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Films of the Dixon-Wanamaker Expedition to Crow Agency

Creator:
Dixon, Joseph K. (Joseph Kossuth)  Search this
Names:
Curly, approximately 1856-1923  Search this
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Extent:
2 Film reels (57 minutes, black-and-white silent)
Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Silent films
Place:
North America
Montana
Crow Agency (Mont.)
Date:
1908
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of film footage shot by Joseph Dixon on the 1908 Rodman Wanamaker expedition. Collection also contains associated texts, annotations (recorded narratives), and field notes.

Legacy Keywords: Settlement rural ; Procession horse procession ; Costume bridge cloth ; Ceremonies "giveaway" ; Stores general store ; School Catholic girls school mission school ; Bathing men bathing ; Racing horse racing ; Battles reenactment of Battle of Little Big Horn ; Infants infant carried on cradle board ; Wolf Mountains ; North America ; Montana ; Little Bighorn River (Mont.) ; Custer's Battlefield

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or Anthropology Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Provenance:
Received from Larry Schultz in 1986.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
silent films
Citation:
Films of the Dixon-Wanamaker Expedition to Crow Agency, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
HSFA.1983.06
See more items in:
Films of the Dixon-Wanamaker Expedition to Crow Agency
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc96a5b8276-1e96-4678-bef8-5a0cc212fab4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-hsfa-1983-06

Fred E. Miller photograph collection

Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Names:
Curly, approximately 1856-1923  Search this
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Two Leggings, ca. 1847-1923  Search this
Extent:
2 Linear feet
132 Glass plate negatives
65 Photographic prints
145 Acetate negatives (copy negatives)
148 Contact prints
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass plate negatives
Photographic prints
Acetate negatives
Contact prints
Black-and-white negatives
Photographs
Place:
Montana
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Summary:
This collection contains photographs depicting Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) people on the reservation in Montana. The photographs were shot by Fred E. Miller, a Bureau of Indian Affairs clerk circa 1898-1910.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 132 glass plate negatives and 65 prints (plus 145 acetate copy negatives and 148 contact prints) that were shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 and depict Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) people and their reservation in Montana. The bulk of the photographs depict outdoor portraits of individuals and families. Other photographs depict encampments and scenes of daily life and activities on the reservation. Most individuals in the photographs are identified, including Chief Plenty Coups, Chief Holds the Enemy, Chief Two Leggings, and Chief Medicine Crow. Other portraits depict Apsáalooke scouts from General George Armstrong Custer's 7th Cavalry including Curley, White Swan, and Harry Moccasin. A few photographs also depict portraits of Cheyenne and Lakota people.

Some images are restricted due to cultural sensitivity, such as scenes of burials and ceremonies.

Fred Miller's negatives were often misattributed to William Wildschut who worked as a field collector for the Museum of the American Indian and photographed Apsáalooke people from 1917-1928. Please see the Immediate Source of Acquisition and Related Materials notes for more information.
Arrangement note:
This collection is intellectually arranged into 3 series by subject and restrictions.

The collection is physically arranged according to photo type. The glass plate negatives are arranged in boxes according to size; the acetate film boxes are arranged in a separate set of boxes first by collection #, then by catalog #; and the prints and contact prints are organized first by collection #, then in folders by catalog #.
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in Chicago in 1868, Fred E. Miller learned photography in Iowa and went on to operate a photo studio in Nebraska and Iowa. In 1896 he moved to Helena, Montana and served as a civil service clerk for the Bureau of Indian Affairs on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation and 1898 he became the land clerk for the Crow Agency. Miller lived among and photographed the Apsáalooke people, learned to speak the language, and was officially adopted into the nation in 1905. He also acted in other roles periodically including as superintendent, U.S. commissioner, and justice of the peace.

