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Tomlinson D. Todd

Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Extent:
32.49 Linear feet (Box 132-176)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1902-1986
Arrangement:
This series is arranged into nine subseries

3.1Institute on Race Relations 3.2 Club Internationale 3.3 Lincoln University 3.4 "Americans All" 3.5 Biographical and Family Material 3.6 Correspondences and Letters 3.7 Subject Files 3.8 Printed Material 3.9 Photographs
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Tomlinson D. Todd (19?-1987), civic community and civil rights activist, radio announcer, and educator worked in Washington D.C. Working primarily in the early '40's with the Institute of Race Relation and "Americans All" radio program.

Born in Reading Pennsylvania, the son of Rev. William W. Todd and Mary Todd. Todd attended Armstrong High School in Washington D.C. In 1936 he graduated from Lincoln University, Pennsylvania with an A.B. degree. Todd was employed by the Federal and District Governments, and later in his life taught high school in Washington, D.C. Todd received two honorary doctorates in law and literature. He was honored by the National Association of Colored Women and Time Magazine. Additionally he was placed twice on the Afro-American and the Pittsburgh courier newspaper yearly honor rolls for outstanding contributions in the cause of true democracy and harmonies race relations. Todd was feted at three testimonial dinners and travelled to Europe and Africa as the guest of the Government of Nigeria.

Tomlinson D. Todd is credited with the discovery, unearthing and publicizing of the "lost laws" of 1872 and 1873, which prohibited restaurants from denying service because of race, and under which were filed charges that led to early restaurant desegregation in the 1950's. Tomlinson D. Todd was involved in numerous political, education, civic, and community endeavors. He was president of the Institute on Race Relations, president and founder of Club Internationale, Inc., member of the Capital Press Club, the National Press Club, The Pigskin Club of Washington, D.C., and the Washington Urban League, a civic leader and exponent of true democracy for all Americans, officer of the Pleasant Plains Civic Association, and served as Associate Editor of the Progressive Consumer magazine. Dr. Todd met six United States presidents: John F. Kennedy, with whom he guested at the White House; Lyndon Baines Johnson; Richard Milhous Nixon; Ronald Reagan; Gerald Ford; and Harry S. Truman, who was a member of the Club Internationale. Dr. Todd's work also brought him in contact with other public figures, including Gene Kelly, Henry Fonda, Walter Pigeon, Orson Welles, Humphrey Bogart, Judy Holliday, Lillian and Dorothy Gish, Lauren Bacall, Lena Home, Bob Hope, Harry Belafonte, and Charles Laughton.

Dr. Tomlinson D. Todd died on March 2, 1987 at the age of 76 in Washington, D.C.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-042, Series 3
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa700a14eab-e59c-4d62-ae6a-1ad31fb32d5b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-042-ref224

