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Diary

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1944
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 2: Robinson Family / 2.6: Robinson, Franklin A. / 2.6.1: Correspondence, diaries, personal ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d451e306-0493-47c5-8e54-5b55390f8ba2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref166
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Diary

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 39, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1950
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 2: Robinson Family / 2.6: Robinson, Franklin A. / 2.6.1: Correspondence, diaries, personal ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c69fd212-5fa6-426e-8f82-ac71a4266346
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref167
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[Farming and family]

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film (Duration: 36 minutes, 55 seconds, Compilation reel of smaller reels., Camera original; 8mm; Kodacrome reversal)
Container:
Box 26, Item OF475.4 (RV475.3)
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Date:
1965-1966
Scope and Contents:
1. Summer, farming, children, 1964

Place: Ferndale Farm, Brandywine, Maryland, John Deere Farm, T.B., Maryland

Persons: Franklin A. Robinson, Sr. (planting corn), Robert D. Robinson, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., Robert M. Via, A. Theresa Robinson

Cinematographer: Adina M. Robinson

2. Christmas, Theresa first walking, Reel #1, 1964

Place: Ferndale Farm, Brandywine, Maryland

Persons: A. Theresa Robinson, Elizabeth B. Robinson, Robert D. Robinson, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., Virginia W. Via, Robert M. Via, Adina V. Robinson, (skirt in NMAH costume collection)

Cinematographer: Adina and Franklin Robinson

3. Christmas Reel #2, 1964

See above.

4. Easter, Mr. Brown's place [Serenity Farm] with our [Robinson] corn, 1965

Place: Ferndale Farm, Brandywine, Maryland, Via Farm Calvert County, Maryland, Serenity Farm, Benedict, Maryland

Persons: Robert D. Robinson, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., A. Theresa Robinson, Ida Virginia Via, Adina M. Robinson

Cinematographer: Franklin and Adina Robinson

5. Washington D.C. scenes and Franklin's 6th birthday party, 1965

Place: Washington, D.C., Ferndale Farm, Brandywine, Maryland

Persons: Carla Laurent, Adina M. Robinson, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., family and friends

Cinematographer: Franklin A. Robinson

6. Franklin's 6th birthday party, 1965

Place: Ferndale Farm, Brandywine, Maryland

Persons: Franklin A. Robinson, Jr. birthday party, family and friends

Cinematographer: Franklin A. Robinson

7. Christmas, 1965,

Place: Ferndale Farm, Brandywine, Maryland

Persons: A. Theresa Robinson, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., Robert D. Robinson, Ida Virginia Via, Gloria J. Via

Cinematographer: Franklin and Adina Robinson

8. Christmas and snowstorm, 1965-1966

Place: Ferndale Farm, Brandywine, Maryland

Persons: See above.

Cinematographer: Franklin and Adina Robinson
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 7: Audiovisual / 7.1: Family and farming
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d8b48df1-7aa3-4185-8b8c-71f6095a4be3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref353

Seed and plants

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 72, Folder 27
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1965
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 1: Ferndale Farm (Potomac Landing), Prince George's County, Maryland / 1.4: Farm papers, income and expense
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ba539f01-002b-46fc-99a4-560d8b9c3981
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref1630

Seed and plants

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 74, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1966
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 1: Ferndale Farm (Potomac Landing), Prince George's County, Maryland / 1.5: Farm papers, income and expense
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88e8de211-0ed8-47af-82cf-81b2936ac0a8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref1663

Seed and plants

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 75, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1967
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 1: Ferndale Farm (Potomac Landing), Prince George's County, Maryland / 1.6: Farm papers, income and expense
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83f6db082-82ff-4103-938e-bd7b6111e7c4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref1693

Fertilizer, lime, plants, and seed

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 52, Folder 8
Box 52, Folder 8, 22
Box 51, Folder 9, 20
Box 49, Folder 7
Box 51, Folder 20
Box 53, Folder 8-9, 20
Box 50, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1960-1964
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 1: Ferndale Farm (Potomac Landing), Prince George's County, Maryland / 1.3: Farm Papers, income and expense
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e36d4696-5ed9-48b4-97a2-f1f914a321dc
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref914

Conner, Mary Robinson, diaries

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 64, Folder 1-4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1943-1957
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 2: Robinson Family / 2.5: Conner, Mary Robinson
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f819162c-7555-4912-9bb4-e97e9e9d4d2c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref988
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Diary

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1926
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 2: Robinson Family / 2.3: Robinson, Frank A.
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84cfeef02-beb2-4607-aa01-532ed0d558f2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref99
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The Garden Club of America collection

Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Names:
New York Flower Show  Search this
Extent:
37,000 Slides (35mm slides)
33 Linear feet ((garden files))
3,000 Lantern slides
37,000 Slides (35mm slides)
33 Linear feet ((garden files))
3,000 Lantern slides
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides
Lantern slides
Plans (drawings)
Brochures
Articles
Correspondence
Clippings
Slides (photographs)
Date:
circa 1920-present
Summary:
This collection contains over 37,000 35mm slides, 3,000 glass lantern slides and garden files that may include descriptive information, photocopied articles (from journals, newspapers, or books), planting lists, correspondence, brochures, landscape plans and drawings. Garden files were compiled by Garden Club of America (GCA) members for most of the gardens included in the collection. Some gardens have been photographed over the course of several decades; others only have images from a single point in time. In addition to images of American gardens, there are glass lantern slides of the New York Flower Show (1941-1951) and trips that GCA members took to other countries, including Mexico (1937), Italy, Spain, Japan (1935), France (1936), England (1929), and Scotland.

A number of the slides are copies of historic images from outside repositories including horticultural and historical societies or from horticultural books and publications. The GCA made a concerted effort in the mid-1980s to acquire these images in order to increase its documentation of American garden history. Because of copyright considerations, use of these particular images may be restricted.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Garden Club of America was established in 1913 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when the Garden Club of Philadelphia and eleven other garden clubs met to create a national garden club. Its purpose is to foster the knowledge and love of gardening and to restore and protect the quality of the environment through educational programs and gardening and conservation efforts. The GCA was incorporated in Delaware in 1923, with its headquarters established in New York City. Today, local clubs are organized under twelve regional zones. The GCA continues its tradition of hosting flower shows and publishing material related to gardening in the United States.

The GCA's glass lantern slides were used by The GCA for presentations and lectures about notable gardens throughout the United States dating back to colonial times. An effort was made in the late 1980s, in preparation of the 75th anniversary of the Garden Club of America's founding, to collect the disbursed slides. These slides were to eventually form the Slide Library of Notable American Parks and Gardens. The informational value of this collection is extensive since a number of images of the more than 4,500 gardens represented show garden designs that have changed over time or no longer exist. While the majority of images document a range of designed upper and upper-middle class gardens throughout the U.S., the scope of the collection is expanding as volunteers photograph and document contemporary gardens including community and vernacular gardens.

The gardens illustrate the design work of dozens of landscape architects including Marian Coffin, Beatrix Farrand, Lawrence Halprin, Hare & Hare, Umberto Innocenti, Gertrude Jekyll, Jens Jensen, Warren Manning, the Olmsted Brothers, Charles Platt, Ellen Biddle Shipman, and Fletcher Steele. Because of their proximity to the gardens, works of notable architects and sculptors may also be featured in the images.
Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- France  Search this
Gardens -- Italy  Search this
Gardens -- Japan  Search this
Gardens -- Mexico  Search this
Flower shows  Search this
Gardening -- United States -- societies, etc  Search this
Gardens -- England  Search this
Landscape architecture  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- Spain  Search this
Gardens -- Scotland  Search this
Genre/Form:
Plans (drawings)
Brochures
Articles
Correspondence
Clippings
Lantern slides
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb617385372-1028-4cb7-b07d-04fea2e51c47
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-gca
Online Media:

Lucerne, Switzerland -- hotel garden

Collection Donor:
Hiller, John  Search this
Extent:
1 Autochromes (photographs)
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Autochromes (photographs)
Date:
circa 1910-1920
General:
The hotel has not been identified.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Shade trees  Search this
Outdoor furniture  Search this
Umbrellas (garden)  Search this
Lawns  Search this
Chairs  Search this
Climbing plants  Search this
Palms  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, John Hiller lantern slide collection.
Identifier:
AAG.HLR, Item HLR156
See more items in:
John Hiller lantern slide collection
John Hiller lantern slide collection / Series 1: Gardens and Sites / Switzerland
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6b57224ac-13be-438e-82eb-f603449267a2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-hlr-ref604

Leo H. Baekeland Papers

Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Names:
Bakelite Corporation  Search this
Nepera Chemical Co.  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (49 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Professional papers
Clippings
Laboratory notes
Personal correspondence
Photographs
Notebooks
Diaries
Date:
1976
1863 - 1968
Summary:
The papers document Leo H. Baekeland, a Belgian born chemist who invented Velox photographic paper (1893) and Bakelite (1907), an inexpensive, nonflammable, versatile plastic. The papers include student notebooks; private laboratory notebooks and journals; commercial laboratory notes; diaries; patents; technical papers; biographies; newspaper clippings; maps; graphs; blueprints; account books; batch books; formula books; order books; photographs; and correspondence regarding Baekeland, 1887-1943.
Scope and Contents:
Baekeland documented his life prolifically through diaries, laboratory notebooks, photographs, and correspondence. These constitute the bulk of the collection. The Bakelite company history is also incompletely documented in this collection through Baekeland's correspondence, the commercial laboratory notebooks, and some company ledgers.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Reference Materials, 1863-1868 and undated