He married Emma Smith Miller (1883-1920, Shawnee) in 1905 and they had four children Hulda Mignon Miller (1906-1991), Edwin H. Miller (1908-1988), Robert A. Miller (1910-1966), and Ruth Miller (1912-1976). In 1910, Miller left his Bureau position, and tried his hand at cattle ranching in Hardin, Montana. He died in 1936 and his collection of 500 of his glass plate negatives were sold by court order at public auction.
Related Materials:
The NMAI also holds the William Wildschut photograph collection, NMAI.AC.001.033. This collection contains photographs that were were shot by Wildschut between 1917 and 1928 and depict depict Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) people and the reservation.

The Montana Historical Society also holds a Fred E. Miller collection (collection number: MC 434)
Provenance:
Collected by William Wildschut for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1928. From 1921-1928, Wildschut was a field man for the MAI and collected material from Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Canada, and North Dakota on behalf of the Museum. Wildschut most likely collected these photographs directly from Fred Miller in Montana.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4d0049d38-ba7b-4ed9-b967-a977ce05946f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-108
Online Media:

Copy photograph of Memorial to First Americans groundbreaking

Names:
Medicine Crow Chief  Search this
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Red Cloud, Jack  Search this
Two Moon (Cheyenne Indian), 1847-1917  Search this
Wanamaker, Rodman, 1863-1928  Search this
White Man Runs Him, approximately 1855-1925  Search this
Wooden Leg, 1858-1940  Search this
Extent:
1 Copy negative
1 Copy print
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Copy prints
Photographs
Place:
Staten Island (New York, N.Y.)
Date:
1913
Scope and Contents note:
Photograph made from a framed print depicting American Indians at groundbreaking ceremonies for Rodman Wanamaker's proposed National Memorial to the First Americans on Staten Island, on February 22, 1913. Included in the image are Cheyenne chief Wooden Leg, Cheyenne chief Two Moons, Rodman Wanamaker, Crow chief Plenty Coups, Crow chief Medicine Crow, Crow Indian White Man Runs Him, and Oglala Sioux chief Jack Red Cloud. The original photograph may have been made by the Bain News Service.
Biographical/Historical note:
In 1913, department store owner Rodman Wanamaker (1863-1928) sponsored a project that brought American Indians to New York for the groundbreaking of a proposed National Memorial to the First Americans on Staten Island; however, the monument was never built. Wanamaker also sponsored three photographic expeditions between 1908 and 1913, intending to document the "vanishing race" of American Indians.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R82-55
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs collected by Wanamaker can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 64.
Additional photographs of this event can be found in the Library of Congress in the George Grantham Bain Collection.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
This copy collection has been obtained for reference purposes only. Contact the repository for terms of use and access.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot R82-55, Copy photograph of Memorial to First Americans groundbreaking, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R82-55
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw39b890207-c58a-4967-90d4-972c42401c38
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r82-55

Lillian A. DeLong collection of cyanotypes

Collector:
DeLong, Lillian  Search this
Names:
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Pretty Eagle (Crow Indian chief)  Search this
Extent:
7 Cyanotypes (photographic prints)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cyanotypes (photographic prints)
Cyanotypes
Date:
circa 1890-1910
Summary:
Cyanotype photographs depicting outdoor portraits possibly on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) reservation in Montana, circa 1890-1910.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 7 cyanotypes all depicting outdoor portraits of individuals possibly from the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) community circa 1890-1910. One photograph of note depicts Apsáalooke Chief Pretty Eagle and Chief Plenty Coups on horseback. The photographs were shot by an unidentified photographer, but may have possibly been shot by photographer Frank Rinehart when he visited the Crow Reservation in Montana circa 1900.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged by image # in 2 photo folders.
Biographical / Historical:
Relatively little is known about Lillian DeLong. She served as a teacher in New York.
Provenance:
Gift of Lillian DeLong, 1927.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cyanotypes
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Lillian A. DeLong collection of cyanotypes, image #, NMAI.AC.249; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.249
See more items in:
Lillian A. DeLong collection of cyanotypes
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv47c06d45f-fb52-47d4-9644-0f189b7822a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-249
Online Media:

Charles Milton Bell photographs of Native Americans

Creator:
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Names:
Joseph (Nez Percé Chief), 1840-1904  Search this
Lean Wolf.  Search this
Parker, Quanah, 1845?-1911  Search this
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Spotted Tail, 1823-1881  Search this
Extent:
340 Copy prints (circa)
3 Prints (albumen)
333 Glass negatives (wet plate collodion and dry gelatin)
69 Copy negatives
Culture:
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Sisitonwan Dakota (Sisseton Sioux)  Search this
Spokan  Search this
Wichita  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Yanktonnai Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Oto  Search this
Osage  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Iowa  Search this
Palouse  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Prints
Glass negatives
Copy negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1874-1890
Scope and Contents note:
Portraits of Native Americans made by Charles Milton Bell in his Washington, DC studio. Depicted individuals include Red Cloud, Oglala; Spotted Tail, Brule; Quanah Parker, Comanche; Nawat, Arapaho; Scabby Bull, Arapaho; Wolf Robe, Cheyenne; D. W. Bushyhead, Cherokee; John Jumper, Seminole; Plenty Coups, Crow; Rushing Bear, Arikara; Gall, Hunkpapa; John Grass, Sihasapa; Lean Wolf, Hidatsa; Chief Joseph, Nez Perce; and Lone Wolf, Kiowa; as well as people associated with Pawnee Bill's Wild West Show. The collection also includes copies of some images by other photographers, including G. G. Rockwood and F. T. Cummins.
Biographical/Historical note:
Charles Milton Bell (circa 1849-1893) was the youngest member of a family of photographers that operated a studio in Washington, DC, from around 1860-1874. Bell established his own studio on Pennsylvania Avenue in 1873 and it rapidly became one of the leading photography studios in the city. Bell developed the patronage of Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden, who sent Native American visitors to the studio to have their portraits made. Bell also made photographs of Native Americans for the Department of the Interior and the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 80, NAA MS 4661
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Copy prints previously filed in MS 4661 have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 80. These are also copy prints of Bell negatives that were acquired from Boyce and form part of this collection.
Additional C. M. Bell photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4420, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 81-44, Photo lot 87-2P, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 80, Charles Milton Bell photographs of Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.80
See more items in:
Charles Milton Bell photographs of Native Americans
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw31570c7f1-fd23-4311-ba8e-f7c209dc013d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-80
Online Media:

W. Keith Kelley photographs of Hugh Lenox Scott and Plenty Coups

Creator:
Kelley, W. Keith  Search this
Names:
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Scott, Hugh Lenox, 1853-1934  Search this
Extent:
2 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1927
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting General Hugh Lenox Scott and Plenty Coups during a ceremony on the site of Fort Custer, possibly to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the fort.
Biographical/Historical note:
W. Keith Kelley was a teacher at the Crow Agency, Montana, circa 1928-1937. He later became principal of the Haskell Institute, now called the Haskell Indian Nations University.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 78-41
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs made or collected by Hugh Lenox Scott can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4720, MS 4525, and Photo Lot 24.
Additional photographs of Plenty Coups can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4423, Photo Lot 81-7, Photo Lot 86-46, Photo Lot 87-2, Photo Lot 90-1, and Photo Lot 89-8.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 78-41, W. Keith Kelley photographs of Hugh Lenox Scott and Plenty Coups, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.78-41
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw300c325dd-78cd-46eb-95b8-57f5607543b6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-78-41

Division of Physical Anthropology photographs of Albert Attocknie and other Native Americans

