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Norcross Greeting Card Collection

Collector:
Norcross, Arthur Dickinson, d. 1968  Search this
Extractive Industries, Division of.  Search this
Rust, Fred Winslow, 1877?-1949  Search this
Rust Craft Greeting Card Company (Dedham (Mass.))  Search this
Extractive Industries, Division of.  Search this
Designer:
Tuck, Raphael, fl. 1880s  Search this
Prang, Louis, fl. 1880-1900  Search this
Chase, Ernest Dudley, fl. 1920s  Search this
Manufacturer:
Norcross Greeting Card Company (New York (N.Y.))  Search this
Rust Craft Publishers (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Extent:
202 Cubic feet (179 boxes, 362 volumes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lithographs
Business records
Chromolithographs
Color slides
Greeting cards
Valentines
Trade cards
Postcards
Motion pictures (visual works)
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Boston (Mass.) -- 1910-1950
Date:
1800-1981
bulk 1880-1881
Summary:
Collections consists of the records of both the Norcross Greeting Card Company founded in New York City in the 1920s and The Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, founded in Kansas City, Missouri, 1906. Both the Norcross and Rust Craft companies collected antique greeting cards. Also includes a small number of modern cards by other manufacturers, circa 1930-1980. Collection represents development of the greeting card industry, social trends in the United States and technology of the printing industry from 1924 through 1978.
Scope and Contents:
The Norcross Greeting Card Collection consists of cards and a few records of both the Norcross Greeting Card Company and the Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, circa 1911 1981; antique greeting cards, circa 1800 1930 (bulk 1880 1900) collected by both these companies and their executives; and a small number of modern cards by other manufacturers, circa 1939 1960. According to Norcross Company officials in 1978, this collection represents "not only a history of the development of the greeting card industry but also a history of social trends in the United States" and gives "an indication of the quality and technology of the [printing] industry from 1924 through 1978."
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Norcross Company Records, 1920-1981

Series 2: Antique Greeting Card Collection, circa 1800-1930 (bulk 1880-1990)

Series 3: Rust Craft Company Records, circa 1920-1980

Series 4: Greeting Cards by Other Manufacturers, 1939-1960

Series 5: Norcross Company Permanent Files, 1911-1981

Series 6: Rust Craft Company Permanent Files, 1927-1981
Biographical / Historical:
Arthur D. Norcross founded the Norcross Greeting Card Company in New York City in the nineteen twenties. From the start Norcross cards had a "look" which contributed to their selling success although, through the years, the company commanded only a small share of the greeting card market. In 1974 the company relocated to West Chester and Exton, Pennsylvania, where in 1981 Norcross and the Rust Craft Greeting Card Company merged to form divisions of a parent company.

At some point, Norcross executives realized the value of collecting and preserving antique greeting cards. The company built a large collection of antique cards, a number of which traveled in shows around the country bringing attention not only to the cards themselves but also to the Norcross Company.

Arthur Norcross died in 1968, and the company had four owners from then until 1982. One of the owners, the Ziff Corporation, a New York publisher, picked up the Norcross Company to augment the floundering Rust Craft Greeting Card Company that it had purchased primarily for its television holdings. Finally the Norcross and Rust Craft combination was acquired by Windsor Communications, Inc., a privately held company. In August 1981 Windsor entered into Chapter 11 proceedings under the Federal bankruptcy law and ceased producing greeting cards. Factors leading to bankruptcy included the expensive consolidation of Norcross and Rust Craft, a doubtful marketing strategy, and unsuccessful efforts to continue producing two distinct lines of greeting cards.

The Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, some of whose records are contained in this collection, was begun as a little bookshop by Fred Rust, (1877? 1949) in Kansas City in 1906. Later that year he created a plain Christmas folder which he called a "letter," perhaps a forerunner of the greeting card. These "letters" proved successful sellers prompting Rust to increase his publications over the years and expand his line to include post cards, greeting cards with envelopes, calendars, and blotters, in addition to lines of cards for New Year's and birthdays. Donald Rust, his brother, soon joined him to take over manufacturing, and in 1908, Fred Rust, seeking to increase distribution, carried his line to Boston while Donald carried his to California. The original bookshop was retained until 1910 when all retailing was discontinued. After building a considerable volume of business, the firm was consolidated in Boston in 1914 and became known as Rust Craft Publishers.

Sales mounted as the company issued cards for various seasons. Many of the sentiments were written by Fred Rust himself. Around 1927 Ernest Dudley Chase joined the firm as an associate in charge of creation and advertising. In the 1950s the company relocated to Dedham, Massachusetts and finally in 1981 merged with the Norcross Company in West Chester and Exton, Pennsylvania.

A popular innovation of the Rust Craft Company was a card bearing the sentiment printed on the card itself with four or five extra sentiments tucked in as part of the message and design. This card was so popular that it was patented with the name Tukkin. The Rust Craft Company also collected some antique greeting cards.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

AC0109 Division of Domestic Life Greeting Card Collection, circa 1854-1975

AC0126 Burris and Byrd Family Card Sample Case, circa 1920

AC0263 Susie Paige Afro-American Greeting Card Collection, 1900-1984

AC0376 Olive Leavister 19th Century Handmade Valentine Collection, 1830-1880

AC0404 Archives Center Business Americana Collection, circa 1900-present

AC0530 Beatrice Litzinger Postcard Collection, 1900-1990

AC0468Archives Center Scrapbook Collection, circa 1880-circa 1960

AC0579 Greeting Card Collection, 1920s-1970s

AC0886 Ernest Dudley Chase Papers, 1930s-1940s

AC1198 Beatrice Morgan Steyskal Collection of Greeting Cards, 1958-1970

AC0060 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana

AC1251 L.F. Pease Greeting Card Company Collection, circa 1908-1913

AC 1252 Sandford Greeting Card Company and Family Papers, circa 1840-1990

AC 0062 Hoffmania (or Hoffman Collection

AC0295 Rocky Herosian Collection, 1910-1943

AC0674 Jean Clairmook Radio Scrapbook, 1930-1932

AC0136 Celia K. Erskine Scrapbook of Valentines, Advertising Cards, and Postcards, circa 1882-1884

The Valentine & Expressions of Love [videocassette], 2000 within the Archives Center Miscellaneous Film and Videotape Collection, (AC0358)
Provenance:
Norcross Greeting Card Company, West Chester, Pennsylvania, 1982-1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Lithographs
Business records -- 20th century
Chromolithographs -- 1880-1900
Color slides
Greeting cards -- ca. 1800-1980
Valentines
Trade cards
Postcards
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1960-1980
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Norcross Greeting Card Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0058
See more items in:
Norcross Greeting Card Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0058
Online Media:

Colonna, Farrell Wine Label Collection

Creator:
Colonna, Farrell: Design.  Search this
Fleckner, John A., 1941-  Search this
Farrell, John, 1944-  Search this
Crew, Spencer R., 1949-  Search this
Colonna, Ralph, 1937-  Search this
Extent:
2.1 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Packaging
Oral history
Labels
Design drawings
Audiocassettes
Date:
1975-1997
Summary:
Original artwork and final prints of wine labels, files on work for other clients, plus audio tapes of an interview of Farrell.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of eight series, the largest, Series I, being the wine labels. This series is arranged alphabetically by the name of the producer and each winery is in a separate folder. At times the name of the wine is different than the name of the producer and sometimes the winery produces wines under more than one name. If there is more than one name or if the name of the wine is different than the name of the producer, these other names are listed in parentheses following the name of the winery. Often the name of the winery changes, usually in minor way such as changing the designation from cellars or winery to vineyards or some combination of these terms. To the extent possible, the latest name is used. All wines produced by each winery are in the same folder. The labels consist of various preliminary drawings, more refined drawings and presentations, mounted presentations and printed labels and loose printed labels. Some or all of these types may be available for each winery. In some cases there is no indication whether or not Colonna, Farrell received the commission to create the final designs, as the only way we have of knowing that is if the final printed label is in the collection.

