Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage Search this
From the State of Michigan, ninety of its residents came to the 1987 Festival to speak about and demonstrate some of the rich traditional culture from that region. To help create a festival setting in which performers of valued traditions could speak about their experiences and heritages with performed music, active demonstrations, and spoken words seemed a most appropriate way to celebrate the sesquicentennial of that geographically endowed, historically important and culturally rich state.
Throughout Michigan's history those who migrated to the state have been drawn by - or have themselves introduced - fishing, trapping, mining, lumbering, farming, and automobile manufacturing. The lore of such occupations, combined with the rich ethnic heritage of those who built Michigan, form the essence of the state's traditional culture. Michigan today is home to more than one hundred different nationalities, including the country's largest population of Finns, Belgians, Maltese, and Chaldeans; the second largest numbers of Dutch, Lebanese, and French Canadians; and perhaps the largest concentration of Muslim Arabs (in southeast Dearborn) outside the Middle East. Detroit alone is one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the country. The heritage of these diverse groups - along with those of Native, Euro Americans, and Afro Americans who migrated to Michigan throughout the state's history - give Michigan folklife its distinctive characteristics.
Complementing a full performance schedule that highlighted Michigan's diverse musical heritage, ongoing demonstrations included lure making, fly tying, boat building, Native American quillwork, black ash basketry, finger weaving and beadwork, Dutch wooden shoe making, furniture carving, Afro American quilt making, Palestinian needlework, Ukrainian textiles and egg decorating, ski and sleigh making, decoy carving, rag rug weaving, cherry harvesting & pruning, evergreen nursery techniques, net making, and ice fishing.
Betty Belanus, Laurie Sommers, and Thomas Vennum, Jr. served as Curators for the Michigan program, with Laurie Sommers also serving as Program Coordinator and Barbara Lau, as Assistant Program Coordinator.
The Michigan Program was made possible by the Michigan Sesquicentennial Commission and the Michigan Department of State.
Fieldworkers and consultants:
Dennis Au, Michael Bell, Horace Boyer, John Alan Cicala, Timothy Cochrane, Gregory Cooper, C. Kurt Dewhurst, Stev'e Frangos, Roland Freeman, Janet Gilmore, Alicia María González, James Leary, Yvonne Lockwood, Marsha MacDowell, Phyllis M. May-Machunda, Mario Montaño, Earl Nyholm, Marsha Penti, Roger Pilon, Peter Seitel, Eliot Singer, Laurie Sommers, Nicholas R. Spitzer, Thomas Vennum, Jr.
George Cornell, LuAnne Kozma, Robert McCarl, Oscar Paskal, Barry Lee Pearson, Joseph Spielberg
Dennis Au, Horace Boyer, C. Kurt Dewhurst, Paul Gifford, Janet Gilmore, James Leary, William Lockwood, Yvonne Lockwood, Marsha MacDowell, Earl Nyholm, Mario Montaño, Roger Pilon, Joseph Spielberg, Nicholas R. Spitzer, Benjamin Wilson
Sensational Gospel Tones -- Sensational Gospel TonesAlfred Charleston, Grand Rapids, MichiganDonald Charleston, lead guitar and bass player, Grand Rapids, MichiganJuanita Charleston, Grand Rapids, MichiganRev. Leon Charleston, Grand Rapids, MichiganHenrietta Fields, Grand Rapids, MichiganTanya Johnson, vocalist, drummer, Grand Rapids, MichiganNathaniel Smith, Grand Rapids, Michigan
Sugar Island Boys, Anglo-French string band -- Sugar Island Boys, Anglo-French string bandRené Coté, fiddle player, Ontario, CanadaHoney McCoy, 1904-1988, piano player, vocalist, Sault Ste. Marie, MichiganJoe Menard, 1935-, guitar player, vocalist, Sault Ste. Marie, MichiganTom Stevens, Dobro player, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Bill Stimac & Sons, music from the Keweenaw Peninsula -- Bill Stimac & Sons, music from the Keweenaw PeninsulaBill Stimac, 1923-, accordion player, Houghton, MichiganMark Stimac, 1956-, banjo and guitar player, Houghton, MichiganRandy Stimac, 1958-, accordion player, Houghton, Michigan
