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Walpole -- Berg Gardens

Former owner:
Royce, Jonathan  Search this
Royce family  Search this
David & Simonds  Search this
Landscape designer:
Hayward, Gordon  Search this
Stone mason:
Snow, Dan  Search this
Provenance:
Monadnock Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Berg Gardens (Walpole, New Hampshire)
United States of America -- New Hampshire -- Cheshire County -- Walpole
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, photocopies of articles, and other information.
General:
The 360-acre plot on a New Hampshire mountain purchased from a forest products company in 1978, with no remaining trees and no more than six inches of topsoil on top of bedrock, is the site of the Berg Gardens. The owners needed a place to put their collection of houses, buildings and architectural features. Elements from diverse building styles including a New England saltbox, a Norman tower, medieval stonework, American wrought iron, a tavern, and a barn were arranged and reconfigured as a mountaintop castle. The gardens were begun in 1986 with the assistance of landscape designer Gordon Hayward and stone mason Dan Snow, and included two trips to England to study the underlying structure of the English naturalistic style. Using stone from the property, nearby locations, and demolition sites and purchased marble, Snow built a hardscape structure of dry-stone walls, terraces, stone stairs and walkways, along with a stone grotto, a ruined silo, and the artificial ruins of a stone barn. A garden folly in the 18th c. chinoiserie style modeled on one at Hidcote in England was created from building plans for a Massachusetts outhouse.
Planting began after dry-stone retaining walls were put in to define garden beds and keep improved soil in place. Plants were chosen that suit the mountaintop environment as well as constructed features, with native seedlings allowed to invade the ruined stone silo. Native plants grow in the barn ruins, including ferns, blackberries, mosses, old roses and small trees. Color is controlled in the perennial garden beds in the terraced areas, ranging from hot to cooler tones. There is a dwarf conifer bed beyond the terraces, and conifers, hemlocks and crab apple trees were planted near the grotto. The "roof" of the grotto is a wild flower meadow with old stone wellheads set above openings in the stonework that let in light. Artifacts have been placed into the garden areas, including four Roman sarcophagi, urns, grinding wheels, a marble sundial, farm implements, and carved capitals topped by stone eagles.
Persons associated with this property are: Jonathan Royce and members of the Royce family (former owners, from 1780); various families (former owners, 19th c.); David & Simonds forest products (former owner, 20th c. until 1978); Gordon Hayward (landscape designer, beginning in 1986); Dan Snow (stone mason, beginning in 1986).
Related Materials:
Berg Gardens related holdings consist of 1 folder (51 35 mm. slides (photographs))
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- New Hampshire -- Walpole  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File NH074
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / New Hampshire
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb63f1417db-64da-4ded-ae6e-0a65eecbb43d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref9553
Online Media:

Dr. West's Flexite "Exton" Brand Bristling, Hard

Maker:
Weco Products co.  Search this
Physical Description:
plastic (container material)
glass (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 3/4 in x 6 3/8 in x 1 1/8 in; 1.905 cm x 16.1925 cm x 2.8575 cm
Object Name:
oral hygiene product
toothbrush
Place made:
United States: Illinois, Chicago
Date made:
after 1938
Subject:
Dental Products  Search this
ID Number:
2005.0100.076
Catalog number:
2005.0100.076
Accession number:
2005.0100
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Beauty and Health
Beauty and Hygiene Products: Oral Care
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-b685-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1292463
Online Media:

Oil Products Company, Incorporated, New York

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 23
Type:
Archival materials
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Cosmetics
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Cosmetics / 1: Manufacturers, Distributors, and Retailers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89a738664-fdfc-488b-8c8a-b0484a8be3e7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-cosmetics-ref1263

Zanol Products, Cincinnati, Ohio

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 36
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
American Products Company; Catalogue, 1922
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Cosmetics
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Cosmetics / 1: Manufacturers, Distributors, and Retailers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8fb8b9b84-ca33-4026-ba0a-d3ff9db265d0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-cosmetics-ref1407

Cocoize Products Company, Portland, Oregon

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 24
Type:
Archival materials
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Cosmetics
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Cosmetics / 1: Manufacturers, Distributors, and Retailers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83fdde075-639a-4d4b-8d72-043e495e36c4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-cosmetics-ref625

Waring products Company. Complete Blendor Cook Book, Over 500 Tested Recipes for Better Meals and Snacks.

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 62
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1965
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep829880d3d-2a88-4d44-b444-2c497015b40d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref1086

Weber-Stephen Products Company. Gas Barbeque Cookbook.