Series II consists of designs for various presentations to The Monterey Vineyard. The first folder contains drawings and some design mockups. The remaining four folders of the series each contains a special presentation of mounted designs. Series III is a set of handmade containers containing designs created by the firm. These special cases were carried by John Farrell and Ralph Colonna when they visited wineries to make a presentation in an attempt to obtain new business.

Series IV consists of one folder containing ideas for labels that cannot be attributed to any particular winery and older labels that were collected for inspiration. Series V is a folder containing work for clients not in the wine business. Series VI contains company information such as letterhead, a brochure and an article. Series VII is miscellaneous material and Series VIII is an interview of John Farrell conducted by John Fleckner and Spencer Crew of the National Museum of American History on April 17, 1997. There are two sets of tapes, an original and a duplicate, and only the duplicate is to be used by researchers.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.
Biography:
John Farrell was born on Long Island, New York in 1944 and grew up in Minneapolis/St. Paul where his family had moved in early 1945. He had an early interest in art and design and started doing commercial design work while still in high school and continued to support himself as a designer in college. He attended the University of Minnesota. from 1962 through 1964 when he transferred to California State University-Hayward, from which he graduated after majoring in Art/Design. After college he moved to Denver to take a design position and then, in 1971, started a business there. In 1972 he did graduate work in design at Denver University, but did not receive a degree. Mr. Farrell wanted to return to California and in 1974 he followed his dream, settling in the Napa Valley.

Mr. Farrell started working out of his home, visiting local printers to find out who was working with them. When the printers told him "the wineries" he started talking to wine people. He said that he found a real need in Napa to put together packaging and help what were then local farming people with small businesses. Because of his skills, he was able to offer his clients a complete package, from the start of the design process to the finish.

Ralph Colonna was also born on the East Coast, in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania in 1937. His family moved to California in 1944 when his father was transferred there and he grew up in the Upland, Ontario area of the Los Angeles Basin. He majored in advertising and graphic design at the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, California in 1957-58, but did not graduate. From 1958 to 1961 Mr. Colonna worked for a number of design firms, until he started his own firm in Westwood in 1961. The firm moved a number of times as it grew to its maximum size of forty people. He sold the studio in 1971 and moved to the Napa Valley where he opened a gourmet cookware store, which still exists, at "Vintage 1870", an old warehouse and winery, in Yountville. While he had the store, Mr. Colonna did some graphics work for other stores in the area. The store was sold in 1978 so he could concentrate on the design business that he had started with Mr. Farrell.

John Farrell and Ralph Colonna met in 1974 and John Farrell showed his work to Ralph Colonna, who liked the work. In 1975 Mr. Colonna said he had been asked to make a presentation for a package design system to Domaine Chandon, which was just being built. Mr. Colonna and Mr. Farrell collaborated on the presentation, but did not get the job. However they enjoyed working together and decided to work together on some other projects though they kept their businesses independent.
History:
Messrs. Farrell and Colonna started to share work space and costs in 1975 and in 1976 decided to go into business in St. Helena together. In those early days, it was easy to set up a design shop and Mr. Farrell likes to say that it could be done for less than $100, as all that was needed was a T square and a drawing board.

Jeffery Caldewey had an office in the same building and was also doing early label design. In 1976 they all decided to join forces to avoid useless competition. Initially the company was a partnership called Colonna, Caldewey, Farrell: Designers. When Mr. Caldewey left the company in 1982 and went out on his own, the name of the business was changed to Colonna, Farrell: Design, the name under which it operated until October, 1999 when the name was changed to CF.NAPA. The business was incorporated in California in 1981 under the name of Design Research Institute Inc. As the company grew, it moved several times in St.Helena and in October, 1999 it moved to Napa after merging with LA6A, which also has offices in Cincinnati, Chicago and New York.

Once Messrs. Colonna and Farrell established themselves as credible package designers, many area wineries wanted to get to know them and their company. The company put together presentations and the principals went to various wineries to promote themselves. In effect they were salesmen as well as designers, but it enabled them to build relationships with various well known wineries such as Beringer, Mondavi, and Sutter Home, even though they might not be the sole supplier of design.

The wine business, however, began to change. New owners came in, many of whom had not been in the wine business before but had been doctors, brokers, etc. They were often looking for a life style change more than they were trying to make a lot of money. The idea was to live in a beautiful place and have a small business. Colonna, Farrell worked with these new people and they became a large part of the company's business.

The early Colonna Farrell designs parroted what was being done in French labeling at the time. This was a traditional look and helped establish credibility. But this changed for a number of reasons: the wineries wanted to look different from each other and Colonna, Farrell: Design didn't want to be identified with any particular "look". This led the company to establish relationships with various designers, illustrators, photographers and artists in general, in order to make its product designs more unique, a practice that continues to this day, though most of the design work is created by employees of the company.

After a while, many of the larger wineries began to be acquired by companies that were not from the Napa Valley. Often these were large conglomerates or distilleries such as Hiram Walker and Seagrams and the wineries were only a small portion of their business. This changed the complexion of many established wineries.

It also changed the way Colonna, Farrell did business, as the headquarters of the parent companies often were not in the Napa Valley. Messrs. Farrell and Colonna felt they had to pursue business where the headquarters were. This meant traveling to meet the decision makers and impress them with the company's range of services. It also led to new types of work for the company, though the focus was still in beverages. Most importantly, it meant that the principals did less and less design work and more and more sales and marketing and administration. But it also led to creating a business that was not totally dependent on the principals.

At the same time the nature of design work was changing. When the company was started, most of the work was done by hand, but today computers play a much larger role in the design process. A similar pivotal change was occurring in the printing industry as new technology allowed labels to change from simple rectangular shapes to die cuts, embossing, foil stamps, and other fanciful and complex techniques.

The company is now also involved in packaging design so that every facet of the identity of the winery is controlled. This includes, in addition to the labels, packaging, bottle shape, shipper cartons, gift packs, and promotional materials. The company also has the capability of dealing with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and comparable regulators overseas. The business is still evolving and is now going beyond design into marketing and Colonna, Farrell, as a leader in the industry, is also evolving.
Related Materials:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, ca. 1724-1977 (Subject Category: Wine)
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center on November 17, 1997 by John Farrell and Ralph Colonna, the principals of CF.NAPA, previously know as Colonna, Farrell: Design.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Wine labels  Search this
Wine and wine making  Search this
Genre/Form:
Packaging
Oral history
Labels
Design drawings
Audiocassettes
Citation:
Colonna, Farrell Wine Label Collection, 1975-1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0626
See more items in:
Colonna, Farrell Wine Label Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0626

Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers

Creator:
Gerber, H. Joseph, 1924-1996  Search this
Names:
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company (Hartford, Conn.).  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Articles
Speeches
Place:
Hartford (Conn.)
Date:
1924 - 1999
Summary:
Records document the life and career of H. Joseph Gerber, inventor and president of Gerber Scientific, Inc. Gerber was known for his invention of the variable scale, GERBERcutter S-70, and other automated industrial devices. The records include personal records, correspondence, biographical sketches, photographs, publicity, journals and magazines, clippings, speeches, award information, and one audio recording.
Scope and Contents:
The Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers document Gerber's personal life and career as an inventor and president of Gerber Scientific, Inc. The records are arranged into six series and consist of biographical records, documentation of the Young Man in a Hurry broadcast, correspondence, publicity, speeches, and award records.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into six series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1924-1997

