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Research

Collection Creator:
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1957-1965
Arrangement:
This subseries consists of documents on various research programs funded by the USAF, but not related to launch vehicles, manned flight considerations, or satellite operations. Materials are organized into two subseries by topic. Unless otherwise noted, documents within each subseries are arranged chronologically.

VII.A.5.a. General

VII.A.5.b. Project RAND
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0093, Subseries VII.A.5.
See more items in:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection / Series VII: Military Programs and Studies / VII.A.: United States Air Force
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0093-ref2694

General

Collection Creator:
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1960-1965
Arrangement:
This subseries consists documents pertaining to research conducted under USAF contract, including materials originated by the RAND Corp which are not explicitly identified part of Project RAND.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0093, Subseries VII.A.5.a.
See more items in:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection / Series VII: Military Programs and Studies / VII.A.: United States Air Force / VII.A.5.: Research
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0093-ref2695

Project RAND

Collection Creator:
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1957-1962
Arrangement:
This subseries consists of documentation for research conducted under USAF contract as part of Project RAND (Research and Development). For reports originated by the RAND Corp, but which are not explicitly part of Project RAND, see subseries VII.A.5.a. (General). Documents are arranged by report number.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0093, Subseries VII.A.5.b.
See more items in:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection / Series VII: Military Programs and Studies / VII.A.: United States Air Force / VII.A.5.: Research
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0093-ref2705

Hildegard Korf Kallmann-Bijl Collection

Creator:
Kallmann-Bijl, Hildegard Korf, Dr., 1908-1968.  Search this
Names:
Project RAND  Search this
Rand Corporation  Search this
Extent:
2.8 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Charts
Publications
Correspondence
Maps
Date:
1949-1980
bulk 1949-1968
Summary:
This collection consists of Kallmann-Bijl's professional files, The material consists of correspondence, photographs, and newspaper and magazine articles, as well as research files covering her professional career (1949-68). The collection also includes copies of a number of Kallmann-Bijl's publications.
Scope and Content Note:
The collection contains copies of published and unpublished technical papers written by Dr. Kallmann-Bijl and other scientists dealing with the atmosphere and space exploration. There are also correspondence, awards, handwritten notes, calculations, newspaper articles, photographs, negatives and two slides. In addition, there is some material regarding Dr. Kallmann-Bijl's involvement with various professional organizations such as the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This material includes copies of technical papers, programs and proceedings from these organizations.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as follows:

Series 1

Dr. Kallman-Bijl's personal papers

Biographical information

Series 2

Technical papers written by other scholars

Technical papers by unknown authors

Series 3

Organizations

Series 4

Miscellaneous materials
Biographical Note:
Dr. Hildegard Gertrud Helen Korf Kallmann-Bijl (1908-1968) was one of the most active pioneers in her examination of the physics of high atmosphere for the flight calculations of satellites. Before the first satellite reached its orbit, she had calculated a theoretical extrapolation of a model of the atmosphere which gave physicists a whole year's lead. The lifespan of the satellite could be predicted with the "Kallmann Atmosphere." Dr. Kallmann then made satellite measurements in relation to this atmospheric model, again to perfection. In 1961, she published a paper on the International Reference Atmosphere. With this foundation, she was able to forecast the landing spot with accurate precision for the astronauts and cosmonauts.

Hildegard Korf was born on September 18, 1908 in Gelsenkirchen, Germany. She was raised in the Catholic faith and educated in Catholic boarding schools. By 1929, Ms. Korf had earned the equivalent of her bachelor's degree at the University of Berlin, in Philosophy. She then enrolled in classes at the Technische Hoch Schule and majored in Metallurgy. While attending school, Ms. Korf volunteered her free time to work for the Journalism Institute at the University of Berlin where she gained experience in the editorial business. She later worked three years as an editor for the Deutscher Press Publishers.

