Hrdlicka Papers. Edited by Rachel Menyuk, Processing Archivist at the National Museum of the American Indian.
Related Materials:
The majority of Ales Hrdlicka's papers and photographs are located at the National Athropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. In addition to the Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943 additional Hrdlicka photographs can be found in photographic lots 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; 9, photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; 78, miscellaneous negatives; 97, Division of Ethnology collection (―USNM‖ Collection); 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs; 73-26G, miscellany; 77-48, group portraits of International Congress; 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and 92-46, anthropology lantern slides.
Provenance:
Although it is unclear when George Pepper received the photographs from Ales Hrdlicka, Pepper donated the majority of the collection of photographs to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) in 1923. The rest of the photographs were cataloged by the MAI some time in the 1920s but the provenance history is unknown.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

There are several restricted photographs in Series 2: Yoeme (Yaqui). This have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona, Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.103
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-103
Online Media:

Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian

Photographer:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
96 photomechanical prints (photogravure proofs)
184 printing plates (copper printing plates)
Culture:
Twana  Search this
Hoh  Search this
Walla Walla (Wallawalla)  Search this
Wishram  Search this
Suquamish  Search this
Skokomish  Search this
Quinault  Search this
Quileute  Search this
Apache  Search this
Tolowa  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Squaxon  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Achomawi (Pit River)  Search this
Klamath  Search this
Yurok  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Cayuse  Search this
Northern Paiute (Paviotso)  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Spokan  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Nimi'ipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Tsuu T'ina (Sarcee)  Search this
Kainai Blackfoot (Kainah/Blood)  Search this
Denésoliné (Chipewyan)  Search this
Cree  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo)  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Jemez Pueblo  Search this
Serrano  Search this
Washoe (Washo)  Search this
Kutzadika'a (Mono Paiute)  Search this
Kupangaxwichem (Kupa/Cupeño)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Osage  Search this
Yokuts  Search this
Chukchansi Yokuts  Search this
Southern Mewuk (Southern Miwok)  Search this
Wailaki  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Wappo  Search this
Maidu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photomechanical prints
Printing plates
Photogravures
Photographs
Date:
1899-1927
circa 1980
Summary:
The Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian include photogravure printing plates and associated proofs made from Curtis photographs and used in the publication of The North American Indian volumes 1-9 and 12-19. The bulk of the images are portraits, though there are also images of everyday items, ceremonial artifacts, and camps.
Scope and Contents:
The collection comprises 183 photogravure plates (101 folio and 82 octavo) and 96 associated proofs used in the printing of The North American Indian volumes 1-9 and 12-19. The original photographs used to make the photogravures were made circa 1903-1926 and the photogravure plates were made in 1907-1930. The bulk are portraits, though there are also images of everyday items, ceremonial artifacts, and camps. About half of the proofs in the collection are originals used for Curtis's publication, though the collection also includes proofs made in the process of later publication by the Classic Gravure Company (circa 1980). Vintage proofs include handwritten notes, likely made by Curtis Studio employees in Seattle and Los Angeles. Many of the photogravure plates do not have matching proofs; in particular, there are no proofs for the octavo plates.
Arrangement:
The plates and proofs are arranged by the volume of The North American Indian in which they were published. They are described in this finding aid by the caption and plate number with which they were published.
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868-1952) was an American photographer best known for his monumental and now-controversial project, the twenty-volume publication The North American Indian. Here he sought to document in words and pictures the "vanishing race" of American Indians.

Born in Wisconsin in 1868, Edward Curtis grew up on his family's farm in Le Sueur County, Minnesota, from 1874 to 1887. In 1887, he and his father Johnson Curtis settled on a plot near what is now Port Orchard, Washington, and the rest of the family joined them the following year. When Johnson Curtis died within a month of the family's arrival, the burden of providing for his mother and siblings fell to 20-year-old Edward, and Edward set out to do so through his photography. In 1891, Curtis moved to the booming city of Seattle and bought into a joint photo studio with Rasmus Rothi. Less than a year later, he formed "Curtis and Guptill, Photographers and Photoengravers" with Thomas Guptill; the enterprise quickly became a premier portrait studio for Seattle's elite. In 1895, Curtis made his first "Indian photograph" depicting Princess Angeline, daughter of the chief for whom Seattle had been named. The following year he earned his first medal from the National Photographic Convention for his "genre studies."