The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection

Creator:
Moore, Harry T., 1905-1951  Search this
Moore, Harriette V., 1902-1952  Search this
Names:
Bethune-Cookman College (Daytona Beach, Fla.)  Search this
Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College (Saint Augustine, Fla.)  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  Search this
Pittsburgh Courier (newspaper)  Search this
Progressive Voters League  Search this
Baker, Ella, 1903-1986  Search this
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 1875-1955  Search this
Caldwell, Millard Fillmore, 1897-1984  Search this
Current, Gloster B. (Gloster Bryant), 1913-1997  Search this
Gilbert, John  Search this
Hendricks, Joseph Edward, 1903-  Search this
Holland, Spessard L. (Spessard Lindsey), 1892-1971  Search this
Houston, Charles Hamilton, Dr., 1895-1950  Search this
Humphrey, Hubert  Search this
Kennedy, Stetson  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993  Search this
Mathews, John E., 1892 - 1955  Search this
Moore, J. Evangeline, 1930-2015  Search this
Warren, Fuller, 1905-1973  Search this
Watson, J. Thomas, 1885 - 1954  Search this
White, Walter, 1893-1955 (President, N.A.A.C.P)  Search this
Williams, Franklin Hall, 1917 - 1990  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Cocoa
United States of America -- Florida -- Lake County -- Groveland
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Mims
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Titusville
United States of America -- Florida -- Seminole County -- Sanford
Date:
bulk 1945-1949
Summary:
Harry T. Moore was a pioneering civil rights activist, educator, and civic leader. The collection was originally housed in a formerly "lost" briefcase that was found in 2006 by FBI investigators. The materials in this collection focus on his activities as a civil rights activist and community leader who sought to advocate for pay equity, voting rights, and justice reform for African American communities in Florida. Harry Moore and his wife Harriette were murdered for their work and they have been immortalized as the Civil Rights Movement's first martyrs.
Scope and Contents:
The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection chronicles Harry Moore's career in civil rights and education that ultimately led to his and his wife's murder. The materials in this collection were originally located in Harry T. Moore's briefcase and are dated from 1942 to 1949. The collection contains correspondence, memoranda, business records, ephemera, and newspaper clippings. The bulk of the material reflects Moore's work as a community leader working with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Progressive Voters League (PVL). The materials include original typed correspondence to and from Harry T. Moore as well as mimeographed letters that were saved for recordkeeping purposes.

The briefcase and Moore's wallet (part of the NMAAHC Collection) were found by Harriette Moore's brother, George Simms, after the firebombing of the Moore's home on Christmas night in 1951. Both were given to the local authorities for the investigation. The briefcase was lost during the initial 1951-1952 investigations. It was found in 2006 by FBI Investigators in a barn close to the Moore's former home. The investigation was closed the same year and the briefcase and its contents were returned to the family. J. Evangeline Moore served as the steward of the collection, lending out materials to various organizations, journalists, writers, and filmmakers over the years to educate the masses about her father's work and her parents' legacy. This work continued until her death in 2015. This collection and related Moore family heirlooms were donated to the National Museum of African American History and Culture in 2013 and 2018, respectively.
Arrangement:
This archival collection does not include all the materials originally located in the briefcase. Materials from this collection were used during investigations as well as historical displays, documentaries, and various educational presentations. Research revealed that various materials were misplaced or lost. The FBI investigators originally located the briefcase in 2006 and they organized and rehoused the materials for better preservation. According to the 2006 investigation report, the investigators organized the documents in alphabetical order but arranged them as they were discovered within Harry T. Moore's filing system. His filing system was based on keeping documents together in envelopes that pertain to the same subject.

The NMAAHC Archives Team kept the subject and proximal context of the materials together. To further preserve this original arrangement and sustain the collection, materials were separated by format and then by subject, keeping those with similar dates and subjects together.
Biographical / Historical:
Harry Tyson Moore was born on November 18, 1905 to Stephen John "Johnny" Moore and Rosalea "Rosa" Tyson Moore in Houston, Florida. After his father's death in 1914, Moore was sent to live with his maternal aunts in Daytona Beach, Florida. He attended Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial Institute, at the time a high school and junior college, where he graduated with a teaching degree in 1924. He immediately began his first teaching position at the segregated Monroe Elementary School in Cocoa, Florida.

Harriette Vyda Sims was born on June 19, 1902 in West Palm Beach, Florida to David and Annie Simms. Harriette was an insurance agent at Atlanta Life Insurance Company, a prominent Black-owned company, working out of Cocoa, Florida when she met Harry. Harry was also working at Atlanta Life to supplement his meager salary from teaching. Harry and Harriette married on Christmas Day in 1926. To establish themselves, the newlyweds moved in with Harriette's family in Mims, Florida. They had two daughters, Annie, born 1928, and Juanita (Evangeline), born 1930.

The couple enrolled together at the Daytona Normal Industrial Institute, later renamed the Bethune-Cookman College (BCC) after a merger of local African American schools. Harriette earned associate and bachelor's degrees in education in 1941 and 1950 respectively. Harry earned a bachelor's degree in education in 1936. Both Evangeline and Annie attended BCC as well. Annie served as an assistant to Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune.