Thimbleberry, Finnish music -- Thimbleberry, Finnish musicEd Lauluma, 1921-2005, fiddle player, Chassell, MichiganAl Reko, 1933-, accordion player, vocalist, St. Paul, Minnesota, MichiganOren Tikkanen, mandolin and guitar player, Calumet, Michigan
Yemeni Folkloric Dance Group, Arab village music -- Yemeni Folkloric Dance Group, Arab village musicSaleh Alward, dancer, Dearborn, MichiganMohsin Elgabri, dramatist, dancer, Oud player, Dearborn, MichiganAlsanabani Faris, dancer, Dearborn, MichiganSaeed Masjahri, dancer, Dearborn, MichiganM. Aideroos Mohsen, dancer, Dearborn, MichiganAbdo Ali Saeed, dancer, Dearborn, MichiganOmar A. Wahashi, oud and tabla player, Dearborn, Michigan
Rose Mae Menard, 1901-1988, come¬dienne, storyteller, herbalist, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Art Moilanen, 1916-1995, vocalist, accordion player, Mass City, Michigan
Les Raber, fiddle player, Hastings, Michigan
Isaiah "Dr." Ross, 1925-1993, blues musician, Flint, Michigan
Esperanza Alcala, ever¬green nursery worker, Grand Haven, Michigan
Steven B. Fouch, 1952-, cherry grower, extension agent, Grawn, Michigan
Elias Lopez, 1935-2004, evergreen nursery worker, Grand Haven, Michigan
Damien Lunning, trapper, Mio, Michigan
Judith Lunning, trapper, game cook, Mio, Michigan
Pedro Rodriguez, ever¬green nursery worker, Grand Haven, Michigan
Personal Experience Narrative, Flint Sit-Down Strike
Fred Ahearn, 1910-1991, Flint, Michigan
Burt Christenson, Flint, Michigan
Shirley Foster, Flint, Michigan
Berdene "Bud" Simons, Newport Richey, Florida
Nellie Simons, Newport Richey, Florida
Josephine F. Sedlecky-Borsum, sports shop owner, fly tier, Baldwin, Michigan
Ray Davison, Great Lakes fisherman, Menominee, Michigan
Dick Grabowski, 1931-2006, Great Lakes fisherman, Menominee, Michigan
Charlie Nylund, 1933-, Great Lakes fisherman, Menominee, Michigan
Jay Stephan, river guide, boat builder, Grayling, Michigan
Elman G. "Bud" Stewart, 1913-1999, lure maker, Alpena, Michigan
Jim Wicks, ice fisherman, decoy carver, McMillan, Michigan
Ralph Wilcox, Great Lakes fisherman, fish smoker, Brimley, Michigan
David Wyss, river guide, boat builder, fly tier, Grayling, Michigan
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or email@example.com for additional information.
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1987 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Indians of North America -- Southern States Search this
Scope and Contents:
Contents: Adirondack tribe (St Lawrence River) Old Manuscript Number 3553. Adoption Old Manuscript Number 4007. Refers to Algonquian method of counting -only; see Haas note 2/18/72; Old Manuscript Number 3864. "Alligewi"; Animism Old Manuscript Number 3867 and 2842-c, box 6. Blood Indians, origin of name; Brant, Joseph Old Manuscript Number 3874. Chippewa, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3646. Chiefs, function and significance of Old Manuscript Number 2842-c, box 6. Delaware tribe, New Jersey area claimed by Old Manuscript Number 3866. Detroit River, tribes near; Ekaentoton Island-- see Ste. Marie Island Environment (Bulletin 30 draft by O. T. Mason) Old Manuscript Number 4007. Erie, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3646. Erie and Black Mincqua tribes Old Manuscript Number 3586. [Eskimo] Arctic tribes, leaving elderly and sick people to die Old Manuscript Number 3668. Family, Bulletin 30 draft and notes Old Manuscript Number 4011 and 2842-c, box 6. Grand River (Tinaatoua), name of; Hebrew calendar; Hewitt, list of Bulletin 30 articles by Old Manuscript Number 4066. Hoboken, origin of name; Iroquois, "On the Northern and Eastern Territorial Limits of the Iroquoian people, in the 16th Century," and Algonquian tribes, at Chaleur Bay. Iroquois at Gulf of St Lawrence and Bay of Gaspe Old Manuscript Number 3625.
