Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
427 documents - page 1 of 22

John White Alexander papers

Creator:
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Names:
MacDowell Club of New York  Search this
Abbey, Edwin Austin, 1852-1911  Search this
Alexander, Elizabeth A., d. 1947  Search this
Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Gibson, Charles Dana, 1867-1944  Search this
James McNeill Whistler, 1834-1903  Search this
James, Henry, 1843-1916  Search this
La Farge, John, 1835-1910  Search this
Levy, Florence N. (Florence Nightingale), 1870-1947  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis, 1846-1912  Search this
Remington, Frederic, 1861-1909  Search this
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 1850-1894  Search this
Extent:
11.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Awards
Interviews
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Scrapbooks
Medals
Date:
1775-1968
bulk 1870-1915
Summary:
The papers of the painter, muralist, and illustrator John White Alexander measure 11.9 linear feet and date from 1775 to 1968, with the bulk of materials dating from 1870 to 1915. Papers document Alexander's artistic career and many connections to figures in the art world through biographical documentation, correspondence (some illustrated), writings, 14 sketchbooks, additonal artwork and loose sketches, scrapbooks, photographs, awards and medals, artifacts, and other records. Also found is a souvenir engraving of a Mark Twain self-portrait.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of the painter, muralist, and illustrator John White Alexander measure 11.9 linear feet and date from 1775 to 1968, with the bulk of materials dating from 1870 to 1915. Papers document Alexander's artistic career and many connections to figures in the art world through biographical documentation, correspondence (some illustrated), writings, 14 sketchbooks, additonal artwork and loose sketches, scrapbooks, photographs, awards and medals, artifacts, and other records. Also found is a souvenir engraving of a Mark Twain self-portrait.

Biographical Information includes multiple essays related to Alexander, his family, and others in his circle. Also found is an extensive oral history of Alexander's wife Elizabeth conducted in 1928. Correspondence includes letters written by Alexander to his family from New York and Europe at the start of his career, and later letters from fellow artists, art world leaders, and portrait sitters of Alexander's. Significant correspondents include Charles Dana Gibson, Florence Levy, Frederick Remington, Robert Louis Stevenson, Henry James, John La Farge, Francis Davis Millet, and Andrew Carnegie. Correspondence includes some small sketches as enclosures and illustrated letters.

Certificates and records related to Alexander's career are found in Associations and Memberships, Legal and Financial Records, and Notes and Writings, which contain documentation of Alexander's paintings and exhibitions. Scattered documentation of Alexander's memberships in various arts association exists for the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the American Academy in Rome, the National Academy of Design, the Onteora Club in New York, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, Germany, the Ministère de L'Instruction Publique et des Beaux-Arts, the Union Internationale des Beaux Arts et des Lettres, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Notes and Writings include speeches written by Alexander, short stories and essays written by his wife, and articles by various authors about Alexander. Extensive documentation of the planning and construction of the Alexander Memorial Studio by the MacDowell Club is found, along with other awards, medals, and memorial resolutions adopted by arts organizations after Alexander's death.

Artwork includes fourteen sketchbooks with sketches related to Alexander's commercial illustration and cartooning, murals, paintings, and travels. Dozens of loose drawings and sketches are also found, along with two volumes and several dozen loose reproductions of artwork, among which are found fine prints by named printmakers. Many sketches are also interspersed throughout the correspondence. Eight Scrapbooks contain mostly clippings, but also scattered letters, exhbition catalogs, announcements, invitations, and photographs related to Alexander's career between 1877 and 1915. Additional Exhibition Catalogs and later clippings, as well as clippings related to the career of his wife and other subjects, are found in Printed Materials.

Photographs include many portraits of Alexander taken by accomplished photographers such as Zaida Ben-Yusuf, Aimé Dupont, Curtis Bell, Elizabeth Buehrmann, and several signed Miss Huggins, who may have been Estelle Huntington Huggins, a New York painter and photographer. Portraits of others include Alexander's friends William Merritt Chase and Edward Austin Abbey. Also found are photographs of groups, juries, family, friends, and studios in New York, Paris, and New Jersey, and a handful of scenic photographs of Polling, Bavaria, where Alexander had an early studio. A large number of photographs of works of art are found, many with annotations. Among the photographs of murals are a small collection of snapshots of the Carnegie Institute murals in progress. Miscellaneous artifacts include a palette, several printing plates, and an inscribed souvenir engraving of a self-portrait caricature of Mark Twain.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 11 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1887-1968 (Box 1, OV 23; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1870-1942 (Box 1; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Associations and Memberships, circa 1897-1918 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 4: Legal and Financial Records, 1775, 1896-1923 (Box 1; 5 folders)

Series 5: Notes and Writings, circa 1875-1943 (Boxes 1-2; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Awards and Memorials, circa 1870-1944 (Box 2, OV 24; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1875-1915 (Boxes 2-3, 6, 14-16, OV 23; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, circa 1877-1915 (Boxes 17-22; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 9: Printed Materials, circa 1891-1945 (Boxes 3-4, OV 23; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographs, circa 1870-1915 (Boxes 4-8, MGP 1-2, OV 25-43, RD 44-45; 4.2 linear feet)

Series 11: Artifacts, circa 1899-1915 (Box 6, artifact cabinet; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
John White Alexander was born in 1856 in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. He was orphaned at age five and taken in by relatives of limited means. When Alexander left school and began working at a telegraph company, the company's vice-president, former civil war Colonel Edward Jay Allen, took an interest in his welfare. Allen became his legal guardian, brought him into the Allen household, and saw that he finished Pittsburgh High School. At eighteen, he moved to New York City and was hired by Harper and Brothers as an office boy in the art department. He was soon promoted to apprentice illustrator under staff artists such as Edwin A. Abbey and Charles Reinhart. During his time at Harpers, Alexander was sent out on assignment to illustrate events such as the Philadelphia Centennial celebration in 1876 and the Pittsburgh Railroad Strike in 1877, which erupted in violence.

Alexander carefully saved money from his illustration work and traveled to Europe in 1877 for further art training. He first enrolled in the Royal Art Academy of Munich, Germany, but soon moved to the village of Polling, where a colony of American artists was at its peak in the late 1870s. Alexander established a painting studio there and stayed for about a year. Despite his absence from the Munich Academy, he won the medal of the drawing class for 1878, the first of many honors. While in Polling, he became acquainted with J. Frank Currier, Frank Duveneck, William Merritt Chase, and other regular visitors to the colony. He later shared a studio and taught a painting class in Florence with Duveneck and traveled to Venice, where he met James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Alexander returned to New York in 1881 and resumed his commercial artwork for Harpers and Century. Harpers sent him down the Mississippi river to complete a series of sketches. He also began to receive commissions for portraits, and in the 1880s painted Charles Dewitt Bridgman, a daughter of one of the Harper brothers, Parke Godwin, Thurlow Weed, Walt Whitman, and Oliver Wendell Holmes. Alexander met his wife Elizabeth, whose maiden name was also Alexander, through her father, James W. Alexander, who was sometimes mistaken for the artist. Elizabeth and John White Alexander married in 1887 and had a son, James, in 1888.

Alexander and his family sailed for France in 1890, where they became a part of the lively literary and artistic scene in Paris at the time. Among their many contacts there were Puvis de Chavannes, Auguste Rodin, and Whistler, who arrived in Paris shortly thereafter. Alexander absorbed the new aesthetic ideas around him such as those of the symbolists and the decorative style of art nouveau. Critics often note how such ideas are reflected in his boldly composed paintings of women from this period, who titles drew attention to the sensual and natural elements of the paintings. His first exhibition in Paris was three paintings at the Société Nationale des Beaux Arts in 1893, and by 1895 he has become a full member of the Société.