While at the university, Hildegard Korf became friends with Julie Braun. It was she who developed in Ms. Korf a sensitivity for Goethe and the worlds of science and art. However, Julie Braun was forced to leave Germany because of her Jewish faith. The Korfs were not persecuted because they were considered three quarters "Aryan" and one quarter "non-Aryan," but by the 1930's the Korfs were not allowed full political freedom. Julie Braun left her estate in Zehlendorf in the care of Ms. Korf and her attorney, Curt Kallmann. There was little Curt Kallmann could do to protect Julie's property because he too was Jewish. One evening in 1939, Kallmann called Hildegard Korf and told her that the Gestapo was on their way to arrest him. With the help of Dr. Benno Hahn, Ms. Korf was able to get herself and Curt Kallmann out of Germany and on their way to Sweden. The Dresden Zeiss Works, where Ms. Korf had worked since 1936, asked her to return and "guaranteed" that no action would be taken against her, but Hildegard Korf felt that she had burned her bridge behind her and never went back to Germany. Kallman suffered a nervous breakdown while in Sweden, and since he was unable to travel alone to the United States, the American Council suggested to Ms. Korf that she travel as his wife. Because of laws existing then, it took an intervention of a Catholic Bishop in Sweden to bring about their marriage. They made the journey to America and their marriage lasted until 1958. Dr. Hildegard Kallmann divorced Curt Kallman but continued to support him until her death.

Dr. Hildegard Kallmann later married Jan Bijl, a Dutchman who had spent several years in a German concentration camp for acting as a Dutch courier while in exile in London. At the time of their marriage, Bijl was the Vice-President of Fokker Aviation at Shiphol near Amsterdam. Unfortunately, Jan Bijl died on December 9, 1963. Dr. Hildegard Kallmann-Bijl died suddenly of a heart attack on November 7, 1968.

Between the years of 1949-1963, Dr. Kallmann-Bijl published approximately 35 papers on ionospheric research, meteor research, high altitude research, solid propellant research, national space research and international space research. Dr. Kallmann-Bijl will always be remembered for her contributions in early astrophysical studies at national and international laboratories.
Provenance:
Frank Korf, gift, 1989, 1989-0042
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Topic:
Astrophysics  Search this
Geophysics  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Charts
Publications
Correspondence
Maps
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0042
See more items in:
Hildegard Korf Kallmann-Bijl Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0042
Online Media:

"Outline of a Study of Manned Space Flight (U)." (R. W. Buchheim; RAND. RM-2005. September 27, 1957.)

Collection Creator:
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
Container:
Box 222, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection / Series VII: Military Programs and Studies / VII.A.: United States Air Force / VII.A.5.: Research / VII.A.5.b.: Project RAND
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0093-ref2706

"A Photographic System for Close-Up Lunar Exploration." (M. E. Davies; RAND. RM-2183. 23 May 1958.)

Collection Creator:
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
Container:
Box 222, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection / Series VII: Military Programs and Studies / VII.A.: United States Air Force / VII.A.5.: Research / VII.A.5.b.: Project RAND
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0093-ref2707

"Summary of Orbital and Physical Data for the Planet Mars." (Donna Scott Kirby; RAND. RM-2567. August 1, 1960.)

Collection Creator:
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
Container:
Box 222, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection / Series VII: Military Programs and Studies / VII.A.: United States Air Force / VII.A.5.: Research / VII.A.5.b.: Project RAND
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0093-ref2708

"Design Criteria for Rotating Space Vehicles." (S. H. Dole; RAND. RM-2668. October 18, 1960.)

Collection Creator:
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
Container:
Box 222, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection / Series VII: Military Programs and Studies / VII.A.: United States Air Force / VII.A.5.: Research / VII.A.5.b.: Project RAND
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0093-ref2709

"Solar-Flare Radiation and Manned Space Flight." (D. J. Dugas; RAND. RM-2825-PR. November 1961.)

Collection Creator:
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
Container:
Box 222, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection / Series VII: Military Programs and Studies / VII.A.: United States Air Force / VII.A.5.: Research / VII.A.5.b.: Project RAND
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0093-ref2710

"Space Geomagnetism, Radiation Belts, and Auroral Zones." (E. H. Vestine; RAND. RM-3144-PR. July 1962.)

Collection Creator:
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
Container:
Box 222, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection / Series VII: Military Programs and Studies / VII.A.: United States Air Force / VII.A.5.: Research / VII.A.5.b.: Project RAND
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0093-ref2711

"Costing Tomorrow's Weapon Systems." (David Novick; RAND. RM-3170-PR. June 1962.)