From 1927-1936, Harry served as a teacher and eventual principal of Titusville Colored Junior High School. Harriette was a teacher and lunch lady at various elementary schools in the area. Troubled by the inequities and lack of educational resources available to African Americans, Harry started the Brevard County chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1934. He established the organization with the help of the all-black Florida State Teacher's Association and the support of civil rights lawyer Thurgood Marshall.

In 1937, Moore was involved in a lawsuit regarding teacher pay equality. In Florida, White teachers received a monthly salary of $50 while African American teachers had a base salary of $20. This was the first civil rights case of its kind in the South. Moore's good friend John Gilbert, the principal of the junior high school, served as the plaintiff. The case, Gilbert v. Board of Public Instruction of Brevard County, was lost as many African American teachers were afraid to publicly endorse the case, fearing repercussions. This proved correct as Gilbert and Moore were both fired because of their activism. The Florida Supreme Court dismissed the petition stating that Brevard County was not legally required to change salary schedules based on pay because schools used individual contracts with the teachers. This case laid the foundation for several successful pay equality cases including McDaniel v. Board of Public Instruction in 1941 and County Teachers Association v. the Board of Public Instruction for the County of Marion and Broward in 1942.

Fighting for pay equity for teachers and educational civil rights took Harry and Harriette around the state, organizing and mobilizing community members. In 1936, the Moores took on new positions at the segregated Mims Elementary School and continued their involvement in organizing civil rights cases throughout Florida. In 1941, Harry was appointed the president of the Florida State Conference for the NAACP and later became the executive secretary for the Florida branch. In 1944, Smith v. Allwright ruled that it was unconstitutional for the Democratic Party to limit its membership to White people. This gave Harry the impetus to establish the Progressive Voters League (PVL), a partisan political action group in 1946. Harry believed that African Americans should have the power to vote for whomever is best for their community. Harry kept his work with the PVL separate from his work with the NAACP, despite his leadership role in both. Within a few years of PVL's establishment, there were 100,000 registered eligible African American voters in the state. For the first time in Florida's history, African American citizens were organized and poised to change the outcome of elections. In 1946, this work cost Harry and Harriette their positions at Mims Elementary School. Fortunately, the NAACP, grateful for all of Harry's years of voluntary service, named him the NAACP's first full-time paid executive secretary. Both daughters assisted in creating NAACP Youth Council for the chapter as well.

Harry fought against the gruesome lynching and rampant police brutality taking place in Florida. In 1937, he started investigating cases himself and took an active role in pursuing justice in several unsolved lynching cases around Florida. He regularly sent correspondence about voting rights and lynching to state legislators, the governor, congressmen and even the president. In 1949, Moore became very involved in the national case, State of Florida v. Samuel Shepherd, Walter L. Irvin, Charles Greenlee, and Ernest E. Thomas, commonly known as the Groveland Rape case. Four young African American men were accused of raping a white woman, Norma Padgett. The sheriff of the area, Willis V. McCall rallied a mob of 1,000 local men to locate the accused. Ernest Thomas was killed during pursuit after being shot 400 times by the mob. Shepherd, Irvin, and Greenlee were beaten and coerced into confessing to the crime, only Irvin refused. The trio were immediately convicted by an all-white jury. Shephard and Irvin were sentenced to death while Greenlee, a minor, was sentenced to life in prison. In 1951, Harry and the NAACP legal team appealed the case before the United States Supreme Court. The Court ruled the men were not given a fair trial and sent the case back for retrial at the lower court. In November of 1951, while transporting Shepherd and Irvin back to the county prison for the retrial, Sheriff McCall shot the handcuffed men, killing Shepherd and seriously injuring Irvin. Moore launched an aggressive campaign to have McCall removed from his position and indicted for his involvement in the deaths. He wrote letters to President Truman, the governor, congressmen and several state and county legislators about McCall and the case. Many historians believe Moore's involvement in this case led to his murder only six weeks later. In 2019, Florida Governor Ron DeSantis issued the Groveland Four a posthumous pardon.