Independent and secession artist societies emerged throughout Europe during this period, and Alexander exhibited with several of them, including the Société Nouvelle in Paris, the Munich Secession, and the Vienna Secession. He was also elected an honorary member of the Royal Society of Belgian Artists and the Royal Society of British Painters in London. His exhibited works sold well, and his influence began to be felt back in the United States. Andrew Carnegie and John Beatty of the Carnegie Institute consulted closely with Alexander in the planning and execution of the first Carnegie International Exhibitions. Alexander also became active in supporting younger American artists who wanted to exhibit in Europe, a stance which resulted in his resignation from the Society of American Artists in Paris, which he felt had become a barrier to younger artists. His promotion of American art became an central aspect of his career for the remainder of his life, most visibly through his presidency of the National Academy of Design from 1909 until shortly before his death in 1915. He also served frequently on juries for high-profile exhibitions, and was a trustee at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the New York Public Library, and the national Institute of Arts and Letters. Around 1912, he helped to form the School Art League in New York, which provided art instruction to high school students.

Alexander returned to the United States nearly every summer while based in Paris, and among his commissioned paintings were murals for the newly-constructed Library of Congress, completed around 1896. In 1901, the Alexanders returned to New York permanently. The demand for portraits continued, and he had his first solo exhibition at the Durand-Ruel Galleries in 1902. Around 1905 he received a commission for murals at the new Carnegie Institute building in Pittsburgh for the astounding sum of $175,000. He created 48 panels there through 1908. During this period, the Alexanders spent summers in Onteora, New York, where Alexander painted his well-known "Sunlight" paintings. There they became friends and collaborators with the actress Maude Adams, with Alexander designing lighting and stage sets, and Elizabeth Alexander designing costumes for Adams' productions such as Peter Pan, the Maid of Orleans, and Chanticleer. The couple became known for their "theatricals" or tableaux, staged at the MacDowell Club and elsewhere, and Elizabeth Alexander continued her design career when her husband died in 1915.

Alexander left several commissions unfinished upon his death at age 59, including murals in Wisconsin, Ohio, and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Elizabeth Alexander held a memorial exhibition at Arden Galleries a few months after his death, and a larger memorial exhibition was held by the Carnegie Institute in 1916. Alexander won dozens of awards for artwork in his lifetime, including the Lippincott Prize at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1899, the Gold Medal of Honor at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900, the Gold Medal at the Panama Pacific Exposition of 1901, and the Medal of the First Class at the Carnegie Institute International Exhibition in 1911. In 1923, the Alexander Memorial Studio was built at the MacDowell colony in New Hampshire to honor his memory.
Provenance:
Papers were donated in 1978 and 1981 by Irina Reed, Alexander's granddaughter and in 2017 by Elizabeth Reed, Alexander's great grandaughter.
Restrictions:
Use of the original papers requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Rights:
The John White Alexander papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Portrait painting -- 20th century  Search this
Portrait painting -- 19th century  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painting, American  Search this
Genre/Form:
Awards
Interviews
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Scrapbooks
Medals
Citation:
John White Alexander papers, 1775-1968, bulk 1870-1915. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.alexjohn
See more items in:
John White Alexander papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-alexjohn
Online Media:

Washington and his Generals at Yorktown, (painting)

Painter:
Peale, Charles Willson 1741-1827 (attributed to)  Search this
Subject:
Washington, George  Search this
Medium:
Oil
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Maryland Center for History and Culture 610 Park Avenue Baltimore Maryland 21201 Accession Number: 1845.3.1
Topic:
History--United States--Revolution  Search this
Portrait group  Search this
Portrait male  Search this
Occupation--Political--President  Search this
Control number:
IAP 19240814
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_261496

Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs

Creator:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
86 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1895-2001
bulk 1898-1951
Scope and Contents:
The Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs, circa 1895-2001 (bulk 1898-1951) primarily relate to Curtis's work on his opus, the North American Indian (NAI), although other subjects are documented as well. The papers relate closely to the Edward S. Curtis papers at the University of Washington Libraries Special Collections (UW), as that collection was donated by Curtis's daughter Florence Graybill and appears to be part of the same body of materials that was maintained by Curtis, and after his death, by Florence. Occasionally a correspondence exchange or manuscript draft is divided between the National Anthropological Archives and UW. Also found in both collections are notes, mostly dated 1951, in Curtis's handwriting on slips of paper or the document itself that gives an explanation of the document.

The collection includes correspondence, research notes, NAI files and promotional material, writings and memoirs, a small amount of material relating to a complaint regarding his reporting in NAI of certain Pueblo ceremonies, and correspondence and other documents relating to his gold mining interests. Also included are papers of Florence Graybill, who published on Curtis after his death and maintained contacts with various individuals and entities involved in Curtis exhibits, publications, and sales.

The correspondence exchanges are almost exclusively NAI related and document the relationships Curtis had with various influential people, including Gifford Pinchot, Joseph Blethen, Jacob Riis, William Farabee, Smithsonian scholars Frederick Webb Hodge and Matilda Coxe Stevenson, and the immediate and extended family of Theodore Roosevelt. Included are letters of introduction for Curtis as he sought to promote his work.

The research notes consist of a small mixture of writings on field experiences as well as maps used during his fieldwork (the bulk of Curtis's fieldnotes and NAI manuscripts are at the Seaver Center in the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History). The NAI files chiefly contain material promoting the work, such as published reviews, articles, and ephemera, but there are a few North American Indian Inc. business records (the bulk of the business records are maintained at the Pierpont Morgan Library). Of note is a lengthy annual report for the North American Indian, Inc., in which Curtis explains difficulties encountered in the fieldwork and volume publication. Related to his NAI work are letters and other materials documenting a 1934 complaint from Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior on Curtis's reporting of certain Pueblo ceremonies, as well as Curtis's response.

The writings comprise manuscript drafts on various topics. Most are short, stand-alone stories relating to his NAI work, often relaying a story about his own experiences. Similar stories can be found in Florence Graybill's papers, as she published some of them after his death. Also part of the writings are drafts for several chapters of Curtis's unpublished memoir, "As it Was."

Curtis's interest in gold mining is represented in correspondence and other material dating from 1938-1950. Most of the letters are between Curtis and his son Harold. Curtis's invention of a concentrator for separating fine gold from placer tailings is also documented in photographs and drawings.

Florence Graybill's papers pertain to writings, talks, and projects relating to Curtis after his death. Included are publication files for Graybill's biography of Curtis written with Victor Boesen, Visions of a Vanishing Race, as well as other of her articles and book reviews. Graybill's correspondence reveals her commitment to assist scholars and others interested in researching and exhibiting Curtis material, as well as her communication with individuals having a commercial interest in Curtis. Also present are Graybill's lecture notes for talks given, and articles and newspaper features on Curtis written by others.

The photographs in this collection primarily relate to Curtis's NAI work (1898-1927) and are a mix of original and working copy negatives, prints, and transparencies. The original negatives are remarkable in that they reveal some of Curtis's working methods in crafting his images through pencil and other enhancements, as well as showing removal of unwanted items from the image. Also of note are two original logbooks used for recording negatives from approximately 1895-1916. The majority of the prints appear to be silver gelatin prints made for reference; however, there are a fair number of platinum prints as well as several blue-toned silver prints in the collection. There are only a few cyanotypes.

Among the photographs is a deerskin-bound photograph album containing Harriman Alaska Expedition and NAI photographs, representing some of Curtis's earliest Native American subjects. These include images of people from the Puget Sound area as well as from his 1900 trip to the Blackfoot reservation. There are no annotations in the album; however, tucked among the pages are a few small notes of identification in Curtis's handwriting.

Photographs documenting other subjects are also present to a lesser degree. Among these are photographs of Curtis's Seattle photography studio, a 1915 Grand Canyon trip, hop field workers in the Puget Sound area, and Curtis's illustrations for Marah Ryan's book Flute of the Gods. Additionally, the collection contains a number of photographs of Curtis, his children, and portraits of various individuals including Theodore Roosevelt and actor Anna May Wong.
Arrangement:
The Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs are arranged into the following 10 series:

Series 1: Biographical information, 1919-1952

Series 2: Correspondence, 1904-1951

Series 3: Research notes, 1900-1930, undated

Series 4: North American Indian, circa 1906-1920

Series 5: Writings, 1906, 1948, undated

Series 6: Complaint regarding Curtis's reporting of Pueblo ceremonies, 1924-1935

Series 7: Gold mining, 1938-1950

Series 8. Florence Curtis Graybill papers, 1948-2001

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1896-1927

Series 10: Duplicate material, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Sherriff Curtis (1868-1952) was an American photographer famous for his photographs of the indigenous peoples of North America. His work was highly influential in shaping a sympathetic yet romantic view of cultures that he and many others believed to be "vanishing." Over the course of 30 years, Curtis visited more than 80 Native American communities and published his photographs and ethnographies in the twenty-volume North American Indian (NAI) (1907-1930).