Collection Creator:
Bellcomm, Inc.  Search this
Container:
Box 222, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permission Requests.
Collection Citation:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection, Accession XXXX-0093, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection
Bellcomm, Inc Technical Library Collection / Series VII: Military Programs and Studies / VII.A.: United States Air Force / VII.A.5.: Research / VII.A.5.b.: Project RAND
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0093-ref2712

Computers

Type:
Archival materials
Note:
In Sessions Five through Eight, Paul Ceruzzi, Robert Anderson, and Willis Ware interviewed thirteen participants to discuss RAND's role in the post-1945 development of computers. Along with the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore, California, RAND pioneered computer engineering and programming on the West Coast. The Air Force initially funded this work as a means of accelerating systems analysis and missile and nuclear weapon development, but became somewhat more reluctant to underwrite RAND's research when staff there began to develop more interactive applications for computers in the 1960s. Sessions were shot at RAND Corporation headquarters in Santa Monica, California. Besides the listed participants for each session, other session participants often contributed as members of an audience.

Participants for this first session contributed to the development of computer hardware between 1945 and 1965. Paul Armer joined Project RAND in 1947 as a mathematician and desk calculator operator. Five years later he became head of the Computer Sciences Department. In 1968 Armer left RAND to direct the Stanford University Computation Center, and since then has also headed the Charles Babbage Institute for the History of Information Processing in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and presided over the American Federation of Information Processing Societies.

William F. Gunning started working for Douglas Aircraft in their Flight Test laboratory in 1941. In 1947 he transferred to Project RAND where he worked as an electronic engineer on the development of the Random Number Generator, the modification of the REAC (Reeves Electronic Analog Computer), the Williams memory of the SWAC (Standard Western Analog computer), and the JOHNNIAC.

William P. Myers began working at RAND as Tabulating Department shift leader in 1948. With the arrival of the IBM 604 programmed calculator in 1951, he headed the Operations Group of the Numerical Analysis Department before moving to the Systems Development Department. In 1958 Myers returned to the Numerical Analysis Department in various managerial capacities; he switched to the Computer Science Department in the 1970s and retired in 1984.

Robert T. Nash worked at RAND from 1948 to 1957. He rose from IBM Cards Processor to Administrative Assistant of the Numerical Analysis Department by 1955. Nash then filled the same position for the Programming Department of the Systems Development Division, where he arranged for the settlement of SDD staff at air bases of the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) defense system. In 1956 he became manager of Field Services for the SDD and kept the position in 1957 when RAND spun off the Division into an autonomous corporation.

Keith W. Uncapher also arrived at RAND in 1950 and focused on computer engineering. He began with designing components for the REAC, and was responsible for development of the Selectron memory store of the JOHNNIAC. In the late 1950s he oversaw the RAND contract with Telemeter Magnetics for the first 4,096-word, 40-bit, magnetic core store; in the 1960s he managed the development of JOSS (JOHNNIAC Open Shop System), the RAND tablet, the GRAIL system, the acquisition by RAND of larger computers, and the development of a hardened communications system for the Air Force. Uncapher left RAND in 1972.

Willis H. Ware received his B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania in 1941 and his S.M. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology one year later. After spending World War II at Hazeltine Electronics Corporation, he joined John von Neumann's Electronic Computer Project at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He completed his Ph.D. at Princeton in 1951 and immediately joined RAND, where he helped lead the engineering on the JOHNNIAC, particularly its Selectron and magnetic core memories. Between 1964 and 1971 Ware headed the Computer Science Division, during which time he initiated debate on computer security as a technical subject. Ware joined the Corporate Research Staff in 1973 and advised various agencies on the applications of large computer systems. Throughout his career, Ware also helped found and support professional groups associated with computing.

Participants for Session Six contributed to the development of computer software between 1945 and 1965. Morton I. Bernstein joined RAND in 1954 as an assistant mathematician. For three years he wrote programs for the IBM 701 computer, the Linear Programming group, the Logistics Department, and consulted on various war games. In 1957 Bernstein assumed responsibility for the JOHNNIAC, concentrating on programming language design and implementation. Between 1961 and 1963, when he left RAND, Bernstein worked with the engineering staff on the RAND tablet.

Irwin Greenwald worked for RAND from 1950 to 1960 and from 1964 to 1969. During the 1950s he was responsible for programming JOHNNIAC's first assignment, the computations on UNIVAC I for the first H-bomb test, RAND's system and utility programming of the IBM 701 and 704 computers, PACT-II (Project Advanced Coding Technique), and the formation of the first users' group, SHARE (Society to Help Avoid Redundant Effort). In the 1960s Greenwald masterminded the major components of the JOSS-II system and the initial software for the RAND Videographic System.