On December 25, 1951, both Christmas and the Moore's 25th wedding anniversary, a bomb exploded under their home, directly below the Moore's bedroom. Harry died on the way to the hospital. His funeral took place on January 2, 1952 to a crowd of 3,500, according to Ebony magazine. The following day, January 3, Harriette died from the injuries she sustained in the bombing. Her funeral took place on January 8, where NAACP leader Roy Wilkins spoke eloquently about the Moores and how their work will not be forgotten. The Moores are often called the first martyrs of the 1950s Civil Rights Movement.

The world quickly took note of Harry and Harriet's murders. Newspapers around the world criticized the U.S. for its treatment of African American citizens. The murders were discussed on the floor of the United Nations and the halls of Congress. There were many investigations at the time of the bombing, but the perpetrators were not found. The case was reopened in 1978, but again no charges were filed. In 2004-2006, the investigation was again reopened and led to the conclusion that the murders were conducted by the Central Florida Klu Klux Klan. The men believed responsible were Earl J. Brooklyn, Tillman H. Belvin, Joseph N. Cox, and Edward L. Spivey. However, all the men had died by this time, therefore no one was ever charged for the Moores' murder.

Evangeline was extremely involved in the investigation and worked directly with the attorney general. By the mid-1990s, Evangeline began to take a public role in preserving the memory of her family's contributions to the Civil Rights Movement. In 1995, she helped organize the Harry T. Moore and Harriette V. Moore Homesite Development Committee, a non-profit organization that raised money for an educational site dedicated to celebrating the life and work of the Moores. In 2004, Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Memorial Park opened, featuring a museum, the original Moore homesite, and a 12-acre park. There are annual celebrations held in the second week of December in Mims, honoring the Moore family's sacrifices for human rights. In 2015, the Florida State Senate adopted resolution SR1638, "Remembering the outstanding contributions of pioneer leaders and martyrs Harriette Vyda Simms Moore and Harry T. Moore in commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Voting Rights Act, etc." In October 2015, Evangeline passed away in New Carrolton, Maryland.

Historical Timeline

1902 -- Harriette V. Simms was born in West Palm Beach, Florida to David I. Simms and Annie Warren Simms.

1905 -- Harry Tyson Moore was born in Houston, Florida to Stephen John "Johnny" Moore and Rosa Tyson Moore.

1914-1916 -- Johnny Moore died. Rosa Moore sent Harry to Daytona Beach, Florida to stay with family because of financial difficulties. Harry and his maternal aunts moved to Jacksonville, Florida for better educational opportunities.

1919 -- Moore returned to Houston, Florida and began the high school program at Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial Institute. He graduated with a teaching degree in 1924.

1925 -- Harry earned his teaching certificate and immediately began teaching position at the segregated Monroe Elementary School in Cocoa, Florida.

1926 -- Harry and Harriette wed on Christmas.

1927 -- The Moore newlyweds moved in with Harriette's parents. Harry began teaching at the Titusville Colored Junior High School in Titusville, Florida.

1928 -- Annie Rosa Moore was born. In the fall, Harriette began working as a teacher at Mims Colored Elementary School in Mims, Florida.

1930 -- [Juanita] Evangeline Moore was born. Harry began taking correspondence courses at the University of Florida.

1931 -- Harry and his family move into their own home in Mims, Florida.

1934 -- Harry founded the Brevard County chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

1936 -- Harry graduated from Bethune-Cookman College (BCC) with a normal degree in education. In the fall, Harry became a teacher and the principal of Mims Colored Elementary School.

1938 -- In March, Attorney S.D. McGill filed a lawsuit for pay equality with Cocoa Junior School principal John Gilbert as the plaintiff. The case was dismissed in June.