Curtis was born in Whitewater, Wisconsin, to Ellen and Johnson Curtis in 1868. In about 1874, his family moved to a farm in Cordova, Minnesota. At a young age, Curtis built a camera, and it is possible that he may have worked in a Minneapolis photography studio for a time. In 1887, Curtis and his father moved West and settled on a plot near what is now Port Orchard, Washington, with the rest of the family joining them the following year. When Johnson Curtis died within a month of the family's arrival, 20-year-old Curtis became the head of the family.

In 1891, Curtis moved to Seattle and bought into a photo studio with Rasmus Rothi. Less than a year later, he and Thomas Guptill formed "Curtis and Guptill, Photographers and Photoengravers." The endeavor became a premier portrait studio for Seattle society and found success in photoengraving for many local publications. In 1892, Curtis married Clara Phillips (1874-1932) and in 1893 their son Harold was born (1893-1988), followed by Elizabeth (Beth) (1896-1973), Florence (1899-1987) and Katherine (Billy) (1909-?). Around 1895, Curtis made his first photographs of local Native people, including the daughter of Duwamish chief Seattle: Kickisomlo or "Princess Angeline." Curtis submitted a series of his Native American photographs to the National Photographic Convention, and received an award in the category of "genre studies" for Homeward (later published in volume 9 of the NAI). In 1896, the entire Curtis family moved to Seattle, which included Curtis's mother, his siblings Eva and Asahel, Clara's sisters Susie and Nellie Phillips, and their cousin William Phillips. Most of the household worked in Curtis's studio along with other employees. Curtis became sole proprietor of the studio in 1897, which remained a popular portrait studio but also sold his scenic landscapes and views of the Seattle Area. Curtis also sent his brother Asahel to Alaska and the Yukon to photograph the Klondike Gold Rush, and sold those views as well. Asahel went on to become a well-known photographer in his own right, primarily working in the American Northwest.

Curtis was an avid outdoorsman and joined the Mazamas Club after his first of many climbs of Mount Rainier. On a climb in 1898, Curtis met a group of scientists, including C. Hart Merriam, George Bird Grinnell, and Gifford Pinchot, who had lost their way on the mountain, and led them to safety. This encounter led to an invitation from Merriam for Curtis to accompany a group of over 30 well-known scientists, naturalists, and artists as the official photographer on a maritime expedition to the Alaskan coast. Funded by railroad magnate Edward Harriman, the Harriman Alaska Expedition left Seattle in May of 1899, and returned at the end of July. Curtis made around 5000 photographs during the trip, including photographs of the indigenous peoples they met as well as views of mountains, glaciers, and other natural features. Many of the photographs appeared in the expedition's 14 published volumes of their findings.

In 1900, Curtis accompanied Grinnell to Montana for a Blackfoot Sundance. Here, Curtis made numerous photographs and became interested in the idea of a larger project to document the Native peoples of North America. Almost immediately upon returning from the Sundance, Curtis set off for the Southwest to photograph Puebloan communities. By 1904, Curtis had already held at least one exhibit of his "Indian pictures" and his project to "form a comprehensive and permanent record of all the important tribes of the United States and Alaska that still retain to a considerable degree their primitive customs and traditions" (General Introduction, the NAI) had taken shape and already received some press coverage. With his fieldwork now increasing his absences from home, Curtis hired Adolph Muhr, former assistant to Omaha photographer Frank Rinehart, to help manage the Seattle studio.

In 1904, Curtis was a winner in the Ladies Home Journal "Prettiest Children In America" portrait contest. His photograph of Marie Fischer was selected as one of 112 that would be published and Fischer was one of 12 children selected from the photographs who would have their portrait painted by Walter Russell. Russell and Curtis made an acquaintance while Russell was in Seattle to paint Fischer's portrait, and not long afterwards, Russell contacted Curtis to make photographic studies of Theodore Roosevelt's children for portraits he would paint. Curtis subsequently photographed the entire Roosevelt family, and developed a social connection with the President. Several important outcomes came of this new friendship, including Roosevelt eventually writing the foreword to the NAI, as well as making introductions to influential people.

Key among these introductions was one to wealthy financier John Pierpont Morgan, in 1906. After a brief meeting with Curtis during which he viewed several of Curtis's photographs of Native Americans, Morgan agreed to finance the fieldwork for the NAI project for five years, at $15,000.00 per year. It was up to Curtis to cover publishing and promotion costs, with the publication being sold as a subscription. In return, Morgan would receive 25 sets of the 20-volume publication. The ambitious publication plan outlined 20 volumes of ethnological text, each to be illustrated with 75 photogravure prints made from acid-etched copper plates. Each volume would be accompanied by a companion portfolio of 35 large photogravures. With high-quality papers and fine binding, a set would cost $3000.00. 500 sets were planned. Under Morgan, the North American Indian, Inc. formed as body to administer the monies. Also around this time, Frederick Webb Hodge, Director of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology, agreed to edit the publications.

Curtis then began more systematic fieldwork, accompanied by a team of research assistants and Native interpreters. In 1906, Curtis hired William E. Myers, a former journalist, as a field assistant and stenographer. Over the years, Myers became the lead researcher on the project, making enormous contributions in collecting data and possibly doing the bulk of the writing for the first 18 volumes. Upon meeting a new community, Curtis and his team would work on gathering data dealing with all aspects of the community's life, including language, social and political organization, religion, food ways, measures and values, and many other topics. (See box 2 folder 1 in this collection for Curtis's list of topics.) Curtis and his assistants, especially Myers, brought books and papers to the field relating to the tribes they were currently concerned with, and often wrote from the field to anthropologists at the Bureau of American Ethnology and other institutions for information or publications. In addition to fieldnotes and photographs, the team also employed sound recording equipment, making thousands of recordings on wax cylinders. Curtis also often brought a motion picture camera, although few of his films have survived.

The first volume of the NAI was published towards the end of 1907. Already, Curtis was encountering difficulty in finding subscribers to the publication despite great praise in the press and among those who could afford the volumes. Curtis spent progressively more of his time outside the field season promoting the project through lectures and in 1911, presenting his "Picture Musicale"—a lecture illustrated with lantern slides and accompanied by an original musical score—in major cities. After the initial five funded years, only eight of the twenty volumes had been completed. However, Morgan agreed to continue support for the fieldwork and publication continued.

Starting in 1910, Curtis and his team worked among the Kwakwaka'wakw First Nation on Vancouver Island, and in 1913 began to develop a documentary film project featuring the community in Alert Bay. In 1914, Curtis produced the feature-length film, In the Land of the Headhunters. The film showcased an all-indigenous cast and included an original musical score. Screened in New York and Seattle, it received high praise. However after this initial success, it did not receive the attention Curtis had hoped for, and resulted in financial loss.

Meanwhile, Curtis's prolonged absences from home had taken a toll on his marriage and in 1919 Clara and Edward divorced. The Seattle studio was awarded to Clara, and Curtis moved to Los Angeles, opening a photography studio with his daughter Beth and her husband Manford "Mag" Magnuson. Daughters Florence and Katherine came to Los Angeles sometime later. Curtis continued with fieldwork and promotion of the project, and in 1922 volume 12 of the NAI was published. Also in 1922, Curtis was accompanied during the field season in California by his daughter Florence Curtis Graybill, the first time a family member had gone to the field with him since the Curtis children were very small.

Curtis continued to push the project and publications along, yet never without financial struggle and he picked up work in Hollywood as both a still and motion picture photographer. John Pierpont Morgan, Jr., continued to provide funding for the fieldwork in memory of his father, but with the various financial upsets of the 1910s and 1920s, Curtis had a difficult time getting subscribers on board. In 1926, Myers, feeling the strain, regretfully resigned after the completion of volume 18. Anthropologist Frank Speck recommended Stewart Eastwood, a recent graduate from the University of Pennsylvania, to replace Myers as ethnologist for the final two volumes.