Collector:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Fletcher, Alice C. (Alice Cunningham), 1838-1923  Search this
Names:
Foch, Ferdinand, 1851-1929  Search this
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Photographer:
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Extent:
12 Copy prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
French  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Umatilla  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1920-1929
Scope and Contents note:
Mostly portraits of Albert Attocknie (Lone Tipi) and William H. Egberts made by De Lancey Gill and collected by Alice Cunningham Fletcher. The collection also includes a photograph depicting Smithsonian employee Paul C. Natta measuring Native Americans, a portrait of Charlie Saplish (Doctor or Chief Whirlwind), and another photograph of French Marshal Ferdinand Foch with Plenty Coups in 1921.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 81-7
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs collected by the Division of Physical Anthropology can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the Division of Physical Anthropology Photograph Collection 1850s-1960s (Photo Lot 8).
Additional photographs of Attocknie and Egberts made by Gill, including original negatives, can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24 and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional photographs of Charlie Saplish can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24.
Additional photographs of Plenty Coups can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4423, Photo Lot 78-41, Photo Lot 86-46, Photo Lot 87-2, Photo Lot 90-1, and Photo Lot 89-8.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 81-7, Division of Physical Anthropology photographs of Albert Attocknie and other Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.81-7
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ec2ba6b3-ca5f-43d5-ac84-35d5baaecc66
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-81-7

William Wildschut Photograph Collection

Creator:
Wildschut, William  Search this
Names:
Curly, approximately 1856-1923  Search this
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Two Leggings, ca. 1847-1923  Search this
Extent:
183 Negatives (photographic)
21 Photographic prints
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Postcards
Date:
1870-1930
bulk 1917-1928
Summary:
The William Wildschut photograph collection contains 183 photographic negatives, and 89 post cards. From 1917 to 1928 William Wildschut studied the Apsáalooke people through interviews, photography, and the collection of cultural objects. In 1921 Wildschut was hired as a field man by George Gustav Heye the director of the Museum of the American Indian, Wildschut officially collected and conducted field expeditions in Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Canada, and North Dakota on behalf of the Museum until 1928. Wildschuts photographs include portrait style photos of Apsáalooke people, special events, daily reservation life, interments, and encampments. Tribes represented in this collection are primarily Apsáalooke, the postcard collection consists of other tribes including Lakota, Arapaho, and other unidentified tribes.
Scope and Contents:
The William Wildschut collection contains 183 photographic negatives, and 21 photographic prints. The photographic negatives were made by Wildschut between 1917 and 1928. The majority of the photographs in this collection are of Apsáalooke people and their reservation, however the postcard collection consists of over 14 instances of people from unidentified tribes. Wildschut photographed Apsáalooke chiefs, leaders and their families in portrait style poses and his subjects are usually dressed in their finest. He also photographed events such as Crow fair, veteran celebrations, parades, ceremonies, and interments.

The Apsáalooke are a people of the northern plains, their ancestral territory is in Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River. Today the Crow Indian Reservation in located in south-central Montana which covers roughly 2,300,000 acres of land and it is the fifth-largest Indian reservation in the United States. The Crow are known for their horsemanship, exquisite beadwork, clan system, historic war societies, 7th Calvary scouts, prolific chiefs, and beautiful homeland.

Series 1: Apsáalooke chiefs and leaders photographed in portrait style taken between 1917-1928. Wildschut captured images of many of the last Apsáalooke war chiefs who were, at the time, adjusting to a new life on the reservation. Many of the chiefs and leaders Wildschut photographed were dealing with new issues such as the Allotment Act, the Indian Citizenship Act, implementation of boarding schools, and government imposed regulations on traditional practices.

Series 2: Groups of Apsáalooke people in various situations. These photographs were taken at social events such as parades, dances, celebrations, and at the 45th annual Battle of the Little Big Horn.

Series 3: Apsáalooke people (individuals and families) in various situations. Some photographs are portrait style poses and others are casual instances. The Crow, who call themselves Apsáalooke or Biiluuke, are people of the Northern Plains. The Apsáalooke people continue to maintain their language and remain resilient in their cultural practices, they still identify themselves through a clan system, these clans are Ashshitchíte/the Big Lodge, Ashhilaalíoo/ Newly Made Lodge, Uuwatashe/ Greasy Mouth, Ashíiooshe/ Sore Lip, Xúhkaalaxche/ Ties the Bundle, Biliikóoshe/ Whistling Waters, Ashkápkawiia/ Bad War Deeds, and the Aashkamne/ Piegan clan.