1939 -- The appeal case of Gilbert v. Board of Public Instruction of Brevard County was dismissed. The case was represented by NAACP Legal Counsel, Thurgood Marshall.

1941 -- Harry organized and served as president of the Florida State Conference of the NAACP. Harriette graduated from Bethune-Cookman College with a teaching degree.

1944 -- Harry founded the Progressive Voters League as a political partisan action group in opposition to the NAACP non-partisan stance.

1946 -- As a result of his civil rights work and activism, Harry and Harriette lost their teaching positions at Mims Elementary School.

1947 -- Evangeline enrolled in BCC. Harry became the NAACP's first fully paid executive secretary of the Brevard County chapter.

1948 -- Harriette began teaching at the Lake Park Colored School in Palm Beach County, Florida.

1950 -- Harriette graduated from BCC with a B.S. in science.

1951 -- Harry graduated with a B.A. from BCC in August. December 25: The Moore's home is firebombed. Harry passed away right before midnight.

1952 -- January 1: Funeral of Harry T. Moore. Jannuary 3: Harriette died from injuries sustained in bombing. January 8: Funeral of Harriette V. Moore. The NAACP awarded the Spingarn medal to Harry T. Moore; his mother Rosa accepted it on his behalf. Evangeline married Drapher Pagan, Sr. Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. is born the following year.

1955 -- The FBI officially closed the Moore homicide investigation case.

1972 -- Annie R. Moore Hampton died suddenly and was buried in Ocala, Florida.

1978 -- The Moore case was reopened but no charges were filed.

1985 -- Creation of the Harry T. Moore Social Service Center in Titusville, Florida.

1991 -- Florida's Governor Lawton Chiles ordered the reopening of the Moores' homicide case; no charges were filed.

1993-1998 -- The Brevard County Board of County Commissioners purchased the Moore homesite to be used as a memorial to the slain couple and created The Harry T. Moore Homesite Development Committee. The Florida State Legislature awarded $700,000 for development of the 10-acre Harry T. Moore Memorial Homesite in Mims, Florida.

1999 -- Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Memorial Homesite Historical Marker is unveiled.

2002 -- Brevard County Court Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Justice Center opened.

2003-2004 -- An archeological survey of Moore family home led to an investigation. The Florida State Attorney General Charlie Crist reopened the Moore homicide investigation. The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Cultural Complex is completed.

2006 -- Attorney General Crist concluded that the perpetrators were four men from the Central Florida Klu Klux Klan. They had all died by this time, so no charges were filed.

2012-2013 -- The post office in Cocoa, Florida was renamed was named in honor of Harry T. and Harriette Moore by an Act of Congress: Public Law 112-243. Harry and Harriette were inducted in the Florida Civil Rights Hall of Fame.

2015 -- Evangeline Moore died in New Carrolton, Maryland.

2019 -- The Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Memorial Park and Museum was added to U.S. Civil Rights Trail.

2021 -- Brevard County School Board passed a resolution acknowledging the Moore's unjust firings.
Provenance:
Acquired as a gift from Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. in memory of Juanita Evangeline Moore.

The Museum acquired two personal watches, a locket, and 26 textual documents pertaining to Harry and Harriette Moore (2013.157) from Juanita Evangeline Moore in 2013. These materials are viewable via Smithsonian Collections Search. The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection was acquired through a donation from the Moores' grandson, Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. in 2018.
Restrictions:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Rights:
The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making reproductions of copyrighted material. Any reproductions of these materials are not to be used for any purpose other than research or educational use.
Topic:
Education  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Activism  Search this
Hate crimes  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Groveland Four Trial, Groveland, Fla., 1949-1952  Search this
American South  Search this
Blacks -- Press coverage  Search this
Justice  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social justice  Search this
Lynching  Search this
Violence  Search this
United States -- History -- 1945-1953  Search this
Suffrage  Search this
Politics  Search this
Families  Search this
Law  Search this
Associations, institutions, etc.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Harry T. And Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection, 1942-1949. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2018.12
See more items in:
The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/io39fe77a2e-3542-4a8b-add7-006d9625fb9e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2018-12