Series 2: Young Man in a Hurry, 1950, 1986

Series 3: Correspondence, 1943-1996

Series 4: Publicity, 1949-1995

Subseries 1: Articles, 1950-1995

Subseries 2: Clippings, 1949-1994

Subseries 3: Publicity, 1949

Series 5: Speeches, 1952-1996

Series 6: Awards, 1952-1997

Subseries 1: Outstanding Young Man of the Year, 1952-1955

Subseries 2: R.P.I. Honorary Degree, 1981

Subseries 3: Textile Institute Companion Status, 1992-1994

Subseries 4: National Medal of Technology, 1993-1995

Subseries 5: Heinz Award, 1995

Subseries 6: Other Awards, 1988-1997
Biographical / Historical:
Heinz Joseph "Joe" Gerber was born in Vienna, Austria, on April 17, 1924. In 1940, Gerber escaped the Nazis and immigrated to New York City and then to Hartford, Connecticut, with his mother Bertha Gerber, a dressmaker. Gerber's father, Jacob, is presumed to have died in a concentration camp. Gerber attended Weaver High School and graduated in two years (1943). He attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, New York, on a scholarship and earned a bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering in 1947. As a junior at RPI, Gerber developed the Gerber Variable Scale, his first invention. The earliest version of the variable scale was fashioned from an elastic band removed from a pair of pajamas. Gerber created a rubber rule and scale that could flow with a curve, expand, contract, and turn a corner. The scale allows for direct reading of curves, graphs, and graphical representations, giving direct numerical readings of proportions, spacing and interpolation. The Variable Scale became the building block of what would become Gerber Scientific Instrument Inc.

With financial assistance from Abraham Koppleman, a newspaper and magazine distributor in Hartford, Gerber and Koppleman formed a partnership and incorporated Gerber Scientific Instrument Company in 1948. Gerber served as president, Koppleman as treasurer, and Stanley Levin as secretary. The manufacture of the Variable Scale was jobbed out and the distribution was conducted from Hartford. Gerber also worked as a design analytical engineer for Hamilton Standard Propellers of United Aircraft and for Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Shares of Gerber Scientific Instrument Company were eventually sold to the public in 1961, and in 1978, the company changed its name to Gerber Scientific, Inc. In 1967, Gerber realized that the U.S. garment industry, due to a lack of automation, was faced with increasing overseas competition. Gerber's solution was to engineer the GERBERcutter S-70, a machine that cuts apparel quickly and effectively while using less cloth.In the 1960s and 1970s, Gerber developed the first series of precision, computer-driven cutting systems for the apparel industry called the Gerber Cutter. The cutters introduced automation to the garment industry.

Gerber holds more than 600 United States and foreign patents. Many of his patents relate to the United States apparel industry. In 1994, Gerber was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Clinton for helping to revolutionize the optical, garment, automotive, and other industries. His pioneering achievements include:

-a generation of data readers (electromechanical devices that converted graphical data directly into computer readable format)

-projection systems that interactively converted information from aerial photographs for use in computers

-devices that plotted digital output data from computer cards or tape

-digital numerically-controlled drafting machines which verified the accuracy of the cutting path of numerical machine tools

-a photoplotter (drafting machine configured with a unique light source to directly draw high accuracy layouts of printed circuit board masters on photographic film or glass with light beams)

-systems with laser technology to draw at high speeds

Subsequent subsidiaries of Gerber Scientific, Inc., were: Gerber Garment Technology, Inc. (GGT); Gerber Scientific Products, Inc. (GSP); Gerber Systems Corp. (GSC), and Gerber Optical, Inc., (GO). GGT makes computer-controlled cutting and design equipment for apparel, automotive, aerospace and other industries. GSP produces systems for sign-making and graphic arts industries. GSC makes production systems for printing, industrial machinery and other industries. GO makes equipment for the optical-lens manufacturing industry.

In 1954, Gerber married Sonia Kanciper. They had a daughter, Melisa Tina Gerber, and a son, David Jacques Gerber. H. Joseph Gerber died on August 9, 1996, at the age of 72.

Sources

National Medal of Technology, 1994.

W. Joseph Campbell, "High Tech and Low Key as Gerber Scientific Mounts a Recovery Philosophy that Reflects Innovative Founder," Hartford Courant, May 16, 1994.
Provenance:
The Archives Center received a twenty-four (24) cubic foot addendum of archival material from David Gerber, son of of Joe Gerber in 2014. The addendum was separated into two collections--the Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records (AC0929) and the Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers (AC01336).
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventions  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Immigrants -- 20th century  Search this
Machine-tools  Search this
Machine-tool industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Articles
Speeches
Citation:
Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1336
See more items in:
Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1336
Online Media:

Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records

Creator:
Gerber, H. Joseph, 1924-1996  Search this
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company (Hartford, Conn.).  Search this
Extent:
75 Cubic feet (182 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Marketing records
Photographs
Speeches
Correspondence
Catalogs
Clippings
Patents
Business records
Manuals
Legal documents
Date:
1911 - 1999
Summary:
Records document the Gerber Scientific Instrument Company, Hartford, Connecticut, and its four subsidiaries: Gerber Garment Technology, Inc., Gerber Scientific Products, Inc., Gerber Systems Corp., and Gerber Optical, Inc. Gerber Scientific designs, develops, manufactures, markets and services computer aided design and computer aided CAD/CAM systems. The records include correspondence, memoranda, product literature, trade literature, patent records, instruction manuals, proposals, engineering records, photographs, technical reports, drawings, press releases, and newspaper clippings.
Scope and Contents:
The Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records document the company's designs, development, manufacture, and marketing of computer-aided design and computer-aided CAD/CAM systems. The records are arranged into twelve series and consist of Personal, Corporate Records, Engineering Department Records, Product Literature, Instruction Manuals/User Guides, Proposals, Photographs, Trade Literature, Press Releases and Newspaper Clippings, Patent Records, Lectra Systèmes Litigation Materials, and Audio Visual Materials.

Series 1, David R. Pearl, 1968-1984, contains three volumes of diaries kept by David R. Pearl, President of Gerber Garment Technology. The diaries were maintained by Pearl from July 21, 1968 to June 6, 1977, to document Pearl's and H. Joseph Gerber's activities concerning the development of the technology and the establishment of a business to market computer-controlled fabric cutting devices. One notebook contains some materials later than 1977. There are diary entries for September 12, 1979, February 1, 1980, and October 29, 1984.

Series 2, Corporate Records, 1968-1999, includes administrative records, an Industrial Projects Eligibility Review, annual reports, shareholders reports, newsletters, New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) materials, Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) materials, Gerber Museum documents, and empty Gerber Scientific Instrument Company binders. The administrative documents consist of a corporate history, mission statement, organizational chart, company map, time line and biographies of key corporate personnel. There are two organizational charts: one for the Engineering Organization (software, mechanical and electrical divisions) from 1987 and one for the subsidiary Gerber Garment Technology, Inc. (Gerber Garment Technology (GGT)), dated 1985. Additional organizational charts can be found with the 1968 annual report. The Industrial Projects Eligibility Review was submitted to the Connecticut Development Authority by Gerber Scientific Intsrument (GSI) to facilitate financing for future expansion of the company. A copy of the company's articles of incorporation are here. The newsletters included in this series are in-house publications for employees only. The newsletter Communiqué, 1960, is in Series 4, Product Literature. The NYSE materials include press releases, photographs, the listing application to the NYSE and printed material about Gerber Scientific, Inc. joining the NYSE in October 1980. Gerber Scientific is traded on the Stock Exchange as GRB. The Securities and Exchange Commission files contain Form S-3, a registration statement and the Annual Report, and Form 10-K for Gerber Scientific, Inc. The Gerber Museum file includes photographs of artifacts and a 1996 memo and fax discussing the establishment of a museum to honor H. Joseph Gerber.