Iroquois, location of Six Nations tribes reservations Old Manuscript Number 3763. Iroquois false face; Iroquois preparation of corn ("as food") Old Manuscript Number 4009. Iroquoian early dress Old Manuscript Number 3660. Iroquoian "Gachoi" tribe, identity of (Correspondence with F. Bogaskie.) Old Manuscript Number 3816. Iroquoian moon names and concept of time; Iroquoian social organization, and place name-name origins; "Man," Iroquoian term for Old Manuscript Number 3781. Iroquoian towns Old Manuscript Number 4006. Kentucky, meaning of the word; Kentucky, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3840. Lenni Lenape, meaning of the word; Logstown-- see Shenango Old Manuscript Number 3773. Lost Ten Tribes as American Indians Old Manuscript Number 3670. Mayan linguistic family and other Mayan linguistic notes including Quiche and Tepehuanan notes Old Manuscript Number 3473. Mexico: idols, sacrifices, etc. Old Manuscript Number 3807. Mexico: Indian languages. Letter from Captain W.E.W. MacKinley Old Manuscript Number 3778. Missouri, Indian village, location of Old Manuscript Number 3944. Mohawk land near Lake Champlain; Mohawk grammar; Montour family, notes for Bulletin 30 Old Manuscript Number 3812. Muskhogean social organization. Letter from J. J. Harrison. Old Manuscript Number 3891. New England tribes Old Manuscript Number 3513.
Niagara, origin of name; "Old Smoke"-- see Sayenqueraghta Old Manuscript Number 3949. Onondaga tribe, text of memorial inscription to, and correspondence Old Manuscript 4391 and 4271- box 1 (part.) Ontwaganha or Toaganha, origin and meaning of name Old Manuscript Number 3864. Owego, meaning of town's name; Pekwanoket tribe (Cape Cod); Pemaquid, Abnaki word and its origin Old Manuscript Number 89. Piasa bird- pictograph formerly near present Alton, Illinois. Article is similar to that by Cyrus Thomas, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30. Old Manuscript Number 3981. Potawatomi, notes on the name Old Manuscript Number 4034. Potawatomi Green Corn Dance; Roanoke, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3998. Sacagawea, spelling of; St Ignace, 3 settlements (Michigan); St Marie Island or Ekaentoton Island; Sauk, Bulletin 30 article and galley proof, notes Old Manuscript Number 3764. Sayenqueraghta or "Old Smoke" (correspondence with Alanson Skinner) Old Manuscript Number 3949. Scalping Old Manuscript Number 4025. Shenango and Logstown Old Manuscript Number 3773. Sioux, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3624. Society of American Indians, resolutions by thanking General Hugh L. Scott, Fr. Anselm Webber and others Old Manuscript Number 3868. Susquehanna, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3707. Tacoma, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3470.
Thunderbird, notes on Old Manuscript Number 3552. Tinaatoa-- see Grand River; Toronto, origin of name; Tuscarora villages Old Manuscript Number 3998. Wampum Old Manuscript Number 3998. War club with inscription; West Virginia panhandle tribes Old Manuscript Number 3945. Williams, Eleazer Old Manuscript Number 3998. Women, status of Old Manuscript Number 3566. Wyandots (Huron) List of tribes of which Wyandots of today are constituted. Old Manuscript Number 3774.
Photographs relating to American Indian or frontier themes, including portraits, expedition photographs, landscapes, and other images of dwellings, transportation, totem poles, ceremonies, infants and children in cradleboards, camps and towns, hunting and fishing, wild west shows, food preparation, funeral customs, the US Army and army posts, cliff dwellings, and grave mounds and excavations. The collection also includes images of prisoners at Fort Marion in 1875, Sioux Indians involved in the Great Sioux Uprising in Minnesota, the Fort Laramie Peace Commission of 1868, Sitting Bull and his followers after the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and the aftermath of the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890.
There are studio portraits of well-known Indians, including American Horse, Big Bow, Four Bears, Iron Bull, Ouray, Red Cloud, Red Dog, Red Shirt, Sitting Bull, Spotted Tail, Three Bears, and Two Guns White Calf. Depicted delegations include a Sauk and Fox meeting in Washington, DC, with Lewis V. Bogy and Charles E. Mix in 1867; Kiowas and Cheyennes at the White House in 1863; and Dakotas and Crows who visited President Warren G. Harding in 1921. Images of schools show Worcester Academy in Vinita, Oklahoma; Chilocco Indian School; Carlisle Indian Industrial School; Haskell Instittue, and Albuquerque Indian School.
Some photographs relate to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, 1876; World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893; Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, 1903; and Centennial Exposition of the Baltimore and Ohio Railraod, 1876. Expedition photographs show the Crook expedition of 1876, the Sanderson expedition to the Custer Battlefield in 1877, the Wheeler Survey of the 1870s, Powell's surveys of the Rocky Mountain region during the 1860s and 1870s, and the Hayden Surveys.