J. Clifford Shaw spent twenty-three years at RAND, beginning in 1950. He specialized in systems software, beginning with the IBM Card-Programmed Calculator, the IBM 701, and the JOHNNIAC; and in artificial intelligence, where he worked with Allen Newell and Herbert Simon on various AI programs and IPL's (Information Processing Languages) I-VI. In the early 1960s he developed JOSS and its language and the system and demonstration software for the RAND tablet. Shaw died in March 1991.

Paul Armer and Willis Ware also appeared in this session.

Participants in Session Seven contributed to the development of computer graphics hardware between 1960 and 1965. Raymond W. Clewett began working in 1937 as a machinist, model builder, and laboratory foreman for Douglas Aircraft Company. After World War II he joined Lear Incorporated as machine shop foreman and design engineer for six years, returning to Santa Monica as shop manager and design engineer for RAND in 1951. His contributions there included design and construction of JOHNNIAC, other computer hardware, nuclear reactor test equipment, the RAND tablet, and closed circuit television reading devices for the visually impaired. After 1977, Clewett was an independent design consultant and owner of HY-TECH Engineering and Development Lab.

Thomas Ellis joined RAND in 1953 after graduate research on computer engineering at UCLA, and worked on most of the projects discussed in these sessions before he left in 1972. He was responsible for the JOHNNIAC's input/output machinery, design of the JOSS (JOHNNIAC Open Shop System) terminals, the RAND tablet, GRAIL (Graphic Input Language), and the RAND/IBM Videographic system.

Paul Armer, Morton Bernstein, and Willis Ware also appeared this session.

Participants in Session Eight contributed to the development of computer graphics software between 1965 and 1975. Robert Anderson received degrees in physics, philosophy, and applied mathematics between 1962 and 1968 at the University of California at Berkeley and Harvard University. He joined RAND in 1973 as head of its Information Sciences Department while holding teaching and research appointments at the University of Southern California. In 1981 Anderson founded his own computer systems consulting firm. After 1986 he was director of RAND's Institute for Research on Interactive Systems (IRIS) and resident consultant.

Barry W. Boehm received his degrees in mathematics from Harvard University and UCLA between 1959 and 1964. Concurrently with his graduate work at UCLA, Boehm headed RAND's new Information Sciences Department. From 1973 to 1989 he was Chief Scientist of TRW's Defense Systems Group, after which he became Director of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's Information Science and Technology Office. Boehm has written three books on software engineering.

Edward C. DeLand started working at RAND after finishing his Ph.D. in mathematics at UCLA in 1956. He spent the next six years managing the analog computers, REAC and TRAC, and then began developing mathematical models for blood biochemistry. After switching to physiological research in 1963, DeLand helped construct the BIOMOD program. DeLand left RAND in 1972 for UCLA's Department of Surgery where he continues to develop applications for computers in medical instruction and diagnosis.

Gabriel F. Groner was finishing a Ph.D. in electrical engineering at Stanford University when he joined RAND in 1964. His interests in character recognition, interactive systems, computer graphics and medical applications of computers were manifested in his contributions to the GRAIL program; the BIOMOD simulation system; the study of computer applications to industrial automation; and the CLINFO data system for medical research. Groner left RAND in 1978.

Thomas Ellis also appeared in this session.

The discussions detailed the development at RAND of computer hardware and software in the post-war era. Sessions provide visual documentation of early computer components.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9536, The Research and Development (RAND) Corporation Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9536, Series 3
See more items in:
The Research and Development (RAND) Corporation Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9536-refidd1e590

John Clifford Shaw Papers

Topic:
JOHNNIAC computer
JOSS (Electronic computer system)
Creator:
Shaw, J. Clifford (John Clifford), 1922-1991  Search this
Names:
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)  Search this
Association for Computing Machinery.  Search this
Dartmouth College  Search this
Digital Equipment Corporation  Search this
IBM (International Business Machines)  Search this
Massachusetts General Hospital  Search this
UCRL (University of California Radiation Lab)  Search this
Extent:
20.5 Cubic feet (59 boxes, 4 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Technical reports
Diagrams
Notes
Memorandums
Place:
Palo Alto (Calif.)
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Santa Monica (Calif.) -- 1950-1980
Cambridge (Mass.)
Date:
1933-1993
bulk 1950-1971
Summary:
The John Clifford Shaw papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, and diagrams documenting Shaw's development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition there is biographical material documenting Shaw's personal interests, family, and academic career.
Scope and Contents:
The John Clifford Shaw Papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memoranda, and diagrams documenting Shaw's development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, there is biographical material documenting Shaw's personal interests, family, and academic career.