Series 3, Engineering Department Records, 1966-1990, is the largest series and is arranged alphabetically by the engineer's last name and then alphabetically by subject/topic. The records include the files of: Ed LaGraize, David Logan, Bud Rich, Ron Webster, and Ken Wood. The majority of engineering files belong to David Logan. Logan joined Gerber Scientific Instrument in 1957 as a project engineer. From 1959 to 1961, he was chief engineer and then became Vice President of Engineering from 1961 to 1963. From 1963 to 1980, Logan served as Senior Vice President of Engineering. He holds several patents, primarily in the field of plotting devices and control systems. The engineering files contain technical memoranda, correspondence, drawings, product literature, trade literature, notes, and drawings.

Series 4, Product Literature, 1953-1996, contains informational sheets for a variety of products available from Gerber Scientific, Inc. and its subsidiary companies. Gerber Scientific Instrument (GSI) creates designs, manufactures and promotes data reduction equipment of many types. Data reduction equipment allows complex mathematical problems to be solved quickly and accurately. Both analogue and digital systems are offered. The bulk of the product literature falls into the following categories: instruments, data reader systems, recorders, special scanning tables, oscillogram amplitude tabulators, standard system scanners, and plotters. The series is arranged alphabetically by name of product with a few exceptions.

Series 5, Instruction Manuals/User Guides, 1953-1980, undated, is divided into two subseries, Gerber Scientific Instrument Company manuals and other companies' manuals. This series contains instruction manuals, maintenance manuals, and users' guides for a variety of Gerber Scientific, Inc. products. The Gerber System Model 1434, Ultra Precise Artwork Generator which provides precision photo-plotting on photo-sensitive material is well represented among the manuals. The other companies represented include Bendix Industrial Controls and the KOH-I-NOOR Rapidograph, Inc.

Series 6, Proposals, 1961-1980, consists of bound certified and signed technical and bid proposals completed by Gerber Scientific Instrument Company detailing available and actual estimated costs and pricing data for Gerber products. The proposals were assembled for specific companies such as North American Aviation.

Series 7, Photographs, 1948-1974, undated, is further divided into three subseries: Product and Client Files, 1966-1974, undated; Gerber Scientific Instrument (Gerber Scientific Intsrument (GSI) Corporate, 1948-1970, undated; and Numerical, 1966-1974, undated photographs. The majority of photographs are 8" x 10" black-and-white prints. The product and client file photographs are arranged alphabetically. The Gerber Scientific Instrument (GSI) corporate photographs include photographs of GSI buildings both interior and exterior shots, employees, employee functions such as banquets, annual meetings, tours, stockholder meetings, and trade shows. The numerical photographs are arranged numerically according to the number assigned on the reverse of the photograph. Some of the numerical photographs are identified by product name, but others are labeled unidentified.

Series 8, Trade Literature, 1947-1992, is arranged alphabetically by company name. The trade literature in this series is from competitors or from companies that used Gerber products.

Series 9, Press Releases and Newspaper Clippings, 1943-1996, is divided into two subseries, Press Releases, 1972-1982 and Newspaper Clippings, 1943-1996. The press releases are arranged chronologically. This series contains information on H. Joseph Gerber, his company and its subsidiaries, and the garment and apparel industry. The newspaper clippings are arranged chronologically and include a wide variety of local Connecticut and United States newspapers and industry specific magazines such as Bobbin and Apparel Industry.

Series 10, Patent Records, 1911-1985, contains copies of patents, correspondence with patent attorneys and the United States Patent and Trademark Office, patent search results, and other legal filings associated with the patenting process. The materials are arranged chronologically with the name of the equipment or instruments being patented noted.

Series 11, Lectra Systèmes Litigation Materials, 1968-1990, contains documents that mainly deal with Lectra (France), but there are documents about patent infringement for Lectra (Japan) and Lectra (United Kingdom). The materials consist of depositions by David Pearl, then president of Gerber Garment Technology, and David Siegelman, then Vice President and General Manager for Lectra Systèmes, Inc., in the United States. Confidential progress reports, memoranda, correspondence, competition reports, drawings and sketches, notes, and other documents summarize events in the litigation history.

Lectra Systèmes was formed on November 12, 1973 at Bordeaux-Cestas (France) by two visionary engineers, Jean and Bernard Etcheparre. They developed a computer system, the LECteur-TRAceur 200, which automatically calculated and plotted all sizes of an item of apparel. The Lectra Systèmes litigation materials document Gerber Garment Technology's claim that Lectra infringed upon Gerber's line of cutting machines. The specific patents being infringed are United States patents: 3,955,458; 4,205,835; and 3,765,289. In September 1986, Lectra introduced a new line of cutting machines that cost roughly half as much as Gerber's top-of-the-line competing system. Gerber Garment Technology filed suit in the United States and France as Gerber Garment Technology, Inc. v. Lectra Systems, Inc. Civil Action No. 1:86-cv-2054CAM. In 1992, Lectra Systems, Inc., appealled the judgment of the United States District Court for the Northern District infringement of Gerber's U.S. Patent No. 3,955,458 ('458 patent) and denied Lectra's claim that Gerber's U.S. Patent No., 4,205,835 ('835 patent) is unenforceable.

Series 12, Audio Visual Materials, 1986-1998, includes 3⁄4" U-matic, 1⁄2" VHS, audio cassettes, BetaCam SP, and one Super 8mm color, silent camera original reversal film. The majority the of audio visual materials cover interviews with H. Joseph Gerber, the National Technology of Medal ceremony, and sales and marketing footage for various Gerber products.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into twelve series.

Series 1: David R. Pearl Materials, 1968-1984

Series 2: Corporate Records, 1968-2002

Subseries 2.1: Administrative, circa 1977-1995

Subseries 2.2: Industrial Projects Eligibility Review, undated (contains articles of incorporation for Gerber Scientific)

Subseries 2.3: Annual Reports, 1968-1999

Subseries 2.4: Shareholders Reports, 1990-1995, 1997, 1998

Subseries 2.5: Newsletters, 1969-1996

Subseries 2.6: New York Stock Exchange, 1980 October

Subseries 2.7: Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 1983-1992

Subseries 2.8: Gerber Museum, 1996

Subseries 2.9: Gerber Scientific Instrument Company binders (empty), undated

Subseries 2.10: Stock and Financial Information, 1949-2002

Series 3: Engineering Department Records, 1966-1990

Subseries 3.1: Ed LaGraize's Files, 1978-1990

Subseries 3.2: Dave Logan's Engineering Files, 1966-1990

Subseries 3.3: Dave Logan's Competitors Files, 1966-1982

Subseries 3.4: Bud Rich's Files, 1967-1980

Subseries 3.5, Ron Webster's Files, 1963-1992

Subseries 3.6: Ken Wood's Files, 1976-1980

Subseries 3.7: Ken Wood's Case Study of Model 1434, 1966-1989

Subseries 3.8: General Engineering Files, 1970-1980

Series 4: Product Literature, 1953-1996

Series 5: Instruction Manuals/User Guides, 1953-1980, undated

Subseries 5.1: Gerber Scientific Instrument Company, 1953-1979

Subseries 5.2: Other Companies, 1962, 1980

Series 6: Proposals, 1961-1980

Series 7: Photographs, 1948-1974, undated

Subseries 7.1, Product and Client Files, 1966-1974, undated

Subseries 7.2, Gerber Scientific Instrument Corporate, 1948-1970, undated

Subseries 7.3, Numerical, 1966-1974, undated

Series 8: Trade Literature, 1947-1992

Series 9: Press Releases and Newspaper Clippings, 1943-1998

Subseries 9.1: Press Releases, 1972-1998

Subseries 9.2: Newspaper clippings, 1943-1996

Subseries 9.3: Articles, 1969-1991

Series 10: Patent Records, 1911-1985

Series 11: Lectra Systèmes Litigation Materials, 1968-1990

Series 12: Audio Visual Materials, 1986-1998
Biographical / Historical:
Heinz Joseph "Joe" Gerber was born in Vienna, Austria, on April 17, 1924. In 1940, Gerber escaped the Nazis and immigrated to New York City and then to Hartford, Connecticut, with his mother Bertha Gerber, a dressmaker. Gerber's father, Jacob, is presumed to have died in a concentration camp. Gerber attended Weaver High School and graduated in two years (1943). He attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, New York, on a scholarship and earned a bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering in 1947. As a junior at RPI, Gerber developed the Gerber Variable Scale, his first invention. The earliest version of the variable scale was fashioned from an elastic band removed from a pair of pajamas. Gerber created a rubber rule and scale that could flow with a curve, expand, contract, and turn a corner. The scale allows for direct reading of curves, graphs, and graphical representations, giving direct numerical readings of proportions, spacing and interpolation. The Variable Scale became the building block of what would become Gerber Scientific Instrument Inc.