In 1927, Curtis and his team, along with his daughter Beth Curtis Magnuson, headed north from Seattle to Alaska and Canada on a final field season. Harsh weather and a hip injury made the trip difficult for Curtis, but he was very satisfied with the season's work. The party returned to Seattle, and upon arrival Curtis was arrested for unpaid alimony. He returned exhausted to Los Angeles, and in 1930 the final two volumes of NAI were published without fanfare. Curtis spent the next two years recovering from physical and mental exhaustion. Beth and Mag continued to run the Curtis studio in LA, but for the most part, Curtis had set down his camera for good. With the NAI behind him and his health recovered, Curtis pursued various interests and employment; he continued to do some work in Hollywood, including working on The Plainsman, starring Gary Cooper.

In 1933 Curtis was publicly criticized by John Collier, the Commissioner for Indian Affairs for some of the statements he had made on certain Pueblo ceremonies in the NAI volume 16, published in 1924. In September of 1934 Curtis received a letter from Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior regarding the claims published in volume 16, demanding a printed apology to be distributed among the text of the book as well as removal of the offending text from any undistributed copies of the publication. Curtis spent months writing and compiling supporting documentation in his defense, which he submitted to Ickes in January 1935. Also in 1935, the Morgan estate liquidated the North American Indian, Inc. and sold the remaining sets of the NAI volumes and unbound pages, photogravures, and copper printing plates along with the rights to the material to Boston bookseller Charles Lauriat for $1000.00.

Curtis's interest in gold prospecting took a front seat in the mid-1930s. While he scouted for potentially profitable mines in Northern California, his friend Ted Shell and possibly his son Harold sought investors. However, nothing ever fully panned out, though Curtis did design and build a concentrator for separating fine gold from placer tailings. He later sold the patent for ten dollars. Eventually, Curtis settled down on a farm outside Los Angeles, moving later to live with Beth and Mag, where he stayed until his death. In the mid to late 1940s Curtis began to write his memoirs. His daughter Florence visited him regularly and typed as Curtis dictated his recollections, and at some point he completed a draft of a memoir titled "As it Was." He also went through his papers and annotated or tucked notes among the correspondence and other material giving a brief explanation of the item or its context. Curtis died at home in 1952.

Prior to his death, Curtis had been out of the public eye for some years, and the NAI had slipped into relative obscurity. The Curtis studio in Los Angeles continued to sell Curtis's Native American photographs, and Florence gave occasional talks on her father, but it wasn't until the early 1970s that Curtis's work saw a renewed interest. This renaissance took place largely in the art photography market, but Curtis's biography and the NAI were also getting treatment in publications. Florence Curtis Graybill partnered with Victor Boesen to produce two narrative histories of Curtis and his work, and these were followed by many others. Florence continued to publish short works on her father for many years, and stayed in touch with numerous people involved in projects both scholarly and commercial that related to Curtis's work.

Sources Cited

Davis, Barbara. Edward S. Curtis: the life and times of a shadowcatcher. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1984.

Gidley, Mick. The North American Indian, Incorporated. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Chronology

1868 -- Curtis is born in Whitewater, Wisconsin

circa 1874 -- Curtis family moves to Cordova, Minnesota

1887 -- Moves with his father to Washington territory to be joined by his mother and siblings in 1888

1891 -- With Rasmus Rothi forms Rothi & Curtis photography studio in Seattle

1892 -- Marries Clara Phillips With Thomas Guptill forms Curtis & Guptill Photographers and Photoengravers in Seattle

circa 1895 -- Becomes interested in photographing the indigenous people of the area

1897 -- Guptill leaves, Curtis establishes himself as Edward S. Curtis, Photographer and Photoengraver

1898 -- Meets C. Hart Merriam, George Bird Grinnell, and Gifford Pinchot during climb on Mount Rainier Receives first place award from the National Photographic Convention in the "Genre Studies" for his photographs of Native Americans

1899 -- Joins Harriman Alaska Expedition as official photographer at request of C. Hart Merriam and George Bird Grinnell

1900 -- Accompanies George Bird Grinnell to Blackfoot reservation in Montana for Sundance Becomes interested in a major project to document Native American tribes Travels to Arizona to photograph Hopi communities

circa 1902 -- Travels again to the southwest to photograph Native communities

1903 -- Holds first formal exhibit of Native American photographs in his studio

1904 -- Publicly announces intention to produce major publication on Native Americans Portrait entered in the Ladies Home Journal "Prettiest Children in America" contest is selected for publication and as a result, Curtis is asked to photograph President Theodore Roosevelt's family

circa 1904-1906 -- Conducts fieldwork among Native communities of the southwest

1906 -- Meets with J. P. Morgan, who agrees to finance the fieldwork for Curtis's project Hires William E. Myers as researcher and writer for the project

1907 -- Volume 1 of NAI is published

1908 -- Volumes 2 and 3 of NAI are published

1909 -- Volumes 4 and 5 of NAI are published

1911 -- Volumes 6, 7, and 8 of NAI are published Presents and tours the "Picture Musicale"

1913 -- J. P. Morgan dies, but his son agrees to continue to provide support for NAI Volume 9 of NAI is published

1914 -- Releases film In the Land of the Headhunters

1915 -- Volume 10 of NAI is published

1916 -- Volume 11 of NAI is published

1919 -- Edward and Clara Curtis divorce and the Seattle studio is awarded to Clara Moves to Los Angeles and opens new studio with daughter Beth and her husband, Manford Magnuson

1922 -- Volume 12 of NAI is published Conducts fieldwork in California with daughter Florence Curtis Graybill

1924 -- Volumes 13 and 14 of NAI are published

1926 -- Volumes 15, 16, and 17 of NAI are published William E. Myers resigns as chief writer and ethnologist of NAI

1927 -- Conducts fieldwork in Alaska and Canada for final NAI volume with daughter Beth Curtis Magnuson

1928 -- Volume 18 of NAI is published

1930 -- Volumes 19 and 20 of NAI are published

circa 1930-1950 -- Applies himself to various interests, especially gold mining

1952 -- Dies in Los Angeles at the home of Beth and Manford Magnuson
Related Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds additional Curtis papers and photographs in MS 2000-18, the Edward Curtis investigation of the battle of Little Bighorn and Photo Lot 59, the Library of Congress copyright prints collection.

The Archives of Traditional Music at Indiana University holds Curtis's wax cylinder audio recordings from 1907-1913.

The Braun Research Library at the Autry Museum of the American West holds the Frederick Webb Hodge papers (1888-1931), which contain substantial correspondence from Curtis. The Braun also holds a small amount of Curtis papers and photographs, including some of Curtis's cyanotypes.

The Getty Research Institute holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1900-1978), which include the original manuscript scores for the Curtis Picture Musicale and film In the Land of the Headhunters.

The Palace of the Governors at the New Mexico History Museum holds original Curtis negatives pertaining to the southwest.

The Pierpont Morgan Library holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1906-1947), which contain the records of the North American Indian, Inc., as well as Curtis's correspondence to librarian, and later library director, Belle Da Costa Greene. The library also holds a large collection of Curtis's lantern slides, used in his Picture Musicale.

The Seattle Public Library holds correspondence of Curtis to Librarian Harriet Leitch (1948-1951), pertaining to his career.

The Seaver Center for Western History Research at the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History holds collection GC 1143, which contains Curtis's field notes as well as manuscript drafts for the North American Indian.

The Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian holds NMAI.AC.080, the Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs, as well as NMAI.AC.053, the Mary Harriman Rumsey collection of Harriman Alaska Expedition photographs.

The University of Washington Libraries Special Collections holds the Edward S. Curtis papers (1893-1983). Additionally, the Burke Museum holds papers and photographs of Edmund Schwinke, which relate to Curtis's work with the Kwakwaka'wakw community.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts collected by Curtis that were a part of this donation comprise Accession No. 2058745 in the collections of the Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History.
Provenance:
The papers and photographs were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Jim Graybill, grandson of Edward S. Curtis, in 2010 and 2011.
Restrictions:
Viewing of the photographic negatives and transparencies requires advance notice and the permission of the Photo Archivist.