Subseries 1.1: Biographical, 1880-1965

Subseries 1.2:Company History, 1910-1961

Subseries 1.3: Related Interests, 1863-1968 and undated

Series 2: Published and Unpublished Writings (by Leo H. Baekeland), 1884-1945

Series 3: Correspondence, 1888-1963 Subseries 3.1: Personal Correspondence, 1916-1943

Subseries 3.2: Charitable Donations, 1916-1938

Subseries 3.3: Family Correspondence, 1888-1963

Subseries 3.4: Clubs and Associations, 1916-1943

Series 4: Diaries, 1907-1943

Series 5: Reading and Lecture Notes, 1878-1886

Series 6, Laboratory Notebooks, 1893-1915

Series 7: Commercial Laboratory Notebooks, 1910-1920

Series 8: Bakelite Company, 1887-1945

Series 9, Patents, 1894-1940

Series 10: Bakelite Corporation Ledgers, 1910-1924; 1935; 1939

Series 11: Photographs, 1889-1950 and undated

Subseries 11.1: Photographs, 1889-1950 and undated

Subseries 11.2: Film Negatives, 1900-1941 and undated

Subseries 11.3: Photoprints, 1894-1941

Subseries 11.4: Stereographs, 1888-1902 and undated

Subseries 11.5: Film and Glass Plate Negatives, 1899-1900 and undated

Series 12: Audio Materials, 1976
Biographical / Historical:
Leo Hendrik Baekeland was an industrial chemist famous for his invention of Bakelite, the first moldable synthetic polymer, and for his invention of Velox photographic paper. Baekeland's career as an inventor and innovator was punctuated by an urge to improve existing technologies and a willingness to experiment both meticulously and daringly. Born in Ghent, Belgium in 1863, Baekeland was a distinguished chemistry student and became a young professor at the University of Ghent. He had a long standing interest in photography and sought to further photographic technology with his expertise in chemistry. In 1887 he obtained his first patent for a dry plate which contained its own developer and could be developed in a tray of water. With the support of a business partner/faculty associate, Jules Guequier, he formed a company named Baekeland et Cie to produce the plate, but the venture failed due to lack of capital.

On August 8, 1889, he married Celine Swarts, daughter of his academic mentor Theodore Swarts, Dean of the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Ghent. After his wedding he travelled to different countries using a traveling scholarship he had been awarded two years previously. His travels ended in the United States where he was offered a job researching chemical problems associated with manufacturing bromide papers and films with A. and H.T. Anthony and Company, a photographic supply producer. Leo and Celine Baekeland had three children: George, Nina and Jenny (1890-1895).

He left Anthony and Company in 1891 to be a consulting chemist. During that time he invented a photographic print paper using silver chloride which could be developed in artificial light instead of sunlight and thus offered more flexibility and consistency to photographers. In 1893, with financial support from Leonard Jacobi, a scrap metal dealer from San Francisco, he formed the Nepera Chemical Company in Yonkers, New York, to manufacture "gaslight" paper under the trade name Velox. The paper became quite popular and the company expanded its operations after its first three years. Finally, George Eastman bought the company for a reported $750,000 which afforded Baekeland the time to conduct his own research in a laboratory he set up on his estate, "Snug Rock," in Yonkers.

Baekeland worked on problems of electrolysis of salt and the production of synthetic resins. He was hired as a consultant to work with Clinton P. Townsend to perfect Townsend's patented electrolytic cell. Baekeland's work there contributed to the success of the Hooke Electrochemical Company which began in operations in Niagara Falls in 1905.

Simultaneously, in 1902 Baekeland began researching reactions of phenol and formaldehyde, and by 1907 was able to control the reactions and produce a moldable plastic (oxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride) which he named Bakelite. Although the process was not perfected for another couple of years, Baekeland applied for a patent for Bakelite right away. He announced his discovery to the scientific community in 1909, and in 1910 formed the General Bakelite Company. Bakelite was a thermosetting resin that, unlike Celluloid became permanently solid when heated. It was virtually impervious to heat, acids, or caustic substances. It could be molded into a wide variety of shapes and was an excellent electric insulator that came to replace hard rubber and amber for electrical and industrial applications. It was also suitable for a wide variety of consumer products such as billiard balls, jewelry, pot handles, telephones, toasters, electric plugs, and airplane instrument knobs. Two companies challenged Bakelite with significant competition, Condensite Corporation of America and Redmanol Chemical Products Company. Bakelite finally merged with these two companies in 1922 to become the Bakelite Corporation. Union Carbide finally bought the corporation in 1939.