With financial assistance from Abraham Koppleman, a newspaper and magazine distributor in Hartford, Gerber and Koppleman formed a partnership and incorporated Gerber Scientific Instrument Company in 1948. Gerber served as president, Koppleman as treasurer, and Stanley Levin as secretary. The manufacture of Variable Scale was jobbed out and the distribution was conducted from Hartford. Gerber also worked as a design analytical engineer for Hamilton Standard Propellers of United Aircraft and for Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Shares of Gerber Scientific Instrument Company were eventually sold to the public in 1961, and in 1978, the company changed its name to Gerber Scientific, Inc. In the 1960s and 1970s, Gerber developed the first series of precision, computer-driven cutting systems for the apparel industry called the Gerber Cutter. The cutters introduced automation to the garment industry. In 1967, Gerber realized that the U.S. garment industry, due to a lack of automation, was faced with increasing overseas competition. Gerber's solution was to engineer the GERBERcutter S-70, a machine that cuts apparel quickly and effectively while using less cloth.

Gerber holds more than 600 United States and foreign patents. Many of his patents relate to the United States apparel industry. In 1994, Gerber was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Clinton for helping to revolutionize the optical, garment, automotive, and other industries. His pioneering achievements include:

-a generation of data readers (electromechanical devices that converted graphical data directly into computer readable format);

-projection systems that interactively converted information from aerial photographs for use in computers;

-devices that plotted digital output data from computer cards or tape;

-digital numerically-controlled drafting machines which verify the accuracy of the cutting path of numerical machine tools;

-a photoplotter (drafting machine configured with a unique light source to directly draw high accuracy layouts of printed circuit board masters on photographic film or glass with light beams); and

-systems with laser technology to draw at high speeds.1

Subsequent subsidiaries of Gerber Scientific, Inc., were: Gerber Garment Technology, Inc. (GGT); Gerber Scientific Products, Inc. (GSP); Gerber Systems Corp. (GSC), and Gerber Optical, Inc., (GO). GGT makes computer-controlled cutting and design equipment for apparel, automotive, aerospace and other industries. GSP produces systems for sign-making and graphic arts industries. GSC makes production systems for printing, industrial machinery and other industries. GO makes equipment for the optical-lens manufacturing industry.2

In 1954, Gerber married Sonia Kanciper. They had a daughter, Melisa Tina Gerber, and a son, David Jacques Gerber. H. Joseph Gerber died on August 9, 1996, at the age of 72.

Sources

1 National Medal of Technology, 1994.

2 W. Joseph Campbell, "High Tech and Low Key as Gerber Scientific Mounts a Recovery Philosophy that Reflects Innovative Founder," Hartford Courant, May 16, 1994.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Gerber Fabric Cutter Video Documentation, February 1996 (AC0609)

This videohistory documents the inventor, engineers, assembly workers, operators and other technicians who worked with the computer-controlled fabric cutter.

Heinz Joseph Gerber Papers (AC1336)

This collection documents Joseph Gerber's personal life including his highschool and college years, correpondence with family and friends, and speeches given by Gerber throughout his life.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by David Gerber, son of H. Joseph Gerber, on December 23, 2006.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fabric cutters -- 1960-1990  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Computerized instruments -- 1960-1990  Search this
Automation -- 1960-1990  Search this
Machinery -- 1960-1990  Search this
Machine-tool industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Marketing records
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1940-2000
Speeches
Correspondence -- 20th century
Catalogs
Clippings
Patents
Business records -- 1950-2000
Manuals
Legal documents
Citation:
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0929
See more items in:
Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0929
Online Media:

Gerber Fabric Cutter Video Documentation

Creator:
Liebhold, Peter  Search this
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Names:
Gerber Company.  Search this
Gerber, H. Joseph, 1924-1996  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (9 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Date:
1995-1996
Summary:
The Gerber Fabric Cutter S-70 is part of a systematic approach to layout and cutting that has revolutionized the needle trades. This video history contains original, master, and reference videos, Dictaphone microcassettes, and tape digests and notes documenting the development, operation and use of the Gerber Fabric Cutter S-70 in three locations: H.I.S., Inc., in Bruceton, Tennessee (Chic blue jeans use of cuter); General Motors in Grand Rapids, Michigan (automotive use of the cutter); and Gerber Scientific Instrument Company in Hartford, Connecticut (Gerber corporate office and invention factory). The video footage documents H. Joseph Gerber, engineers, assembly workers, operators, and other technicians who worked with the cutter at the three locations. The footage from the Tennessee and Michigan sites provides insight into the complexity of introducing a new technology into the workplace and documents operators and managers discussing the effect of the cutter on workflow, quality, personnel, and attitudes towards the job. The footage from the Connecticut site documents the engineers who developed the cutter and provides valuable insight into the invention process. This collection includes oral history audio tapes, original, master, and reference videos, and notes documenting visits to Bruceton, Tennessee, Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Hartford, Connecticut.
Scope and Contents:
The Gerber Fabric Cutter S-70 is part of a systematic approach to layout and cutting that has revolutionized the needle trades. It applies numerical control to the sizing of patterns and cutting of fabric. The use of this type of equipment made possible a radical change in the make-up of the cutting room workforce. This video history contains original, master, and reference videos, Dictaphone microcassettes, and tape digests and notes documenting the development, operation and use of the Gerber Fabric Cutter S-70 in three locations: H.I.S., Inc., in Bruceton, Tennessee (Chic blue jeans use of cuter); General Motors in Grand Rapids, Michigan (automotive use of the cutter); and Gerber Scientific Instrument Company in Hartford, Connecticut (Gerber corporate office and invention factory). The video footage documents H. Joseph Gerber, engineers, assembly workers, operators, and other technicians who worked with the cutter at the three locations. The footage from the Tennessee and Michigan sites provides insight into the complexity of introducing a new technology into the workplace and documents operators and managers discussing the effect of the cutter on workflow, quality, personnel, and attitudes towards the job. The footage from the Connecticut site documents the engineers who developed the cutter and provides valuable insight into the invention process.

The collection is arranged into five series: Series 1, Notes, 1995-1996; Series 2, Audio tapes (microcassettes), 1996; Series 3, Original videos (BetaCam SP), 1996; Series 4, Master videos (BetaCam SP), 1996; and Series 5, Reference videos 1⁄2" VHS), 1996.

Series 1, Notes, 1995-1996, includes documentation created by Peter Liebhold in preparation for his site visits to Bruceton, Tennessee, Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Hartford, Connecticut. The documentation includes lists of potential interviewees, questions to ask of the employees, and general notes detailing observations at each site. The H. Joseph Gerber interview file consists of a brief tape digest keyed to each of the seven microcassettes, notes from the interview, and the questions asked of Mr. Gerber. The Gerber Scientific Instrument Company file contains a video digest for only three interviews: Ed Roth, Fred Rosen, and Larry Wolfson.

Series 2, Audio tapes (microcassettes), 1995 June, consists of seven Dictaphone microcassettes of oral history interviews with H. Joseph Gerber conducted by Peter Liebhold, Curator, American History Museum and Stanley Leven, Director and Secretary of Gerber Scientific Instrument Company.