Photograph of girl reading on a pallet of newspapers at the Pittsburgh Courier

Photograph by:
Charles "Teenie" Harris, American, 1908 - 1998  Search this
Subject of:
Unidentified Child or Children  Search this
Pittsburgh Courier, American, 1907 - 1965  Search this
Medium:
silver and photographic gelatin on photographic paper
Dimensions:
H x W (Image): 16 1/16 × 19 15/16 in. (40.8 × 50.6 cm)
H x W (Sheet): 16 13/16 × 11 5/8 in. (42.7 × 29.5 cm)
Type:
gelatin silver prints
Place depicted:
Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1940
Topic:
African American  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Children  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from Charles A. Harris and Beatrice Harris in memory of Charles "Teenie" Harris
Object number:
2014.302.17
Restrictions & Rights:
© Carnegie Museum of Art, Charles "Teenie" Harris Archive
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5c764d9f4-d349-4f37-8b1f-f61e9eed0358
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.302.17
Online Media:

Photograph of girl reading on a pallet of newspapers at the Pittsburgh Courier

Photograph by:
Charles "Teenie" Harris, American, 1908 - 1998  Search this
Subject of:
Unidentified Child or Children  Search this
Pittsburgh Courier, American, 1907 - 1965  Search this
Medium:
silver and photographic gelatin on photographic paper
Dimensions:
H x W (Image): 8 7/8 × 12 in. (22.5 × 30.5 cm)
H x W (Sheet): 10 13/16 × 13 15/16 in. (27.5 × 35.4 cm)
Type:
gelatin silver prints
Date:
ca. 1940
Topic:
African American  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Children  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from Charles A. Harris and Beatrice Harris in memory of Charles "Teenie" Harris
Object number:
2014.302.67
Restrictions & Rights:
© Carnegie Museum of Art, Charles "Teenie" Harris Archive
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5276d8d14-07cf-45b1-9f1b-a820df79017b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.302.67
Online Media:

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Phi Rho Fraternity, American, founded 1978  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
Association of Black Women Attorneys, American, founded 1976  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
Raymond A. Jordan Jr., American, born 1943  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
Northside Center for Child Development, Inc., founded 1946  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Dr. Leslie L. Alexander, Jamaican American, 1917 - 2002  Search this
Smithsonian Institution, American, founded 1846  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1923  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Dr. Benjamin Elijah Mays, American, 1894 - 1984  Search this
Count Basie, American, 1904 - 1984  Search this
National Coalition of 100 Black Women, American, founded 1981  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
Signed by:
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 9/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.5 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1985
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Enterprise  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.19
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5ee110782-b949-43b4-bbec-56a00d4f086e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.19
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Classy Transportation for 'Sweethearts' [newswpaper clipping,] June 7, 1941

Publisher:
Pittsburgh Courier (newspaper)  Search this
Collector:
Piney Woods School  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cron, Rosalind  Search this
International Sweethearts of Rhythm  Search this
Piney Woods School  Search this
Moon, Dixie Hardy  Search this
Hughes, Cathy  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 4-3/4" x 6".)
Type:
Archival materials
Clippings
Scope and Contents:
Newspaper clipping from Pittsburgh Courier with reproduction of photograph of bus used for "Sweethearts"travel, with caption. Hand-written ink under catpion: "Pittsburgh Courier"--June 7, 1941."
Arrangement:
Series #1: Piney Woods School ,Box No. , folder no. 1.
Local Numbers:
AC1218-0000069.tif (AC Scan No.)
Exhibitions Note:
Displayed in Archives Center exhibition, "Women and Jazz: The International Sweethearts of Rhythm, 1937-1949", from March 25, 2011 through May 31, 2011. Craig Orr, curator.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Big band music  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Bands (Music)  Search this
Buses  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Collection Citation:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection / Series 3: Dixie Hardy Moon Materials / International Sweethearts of Rhythm record
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b13c981a-f154-46aa-96a8-8749d1a987a6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1218-ref602