Baekeland sustained his interest in photography by taking numerous photographs throughout his lifetime. He also devoted much of his spare time to professional societies and received various honorary degrees and awards such as the Perkin Medal. He had several hobbies such as boating, wine and beer making, and, exotic plants. He also traveled extensively throughout the world, which is documented in his diaries and photographs.

Baekeland spent his final years mostly in his Coconut Grove, Florida home where he became increasingly eccentric until his mind failed him and he was institutionalized. He died in 1943 at the age of eighty.

Scope and Content: Baekeland documented his life prolifically through diaries, laboratory notebooks, photographs, and correspondence. These constitute the bulk of the collection. The Bakelite company history is also incompletely documented in this collection through Baekeland's correspondence, the commercial laboratory notebooks, and some company ledgers.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Albany Billiard Ball Company Records (AC0011)

Celluloid Corporation Records (AC0009)

J. Harry DuBois Collection on the History of Plastics (AC0008)

Materials at Other Organizations

The Hagley Museum and Library, Manuscripts and Archives Department in Delaware also several related collections including: the Directors of Industrial Research Records, 1929 -982; the Du Pont Viscoloid Company, Survey of the Plastics Field, 1932; The Society of the Plastics Industry, 1937-1987; the Roy J. Plunkett Collection, 1910-1994 (inventor of Teflon); and the Gordon M. Kline Collection, 1903.
Separated Materials:
The National Museum of American History, Division Medicine and Science has several artifacts associated with Baekeland including the original "Bakalizer" the apparatus in which Bakelite was first made. See accession numbers: 1977.0368; 1979.1179; 1981.0976; 1982.0034; 1983.0524; 1984.0138.
Provenance:
The bulk of the collection was donated to the National Museum of American History's Division of Physical Sciences in November, 1981, by Celine Karraker, Leo H. Baekeland's granddaughter.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Phenolic resins  Search this
Travel -- Photographs  Search this
Chemists -- 1880-1970  Search this
Inventors -- 1880-1970  Search this
Plastics -- 1880-1970  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Professional papers -- 1880-1970
Clippings -- 1880-1970
Laboratory notes
Personal correspondence -- 1880-1970
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th-20th century
Notebooks -- 1880-1970
Diaries -- 1880-1970
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Nitrate -- 19th-20th century
Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0005
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep846e88df6-033d-4805-99e2-b308002a75f4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0005
Online Media:

Nicoraepoa

Author:
Finot, Victor L.  Search this
Soreng, Robert J.  Search this
Giussani, Lililana M.  Search this
Romina, Muñoz  Search this
Editor:
Finot, Victor L.  Search this
Series_editor:
Rodriguez Rios, Roberto  Search this
Marticorena Garri, Alicia  Search this
Translator:
Peterson, Paul M.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Year:
2022
Citation:
Finot, Victor L., Soreng, Robert J., Giussani, Lililana M., and Romina, Muñoz. 2022. "Nicoraepoa." In Poaceae (I-Z). Finot, Victor L., editor. 721–732. Concepcion: Universidad de Concepcion. In Flora de Chile, 6 (1).
Identifier:
167460
Series Standard Number:
978-956-227-526-2
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries and Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:slasro_167460

Poa L.

Author:
Finot, Victor L.  Search this
Giussani, Lililana M.  Search this
Soreng, Robert J.  Search this
Editor:
Finot, Victor L.  Search this
Series_editor:
Rodriguez Rios, Roberto  Search this
Marticorena Garri, Alicia  Search this
Translator:
Peterson, Paul M.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Year:
2022
Citation:
Finot, Victor L., Giussani, Lililana M., and Soreng, Robert J. 2022. "Poa L." In Poaceae (I-Z). Finot, Victor L., editor. 821–916. Concepcion: Universidad de Concepcion. In Flora de Chile, 6 (1).
Identifier:
167461
Series Standard Number:
978-956-227-526-2
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries and Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:slasro_167461

Studies of South American plants, XIII

Author:
Smith, A. C.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Year:
1953
Citation:
Smith, A. C. 1953. "Studies of South American plants, XIII." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 43 203–212.
Identifier:
121938
ISSN:
0043-0439
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries and Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:slasro_121938