Series 3, Original Videos (BetaCam SP), 1996, consists of thirty-eight BetaCam SP video tapes totaling approximately nineteen hours of footage.

Series 4, Master Videos (BetaCam SP), 1996, consists of twenty-six BetaCam SP tapes totaling nineteen hours of footage.

Series 5, Reference videos (1/2" VHS), 1996, consists of twenty-six 1⁄2" VHS tapes for a total of thirteen hours of footage.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Notes, 1995-1996

Series 2: Audio tapes (microcassettes), 1995 June

Series 3: Original videos (BetaCam SP), 1996

Series 4: Master videos (BetaCam SP), 1996

Series 5: Reference videos (1/2" VHS), 1996
Biographical / Historical:
Heinz Joseph "Joe" Gerber was born in Vienna, Austria, on April 17, 1924. In 1940, Gerber escaped the Nazis and immigrated to New York City and then to Hartford, Connecticut, with his mother Bertha Gerber, a dressmaker. Gerber's father, Jacob, is presumed to have died in a concentration camp. Gerber attended Weaver High School and graduated in two years (1943). He attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, New York, on a scholarship and earned a bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering in 1947. As a junior at RPI, Gerber developed the Gerber Variable Scale, his first invention. The earliest version of the variable scale was fashioned from an elastic band removed from a pair of pajamas. Gerber created a rubber rule and scale that could flow with a curve, expand, contract, and turn a corner. The scale allows for direct reading of curves, graphs, and graphical representations, giving direct numerical readings of proportions, spacing and interpolation. The Variable Scale became the building block of what would become Gerber Scientific Instrument, Inc.

With financial assistance from Abraham Koppleman, a newspaper and magazine distributor in Hartford, Gerber and Koppleman formed a partnership and incorporated Gerber Scientific Instrument Company in 1948. Gerber served as president, Koppleman as treasurer, and Stanley Levin as secretary. The manufacture of Variable Scale was jobbed out and the distribution was conducted from Hartford. Gerber also worked as a design analytical engineer for Hamilton Standard Propellers of United Aircraft and for Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Shares of Gerber Scientific Instrument Company were eventually sold to the public in 1961, and in 1978, the company changed its name to Gerber Scientific, Inc. In the 1960s and 1970s, Gerber developed the first series of precision, computer-driven cutting systems for the apparel industry called the Gerber Cutter. The cutters introduced automation to the garment industry. In 1967, Gerber realized that the U.S. garment industry, due to a lack of automation, was faced with increasing overseas competition. Gerber's solution was to engineer the Gerber Fabric Cutter S-70, a machine that cuts apparel quickly and effectively while using less cloth.

Gerber holds more than 600 United States and foreign patents. Many of his patents relate to the United States apparel industry. In 1994, Gerber was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Clinton for helping to revolutionize the optical, garment, automotive, and other industries. His pioneering achievements include:

-a generation of data readers (electromechanical devices that converted graphical

-data directly into computer readable format);

-projection systems that interactively converted information from aerial;

-photographs for use in computers;

-devices that plotted digital output data from computer cards or tape;

-digital numerically-controlled drafting machines which verify the accuracy of the cutting path of numerical machine tools;

-a photoplotter (drafting machine configured with a unique light source to directly draw high accuracy layouts of printed circuit board masters on photographic film or glass with light beams);

-and systems with laser technology to draw at high speeds. (1)

Subsequent subsidiaries of Gerber Scientific, Inc., are: Gerber Garment Technology, Inc., (GGT); Gerber Scientific Products, Inc. (GSP); Gerber Systems Corp. (GSC), and Gerber Optical, Inc., (GO). GGT makes computer-controlled cutting and design equipment for apparel, automotive, aerospace and other industries. GSP produces systems for sign-making and graphic arts industries. GSC makes production systems for printing, industrial machinery and other industries. GO makes equipment for the optical-lens manufacturing industry. (2)

In 1954, Gerber married Sonia Kanciper. They had a daughter, Melisa Tina Gerber, and a son, David Jacques Gerber. H. Joseph Gerber died on August 9, 1996, at the age of 72.

Sources

(1) National Medal of Technology, 1994.

(2) W. Joseph Campbell, "High Tech and Low Key as Gerber Scientific Mounts a Recovery Philosophy Reflects Innovative Founder," Hartford Courant, May 16, 1994.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records, 1911-1998 (AC0929)

Materials in the Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History

Early model Gerber variable scale. See accession 1994.3104.01.

Gerber Cutter, Model 70. See accessioon 1995.0229.01.
Provenance:
This collection was created by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation with American History Cuartor Peter Liebhold, Division of Work and Industry.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Series 3, Original Videos, 1996, is located off-site; please inquire.
Topic:
Inventors -- 1940-1990  Search this
Machinery -- 1940-1990  Search this
Work -- 1940-1990  Search this
Factories -- 1940-1990  Search this
Fabric cutters -- 1940-1990  Search this
Inventions -- 1920-2000 -- United States  Search this
Industrial factories -- 1940-1990  Search this
Automation -- 1940-1990  Search this
Cutting machines -- 1940-1990 -- North Carolina -- Connecticut -- Michigan  Search this
Computerized instruments -- 1940-1990  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Citation:
Gerber Fabric Cutter Video Documentation, February 1995-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Gerber Fabric Cutter Video Documentation, 1995-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0609
See more items in:
Gerber Fabric Cutter Video Documentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0609

Mergenthaler Linotype Company Records

Creator:
Mergenthaler Linotype Co.  Search this
Extent:
108 Cubic feet (257 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Type specimens
Business records
Minutes
Brochures
Correspondence
Date:
1886-1997
Summary:
These records document primarily the history of typeface development at the Mergenthaler Linotype Company of Baltimore, Maryland. The company supplied most of the typesetting machines used in the printing industry, both in America and worldwide. As changing technology ended the usefulness of the linotype machine the company pioneered new computer-driven, photo typesetting machines.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the development of typefaces and contains some company business records, including reports, memoranda, correspondence, marketing materials, and other business papers; and typeface examples.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 13 series. The series level arrangement scheme was imposed during processing to facilitate a more usable order for the records. Several series documenting typeface were combined into a single series, Series 2: Typefaces.

In most instances, original folder titles were retained. In circumstances where there was no folder title, the processing archivist created one derived from the nature of the materials.