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 16, Folder 52
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1997 - 1997
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8cd13cd01-0fdf-46eb-8bd7-c894e36e9766
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref1376

Club Aluminum Products Company. 66 Delicious Money-Saving Recipes for Use with Club Aluminum

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1933
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83fb9506b-6dd8-4ebf-94dd-254d84030efa
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref158

Club Aluminum Products Company. How to Cook the Easier Way

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1939
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85ebec3d5-6bf2-4e2a-b6b1-525abf789800
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref159

Club Aluminum Products Company. The Recipe Book for Club Aluminum Ware with Personal Service

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1926
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d2a5fe54-9586-433c-8616-b24aa8ffdbc3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref160

Corn Products Company: Recipes for Your Good Health

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 17, Folder 33
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81676020d-14b8-4059-8c65-1aa6f24c5870
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref1926

Corn Products Company: To Your Good Health

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 17, Folder 34
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ef8fd51a-dbfc-4834-a3ea-1633b7959609
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref1927

Dazey Products Company. Seal a MealII Recipe and Instruction Book

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 19
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1976
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep870c12db5-db93-487f-8c0d-7dbb633759e6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref2222

Grocery Store Products Company. Cooking with Imagination

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1940s
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep893c866f0-4aa8-44e4-8f0e-89cc8cd6209b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref399

Grocery Store Products Company. Cooking with Inspiration

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1962
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep886d62b93-031c-470b-94ad-09b87c9974f1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref400

Grocery Store Products Company. Mushrooms in Your Menu

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1962 - 1964
1956
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88e632d3b-646e-4f98-9cd2-536a4d5df086
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref401

American Kitchen Products Company. "Steero" Cook Book

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 20
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1913
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b41c347f-01b4-4600-9bc9-29ff98c34f44
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref42

Weber-Stephen Products Company. 49 Recipes for Covered Cookin'

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1970
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep833f2d674-ce88-415a-8020-b0f551f7985f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref964

Weber-Stephen Products Company. Recipe and Instruction Book: 59 Great Recipes for Covered Cooking the Weber Way

Collection Creator:
Wells, Ellen B.  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Product Cookbooks Collection, 1874-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Product Cookbooks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8abb55c51-9fa1-4721-bef4-4e093fc21ed1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0396-ref965

Leo H. Baekeland Papers

Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Names:
Bakelite Corporation  Search this
Nepera Chemical Co.  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (49 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Professional papers
Clippings
Laboratory notes
Personal correspondence
Photographs
Notebooks
Diaries
Date:
1976
1863 - 1968
Summary:
The papers document Leo H. Baekeland, a Belgian born chemist who invented Velox photographic paper (1893) and Bakelite (1907), an inexpensive, nonflammable, versatile plastic. The papers include student notebooks; private laboratory notebooks and journals; commercial laboratory notes; diaries; patents; technical papers; biographies; newspaper clippings; maps; graphs; blueprints; account books; batch books; formula books; order books; photographs; and correspondence regarding Baekeland, 1887-1943.
Scope and Contents:
Baekeland documented his life prolifically through diaries, laboratory notebooks, photographs, and correspondence. These constitute the bulk of the collection. The Bakelite company history is also incompletely documented in this collection through Baekeland's correspondence, the commercial laboratory notebooks, and some company ledgers.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Reference Materials, 1863-1868 and undated

Subseries 1.1: Biographical, 1880-1965

Subseries 1.2:Company History, 1910-1961

Subseries 1.3: Related Interests, 1863-1968 and undated

Series 2: Published and Unpublished Writings (by Leo H. Baekeland), 1884-1945

Series 3: Correspondence, 1888-1963 Subseries 3.1: Personal Correspondence, 1916-1943

Subseries 3.2: Charitable Donations, 1916-1938

Subseries 3.3: Family Correspondence, 1888-1963

Subseries 3.4: Clubs and Associations, 1916-1943

Series 4: Diaries, 1907-1943

Series 5: Reading and Lecture Notes, 1878-1886

Series 6, Laboratory Notebooks, 1893-1915

Series 7: Commercial Laboratory Notebooks, 1910-1920

Series 8: Bakelite Company, 1887-1945

Series 9, Patents, 1894-1940

Series 10: Bakelite Corporation Ledgers, 1910-1924; 1935; 1939

Series 11: Photographs, 1889-1950 and undated

Subseries 11.1: Photographs, 1889-1950 and undated

Subseries 11.2: Film Negatives, 1900-1941 and undated

Subseries 11.3: Photoprints, 1894-1941

Subseries 11.4: Stereographs, 1888-1902 and undated

Subseries 11.5: Film and Glass Plate Negatives, 1899-1900 and undated

Series 12: Audio Materials, 1976
Biographical / Historical:
Leo Hendrik Baekeland was an industrial chemist famous for his invention of Bakelite, the first moldable synthetic polymer, and for his invention of Velox photographic paper. Baekeland's career as an inventor and innovator was punctuated by an urge to improve existing technologies and a willingness to experiment both meticulously and daringly. Born in Ghent, Belgium in 1863, Baekeland was a distinguished chemistry student and became a young professor at the University of Ghent. He had a long standing interest in photography and sought to further photographic technology with his expertise in chemistry. In 1887 he obtained his first patent for a dry plate which contained its own developer and could be developed in a tray of water. With the support of a business partner/faculty associate, Jules Guequier, he formed a company named Baekeland et Cie to produce the plate, but the venture failed due to lack of capital.