Outstanding single views include the party of Zuni Indians led to the sea by Frank Hamilton Cushing; Episcopal Church Rectory and School Building, Yankton Agency; Matilda Coxe Stevenson and a companion taking a photographs of a Zuni ceremony; John Moran sketching at Acoma; Ben H. Gurnsey's studio with Indian patrons; Quapaw Mission; baptism of a group of Paiutes at Coeur d'Alene Mission; court-martial commission involved in the trial of Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, 1877; President Harding at Sitka, Alaska; Walter Hough at Hopi in 1902; and Mrs. Jesse Walter Fewkes at Hopi in 1897.
George V. Allen was an attorney in Lawrence, Kansas and an early member of the National Stereoscope Association. Between the 1950s and 1980s, Allen collected an extensive collection of photographs of the American West, mostly in stereographs, but also including cartes-de-visite and other styles of mounted prints, photogravures, lantern slides, autochromes, and glass negatives.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 90-1
See others in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier, circa 1860-1935
To a considerable degree, the James H. Howard papers consist of manuscript copies of articles, book, speeches, and reviews that document his professional work in anthropology, ethnology, ethnohistory, archeology, linguistics, musicology, and folklore between 1950 and 1982. Among these are a few unpublished items. Notes are relatively scant, there being somewhat appreciable materials for the Chippewa, Choctaw, Creek, Dakota, Omaha, Ponca, Seminole, and Shawnee. The chief field materials represented in the collection are sound recordings and photographs, but many of the latter are yet to be unidentified. A series of color photographs of Indian artifacts in folders are mostly identified and represent the extensive American Indian Cultural collection of costumes and artifacts that Howard acquired and created. Other documents include copies of papers and other research materials of colleagues. There is very little original material related to archeological work in the collection and that which is present concerns contract work for the Lone State Steel Company.
Scope and Contents:
The James Henri Howard papers document his research and professional activities from 1949-1982 and primarily deal with his work as an anthropologist, archeologist, and ethnologist, studying Native American languages & cultures. The collection consists of Series 1 correspondence; Series 2 writings and research, which consists of subject files (language and culture research materials), manuscripts, research proposals, Indian claim case materials, Howard's publications, publications of others, and bibliographical materials; Series 3 sound recordings of Native American music and dance; Series 4 photographs; and Series 5 drawings and artwork.
Howard was also a linguist, musicologist, and folklorist, as well as an informed and able practitioner in the fields of dance and handicrafts. His notable books include Choctaw Music and Dance; Oklahoma Seminoles: Medicines, Magic, and Religion; and Shawnee! The Ceremonialism of a Native American Tribe and its Cultural Backround.
Some materials are oversize, specifcially these three Winter Count items: 1. a Dakota Winter Count made of cloth in 1953 at the request of James H. Howard, 2. a drawing of British Museum Winter Count on 4 sheets of paper, and 3. Photographs of a Winter Count.
This collection is arranged in 5 series: Series 1. Correspondence, 1960-1982, undated; Series 2. Writings and Research, 1824-1992; Series 3. Sound Recordings, 1960-1979; Series 4. Photographs, 1879-1985; Series 5. Drawings and Artwork, 1928-1982.
1925 -- James Henri Howard was born on September 10 in Redfield, South Dakota.
1949 -- Received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Nebraska.
1950 -- Received his Master of Arts from the University of Nebraska and began a prolific record of publishing.
1950-1953 -- Began his first professional employment as an archaeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum in Bismarck.
1955-1957 -- Was a museum lecturer at the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum.
1957 -- James H. Howard received his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan. Joined the staff of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys in the summer.
1957-1963 -- Taught anthropology at the University of North Dakota.
1962 -- Chief archeologist at the Fortress of Louisberg Archeological Project in Nova Scotia.
1963-1968 -- Taught anthropology at the University of South Dakota; State Archeologist of South Dakota; Director of the W. H. Over Dakota Museum.
1963-1966 -- Director of the Institute of Indian Studies, University of South Dakota.
1968-1982 -- Associate professor of anthropology at Oklahoma State University at Stillwater (became a full professor in 1971).
1979 -- Consulted for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.
1982 -- Died October 1 after a brief illness.
James H. Howard was trained in anthropology at the University of Nebraska (B.A., 1949; M.A., 1950) and the University of Michigan (Ph.D., 1957). In 1950-1953, he served as archeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum; and, in 1955-1957, he was on the staff of the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum. During the summer of 1957, he joined the staff of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys. Between 1957 and 1963, he taught anthropology at the Universtity of North Dakota. Between 1963 and 1968, he served in several capacities with the University of South Dakota including assistant and associate professor, director of the Institute of Indian Studies (1963-1966), and Director of the W.H. Over Museum (1963-1968). In 1968, he joined the Department of Sociology at Oklahoma State University, where he achieved the rank of professor in 1970. In 1979, he was a consultant for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.