Series 4: Photographs of the reenactment of the Battle of the Little Big Horn in Garryowen, MT in 1921. The Battle of the Little Bighorn was fought along the banks of the Little Bighorn River, in south central Montana on June 25-26, 1876. The 7th Regiment of the U.S. Cavalry engaged in armed combat with the Lakota, Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes. The site of the battlefield is located on the Crow Indian reservation which is where Wildschut photographed the re-enactment. This event involved actual survivors of the event and many other re-enactors.

Series 5: Casual photographs of non-ceremonial dances, parades, fairs, races and rodeos. The Apsáalooke enjoy a very social culture, they revel in coming together to sing, dance, and celebrate as often as possible. This is called baasaxpilúua (Celebration). Baasaxpilúua allows families and clans to reunite and solidify their bonds. One such occasion is the annual Crow Fair celebration that takes place on the Crow reservation, on the third week of August. The Crow parade is a stunning exhibition of beadwork adorning people, horses and various types of floats. The beadwork of the Crow people is among the most technically proficient and visually exquisite in the world.

Series 6: Encampments with tipis (ashtáale) and tents. Wildschuts photographs of encampments are on the Crow reservation, Fort Custer, and at the Billings fair (a fair that Crows would go to parade, dance, camp and watch races and rodeos). The Apsáalooke call the tipi ashtáale, which translates to real home. Wildschut was not allowed into the tipi to photograph, there is only one photographic instance where he took photographs of a family in a tipi [N31145] and [N31146].

Series 7: Restricted Photographs of interments, ceremonies, sacred spaces and objects). As an ethnographer William Wildschut spent time studying Crow culture. He interviewed Crow people and even witnessed ceremonial events. Wildschut developed relationships with certain Crows who allowed him the honor of being present when private sacred bundles where opened. In some cases Wildschut was allowed to photograph these sacred events. Not all Apsáalooke people agree with these permissions, however the Crow people understand that those who allowed Wildschuts presence did so for their own purposes. The Apsáalooke come from a living culture and still maintain their language, culture and beliefs. They have respectfully requested that these photographs not be made public.
Arrangement note:
This collection is arranged into eight series by people, events, locations and postcards. Series 1: Apsáalooke Chiefs (Bacheeítche), Series 2: Apsáalooke Groupings, Series 3: Apsáalooke People, Series 4: 45th Annual Battle of the Little Big Horn, Series 5: Parades, Dances, and Events, Series 6: Encampments, Series 7: Restricted Content, Series 8: Postcards.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Wildschut was born Willem Wildschut on March 30, 1883, in Jisp, Holland. He married in 1909 in Leicester, England, and moved with his wife to Trier, Germany, where he was in charge of a cigarette factory. This began a long period during which Wildschut and his family moved frequently between Holland, Canada, and the western United States, usually while Wildschut was managing factories. In 1917 Wildschut moved his family to Billings, Montana where he worked in Farm Mortgages, this work took him to Hardin, Mt. (a small farming community 43 miles east of Billings), which borders the Crow Indian reservation and once served as an economic hub for the Apsáalooke people. William was fascinated with the Crow and began purchasing medicine bundles, war shirts, and various other items from the Crow which he found a market for with George Gustav Heye the founding Director of the Museum of the American Indian. In 1922, Heye purchased Wildschut's medicine bundle collection and hired him as a field man. From 1921 to 1928 Wildschut officially collected and conducted field expeditions in Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Canada, and North Dakota on behalf of the Museum. Wildschut was also a collector of photographs. In the late 1920's he distributed a series of postcards that featured Native American people. These postcards featured his own photos as well as those of other photographers. During his employment with the Museum of the American Indian he was made a member of the Explorer's Club, and published several articles in the Museum's series "Indian Notes". On May 1, 1928, after the death of two of Heye's major benefactors, Wildschut was let go. In 1929 Wildschut and his family relocated to California where he worked for different mortgage companies. 1936 he was transferred to Oakland, California where he remained until his passing on January 7, 1955.