In 1899, Edward Curtis joined the Harriman Alaska Expedition as official photographer, a position which allowed him to learn from anthropologists C. Hart Merriam and George Bird Grinnell while documenting the landscapes and peoples of the Alaskan coast. This expedition and the resulting friendship with Grinnell helped to foster Curtis's ultimate goal to "form a comprehensive and permanent record of all the important tribes of the United States and Alaska that still retain to a considerable degree their primitive customs and traditions" (General Introduction, The North American Indian). Curtis made several trips to reservations from 1900 to 1904, including a trip with Grinnell to Montana in 1900 and multiple trips to the Southwest, including the Hopi Reservation. He also hired Adolph Muhr, former assistant to Omaha photographer Frank A. Rinehart, to manage the Curtis studio in his absence, a decision which would prove more and more fruitful as Curtis spent less and less time in Seattle.

In 1906, Curtis struck a deal with financier J. P. Morgan, whereby Morgan would support a company – The North American Indian, Inc. – with $15,000 for five years, by which time the project was expected to have ended. Systematic fieldwork for the publication began in earnest that summer season, with Curtis accompanied by a team of ethnological researchers and American Indian assistants. Arguably the most important member of Curtis' field team was William Myers, a former newspaperman who collected much of the ethnological data and completed most of the writing for the project. The first volume, covering Navajo and Apache peoples, was published at the end of 1907, but already Morgan's funding was incapable of meeting Curtis's needs. Despite heaping praise from society's elite, Curtis spent much of his time struggling to find people and institutions willing to subscribe to the expensive set of volumes. After the initial five years, only eight of the proposed twenty volumes had been completed. Fieldwork and publication continued with the support of J. P. Morgan, but Curtis's home life suffered because of his prolonged absences.

In 1919, Curtis's wife Clara was awarded a divorce settlement which included the entire Curtis studio in Seattle. Exhausted and bankrupt, Edward Curtis moved with his daughter Beth Magnuson to Los Angeles, where they operated a new Curtis Studio and continued work on the volumes; volume 12 was published in 1922. The constant financial strain forced Myers to leave the North American Indian team after volume 18 (fieldwork in 1926) and Curtis made his last trip to photograph and gather data for volume 20 in 1927. After the final volumes were published in 1930, Curtis almost completely faded from public notice until his work was "rediscovered" and popularized in the 1970s.

Curtis's "salvage ethnology," as scholar Mick Gidley describes it, was mildly controversial even during his life and has become ever more so as his legacy deepens. In his quest to photograph pre-colonial Indian life through a twentieth-century lens, he often manipulated and constructed history as much as he recorded it: he staged reenactments, added props, and removed evidence of twentieth-century influences on "primitive" life. Curtis's work continues to shape popular conceptions of American Indians and so, while problematic, his legacy--his vision of American Indian life--continues to be relevant.
Related Materials:
NMAI also holds Edward Curtis photographs documenting the Harriman Expedition (1899) as well as platinum prints and photogravures of the images published in The North American Indian.

The Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives holds Edward Curtis prints submitted for copyright (Photo Lot 59) as well as many of his original negatives, photographs, and papers.

Steve Kern donated photogravure plates to the Center for Creative Photography and the Seattle Art Museum at the same time that he donated this set to MAI.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Steven and Arlene Kern to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, in 1984.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Pictorial works  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photogravures
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.080
See more items in:
Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-080
Online Media:

Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)

Collection Photographer:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Collection Owner:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Collection Source:
Lumholtz, Carl, 1851-1922  Search this
Extent:
12 Photographic prints
4 copy negatives
Container:
Folder 31-32
Culture:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Date:
1902
Scope and Contents:
P04870-P04881, N35481-N35484
This series includes 12 photographic prints taken in the Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan) coommunity on the Fort Yuma Reservation in Arizona. Hrdlicka visited the Quechan (Yuma/Chuchan) in 1902 as part of the Hyde Exploring Expedition. The Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan) are a Native American tribe whose reservations borders Arizona, California and Baja California, Mexico. The photographs in the series include un-posed images of men eating outdoors and men playing a game outdoors. There are additional images of men posed and landscape views.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

There are several restricted photographs in Series 2: Yoeme (Yaqui). This have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona, Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.103, Series 8
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-103-ref13