Eragrostis

Author:
Peterson, Paul M.  Search this
Editor:
Barkworth, Mary E.  Search this
Capels, K. M.  Search this
Long, S.  Search this
Piep, M. B.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Year:
2003
Citation:
Peterson, Paul M. 2003. "Eragrostis." In Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. Flora of North America North of Mexico, volume 25. Barkworth, Mary E., Capels, K. M., Long, S., and Piep, M. B., editors. 65–105. Oxford University Press.
Identifier:
21959
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries and Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:slasro_21959

Ramon Ayala

Artist:
Jeff Wilson, born Aug 1975  Search this
Sitter:
Ramon Ayala, born 8 Dec 1945  Search this
Medium:
Inkjet print
Dimensions:
Image: 45.7 x 37.1 cm (18 x 14 5/8")
Sheet: 50.8 x 40.6 cm (20 x 16")
Mat: 71.1 x 55.9 cm (28 x 22")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
2004 (printed 2011)
Topic:
Exterior\Landscape\Rural  Search this
Nature & Environment\Plant\Tree  Search this
Music\Musical instrument\Accordion  Search this
Ramon Ayala: Male  Search this
Ramon Ayala: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician  Search this
Ramon Ayala: Grammy  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Bill and Sally Wittliff
Object number:
C/NPG.2011.29
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Jeff Wilson
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm486da5a09-a720-4897-b202-011822c15695
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_C_NPG.2011.29

Barbara Streisand, Central Park, New York

Artist:
Harry Benson, born 02 Dec 1929  Search this
Sitter:
Barbra Streisand, born 24 Apr 1942  Search this
Dimensions:
Frame: 65.7 x 78.4cm (25 7/8 x 30 7/8")
Type:
Photograph
Place:
United States\New York\Kings\New York
Date:
1966
Topic:
Nature & Environment\Plant\Tree  Search this
Equipment\Sound Devices\Microphone  Search this
Exterior\Park  Search this
Human Figures\Policeman  Search this
Human Figures\Crowd  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Female  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Performing Arts\Director\Motion pictures  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Performing Arts\Producer\Motion pictures  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Society and Social Change\Philanthropist  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Popular  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Oscar  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Peabody Award  Search this
Barbra Streisand: Grammy  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Harry Benson Ltd.
Object number:
EXH.HB.024
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Harry Benson Ltd. All rights reserved
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4b95f0094-13ca-4e78-8449-f6dea9a49a57
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_EXH.HB.024

Dinah Washington

Artist:
Morgan Monceaux, 9 May 1955 - 31 May 2017  Search this
Sitter:
Dinah Washington, 8 August 1924 - 14 December 1963  Search this
Medium:
Mixed media: black marker, pastel, tempera-type paint, fabric, metal, plastic, glass, adhesive, and graphite on paper
Dimensions:
Sheet: 104.5 x 79.2cm (41 1/8 x 31 3/16")
Type:
Collage
Date:
1992-94
Topic:
Costume\Jewelry\Necklace  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Earring  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Ring  Search this
Nature & Environment\Plant\Flower  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Bracelet  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Headdress\Tiara  Search this
Dinah Washington: Female  Search this
Dinah Washington: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer  Search this
Dinah Washington: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Popular  Search this
Dinah Washington: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Jazz  Search this
Dinah Washington: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Singer\Rhythm and Blues  Search this
Dinah Washington: Grammy  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2003.79
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Morgan Monceaux / Artists Rights Society
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4a0f30fa4-f26c-4bd3-985d-3bb4b4a19e9a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2003.79

Dizzy Gillespie

Artist:
Herman Leonard, 1923 - 2010  Search this
Sitter:
Dizzy Gillespie, 21 Oct 1917 - 6 Jan 1993  Search this
Medium:
Selenium-toned gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
Image: 39.5 × 30.5cm (15 9/16 × 12")
Sheet: 50.4 × 40.6cm (19 13/16 × 16")
Frame: 71.8 × 56.5 × 3.8 cm (28 1/4 × 22 1/4 × 1 1/2")
Type:
Photograph
Place:
United States\New York\Kings\New York
Date:
1948 (printed 1998)
Topic:
Music\Musical instrument  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses  Search this
Nature & Environment\Plant  Search this
Music\Musical instrument\Trumpet  Search this
Dizzy Gillespie: Male  Search this
Dizzy Gillespie: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Jazz  Search this
Dizzy Gillespie: Performing Arts\Performer\Musician\Horn player\Trumpeter  Search this
Dizzy Gillespie: Grammy  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2014.111.12
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Herman Leonard Photography LLC
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4acbdd0ae-674b-4dc9-8ee8-459bbad8b791
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2014.111.12

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