Series 1: Shaw's Career at Rand, 1950-1971, documents Shaw's most significant work. The subseries are arranged by specific projects and illustrate his pioneering work on programming languages, interactive time-sharing systems, heuristic problem solving, logic programming, stored programs, and artificial intelligence. This work included his role in the development of the JOHNNIAC computer and programs such as the Logic Theorist (LT), General Problem Solver (GPS), and the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS).

The materials include technical reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, coding sequences, and system tests. In addition, there are reports documenting the collaborative nature of the NSS team's work on human problem solving, computer simulation of human thinking, and complex information processing. The subject files in Series 1 document the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) role in the JOSS research and other work done by Shaw.

Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986, is arranged into three subseries containing technical reports that document other computer related research being conducted at RAND during Shaw's tenure. These materials are not directly related to his work, including reports documenting defense related research. The series contains memoranda and correspondence illustrating the internal workings and daily operations at RAND from 1950 to 1971 and various sets of annual reports, progress reports, and newsletters from 1960 to 1971. In addition, there are historical materials commemorating RAND anniversaries, profiles of the company, and indexes to RAND publications and abstracts.

Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973, consists of printed matter that documents developments at other institutions and companies engaged in artificial intelligence and programming research. The printed matter includes reports, manuals, brochures, and reprints of articles about research by other institutions, companies, and individuals. Also, there are materials from trips, conferences and seminars attended by Shaw.

Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990, comprises Shaw's work after he left RAND in 1971. It consists of reports and reprints from companies and institutions for which Shaw worked or from those he saw as potential clients. Of particular interest are the research notes, on note cards and 8.5" x 11" paper that illuminate Shaw's ideas and thoughts regarding artificial intelligence and programming languages during this period.

Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993, consists of printed matter regarding Shaw's life and accomplishments. It contains resumes, list of publications and lectures, salary history, and the outline for a book on JOSS. Material on Shaw's personal life includes information about his family, personal correspondence with Herbert Simon, Allen Newell and his wife, Marian, Chuck Baker, Edward Feigenbaum, and correspondence from authors requesting information or comment on future publications. Additionally, there are reprints and clippings that reveal Shaw's personal interests in political issues such as the Pentagon Papers, Watergate, the making of the hydrogen bomb, and Star Wars Defense Technology.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into five series.

Series 1: Shaw's Career at Rand, 1950-1971

Subseries 1.1: JOHNNIAC, 1950-1968

Subseries 1.2: Logic Therorist [See also Complex Information Processing], 1956-1963

Subseries 1.3: General Problem Solver (G.P.S.) and Heuristic Problem Solving, 1955-1967

Subseries 1.4: Chess Program, 1954-1973

Subseries 1.5: Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.), 1953-1972

Subseries 1.6: Information Processing Languages (IPL), 1956-1977

Subseries 1.7: JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS), 1959-1977

Subseries 1.8: Subject Files, 1954-1971

Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986

Subseries 2.1: Related Papers and Reports (RM-Series), 1951-1972

Subseries 2.2: Reports and Papers—General, 1949-1971

Subseries 2.3: RAND Material, 1948-1988

Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973

Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990

Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993
Biographical / Historical:
John Clifford Shaw (1922-1991) was born in Southern California. Shaw went to Fullerton High School, the same high school as Richard Nixon. Shaw's English teacher was Nixon's high school debate team coach. Shaw attended Fullerton Junior College from 1939 until February 1943. At the same time, he worked as a timekeeper at the Douglas Aircraft Company, where he was responsible for time-card calculations and reports. He served in the Army Air Force for three years during World War II as a navigation instructor and then aircraft navigator in the 4th Emergency Rescue Squadron in Iwo Jima, Japan. Shaw returned to California in 1947 and began working for the Beneficial Standard Life Insurance Company as an assistant to the actuary, compiling actuarial calculations of premium rates, reserve liabilities, and annual reports. Shaw and his wife Marian had four children: Doug (b. 1948), David (b. 1950), Donna (b. 1952), and John (b. 1962). By 1948, Shaw received his Bachelor's degree in Mathematics from UCLA and in 1950 joined the newly formed RAND Corporation as a mathematician.