Edward Harvey Davis photograph collection

Creator:
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Extent:
770 Photographic prints (approximate number, black & white)
2000 negatives (photographic) (approximate number)
Culture:
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Cora  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Cochimi  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Cocopa  Search this
Cora  Search this
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Kiliwa  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Opata  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Seri  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Yavapai  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Nevome (Pima Bajo)  Search this
Paipai (Pi-Pi/Pais)  Search this
Guaycura (Waicuri)  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui)  Search this
Campo Band of Kumeyaay  Search this
Kamia (Desert Kumeyaay)  Search this
Manzanita Band of Kumeyaay  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Pechanga Band Luiseño  Search this
Soboba Luiseño  Search this
Payómkawichum (Luiseño)  Search this
Yavapai [Fort McDowell]  Search this
Cahuilla [Morongo Band of Mission Indians]  Search this
Desert Cahuilla [Torres-Martinez Reservation/Torres-Martinez Band]  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui) [Pascua Yaqui]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Negatives
Place:
Mexico
Arizona
California
Date:
1903-1939
Summary:
Davis visited the Diegueno and Luiseno in southern California; the Pi-pi (Pais), Kil-e-wah (Cahuilla), and Waicuri of Lower California, Mexico; the Yuma, Cocopah, Pima, Papago, Maricopa, Mojave, Hualapai (Walapai), Yaqui, and White Mountain Apache in Arizona; the Cora, Huichol, Opata, Mayo, and Yaqui of Mexico; the Seri of Tiburon Island; the Chemehuevi of Nevada and California; the Modoc and Klamath Lake Indians in Oregon; and the Paiute in Nevada. His collection contains photographs of Apache, Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cochimi, Cochiti Pueblo, Cocopa, Cora, Guaicuruj, Huichol, Kawia, Kiliwa, Kumeyaay (Diegueno), Luiseno, Maricopa, Mayo, Mission, Mohave, Opata, Paipai, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Pima (Akimel O'odham), San Carlos Pueblo, San Manuel, Seri, Ute, Walapai (Hualapai), Yaqui, and Yuma.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Artist, photographer, and artefact collector, Edward Harvey Davis was born on June 18, 1862 in New York. He traveled to California in 1884 for health reasons (Bright's disease i.e. actue of chronic nephritis (a kidney disorder)), arriving in 1885, and settled on 320 acres in an area called Mesa Grande, east of San Diego. Later that year he returned to New York to marry, bringing his new bride, Anna May Wells back to California with him. They would eventually have four children. Shortly after settling in California, Davis became interested in the the Kumeyaay (Northern Diguenos), the Mesa Grande Indians indigenous to that area, and spent the remainder of his life collecting artifacts, studying and photographing them. He collected so many items that his ranch house ran out of room for them, necessitating the building of another structure (adobe) to house them. As a result of this interest and care of the Mesa Grande Indians in San Diego County, in 1907, Davis was named a ceremonial chief by the Indians themselves. Originally trained as an artist, Davis first worked as a drafter and architect. Upon his arrival in San Diego in 1885, he fortuitously invested in and profited from the booming real estate industry of the time. Davis became known to George Gustav Heye when Heye initially purchased a collection of Indian artifacts from him for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1915. With the money from the sale of his collection, Davis was able to open a resort lodge called the Powam that same year. His real estate investments and his lodge enabled Davis to finance his fieldwork, most of which he did on his own. In 1916 however, Davis also became an official field collector for the Museum of the American Indian in New York. Sporadically, from 1917 to 1930, Heye contracted Davis to conduct field trips to California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Mexico, and Tiburon Island, visiting over two dozen different Indian peoples in the course of his travels. Wherever he went, Davis continued to photograph the Native peoples, but did not consider these photographs to be part of his contract with Heye. Heye later purchased the bulk of Davis's photograph collection. Davis also had sketched objects and landscapes during his travels as a method of preserving what he saw. Davis died in San Bernardino on February 22, 1951. In addition to his photographs, Davis authored several scholarly articles.
Provenance:
Purchased;, Edward H. Davis;, 1917 and 1948.
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Topic:
Indians of Mexico -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Basin -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- California -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Arizona -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.031
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-031

Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)

Collection Pht:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Collection Own:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Collection Source:
Lumholtz, Carl, 1851-1922  Search this
Extent:
12 Photographic prints
4 copy negatives
Container:
folder 31-32
Culture:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Date:
1902
Scope and Contents:
P04870-P04881, N35481-N35484
This series includes 12 photographic prints taken in the Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan) coommunity on the Fort Yuma Reservation in Arizona. Hrdlicka visited the Quechan (Yuma/Chuchan) in 1902 as part of the Hyde Exploring Expedition. The Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan) are a Native American tribe whose reservations borders Arizona, California and Baja California, Mexico. The photographs in the series include un-posed images of men eating outdoors and men playing a game outdoors. There are additional images of men posed and landscape views.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