According to letters from him wife, William Wildschut was given a Crow name and was close friends with many Crow people. She also wrote that he believed it was his calling to do the work with Indians, however when he was released from employment with MAI he became distraught and never spoke of Indian people again. There are few stories about William Wildschut that remain in Crow Country, one is that his name was "Xaapaliiashilish" (Bundle Buyer) which is fitting considering he purchased and hundreds of sacred bundles from the Crow, which are now in Museums and Private Collections all over the world.

William Wildschut wrote several book manuscripts during his time with the Crow, three were later edited and published, these include: Crow Indian Beadwork (New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation: 1959), Crow Indian Medicine Bundles (New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation: 1960) and Two Leggings: The Making of a Crow Warrior which was published in 1967.
Related Materials:
Additional William Wildschut papers (WA MSS S-2386) are located at Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, and The Yale Collection of Western Americana, New Haven, Connecticut.

The National Museum of the American Indian holds additional William Wildschut material such as letters, notes, receipts, and objects descriptions in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records, 1890-1989. They can be found in Series 6: Collectors, Box 284, Folder 14 to Box 286, Folder 6.
Separated Materials:
Originally, a collection of Fred E. Miller photographs purchased by William Wildschut were marked as William Wildschut photographs and were included in this collection. They have since been identified by Dorothy Munson, curator of the Fred E. Miller Collection, in Housatonic, Massachusetts, and have been processed separately as the Fred E. Miller photograph collection.
Provenance:
The Wildschut photograph collection was purchased from William P. Wreden of Palo Alto, California, by Frederick Dockstader, director of the Museum of the American Indian, in 1964. Mrs. Wildschut had given the negative collection to Frederick Moore, a friend of the Wildschuts, for his personal collection. However, when Moore's bookselling business went bankrupt the Wildschut images ended up as part of the bankruptcy sale and were purchased by Wreden. Many of the postcards in this collection were taken years after Wildschuts death, these post cards were possibly added to the collection by Fredrick Moore or William P. Wreden.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Certain photographs have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Crow Indians -- Social life and customs -- Photographs  Search this
Crow Indians -- Dances -- Photographs  Search this
Historical reenactments  Search this
Crow Indians -- Montana -- Crow Indian Reservation -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William Wildschut photograph collection, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.033
See more items in:
William Wildschut Photograph Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv46cbc3246-066c-41b5-afbd-6d53cc9620f8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-033
Online Media:

Charles Milton Bell portrait of Crow delegation in Washington, DC

Creator:
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Names:
Keller, A. R. (Augustus R.)  Search this
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Pretty Eagle (Crow Indian chief)  Search this
Quivey, A. M.  Search this
Two Belly (Crow Indian chief)  Search this
Extent:
1 Print (albumen)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
1880
Scope and Contents note:
Studio portrait of a Crow delegation and government officials in Washington, DC, in 1880. Depicted individuals include: Old Crow; Medicine Crow; Long Elk; Plenty Coups; Pretty Eagle; Two Belly; A. M. Quivey , Interpreter; Augustus R. Keller, Agent; Thomas Stewart, Interpreter.
Biographical/Historical note:
Charles Milton Bell (circa 1849-1893) was the youngest member of a family of photographers that operated a studio in Washington, DC, from around 1860-1874. Charles Milton Bell established his own studio on Pennsylvania Avenue in 1873 and it rapidly became one of the leading photography studios in the city. Bell developed the patronage of Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden, who sent Native American visitors to the studio to have their portraits made. Bell also made photographs of Native Americans for the Department of the Interior and the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 81-44
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Bell photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo lot 80, Photo lot 81-56, Photo Lot 24, Photo lot 87-2P, Photo lot 25, Photo Lot 80-18, Photo Lot 80-23, Photo Lot 90-1, and the BAE historical negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 81-44, Charles Milton Bell photograph of Crow delegation in Washington, DC, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.81-44
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw36ae59db6-0102-41a9-bd13-8fa300d629f0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-81-44

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