The RAND Corporation evolved during the years after World War II amidst the escalating Cold War. Project RAND was originally carried out under a contract with the Douglas Aircraft Company. RAND was incorporated in May 1948. RAND, a California nonprofit corporation, was one of the earliest Cold War "think tanks" that functioned as an interdisciplinary research and development facility; it received large sums of money from the Air Force and Atomic Energy Commission. Throughout the 1950s, other agencies such as the Department of Defense, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solicited scientific and foreign policy research from RAND. During Shaw's tenure (1950-1971), money flowed into RAND and enabled many scientists and researchers, including Shaw and his colleagues in the Math and Numerical Analysis Department, to explore new avenues of discovery.

Shaw's early work at RAND involved administrative matters, such as improving the processes of company management through automation of the computation and calculation techniques. This work included collaboration with Allen Newell on a radar simulator. In the mid-1950s, Newell and Shaw, and later Dr. Herbert Simon of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, formed the team known by the mid-1950s in the artificial intelligence field as NSS (Newell, Shaw, and Simon). The NSS team broke much ground in the field of artificial intelligence, programming languages, computer simulation of human problem solving, and man-machine communication. The radar simulator project involved studying how humans made decisions and whether one could design a program that could simulate human decision-making. While Newell and Simon concentrated on the human behavior aspect, Shaw focused on creating a programming language that would implement Simon and Newell's concepts.

When Shaw began working in 1950, RAND was using six IBM 604 calculators to satisfy its scientific computing needs. In the early 1950s, RAND decided that it needed more computational power to accomplish projects for the Air Force and decided to build a Princeton-type computer named JOHNNIAC, after computer designer John von Neumann. The Princeton Class computer was considered state-of-the-art and was running at RAND by the first half of 1953. William Gunning was the project leader and Shaw worked on the selection of the instruction set and the design of the operator's console. The JOHNNIAC became the basis for Shaw's work on conversational time-sharing in the 1960s.

During the early 1950s, the dynamic of the innovative process was at work as Shaw and Newell in California, and Simon in Pittsburgh, were theorizing about human decision making, programming languages, and how computers could be manipulated to process information more productively. Air Force funding enabled Shaw and his colleague's considerable intellectual and academic freedom to explore various hypotheses. In the mid-1950s, NSS began forming the theoretical basis for what they called Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.). C.I.P was the basis for the three main computer programs developed by NSS: the Chess Program, Logic Theorist (LT), and the General Problem Solver (GPS). By 1954, Shaw's focus was on utilizing the power of the JOHNNIAC to develop a viable language that could simulate human behavior.

In early 1954, Newell left RAND for Pittsburgh to work with Simon; Shaw remained at RAND. The NSS team focused on creating programs that would enable a machine to exhibit intelligent behavior and "think" like a human. Chess and the Logic Theorist (LT) were the first programs that evolved from their work. Shaw dealt with the programming aspects, as Simon devoted his time to human thinking processes for chess, logic, and problem solving. Newell, who was still employed by RAND, was the middle man who worked both in programming and human behavior. He flew back to California every couple of months in 1954 and 1955 to confer with Shaw. Because of language limitations, the chess program was temporarily put aside as NSS decided to finish the LT. Known as IPL (Information Processing Language), the language developed by Shaw was one of the first list processing languages. Through experimentation with assemblers, compilers, and interpreters, Shaw developed list processing sequences that allowed the computer to arrange and store data more effectively. The effectiveness stemmed from links that formed the lists. From a storage point of view, lists were inefficient. Shaw translated Simon and Newell's ideas into IPL. The IPL interpreter was able to compile and translate higher level language statements into machine language. The interpreters process the statements and carry out the indicated operations without generating machine code which must then be executed. Although not specifically programmed so, one of LT's innovative characteristics was that it proved mathematical theorems from Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica, including a proof from Theorem 2.85 that the authors had missed. This was the most fascinating aspect of the program because LT was not programmed to find alternative proofs.

The NSS team's work on the LT was completed by the end of 1955, and it perfected the program language in the winter and spring of 1956. LT was one of the earliest programs to investigate the use of heuristics in problem solving. It was capable of discovering and working out proofs for theorems in symbolic logic. In the summer of 1956, NSS presented the LT program to the artificial intelligence community at the Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference. Relatively unknown at the time, NSS excited the conference with the LT and the possibilities it opened in the study of programming languages and artificial intelligence.