There are several restricted photographs in Series 2: Yoeme (Yaqui). This have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona, Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.103, Series 8
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-103-aspace-ref13

Quiver and arrows (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Jose Caster (Jose Castro/Tu-Col-Quan-Yu Caster), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), ca. 1854-ca. 1924  Search this
Previous owner:
Jose Caster (Jose Castro/Tu-Col-Quan-Yu Caster), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), ca. 1854-ca. 1924  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Quiver and arrows (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Arizona; USA
Date created:
1919
Catalog Number:
8/8617
Barcode:
088617.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_95339

Headdress and sash/belt (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Previous owner:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Seller:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Headdress and sash/belt (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Feather/feathers, cotton cloth
Techniques:
Stitched
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Yuma; Yuma County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
21/1116
Barcode:
211116.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_225432

Arrow (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Arrow (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood, feather/feathers, sinew
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
9/3377
Barcode:
093377.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_100559

Bow and arrow (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Previous owner:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Seller:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Bow and arrow (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood, cordage, feather/feathers
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Southern California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
21/2878
Barcode:
212878.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_227378

Bow and arrow (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Previous owner:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Seller:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Bow and arrow (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood, iron point, feather/feathers
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Yuma; Yuma County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
21/1119
Barcode:
211119.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_225436

Rattle (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Captain John Gregory Bourke, Non-Indian, 1846-1896  Search this
Previous owner:
Captain John Gregory Bourke, Non-Indian, 1846-1896  Search this
Mary Horbach Bourke (Mary F. Bourke/Mrs. John G. Bourke), Non-Indian, 1861-1927  Search this
Anna Bourke Richardson (Mrs. Alexander H. Richardson/Mrs. A. H. Richardson), Non-Indian, 1887-1976  Search this
Pauline Bourke Maish (Pauline B. Bourke Todd/Mrs. Alexander W. Maish), Non-Indian, 1891-1981  Search this
Donor:
Anna Bourke Richardson (Mrs. Alexander H. Richardson/Mrs. A. H. Richardson), Non-Indian, 1887-1976  Search this
Pauline Bourke Maish (Pauline B. Bourke Todd/Mrs. Alexander W. Maish), Non-Indian, 1891-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Rattle (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Gourd, cordage
Techniques:
Punctate
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
16/1382
Barcode:
161382.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_173064

Figure (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Figure (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Pottery
Techniques:
Modeled
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
8/4552
Barcode:
084552.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_91063

Bow (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Previous owner:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Seller:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Bow (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood, cordage
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Yuma; Yuma County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
21/1125
Barcode:
211125.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_225442

Bow (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Bow (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood, cordage
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
15/4306
Barcode:
154306.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_165570

Hood (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Previous owner:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Seller:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Hood (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Cotton cloth, feather/feathers
Techniques:
Sewn
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Yuma; Yuma County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
21/1122
Barcode:
211122.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_225439

Quiver and arrows (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Previous owner:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Seller:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Quiver and arrows (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood, cotton cloth, iron, paint
Techniques:
Carved, sewn, painted, fringed
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Yuma; Yuma County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
21/1112
Barcode:
211112.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_225427

Bow and arrow (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Previous owner:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Seller:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Bow and arrow (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood, cordage
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Southern California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
21/2877
Barcode:
212877.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_227376

Bow (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Bow (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood, cordage
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
9/3376
Barcode:
093376.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_100558

Quiver (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Previous owner:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Seller:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Quiver (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Canvas, wood, iron
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Yuma; Yuma County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
21/1113
Barcode:
211113.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_225428

Figure (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Collector:
Charlotte Louise Mason (Mrs. Rufus Osgood Mason), Non-Indian, 1854-1946  Search this
Previous owner:
Charlotte Louise Mason (Mrs. Rufus Osgood Mason), Non-Indian, 1854-1946  Search this
Ethel Mason Eaton (Mrs. J. Shirley Eaton), Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Ethel Mason Eaton (Mrs. J. Shirley Eaton), Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Figure (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Pottery, glass bead/beads, cotton cloth, paint
Techniques:
Modeled, wrapped, painted, gourd stitch/brick stitch/netted beadwork, strung
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
22/4699
Barcode:
224699.000
See related items:
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_239633
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