Access to the Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Identifier:
NAA.2010-28
See more items in:
Edward S. Curtis papers and photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2010-28
Online Media:

Greta Kempton papers

Creator:
Kempton, Greta, 1903-1991  Search this
Names:
Truman, Harry S., 1884-1972  Search this
Extent:
1.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1942-1975
Summary:
The papers of portrait painter Greta Kempton measure 1.1 linear feet and date from 1942 to 1975. The papers document Kempton's career as an artist and include biographical material, correspondence, an exhibition file, printed material, photographs, and scattered writings.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of portrait painter Greta Kempton measure 1.1 linear feet and date from 1942 to 1975. The papers document Kempton's career as an artist and include biographical material, correspondence, an exhibition file, printed material, photographs, and scattered writings.

Much of Kempton's correspondence is with members of prominent families whose portraits she painted. Photographs of Kempton are with members of the Truman and Johnson Administrations during the presentation of her portraits. Other photos are of her works of art. Writings by Kempton include recollections of her experience painting portraits of the Truman family.
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of this collection the papers are arranged as one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Greta Kempton (1903-1991) was a portrait painter active in New York City and Ohio. She is noted for her portraits of Harry S. Truman and his family.

Greta Kempton was born in Vienna, Austria in 1903. She came to the United States in the mid-1920s and studied at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League. Focusing on portraits, Kempton's subjects included political figures in Washington, D.C., most notably Harry S. Truman, his wife Elizabeth (Bess) Truman, and members of President Truman's cabinet.

Kempton and her husband, businessman Ambrose McNamara, retired to Medina, Ohio, where she continued to paint portraits for local and national figures. She died in New York City in 1991.
Related Materials:
The Harry S. Truman Library also holds the Papers of Greta Kempton, 1930-91, bulk dates 1946-1991.
Provenance:
Greta Kempton donated her papers to the Archives of American Art in 1976 and 1977.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information
Occupation:
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painters -- Ohio  Search this
Topic:
Women painters  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Portrait painting  Search this
Citation:
Greta Kempton papers, 1942-1975. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kempgret
See more items in:
Greta Kempton papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kempgret

Mabel Alvarez papers, 1898-1987

Creator:
Alvarez, Mabel, 1891-1985  Search this
Subject:
Macdonald-Wright, Stanton  Search this
Honolulu Academy of Arts  Search this
Otis Art Institute  Search this
San Joaquin Pioneer Museum  Search this
Type:
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Photographs
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- California  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- California  Search this
Portrait painting -- 20th century -- California  Search this
Women painters -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Portrait painters -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5410
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211786
AAA_collcode_alvamabe
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Diaries
Women
Lives of American Artists
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211786
Online Media:

Portrait of Unidentified Man

Creator:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Collection Creator:
Sears, Thomas Warren, 1880-1966  Search this
Sears & Wendell  Search this
Olmsted Brothers  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
American Society of Landscape Architects  Search this
Collection Donor:
Tibbetts, Eleanor Sears  Search this
Extent:
1 Negatives (photographic) (glass, 5 x 7 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1930
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Men  Search this
Portraits  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection.
Identifier:
AAG.SRS, Item SRS054014
See more items in:
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection
Thomas Warren Sears photograph collection / Series 1: Photographic Images / United States / Unidentified Locations or Subjects / SRS054: Unidentified Landscapes
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-srs-ref3644

Ebony Magazine Vol.24 No. 10

Published by:
Johnson Publishing Company, American, founded 1942  Search this
Owned by:
Jan Bailey, American, 1942 - 2010  Search this
Medium:
paper, ink, metal
Dimensions:
Closed: 13 1/2 × 10 1/4 × 5/16 in. (34.3 × 26 × 0.8 cm)
Open: 13 1/2 × 20 1/4 × 5/16 in. (34.3 × 51.4 × 0.8 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Date:
1969
Topic:
African American  Search this
Communication  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
United States--History--1961-1969  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2013.201.5
Restrictions & Rights:
©1969 Ebony Magazine. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5dc3d21dd-e4e6-46ff-bf59-0135818baec1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.201.5
Online Media:

William F. Draper papers

Creator:
Draper, William F., 1912-2003  Search this
Names:
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963  Search this
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, 1919-  Search this
Extent:
8.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1950-1993
Scope and Contents:
Biographical information, correspondence, artists files, files pertaining to Draper's comissioned portraits, subject files, writings, printed material, photographs and financial material regarding Draper.
Biographical / Historical:
Portrait painter; New York, N.Y.; b. Dec. 24, 1912, Hopedale, Mass.; d. Oct. 26, 2003, Manhattan, N.Y.; Full name: William Franklin Draper.
Provenance:
Donated by William F. Draper, 1976 and 1993, and by the William Draper estate, 2004, Francis X. Morrissey, trustee.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Occupation:
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Portrait painting -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.drapwill
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-drapwill

Amaylia Castaldo papers

Creator:
Castaldo, Amaylia Chlarina, 1906-1987  Search this
Names:
Fairbanks, Douglas, Jr., 1909-2000  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Linear feet ((on partial microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
[ca. 1930-1970]
Scope and Contents:
54 photographs of portraits painted 1931-1970 by Castaldo; a clipping picturing Mr. and Mrs. Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. posing with their daughter's portrait painted by Castaldo; and Castaldo's resumé.
Biographical / Historical:
Portrait painter; Chicago, Ill. Born 1906. Castaldo studied at the Art Students League, the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere, and privately with Leon Kroll. She was married to painter Paul Trebilcock.
Provenance:
Donated by Amaylia Castaldo Trebilcock, 1982.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Portrait painters -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Topic:
Portrait painting -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Women painters -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.castamay
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-castamay

Romaine Brooks papers

Creator:
Brooks, Romaine  Search this
Names:
Acten, Harold  Search this
Barney, Natalie Clifford  Search this
Bizardel, Yvon  Search this
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme, 1896-1986  Search this
Brooks, Romaine  Search this
Castelnou, Jean-Pierre  Search this
Dreyfus-Barney, Laura  Search this
Gauthier-Villars, Louis  Search this
Lahovary, Janine  Search this
Mac'Avoy, Edouard, 1905-  Search this
Mariano, Nicky  Search this
McClelland, Donald  Search this
Noailles, Charles, vicomte de  Search this
Strozzi, Uberto  Search this
Van Vechten, Carl, 1880-1964  Search this
Extent:
3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Poems
Photographs
Interviews
Scrapbooks
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Diaries
Notes
Date:
1910-1973
Summary:
The papers of painter Romaine Brooks measure 3 linear feet and date from 1910 to 1973. Found are biographical sketches, correspondence, seven journals, writings and notes, printed materials, a scrapbook, and photographs. Most of the materials focus on Brooks' later life while living in Paris and Nice, France and Fiesole, Italy and make little reference to her paintings and portraits.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of painter Romaine Brooks measure 3 linear feet and date from 1910 to 1973. Found are biographical sketches, correspondence, seven journals, writings and notes, printed materials, a scrapbook, and photographs. Most of the materials focus on Brooks' later life while living in Paris and Nice, France and Fiesole, Italy and make little reference to her paintings and portraits.

Biographical information includes biographical sketches and a sound recording of an interview of Brooks.

Personal business records consists of one receipt, in French, for an item purchased by Brooks.

Correspondence is scattered and the bulk of it dates from 1950-1969. About half of the correspondence is in French and includes only a few of Romaine's replies. Notable correspondents include Harold Acten, Laura Barney, Yvon Bizardel, Adelyn Breeskin, Jean-Pierre Castelnau, Louis Gauthier-Villars, Janine Lahovary, Edouard MacAvoy, Nicky Mariano, Donald McClelland, Charles de Noailles, David Scott, Alan Searle, and Uberto Strozzi. Letters make little reference to Brooks's paintings, however some discuss her health and relationship with Natalie Barney. Also found is a small amount of Natalie Barney's personal correspondence dating from 1924-1968.

Writings and notes includes seven handwritten journal notebooks which contain Romaine's thoughts, quotes from poetry and literature, references to museums and works of art throughout Europe, and drafts of letters. Also found is a manuscript of No Pleasant Memories, Brooks's autobiography, and A War Interlude, a book she wrote describing her life in Italy during World War II.