The NSS team continued to focus on developing artificial intelligence. By 1957, NSS had constructed the General Problem Solver (GPS) program that attempted to demonstrate various human thinking processes in a variety of environments. At RAND and Carnegie Tech, studies were conducted that had human subjects think aloud in hopes of identifying human problem solving techniques and simulating them in GPS. NSS codified some human problem solving techniques such as means-end analysis, planning, and trial and error. Through the end of the 1950s, NSS produced improved versions of the IPL language and studied heuristic methods of decision making.

By 1960, when the JOHNNIAC was of insufficient computing power to support the level of computation needed, and IPL had been reprogrammed for the IBM 7090, List Processing (LISP), a high-level programming language had overtaken IPL as the language of choice for Artificial Intelligence research. Shaw's interests had shifted towards attempting to simplify the use of computers for all types of computer users. Simon and Newell continued to study how they could simulate human cognitive processes on a computer. Until this point, a user would have to be adequately trained in programming or need assistance from a programmer to use a computer like JOHNNIAC. Shaw was interested in programming the JOHNNIAC so RAND staff could utilize the computer for small as well as large scientific computations. The JOHNNIAC was available for experimental research projects because RAND owned a newer IBM 7090 (acquired in 1960) which handled the bulk of RAND's production computing load. Although JOHNNIAC was no longer state-of-the-art by this time, its major appeal was its reliability and capability for experimentation.

These factors were the impetus for the initiation of the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS) project in November 1960. JOSS was intended to be an easy to use, on-line, time sharing system. The JOSS research, conducted under the Information Processor Project, was formalized in 1959 as part of the RAND Computer Science Department and was heavily funded by the Air Force. The innovative character of JOSS was in the ease of use for the non-programmer, its remote access capabilities, the establishment of an interactive environment between user and computer, and the capability for RAND scientists and engineers to use the computer without an intermediary programmer. It was hoped that the JOSS project would bridge the communication gap between man and machine. JOSS's user language achieved this goal. It featured a small set of English verbs and algebraic symbols which did not need a programmer as intermediary between user and computer. During 1961-1962, Shaw selected the character set that would be used to write JOSS programs, its syntax, and grammar. The conversational environment included a Model B IBM Electric Typewriter. Tom Ellis and Mal Davis directed the hardware configurations and Ike Hehama, Allen Newell, and Keith Uncapher participated in the project discussions with Shaw.

The very limited JOSS experiments on the JOHNNIAC began in May 1963, with five consoles, one connected to the JOHNNIAC and four others located in the offices of various RAND staff. By June, a schedule of operations was in place and by January 1964, JOSS was fully implemented. The use of JOSS by RAND staff was higher than expected as users taught other users how to run the system. However, Shaw and the other designers worried that JOHNNIAC's hardware placed limitations on speed and storage which might taint the evaluation of JOSS. In July 1964, a second version of JOSS was proposed on a more powerful computer. C.L. Baker was named project head, and Shaw focused on developing the programming language for JOSS II.

After accepting numerous bids to replace JOHNNIAC, a contract was signed with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) promising the installation of a PDP-6 computer and thirty consoles at RAND. The installation was completed by October 31, 1965. At the Fall Joint Computer Conference in Las Vegas in December 1965, the first demonstration of remote use of JOSS II was given. JOHNNIAC was retired on February 18, 1966, with Willis Ware delivering a eulogy and Shaw loading a final JOSS I program. By the end of 1966, JOSS II was available to users 24 hours a day, seven days a week on the new PDP-6/JOSS computer, which had thirty times the speed and five times the storage capacity as the JOHNNIAC version. In April 1967, the maintenance and improvement of JOSS II was transferred from the development group to a small staff under G.W. Armending. In 1971, at age 49, Shaw left the RAND Corporation.

In 1971, Shaw took a one-year appointment as a Research Associate in the Information Science Department at the California Institute of Technology. In 1972, he began working as a consultant which he continued for the rest of his professional career. Much of his work in the 1970s and 1980s consisted of formulating new ideas on operations research, video games, man-machine interfaces, interactive computer systems, time-sharing, information architecture design, and artificial intelligence. During the 1980s, Shaw also became more involved in church-related activities.