Series 1: Organizational Records, 1929-1997

Series 2: Office Files, 1908-1992

Series 3: Typefaces, 1904-1991

Subseries 3.1: Typefaces, 1923-1993

Subseries 3.2: Designers of Typeface, 1929-1987

Subseries 3.3: Technical Development of Typeface, 1933-1985

Subseries 3.4: Matrix Data for Typeface, 1923-1974

Subseries 3.5: Typographic Committee Meetings (Standards), 1984-1988

Series 4: Licensing Agreements, 1939-1988

Series 5: International Files, 1956-1989

Series 6: Correspondence and Inter-Office Memoranda, 1968-1994

Subseries 6.1: Domestic, 1968-1994 Subseries 6.2: Marketing, 1984-1993

Series 7: Variable Input Phototypesetter (VIP), 1970-1977

Series 8: Conferences, 1986-1993

Series 9: Executives' Records

Suberies 9.1: Brian Boyajian Files, 1989

Subseries 9.2: Bruce Brenner Files, 1981-1991

Subseries 9.3: Jackson Burke Files, 1956-1961

Subseries 9.4: Stephen "Steve" Byers Files, 1973-1995

Subseries 9.5: Ames Gutierrez Files, 1990-01-1991

Subseries 9.6: Karl Heidenreich Files, 1983

Subseries 9.7: Jürgen Krufcyzk Files, 1989-1990

Subseries 9.8: Franklin J. Lassman Files, 1984-1985

Subseries 9.9: Mike Parker Files, 1969-1981

Subseries 9.10: Ray Pell Files, 1982

Subseries 9.11: Günter Zorn Files, 1990-01-1990-12

Series 10: Sales Materials, 1886-1982

Series 11: Project Files, 1977-1987

Series 12: Xerox Corporation Materials, 1982-1989

Series 13: Adobe Systems Incorporated Materials, 1983-1993
Biographical:
Ottmar Mergenthaler (born May 11, 1854 in Hachtel (today: Bad Mergentheim), Kingdom of Württemberg; died October 28, 1899 in Baltimore, MD) was part of a large wave of German immigrants who sailed to the United States and settled in Baltimore between 1861 and 1910. He arrived in 1872, at eighteen years of age, and started working for his step-cousin August Hahl, who ran a workshop for electrical equipment and patent models. It was during Mergenthaler's time in Hahl's workshop that he first discovered his true passion: print technology. In 1885, thirteen years after landing in the United States, Mergenthaler was awarded a patent for a typesetting machine that eventually became known as the Linotype. The invention was the result of a decade of intense engagement with mechanized typesetting machines and the surrounding literature. The Linotype represented a major milestone in the history of printing, and, by extension, the larger history of Mergenthaler's time. His invention revolutionized the printing industry, making it possible to print faster and more efficiently than ever before. Ultimately, Mergenthaler's Linotype opened a new chapter in the history of mass communication and determined the path of the printing industry for the next century.

Mergenthaler Linotype Company was founded in the United States in 1886 to market the Linotype machine invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler.

Source

Tsaniou, Styliani. "Ottmar Mergenthaler." In Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present, vol. 3, edited by Giles R. Hoyt. German Historical Institute. Last modified July 26, 2013. http://www.immigrantentrepreneurship.org/entry.php?rec=42
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Printing and Printers

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Presentation of Mergenthaler Linotype Machine to the National Museum of History and Technology, now known as the National Museum of American History. (SIA Acc. 11-008 [OPA-1521])

Smithsonian Trade Literature Collection

Mergenthaler Linotype Company catalogs

National Postal Museum

Ottmar Mergenthaler, postage stamp, 1996. See 1997.2004.49.

Smithsonian American Art Museums

Ottmar Mergenthaler, sculpture, 1908. See IAS 08650110.

National Portrait Gallery

Ottmar Mergenthaler, sculpture, 1908. See NPG.79.77.

National Museum of African American History and Culture

Linotype Machine used by the Chicago Defender Publishing Company, 1902-1906. See NMAAHC-2012.18.

Materials at Other Organizations

University of Delaware Library, Special Collections Department

Mergenthaler Linotype Collection, 1881-1954

Eight linear feet of materials including letters, legal papers, and patents. The collection represents only a limited portion of the company's history.

University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center

Chauncey Hawley Griffith papers, 1903-1969, undated

Primarily of manuscript correspondence, drawings, and proofs that document typefaces designed and developed by Chauncey Hawley Griffith, William Addison Dwiggins, and Rudolph Ruzicka for the Mergenthaler Linotype Company in the early- to mid-twentieth century.

Syracuse University Libraries, Special Collections Research Center

William Addison Dwiggins Collection, 1927

Typewritten manuscript for an essay written by Dwiggins and related correspondence.

University of Maryland, Special Collections

William Addision Dwiggins Collection, 1902-1990

Includes over 130 volumes and over 30 pieces of ephemera documenting Dwiggins's design career, as well as works written about him.

New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division

Paul A. Bennett papers, 1925-1966

Personal and professional correspondence, research materials, typescripts of writings, and other papers relating to Bennett's career in advertising and his work with the Typophiles. Includes material relating to the Chap Book series, published by the Typophiles.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts holds objects related to the Mergenthaler Linotype Company that include books, models, linofilm system, matrices, typecasting and typesetting machine, reports, and letters.

See accessions: 1981.1011; GA.22989; GA.22952; GA 22984; GA.22948; GA.22951; 22949; GA.22953; ZZ.RSN85692F20; GA.24877; GA.23057; GA.24582; 1979.0372.1; GA.22988; GA.22950; GA.17070; GA.22947; GA.22959; GA.22961; GA.22986; GA.22987; GA.22955.
Provenance:
Donated by Mergenthaler Linotype Company in 1998 and 1999.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Typesetting  Search this
Printing -- History  Search this
Printing -- Instruments  Search this
Type designers  Search this
Typesetting machines  Search this
Linotype  Search this
Printing industry  Search this
Printing machinery and supplies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Type specimens
Business records -- 20th century
Minutes -- 20th century
Brochures -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Citation:
Mergenthaler Linotype Company Records, 1886-1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0666
See more items in:
Mergenthaler Linotype Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0666
Online Media:

Printing Industries of Metropolitan New York, Inc.

Collection Creator:
Larsen, Jack Lenor, 1927-2020  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1984
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Jack Lenor Larsen papers, 1941-2003. Archives of America Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jack Lenor Larsen papers
Jack Lenor Larsen papers / Series 1: Biographical Material / Awards and Certificates
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-larsjack-ref40

Printing Industries of Metropolitan New York, Incorporated, Certificate of Special Merit,

Collection Creator:
Ellis, Estelle  Search this
Container:
Box 29, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1962
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Estelle Ellis Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Estelle Ellis Collection
Estelle Ellis Collection / Series 2: Business Materials / 2.4: Awards
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0423-ref1608

The Printing Industry (Mural Study, Springfield, Ohio Post Office), (painting)

Painter:
Wessel, Herman H. 1878-1969  Search this
Medium:
Tempera and pencil on paperboard
Type:
Paintings
Paintings-Mural
Owner/Location:
Smithsonian American Art Museum 8th & G Streets, N.W Washington District of Columbia 20560 Accession Number: 1974.28.105
Date:
1936
Topic:
Figure group--Male  Search this
Architecture interior--Industry  Search this
Occupation--Industry--Printing  Search this
Architecture--Machine--Printing Press  Search this
Study  Search this
Control number:
IAP 08585778
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_476203

William Tyndale Printing the Bible [photomechanical print]

Artist:
Oakley, Violet 1874-1961  Search this
Photographic firm:
Curtis & Cameron  Search this
Physical description:
1 photomechanical print black and white
Type:
Photomechanical prints
Date:
Copyrighted 1906
Topic:
Occupation--Industry--Printing  Search this
History--England  Search this
Figure group  Search this
Object--Written Matter--Manuscript  Search this
Architecture--Machine--Printing Press  Search this
Image number:
LOC LC001575
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Library of Congress Copyright Deposit Collection
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_139425

Benjamin Franklin [sculpture] / (photographed by Leet Brothers)

Artist:
Powers, Hiram 1805-1873  Search this
Photographic firm:
Leet Bros.  Search this
Subject:
Franklin, Benjamin  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1862
Topic:
Portrait male--Full length  Search this
Occupation--Writer--Author  Search this
Occupation--Science--Inventor  Search this
Occupation--Political--Diplomat  Search this
Occupation--Industry--Printing  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0001908
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_128623
Online Media:

Benjamin Franklin (detail of one of the pedestal reliefs) [sculpture] / (photographer unknown)

Artist:
Greenough, Richard Saltonstall 1819-1904  Search this
Subject:
Franklin, Benjamin  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
Modeled 1855. Dedicated Sept. 17, 1856. Plaques cast 1856-1857. Memorial rededicated Sept. 18, 1865
Topic:
Portrait male--Full length  Search this
Portrait male--Child  Search this
Occupation--Industry--Printing  Search this
Architecture--Machine--Printing Press  Search this
Architecture interior--Industry  Search this
Figure group--Male  Search this
Image number:
SSC S0001158
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Metropolitan Museum of Art Study Collection of American Sculpture Photographs
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_127871
Online Media:

The Apotheosis of Democracy: The Ironworker and Printer (part of the pediment for the House Wing of the United States Capitol) [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Bartlett, Paul Wayland 1865-1925  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
Modeled 1909-1915, carved in marble 1915-1916
Topic:
Figure group--Male  Search this
Occupation--Industry--Foundry  Search this
Occupation--Industry--Printing  Search this
Allegory--Civic--Democracy  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0048485
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_48486

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Printing and Printers

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
6.04 Cubic feet (consisting of 11.5 boxes, 1 folder, 9 oversized folders, 3 flat boxes (1 full, 2 partial), plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Legal documents
Print advertising
Business records
Correspondence
Invoices
Trade cards
Business cards
Business ephemera
Reports
Ephemera
Periodicals
Printed ephemera
Mail order catalogs
Advertising mail
Manufacturers' catalogs
Commercial catalogs
Catalogues
Proofs (printed matter)
Advertising fliers
Receipts
Letterheads
Illustrations
Publications
Advertisements
Sales catalogs
Catalogs
Commercial correspondence
Advertising cards
Advertising
Manuals
Trade catalogs
Business letters
Date:
1713-1993
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Printing and Printers primarily represents material designed and created by printing companies, largely on the behalf of other companies. Additional material includes serial publications created by printers, the history of printing, biographical material about printers or typographical artists, as well as printing and engraving instructions.

Types of printmaking and printers in these records include stereotyping, electrotyping, planographs, typographs, linotypes, and monotypes.

No expansive documentation of any single printer company is represented within the records, and there is minimal breadth of material on specific subject areas within the printing field. However, business records, company histories, select historical overviews, and the cumulative examples of printers visual work may provide researchers with a broad overview of the printing industry as well as a visual sampling of the evolution of printing styles.
Arrangement:
Printing and Printers is arranged in three subseries. Records, advertising, and catalogues for proprietorships may be filed under either the first or last name of the individual, researchers should look in all applicable alphabetical folders.

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Printing and Printers is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Printing -- Instruments  Search this
Printing -- History  Search this
Printing -- Technique  Search this
Printing machinery and supplies  Search this
Printing  Search this
Printing presses  Search this
Linotype  Search this
Printmakers  Search this
Patents  Search this
Wood-engraving  Search this
Printers -- United States  Search this
Engraving -- 19th century -- United States  Search this
Engraving -- History  Search this
Printing industry  Search this
Retail trade  Search this
Sales promotion  Search this
Genre/Form:
Legal documents
Print advertising
Business records
Correspondence
Invoices
Trade cards
Business cards
Business ephemera
Reports
Ephemera
Periodicals
Printed ephemera
Mail order catalogs
Advertising mail
Manufacturers' catalogs
Commercial catalogs
Catalogues
Proofs (printed matter)
Advertising fliers
Receipts
Letterheads
Illustrations
Publications -- Business
Advertisements
Sales catalogs
Catalogs
Commercial correspondence
Advertising cards
Advertising
Manuals
Trade catalogs
Publications
Business letters
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Printing and Printers, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Printing
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Printing and Printers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-printing
Online Media:

Awards - PIA Printing (Printing Industries of America, Inc.), 1985

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Office of Visitor Services  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 10
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 14-034, Smithsonian Institution, Office of Visitor Services, Publications
See more items in:
Publications
Publications / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa14-034-refidd1e457

Harris Automatic Press Company Records

Creator:
GSS Printing Equipment Company.  Search this
Graphic Arts Collection (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Information Technology and Communications, Div. of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Harris Automatic Press Company, Dayton, Ohio  Search this
Extent:
6.5 Cubic feet (13 boxes and 5 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photograph albums
Newsletters
Photographs
Blueprints
Catalogs
Date:
2003 - 2003
1889 - 1995
Summary:
Collection documents the Harris Automatic Press Company, manufacturers of a printing press with an automatic feed primarily through drawings and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains photographs of the presses, factory and employees; a scrapbook of presses, 1915; drawings; trade literature and catalogs; the Harris Impressions newsletter; blueprints of the presses; and histories of the company.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1889-1995

Series 2: Drawings, 1896-1929

Series 3: Photographs, 1921-1968; 2003
Biographical / Historical:
In 1890 jewelers and tinkerers Alfred and Charles G. Harris developed a new printing press with an automatic feeder. Their first press was a revolutionary breakthrough, delivering ten times what a pressman could feed by hand. The Harris Automatic Press Company was responsible for many printing innovations during the early 1900s including the first commercially successful offset lithographic press and the first two-color offset press. The company became one of the world's largest and most successful manufacturers of printing equipment.

Harris-Seybold Company (later Harris Intertype) of Cleveland, Ohio manufactured high-quality sheetfed offset lithographic printing presses. The Harris Automatic Press Co. of Niles, Ohio (the original company name) designed and built the first commercially successful sheetfed offset lithographic printing press in 1906. It was sold to the Republic Banknote Company (later became part of U.S. Banknote Corporation) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, shipped on July 26, 1906. This printing press was retired in August 1940, rebuilt by Harris and donated to the Smithsonian Institution. From 1906 to 1976, Harris manufactured thousands of lithographic printing presses in various models and sizes along with various designs of bindery equipment. They were leaders in offset lithography technology. Many of the sheetfed offset lithographic presses presently being manufactured use some form of the early Harris innovations. In 1957, the company name was changed to Harris Intertype Corporation and in 1974 the name was changed to Harris Corporation. At this time the company was comprised of several electronic divisions in addition to the printing equipment divisions. The company stopped production of sheetfed lithographic printing presses in 1976. The corporate offices moved from Cleveland, Ohio to Melbourne, Florida in 1978 where Harris Corporation is still located. Harris Corporation disposed of its printing equipment plants in 1984 in a leverage buyout. Heidelberg (Germany) purchased some of the printing manufacturing plants in the late 1990s.
Provenance:
Collection donated by GSS Printing Equipment.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Printing machinery and supplies  Search this
Printing industry  Search this
Printing  Search this
Offset printing  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Printing -- Instruments  Search this
Printing -- History  Search this
Printing presses  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Blueprints
Catalogs
Citation:
Harris Automatic Press Company Records, 1889-1995; 2003 Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0928
See more items in:
Harris Automatic Press Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0928

A Look at Management and Profits in the Printing Industry

Collection Creator:
GSS Printing Equipment Company.  Search this
Graphic Arts Collection (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Information Technology and Communications, Div. of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Harris Automatic Press Company, Dayton, Ohio  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1963
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Harris Automatic Press Company Records, 1889-1995; 2003 Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Harris Automatic Press Company Records
Harris Automatic Press Company Records / Series 1: Background Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0928-ref39

II. Misc.

Collection Creator:
Muller, Robert O., 1911-2003  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1936, undated
Scope and Contents note:
Notes for sections on: "developing a collection"; "care & handling of prints"; and "print industry in Japan." Other notes and clippings.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Collection Citation:
Robert O. Muller Papers, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Bequest of Robert O. Muller, 2003
See more items in:
Robert O. Muller Papers
Robert O. Muller Papers / Series 3: Draft Manuscript
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a2003-14-ref366

Folder 19 Graphic Arts - Printing Industries, 1969

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Office of Exhibits Central. Exhibits Editor's Office  Search this
Container:
Box 15 of 32
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 90, Smithsonian Institution, Office of Exhibits Central, Exhibits Editor's Office, Exhibition Scripts
See more items in:
Exhibition Scripts
Exhibition Scripts / Series 4: SPECIAL EXHIBITS - ORIGINAL AND EDITED EXHIBITS SCRIPTS, 1948-1978. / Box 15
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0090-refidd1e3878

Printing Industries of Metropolitan New York, Inc., Certificate of Special Merit, 21st Exhibition of Printing, January 14-17, 1963

Collection Creator::
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum  Search this
Container:
Box 1 of 3
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 13-214, Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Awards
See more items in:
Awards
Awards / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa13-214-refidd1e307

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