Printed material includes a copy of Natalie Barney's poetry, a poem by Brooks, a large-format copy of Gabriele D'Anunzio's poem Sur Une Image de la France Croisse Piente Par Romaine Brooks; magazines and exhibition catalogs concerning Brooks' art; clippings; and a nameplate for Eyre de Lanux, one of Barney's lovers.

There is one scrapbook which includes newsclippings, the majority of which are in French, concerning Brooks and her artwork from 1910 to 1931.

Photographs are of Brooks, of Brooks in her studio surrounded by her art; prints of photos of Brooks's mother and family; photographs of works of art including a photo of Brooks's portrait on John Cocteau hanging in the Louvre. Notable photographers include Carl Van Vecten and Perou.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1967-1968 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Personal Business Records, 1967 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1924-1969, bulk 1950-1969 (Boxes 1-3; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, circa 1930s-1959 (Boxes 3-4; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1910-1973 (Boxes 4-6; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbook, 1910-1931 (Box 6; 1 folder)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1910-1970s (Box 5-6, OV7-8; 0.3 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Romaine Brooks (1874-1970) was a wealthy portrait painter who lived abroad for most of her life in Paris, and Nice, France, and Fiesole, Italy.

Beatrice Romaine Goddard was born in Rome, Italy on May 1, 1874 to Ella Waterman and Major Henry Goddard. Although born into wealth and privilage, Romaine did not have a happy childhood. Her mother was abusive to her, but doted on her mentally ill brother. Brooks' mother arranged for her to live with a poor family in a New York City tenement in exchange for meager payments, which were later stopped, while her brother and sister stayed with their mother. Later, she was sent to boarding school.

Eventually, Brooks left for Europe and took voice lessons and studied art in France and Italy. Her brother died in 1901 and her mother became physically ill. Brooks returned to the United States to tend to her mother who died less than a year after her son's death. Upon her mother's death, Brooks and her sister became heiress' to their grandfather, Issac S. Waterman Jr's substantial fortune. Brooks then began to lead a life of wealth and travel.

In 1903, Brooks married a friend, John Ellingham Brooks who was a homosexual. Brooks was bisexual, although according to her biographer Meryl Secrest she may have just enjoyed the companionship of living with someone. They lived together for a year until she left when he disapproved of her public androgynous style of dress.

Romaine first traveled to London and then returned to Paris, where she lived in the 16th arrondissement. She engaged in an elite social life and painted many of the friends in her circle. Brooks chose to paint portraits in a gray color palette, depicting many women in male dress. The somber nearly colorless palette and cross-dress of the sitter gave the paintings an androgynous look. One of her most notable paintings was her own self-portrait that represented this style. Inspired by James McNeill Whistler, Romaine largely ignored the Cubist and Fauvist movements.

In 1909, she met Gabriele D'Annunzio and engaged in a love affair. Among her other lovers are Ida Rubinstein, the Princess de Polignac, and the American writer, Natalie Barney. Natalie and Romaine were involved for fifty years, despite Barney's various affairs and other lovers. They shared a home with two separate wings, which allowed Brooks to be by herslf while Barney entertained friends.

In the 1930s, Brooks abandoned painting and created line drawings, which were featured in Bizarre magazine. After 1935, however, Brooks largely stopped being an active artist. She wrote her autobiography in the 1930s, No Pleasant Memories, as well as an account of her time spent in Italy.

During World War II, Brooks and Barney fled to Italy, where Brooks remained after the war ended. Her later life was marked with self-imposed isolation, even refusing to see Barney during her visits. Romaine Brooks died in 1970 in Nice, France.

After her death, Adelyn Breeskin curated an exhibit of her works at the National Collection of Fine Arts (1971) in Washington, D.C., and at the Whitney Museum of American Art (1971).
Provenance:
The Romaine Brooks papers were donated by Meryle Secrest, Brooks's biographer, in 1999. Secrest received the letters and notebooks directly from Brooks's estate and compiled the remainder. Additional papers were transfered from the Smithsonian's National Museum of American Art via the Smithsonian Institution Archives in 1986.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Romaine Brooks papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Women painters -- France  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Italy  Search this
Portrait painting -- 20th century  Search this
Portrait painters -- France  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Poems
Photographs
Interviews
Scrapbooks
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Diaries
Notes
Citation:
Romaine Brooks papers, 1910-1973. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.brooroma
See more items in:
Romaine Brooks papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-brooroma
Online Media:

American colonial painting: materials for a history

Author:
Belknap, Waldron Phoenix 1899-1949  Search this
Sellers, Charles Coleman 1903-1980  Search this
Physical description:
xxi, 377 pages portraits, coats of arms, facsimiles 28 cm
Type:
Texts
Genealogy
Portraits
History
Place:
United States
New York (State)
USA
Date:
1959
Topic:
Portrait painting--History  Search this
Portrait painters  Search this
Portrait painting  Search this
Malerei  Search this
Call number:
ND1311.1 .B43
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_14191

Ronald Frontin : recent paintings

Author:
Frontin, Ronald 1962-  Search this
Ira Spanierman Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Frontin, Ronald 1962-  Search this
Physical description:
[16] p. : chiefly col. ill. ; 27 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
Maine
Date:
2002
C2002
20th century
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Portrait painting, American  Search this
In art  Search this
Call number:
ND237.F76 A4 2002
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_668588

Alex Katz : Maine/New York / [curated by Carter Ratcliff]

Title:
Maine/New York
Author:
Katz, Alex 1927-  Search this
Ratcliff, Carter  Search this
Colby College Museum of Art  Search this
Subject:
Katz, Alex 1927-  Search this
Physical description:
111 p. : col. ill., ports. ; 31 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
In art
Place:
Maine
New York (N.Y.)
Date:
2012
C 2012
20th century
21st century
Topic:
Portrait painting, American  Search this
In art  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_988604

George C. Marshall Research Foundation

Collection Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Container:
Box 40, Folder 38
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1960-1968
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The records of Jacques Seligmann & Co. are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records / Series 1: Correspondence / 1.3: General Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-jacqself-ref9843
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View George C. Marshall Research Foundation digital asset number 1

Isabella Howland papers

Creator:
Howland, Isabella, 1895-1974  Search this
Names:
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Bywaters, Jerry  Search this
Dehn, Adolf, 1895-1968  Search this
Force, Juliana, 1876-1948  Search this
Gershoy, Eugenie, 1901?-1983 or 6  Search this
Greenbaum, Dorothea S.  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Strater, Henry, 1896-  Search this
Watson, Forbes, 1880-1960  Search this
Extent:
1.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketches
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Date:
1899-1979
Summary:
The papers of artist Isabella Howland measure 1.2 linear feet and date from 1899-1979. The collection documents her career through biographical material, correspondence, personal business records, writings, printed material, artwork, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter, sculptor, caricaturist, and portraitist Isabella Howland measure 1.2 linear feet and date from 1899-1979. Correspondence makes up about a third of the collection, with the remainder comprised of biographical material, writings, printed material, photographs, and artworks.

Correspondence is found between Isabella Howland and other artists or dealers. Among these are Eugenie Gershoy, Henry Strater, Edith Halpert, Peggy Bacon, Forbes Watson, Jerry Bywaters, Adolph Dehn and Dorothea Greenbaum. Letters from Juliana Force, the first director of the Whitney Museum of American Art, are present. Many invitations to exhibit are included. The collection includes a small number of letters with Howland's family. She maintained written communication with several individuals over decades.

The biographical material contains Isabella Howland's handwritten notes and typed documents about her life. Some legal documents and financial records are present. The writing series includes her story 'Willy Nilly' with accompanying illustrations of animals, in addition to some other writings. The artwork series includes sketches and sketchbooks from childhood into adulthood. Photographs include images of Howland as well as her paintings and portraits.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Biographical Material, 1901-1972 (4 folders; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1917-1973 (22 folders; Box 1)

Series 3, Writings, 1935-1964 (8 folders; Box 1)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1928-1976 (5 folders; Box 1)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1900-1979 (4 folders; Box 1, OV 2)

Series 6: Artwork, 1899-circa 1940s (8 folders; Box 1, OV 2)
Biographical / Historical:
Isabella Howland (1895-1974) lived and worked in New York City. She drew portraits, painted on canvas, sketched on paper, and sculpted caricature busts of people in the art world. She wrote that she could do anything with her hands.