Shaw's work on creating the Information Processing Language in the 1950s and the JOSS program in the 1960s were the two major contributions he made to the fields of programming and artificial intelligence. His IPL-I programming language is one of the earliest examples of list processing languages now in widespread use. The JOSS program was one of the first easy-to use, remotely accessible, interactive programs that allowed non-programmers to utilize the power of a computer.
Related Materials:
Material in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Computer Oral History Collection, AC0196

Material in Other Institutions

Charles Babbage Institute

L.A. County Museum

For RAND reports see www.RAND.org
Provenance:
The collection was donated by John Clifford Shaw's eldest son, Doug Shaw, March 1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Computer programmers  Search this
Topic:
Mathematicians  Search this
Computers -- military applications  Search this
Decision making -- Mathematical models  Search this
System analysts  Search this
Online data processing  Search this
Computer industry -- 1950-1980 -- United States  Search this
Computational linguistics  Search this
Computer industry -- 1950-1980 -- Soviet Union  Search this
Mathematical models  Search this
Programming languages (electronic computers) -- 1950-70  Search this
Iph (Computer Program Language)  Search this
List processing (Electronic computers)  Search this
Job Control Language (Computer program language)  Search this
GPS (General Problem Solver)  Search this
Problem solving -- Data processing  Search this
Logic machines  Search this
Time-sharing computer systems  Search this
Heuristic programming  Search this
Logic programming  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Technical reports -- 1950-1980
Diagrams
Notes -- 1950-1980
Memorandums -- 1950-1980
Citation:
John Clifford Shaw papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0580
See more items in:
John Clifford Shaw Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0580
Online Media:

Folder 4 U. S. Air Force, Project Rand, "A Casebook on Soviet Astronautics," Research Memorandum, June 21, 1956

Collection Creator::
National Air and Space Museum. Department of Astronautics  Search this
Container:
Box 64 of 64
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Rights:
Box 33 contains copyrighted materials; see finding aid. Contact reference staff for details.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 398, National Air and Space Museum. Department of Astronautics, Correspondence
See more items in:
Correspondence
Correspondence / Series 3: SUBJECT FILES AND PERSONAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1946-1979, AND UNDATED. / Box 64
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0398-refidd1e17524

A casebook on Soviet astronautics / F.J. Krieger

Author:
Krieger, F. J (Firmin Joseph) 1909-  Search this
Physical description:
2 v. : ill. ; 29 cm
Type:
Bibliography
Date:
1956
1957
1956-57
Topic:
Space flight  Search this
Call number:
TL787 .K75 1956
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_834418

A Dassault dossier : aircraft acquisition in France / Robert Perry

Author:
Perry, Robert 1925-  Search this
Rand Corporation  Search this
Subject:
Dassault, Marcel 1892-1986  Search this
Avions Marcel Dassault Breguet aviation  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 34 p. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1973
Call number:
HD9711.F8 P47 1973a
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_594993

Soviet computer technology-1959 / Willis H. Ware, editor ; contributors: S.N. Alexander ... [et al.]

Author:
Ware, Willis H  Search this
Rand Corporation  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 192 p. : ill. ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Soviet Union
Date:
1960
Topic:
Computers  Search this
Call number:
QA76 .S72 1960
QA76.S72 1960
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_449737

Reference papers relating to a satellite study / J.E. Lipp

Author:
Lipp, J. E  Search this
Physical description:
iii, 60 p. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1947
[1947]
Topic:
Artificial satellites  Search this
Call number:
TL796.5.U6 R18 1947
TL796.5.U6R18 1947
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_309957

Soviet expenditures on scientific research / Nancy Nimitz

Author:
Nimitz, Nancy 1917-  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 64 p. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Soviet Union
Date:
1963
Topic:
Research  Search this
Call number:
Q180.R96 N713 1963
Q180.R96N713 1963
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_314243

Soviet astronautics, 1957-1962 / F.J. Krieger

Author:
Krieger, F. J (Firmin Joseph) 1909-  Search this
Rand Corporation  Search this
United States Air Force  Search this
Physical description:
vii, 16 p. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Soviet Union
Date:
1963
[1963]
Topic:
Astronautics  Search this
Space flight  Search this
Call number:
TL789.8.S65 K92 1963
TL789.8.S65K92 1963
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_329263

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