On August 8, 1889, he married Celine Swarts, daughter of his academic mentor Theodore Swarts, Dean of the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Ghent. After his wedding he travelled to different countries using a traveling scholarship he had been awarded two years previously. His travels ended in the United States where he was offered a job researching chemical problems associated with manufacturing bromide papers and films with A. and H.T. Anthony and Company, a photographic supply producer. Leo and Celine Baekeland had three children: George, Nina and Jenny (1890-1895).

He left Anthony and Company in 1891 to be a consulting chemist. During that time he invented a photographic print paper using silver chloride which could be developed in artificial light instead of sunlight and thus offered more flexibility and consistency to photographers. In 1893, with financial support from Leonard Jacobi, a scrap metal dealer from San Francisco, he formed the Nepera Chemical Company in Yonkers, New York, to manufacture "gaslight" paper under the trade name Velox. The paper became quite popular and the company expanded its operations after its first three years. Finally, George Eastman bought the company for a reported $750,000 which afforded Baekeland the time to conduct his own research in a laboratory he set up on his estate, "Snug Rock," in Yonkers.

Baekeland worked on problems of electrolysis of salt and the production of synthetic resins. He was hired as a consultant to work with Clinton P. Townsend to perfect Townsend's patented electrolytic cell. Baekeland's work there contributed to the success of the Hooke Electrochemical Company which began in operations in Niagara Falls in 1905.

Simultaneously, in 1902 Baekeland began researching reactions of phenol and formaldehyde, and by 1907 was able to control the reactions and produce a moldable plastic (oxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride) which he named Bakelite. Although the process was not perfected for another couple of years, Baekeland applied for a patent for Bakelite right away. He announced his discovery to the scientific community in 1909, and in 1910 formed the General Bakelite Company. Bakelite was a thermosetting resin that, unlike Celluloid became permanently solid when heated. It was virtually impervious to heat, acids, or caustic substances. It could be molded into a wide variety of shapes and was an excellent electric insulator that came to replace hard rubber and amber for electrical and industrial applications. It was also suitable for a wide variety of consumer products such as billiard balls, jewelry, pot handles, telephones, toasters, electric plugs, and airplane instrument knobs. Two companies challenged Bakelite with significant competition, Condensite Corporation of America and Redmanol Chemical Products Company. Bakelite finally merged with these two companies in 1922 to become the Bakelite Corporation. Union Carbide finally bought the corporation in 1939.

Baekeland sustained his interest in photography by taking numerous photographs throughout his lifetime. He also devoted much of his spare time to professional societies and received various honorary degrees and awards such as the Perkin Medal. He had several hobbies such as boating, wine and beer making, and, exotic plants. He also traveled extensively throughout the world, which is documented in his diaries and photographs.

Baekeland spent his final years mostly in his Coconut Grove, Florida home where he became increasingly eccentric until his mind failed him and he was institutionalized. He died in 1943 at the age of eighty.

Scope and Content: Baekeland documented his life prolifically through diaries, laboratory notebooks, photographs, and correspondence. These constitute the bulk of the collection. The Bakelite company history is also incompletely documented in this collection through Baekeland's correspondence, the commercial laboratory notebooks, and some company ledgers.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Albany Billiard Ball Company Records (AC0011)

Celluloid Corporation Records (AC0009)

J. Harry DuBois Collection on the History of Plastics (AC0008)

Materials at Other Organizations

The Hagley Museum and Library, Manuscripts and Archives Department in Delaware also several related collections including: the Directors of Industrial Research Records, 1929 -982; the Du Pont Viscoloid Company, Survey of the Plastics Field, 1932; The Society of the Plastics Industry, 1937-1987; the Roy J. Plunkett Collection, 1910-1994 (inventor of Teflon); and the Gordon M. Kline Collection, 1903.
Separated Materials:
The National Museum of American History, Division Medicine and Science has several artifacts associated with Baekeland including the original "Bakalizer" the apparatus in which Bakelite was first made. See accession numbers: 1977.0368; 1979.1179; 1981.0976; 1982.0034; 1983.0524; 1984.0138.
Provenance:
The bulk of the collection was donated to the National Museum of American History's Division of Physical Sciences in November, 1981, by Celine Karraker, Leo H. Baekeland's granddaughter.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Phenolic resins  Search this
Travel -- Photographs  Search this
Chemists -- 1880-1970  Search this
Inventors -- 1880-1970  Search this
Plastics -- 1880-1970  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Professional papers -- 1880-1970
Clippings -- 1880-1970
Laboratory notes
Personal correspondence -- 1880-1970
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th-20th century
Notebooks -- 1880-1970
Diaries -- 1880-1970
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Nitrate -- 19th-20th century
Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0005
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep846e88df6-033d-4805-99e2-b308002a75f4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0005
Online Media:

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