Howland was born in Brookline, Massachusetts. From her youth she knew she wanted to be an artist. She had her earliest artistic training at age 16. Her art education included time at the Boston Museum School and the Art Students League in New York City. She completed her secondary education in France and Germany, moved back to the United States afterwards, and in 1920 travelled again to Europe. In 1922 she settled in Greenwich Village and spent summers in Woodstock to paint landscapes and still-lifes. She actively painted in the 1920s, and had three shows in 1927, 1929, and 1931. During the Depression she worked for the Public Works of Art Project and the Works Progress Administration. In 1934 she married Armando Zegri, and they divorced in 1937. While they were married they owned a club in the West Village named The Café Latino. She began teaching at a private school in the early 1940s while dealing with some personal difficulties. She found religion which comforted her as she dealt with her mother's declining health and her sister's waning mental state.

Howland had many friends in the art world and regularly received requests to exhibit at museums. She became known as an accomplished portrait artist, and she was commissioned many times to execute drawings or sculptures. She dabbled in writing and illustrating stories, and produced a set of 33 Christmas cards featuring two monks.
Provenance:
Donated between 1975-1976 by Mrs. Martha Craig and Barbara Summer. Three photographs of works of art were donated by Eugenie Gershoy in 1979.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Isabella Howland papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donors have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Caricaturists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketches
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Isabella Howland papers, 1899-1979. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.howlisab
See more items in:
Isabella Howland papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-howlisab

Longacre family papers

Creator:
Longacre family  Search this
Names:
Bolton, Theodore, b. 1889  Search this
Catlin, George, 1796-1872  Search this
Durand, Asher Brown, 1796-1886  Search this
Herring, James, 1794-1867  Search this
Longacre, Andrew, 1831-1906  Search this
Longacre, Augusta M.  Search this
Longacre, James Barton, 1794-1869  Search this
Longacre, Lydia E. (Lydia Eastwick), 1870-1951  Search this
Neagle, John, 1796-1865  Search this
Sully, Thomas, 1783-1872  Search this
Extent:
9 microfilm reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilm reels
Sketchbooks
Place:
Egypt -- description and travel
Date:
[ca. 1810]-1952
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, biographical and genealogical information, poems, notes, diaries, artwork, sketchbooks, photographs, business papers and printed material relating to the Longacre family, especially James Barton Longacre and Andrew Longacre.
REEL P1-P2: Correspondence and papers of James Barton Longacre, 1819-1857, mostly concerned with his position as engraver of the U.S. Mint, Philadelphia, and his publication THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY OF DISTINGUISHED AMERICANS. Letters include correspondence with Asher B. Durand, James Herring, John Neagle, Thomas Sully and George Catlin. Additional material includes diaries, sketches and designs for coinage, a biography, autobiographical notes, and printed material.
REEL 986: Five sketchbooks, ca.1861-1894, of Reverend Andrew Longacre. Sketches depict landscapes, interiors, and monogram designs made in the United States, Europe, North Africa and the Near East. In addition there is a memoranda book kept by Longacre, ca. 1890.
REELS 1046-1048: Letters, including: correspondence between James and his wife; between James and Andrew during the Civil War; and Lydia Longacre's letters from Europe, 1899-1900; and letters from Theodore Bolton to Mrs. James M. Longacre about including James in his book, EARLY AMERICAN PORTRAIT DRAUGHTSMEN IN CRAYONS. Also included are biographical notes on James; an autobiography of Andrew; poetry and writings by James; accounts of a trip to Egypt by Andrew; financial documents relating to James; artwork; designs for coins and sketchbooks by James, Andrew and Lydia and material relating to an engraving of Charles Carroll by James.
REELS 1083 & 1050: Genealogical information on the Stiles and Longacre families; letters from Andrew to his father, James Barton Longacre, and his sister, Sallie, and other family members and friends; a copy of James Barton's 1825 diary; poems and compositions by Andrew; financial and business papers, 1898-1918; 28 photographs depicting portraits of James and Andrew, Lydia E. Longacre and her miniature paintings.
REEL 3091: Two engravings by James after paintings by Benjamin West and a letter from Augusta M. Longacre to Bolton regarding Bolton's biography of James.
Biographical / Historical:
Artists; Philadelphia and New York. James Barton Longacre was an engraver and portrait painter. Chief engraver at the U.S. Mint, Philadelphia, from 1844-1869. His engravings and portraits illustrate several books including THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY OF DISTINGUISHED AMERICANS, and BIOGRAPHY OF THE SIGNERS OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. His son, Andrew Longacre was an engraver, watercolorist, and Methodist minister. His daughter, Lydia Longacre was a miniature painter, pupil of the Art Students League of New York, under Chase and Mowbray, and under Whistler in Paris.
Provenance:
Material on reels P1-P2 lent for microfilming by the Library Company of Philadelphia; Material on reel 986 lent 1975 by Fred Longacre; material on reels 1050 and 1083 lent 1975-1976 by Mrs. Andrew Longacre who also donated the material on reels 1046-1048 in 1982; material on reel 3091 donated 1981 by the NMAA-PG Library.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Stipple engravers  Search this
Miniature painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Engravers -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Portrait painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Topic:
Coin design -- United States  Search this
Engraving, American -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Portrait painting, American  Search this
Portrait prints, American  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Identifier:
AAA.longlong
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-longlong

Historical American Records Survey portrait survey records

Creator:
Historical Records Survey (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
United States. Work Projects Administration  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Extent:
4.4 Linear feet ((on 12 microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
United States -- Economic conditions -- 1918-1945
United States -- Social conditions -- 1933-1945
Date:
1935-1942
Scope and Contents:
Records documenting activities of the Survey to inventory portraits in America done before 1860 in the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
Included are research documents; correspondence; interoffice memoranda; survey manuals; press releases; clippings; photographs of works of art; short biographies of sitters and artists; ca. 15,000 of the original survey cards; first drafts of checklists and catalogs; and lists of portraits received too late to be included in the final version of the catalog.
Biographical / Historical:
The Historical Records Survey (HRS) had its origins in the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and the Civil Works Administration. In 1935 it came under the auspices of the Works Progress Administration Federal Writers' Project and eventually was designated as an independent program under Federal Project No. One. The projects, ideally suited for white collar workers, employed individuals to survey, classify and collect historical records. One program of the HRS was to document American portraits (sculpture, prints and paintings) done before 1860.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming by the Massachusetts State Library, A. Hunter Rineer, State Librarian, Boston, Mass., 1977.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Topic:
Portraits, American  Search this
Portrait painting, American  Search this
New Deal, 1933-1939  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Federal aid to public welfare  Search this
Art and state  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.histreco
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-histreco

Francis W. Robinson papers

Creator:
Robinson, Francis W. (Francis Waring), 1907-1985  Search this
Names:
Burnham, Thomas Mickell, 1818-1866  Search this
Jones, Thomas David, 1811-1881  Search this
Extent:
50 Items (ca. 50 items; loan: 6 reels)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1934-1971
Scope and Contents:
Research material, correspondence, notes, and biographical information.
Material collected by Robinson on 150 American artists. Also included are material on Detroit artists prior to 1900, notes on architects, miniaturists, portrait painting and sculpture in America, and art in Detroit.
A description prepared by Robinson in 1947 of Thomas Mickell Burnham's painting "The First State Election of Michigan"; and a letter from Robinson to Mary Ann Fluesmeier, April 28, 1954, containing information on Burnham.
A letter from Robinson to Robert Price, Otterbein College, Westerville, Ohio. Robinson supplies biographical information on Thomas David Jones from published sources and from memory; he also discusses Jones's bust of Lewis Cass.
A photograph of Clement J. Barnhorn, taken by Foyster, was previously microfilmed under Photos of Artists I and has subsequently been scanned and returned to the Robinson papers.
A letter from Louise Billyard to Robinson, 1959, in which she encloses four handwritten pages written by a friend, Isabel Howland, who describes going to tea with Professor Bernard Berenson at the Villa i Tatti in Florence in 1937. Howland was a student at Cornell University.
Biographical / Historical:
Francis W. Robinson (1907-1985) was a museum curator in Detroit, Michigan. Worked at the Detroit Institute of Arts, 1939-1972.
Other Title:
Thomas Mickell Burnham papers (microfilm title reel 2787).
Provenance:
Material on reels 511-514 lent for microfilming by Robinson, 1973. Material on reel 2787, donor and date unknown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Artists -- United States  Search this
Portrait painters  Search this
Architects  Search this
Miniature painters  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Museum curators -- Michigan -- Detroit  Search this
Topic:
Art, American -- Michigan -- Detroit  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.robifran
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-robifran