Howard's abiding interest were the people of North America, whom he studied both as an ethnologist and archeologist. Between 1949 and 1982, he worked with the Ponca, Omaha, Yankton and Yaktonai Dakota, Yamasee, Plains Ojibwa (or Bungi), Delaware, Seneca-Cayuga, Prairie Potatwatomi of Kansas, Mississipi and Oklahoma Choctaw, Oklahoma Seminole, and Pawnee. His interest in these people varied from group to group. With some he carried out general culture studies; with other, special studies of such phenomena as ceremonies, art, dance, and music. For some, he was interest in environmental adaptation and land use, the latter particularly for the Pawnee, Yankton Dakota, Plains Ojibwa, Turtle Mountain Chippewa, and Ponca, for which he served as consultant and expert witness in suits brought before the United Stated Indian Claims Commisssion. A long-time museum man, Howard was also interested in items of Indian dress, articles associated with ceremonies, and other artifacts. He was "a thoroughgoing participant-observer and was a member of the Ponca Hethuska Society, a sharer in ceremonial activities of many Plains tribes, and a first-rate 'powwow man'." (American Anthropologist 1986, 88:692).
As an archeologist, Howard worked at Like-a-Fishhook Village in North Dakota, Spawn Mound and other sites in South Dakota, Gavin Point in Nebraska and South Dakota, Weston and Hogshooter sites in Oklahoma, and the Fortess of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia. He also conducted surveys for the Lone Star Steel Company in Haskall, Latimer, Le Flore and Pittsburg counties in Oklahoma.
Howard's American Indian Cultural Collection of Costumes and Artifacts, that he acquired and created during his lifetime, is currently located at the Milwaukee Public Museum. In Boxes 19-21 of the James Henri Howard Papers, there are photographs with accompanying captions and descriptions in binders of his American Indian Cultural Collection of Costumes and Artifacts that his widow, Elfriede Heinze Howard, created in order to sell the collection to a museum.
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by James Henri Howard's wife,
Elfriede Heinz Howard, in 1988-1990, 1992, & 1994.
The James Henri Howard papers are open for research.
Access to the James Henri Howard papers requires an appointment.
Howard, James H. 1962. "Potawatomi Mescalism and its Relationship to the Diffusion of the Peyote Cult." Plains Anthropologist, Journal of the Plains Conference, Proceedings of the Plains Conference 7(16):125-135
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States Search this
Scope and Contents:
Also includes Cherokee history notes; Journal of John Barnwell, Virginia; Miami words from French Traveler of 1804 (this is only a bibliographic reference to Volney-View The Climate and Soil of the U. S. 1804). Ball game (Alonzo de Zurita (Zorita, Corita, etc.), Madrid, 1909; reference to Cherokee map drawn on deerskin (British Museum); Note on Mondongachate (Moneton Indians ?); Creek customs (Travels in North America, in 1827-8 by Captain Basil Hall, R.N.); memorandum re. "double axe question" and specimens from Georgia and North Carolina from Allen Godbey, Durham, North Carolina (1936); Appamatoc sites at Bermuda Hundred and Swift Creek, noted by Charles Edgar Gilliam, Petersburg, Virginia; note on the Arkansas from Narrative of Douey, in Shea, Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi River; note on the Taensa villages, La Salle, etc., with excerpt from Tonti (Margry); excerpt from A Description of Carolana, by Col. Daniel Coxe (French Historical Collections, Louisiana, 1850, re. Arkansas Indians, and the Ouesperies; reference to Mississippi River tribes, from Tonti, in French Historical Collections, Louisiana, 1846.
A poem, in German, 17 stanzas, entitled "Makh-Piya-Luta" (Red Cloud), composed by a cousin of a friend named Alfred Klaking, once head draughtsman of Hydrographic Office. 2 pages. Letter from Andrew Lang, the author, dated February 6, (?), re. clans; mentions the Massim of New Guinea, the Tlingit, etc. (difficult to decipher). Excerpt from report ...of the Scots Society...who visited the Oneida and Mohekunuh Indians in 1796 (published in Collections Massachusetts Historical Society, 1st Series), re. plight of the educated Indian and his inability to adjust himself to either whites or to his own family and Indian environment. A map of "Environs du Fort D'Orleans", published by Missouri River Commission. (Pub. notice of "La Decouverte du Missouri et L'Histoire du Fort D'Orleans, by Baron Marc De Villers).