Albert Rosenthal papers

Creator:
Rosenthal, Albert, 1863-1939  Search this
Names:
Rodin Museum (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Avery, Samuel Putnam, 1822-1904  Search this
Diederich, William Hunt, 1884-1953  Search this
Durand, Asher Brown, 1796-1886  Search this
Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790  Search this
Hart, Charles Henry, 1847-1918  Search this
Hartmann, Sadakichi, 1867-1944  Search this
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr., 1841-1935  Search this
Houdon, Jean Antoine, 1741-1828  Search this
Palmer, Alexander Mitchell, 1872-1936  Search this
Peters, Harry Twyford, 1881-1948.  Search this
Rosenthal, Max, 1833-1918  Search this
Silliman, Benjamin, 1779-1864  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946  Search this
Stuart, Gilbert, 1755-1828  Search this
Taft, William H. (William Howard), 1857-1930  Search this
Ward, John Quincy Adams, 1830-1910  Search this
Washington, George, 1732-1799 -- Portraits  Search this
Weir, Julian Alden, 1852-1919  Search this
Extent:
2.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1860-1940
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, printed material, and photographs relating to Rosenthal's work, primarily as a portrait painter and collector of American art and artists' papers. Some material pertains to Rosenthal's father, the engraver Max Rosenthal.
Included are: biographical notes and articles by and about Rosenthal and his father, Max; writings by Albert about his father; and reproductions of Albert's work.
Rosenthal's research material on early American art consists of articles on artists, notes about portrait painters, typescript copies of letters of or about early American artists, among them Rembrandt Peale, G.P.A. Healy, and John Rampage, several original letters, including 5 from John Quincy Adams Ward to various people, and one from Ben Silliman to Asher B. Durand, and an engraved copy of a letter from Ben Franklin to Mr. Strahan, July 5, 1775.
Other material includes files on Rosenthal's portraits of French officers who served in the American Revolution; Gilbert Stuart's (George) Washington portraits, 1922-1923; the Rodin Museum in Philadelphia (includes correspondence with Jules Mastbaum, the founder of the museum, and others, 1925-1932); Jean Antoine Houdon's busts of Washington and Lafayette, 1925-1932; Harry T. Peters' book "America on Stone", 1931; and on "Rosen-Thal," Albert's home that was originally the Huffinagle mansion in Buck's County, Pa.
There is voluminous business and other correspondence, 1860-1940, relating to Max, Louis, and Albert Rosenthal's work and to Albert's portraits of Supreme Court Justices. Among the diverse group of correspondents are: Samuel Putnam Avery, William Hunt Diederich, Charles Henry Hart, Sakakichi Hartmann, Oliver Wendell Holmes, A. Mitchell Palmer, Alfred Stieglitz, William Howard Taft, and J. Alden Weir.
Photographs are of Rosenthal's work and of unidentified portraits possibly by Rosenthal; reproductions of European paintings, miniatures, sculptures; and miscellaneous portraits by various artists.
Unmicrofilmed material (0.4 feet) consists of miscellaneous photographs and reproductions.
Biographical / Historical:
Albert Rosenthal (1863-1939) was a portrait painter, printmaker, writer, and collector in Philadelphia, Pa. Rosenthal was a student of his father, engraver Max Rosenthal, and later published a book about him. He is also known for his portraits of Supreme Court Justices, and his collection of American drawings, which he donated to the Free Library of Philadelphia in 1927.
Provenance:
Donated by Albert Duveen, 1959. Duveen collected American artists' and art related papers with the intention of forming an American artists reference facility. He purchased at least some of Rosenthal's papers and much correspondence from the Albert Rosenthal Estate, and subsequently gave them to AAA upon its formation.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Etchers  Search this
Painters  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Portrait painting, American  Search this
Portrait painting -- United States  Search this
Judges -- United States -- Portraits  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.rosealbp
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-rosealbp

John Goffe Rand papers

Creator:
Rand, John Goffe, 1801-1873  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1832-1960
bulk 1832-1873
Summary:
The scattered papers of inventor and portrait painter John Goffe Rand measure 0.2 linear feet and date from circa 1832-1960, bulk 1832-1873. Included are biographical sketches, a will, lists of portraits by Rand, a small amount of correspondence, files regarding Rand's invention of the collapsible artists' paint tube, clippings, a photo, and an example of one of the first paint tubes made in a factory.
Scope and Content Note:
The scattered papers of inventor and portrait painter John Goffe Rand measure 0.2 linear feet and date from circa 1832-1960, bulk 1832-1873. Included are biographical sketches, a will, lists of portraits by Rand, a small amount of correspondence, United States patents for the collapsible paint tube invented by Rand and later improvements, printed materials, a photo, and an example of one of the first paint tubes made in a factory.

Biographical Information includes an unpublished biography about Rand, typescripts of an obituary, short biographical sketches, lists of portraits painted by Rand, and a copy of his will. A small amount of correspondence consists of one letter written by Rand in 1864 addressed to his neice and typescripts of letters written by members of Rand's extended family concerning the artist and his works.

Subject files document Rand's invention of the collapsible tin artists' paint tube and include two patents from the United States Patent Office dated 1841 and 1844. The 1844 patent was for improvements to the tube. The patent applications contain diagrams and written descriptions of the tube. There are also clippings about the anniversaries of the invention.

Additional clippings are about members of the Rand family and a painting by Rand. One photograph depicts Rand's gravesite circa 1930. Artifacts include an example of one of the first collapsible paint tubes made in a factory.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 6 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, 1873-1941, circa 1960 (Box 1; 5 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1864, 1906-1960 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1841-1844, 1941-1956(Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 4: Printed Material, circa 1900 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1930 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 6: Artifact, circa 1832 (Box 1; 1 folder)
Biographical Note:
John Goffe Rand (1801-1873) lived and worked in Boston, London, and New York as a portrait painter and inventor. Rand invented and patented the first collapsible artist's paint tube.

Rand was born in 1801 in Bedford, New Hampshire. As a young man, he worked as an apprentice to a cabinet maker. Although he showed talent, Rand chose to paint houses and signs and found that he excelled at portraiture. Discovered and encouraged by Samuel F. B. Morse, he moved to Boston and by 1828 established his own studio. While temporarly in Charleston, South Carolina, Rand met Miss Lavinia Brainerd whom he later married.

Shortly after their wedding, Lavinia and John Rand travelled to London where John continued to paint portraits. Among those whom he painted were members of the royal family and other figures in the English nobility including Lord Bexley, the Duke and Duchess of Inverness, and the Duke of Sussex.

While in London, Rand invented a collapsible paint tube made of tin for storing artists' mixed oil paints. Prior to this advancement, painters generally mixed pigments with oil in small amounts and stored the extra paint in animal bladders. The tin tube allowed unused paint to be stored and used later without drying out. In 1841, Rand patented the invention with the United States Patent Office. He went on to patent several later improvements. Other later inventions, however, were not as widely received, and most of his ideas were not financially successful.

Upon returning to the United States, John Rand and his wife settled on Long Island where he continued his career in painting portraits. The artist died in 1873.
Provenance:
The John Goffe Rand papers were donated by Rand's great-grandnieces Mary and Katherine Anglemyer in 1981 and 1985.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The John Goffe Rand papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Inventors -- England  Search this
Portrait painters -- England -- London  Search this
Painting -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
John Goffe Rand papers, circa 1832-1960, bulk 1832-1873. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.randjohn
See more items in:
John Goffe Rand papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-randjohn
Online Media:

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By