[Articles from various newspapers: clippings]

Collector:
Piney Woods School  Search this
Creator:
Pittsburgh Courier (newspaper)  Search this
Shreveport Sun (newspaper)  Search this
Texarcana Gazette (newspaper)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cron, Rosalind  Search this
International Sweethearts of Rhythm  Search this
Piney Woods School  Search this
Moon, Dixie Hardy  Search this
Hughes, Cathy  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, mounted on paper., 11.4" x 9.7".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Clippings
Scope and Contents:
Side 1: 5 clippings from various newspapers: "Hold [sic] School Festival at Piney Woods" [newspaper unidentified]. Shreveport Sun (Shreveport, La): "Sweethearts of Rhythm 'Go to School." Texarkana Gazette (Texarkana, Tex., Dec. 19, 1939: "Negro Girl Orchestra to Play Here Friday." Pittsburgh Courier, Oct. 14, 1939: "Sweethearts of Rhythm Get Gay Welcome." California Eagle (Los Angeles, Calif.) Jan. 4, 1940: "girls' band on gold hour tonight" [sic]. Page originally in scrapbook.
Side 2: 2 clippings from various newspapers "Chatter and Some News" by Helen F. Chappell, Jan. 12 in Los Angeles. "Sweethearts of Rhythm Get Welcome in Dallas," Jan. 26, Dallas, Texas.
Local Numbers:
AC1218-0000016.tif (AC Scan No., side 1)

AC1218-0000017.tif (AC Scan No.: side 2)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Big band music  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Bands (Music)  Search this
Women in music  Search this
Women in jazz  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Collection Citation:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection / Series 2: Rosalind Cron Materials / Loose pages from scrapbook
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep843483e0a-c3ce-485e-aa73-df4a9f67246c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1218-ref651
Online Media:

[Newspaper clippings (5 total) from various newspapers]. [scrapbook page.]

Creator:
Chicago Defender (newspaper)  Search this
Pittsburgh Courier (newspaper)  Search this
Collector:
Piney Woods School  Search this
Names:
Crawford, Vivian  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cron, Rosalind  Search this
International Sweethearts of Rhythm  Search this
Piney Woods School  Search this
Moon, Dixie Hardy  Search this
Hughes, Cathy  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 11.4" x 9.6".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Newspaper clippings
Photographs
Scope and Contents:
Obverse: "250 Musicians Compete In Jam Session at Fair: Swing Band Semi-Final Held at American Common" Herald Tribune. "Rain No Damper for 400 Fair Jitterbugs Who Soak for 4 Hours to Hear Swing Bands" New York Times, August, 29, 1940. Includes underlined and boxed passages in blue pen. Page originally in scrapbook.
Verso: "Traveling Instructor for 'Sweethearts of Rhythm'" Pittsburgh Courrier, Oct. 5, 1940--photo of Vivian Crawford. "'Sweethearts of Rhythm' a Tops Band: Good Looks Along With Hot Music Make 'Em Tough Crew" Chicago Defender, Oct. 15, 1940. "Sweethearts of Rhythm In Groove Playing Dances" Chicago Defender, Oct. 5, 1940 Page originally in scrapbook.
Local Numbers:
AC1218-0000025.tif (AC Scan No.: verso)

AC1218-0000026.tif (AC Scan No.: obverse)
Exhibitions Note:
Displayed in Archives Center exhibition, "Women and Jazz: The International Sweethearts of Rhythm, 1937-1949", from March 25, 2011 through May 31, 2011. Craig Orr, curator.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Big band music  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Bands (Music)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Newspaper clippings
Photographs -- 1930-1950
Collection Citation:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection / Series 2: Rosalind Cron Materials / Loose pages from scrapbook
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f46c36c1-8d2b-4187-ae27-483ba8cd91f6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1218-ref660
Online Media:

Sweethearts of Rhythm Triumph [newspaper clippings]

Publisher:
Pittsburgh Courier (newspaper)  Search this
Creator:
Chicago Defender (newspaper)  Search this
Collector:
Piney Woods School  Search this
Names:
Buchanan, Bessie  Search this
Crawford, Vivian  Search this
Solomon, Sam  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cron, Rosalind  Search this
International Sweethearts of Rhythm  Search this
Piney Woods School  Search this
Moon, Dixie Hardy  Search this
Hughes, Cathy  Search this
Extent:
1 Item ((page), Ink on paper., 11.6" x 9.9".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 15
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Clippings
Scope and Contents:
Photo of Vivian Crawford, with Mrs. Bessie Buchanan of New York, and civic leader, Sam Solomon; Chicago Defender, March 1, 1941. "Sweethearts of Rhythm Triumph," Pittsburgh Courier, March 1, 1941. Page originally in scrapbook (front side of AC1218-0000035).
Local Numbers:
AC1218-0000034.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Big band music  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Bands (Music)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Collection Citation:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection / Series 2: Rosalind Cron Materials / Loose pages from scrapbook
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c6e21e32-ea74-4126-9c03-dbd2c1e56ef4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1218-ref666

[Two Newspaper clippings from Pittsburgh Courier, December 14, 1940] [black and white]

Collector:
Piney Woods School  Search this
Creator:
Pittsburgh Courier (newspaper)  Search this
Names:
Parker, Inez C.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cron, Rosalind  Search this
International Sweethearts of Rhythm  Search this
Piney Woods School  Search this
Moon, Dixie Hardy  Search this
Hughes, Cathy  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 11.5" x 9.9".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Poems
Newspaper clippings
Local Numbers:
AC1218-0000038.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Big band music  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Bands (Music)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Poems
Newspaper clippings
Collection Citation:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection / Series 2: Rosalind Cron Materials / Loose pages from scrapbook
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83e9b9b8d-40a3-411b-a828-a877df825734
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1218-ref669

Piney Woods Co-Eds Win Praise as "Sweethearts of Rhythm' of the South" [clipping]

Publisher:
Pittsburgh Courier (newspaper)  Search this
Collector:
Piney Woods School  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cron, Rosalind  Search this
International Sweethearts of Rhythm  Search this
Piney Woods School  Search this
Moon, Dixie Hardy  Search this
Hughes, Cathy  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 11.3" x 9.8".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 18
Type:
Archival materials
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Date:
[undated, probably ca. 1940]
Scope and Contents:
Side 1: Page originally in scrapbook (other side: AC1218-0000040).
Verso: Newspaper clipping, printed before their music was heard on KGFJ's "Gold Hour", with photo of the International Sweethearts of Rhythm, and a caption describing their diversity: "a Chinese saxophone player, a Hawaiian trumpet player..." , undated.
Local Numbers:
AC1218-0000039.tif (AC Scan No. side 1.)

AC1218-0000040.tif (AC Scan No., verso)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Big band music  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Bands (Music)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings -- 1940-1950
Newspaper clippings
Collection Citation:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection / Series 2: Rosalind Cron Materials / Loose pages from scrapbook
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep899bb3065-2a56-4984-8f52-79a52deedd69
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1218-ref670
Online Media:

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
United Negro College Fund, American, founded 1944  Search this
Billy Dee Williams, American, born 1937  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Harold Washington, American, 1922 - 1987  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Church, American, founded 1816  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1923  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Arthur Ashe Jr., American, 1943 - 1993  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
People United to Save Humanity, American, founded 1971  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Eubie Blake, American, 1887 - 1983  Search this
Dance Theatre of Harlem, American, founded 1969  Search this
National Coalition of 100 Black Women, American, founded 1981  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 1/2 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Bahamas, Caribbean, North and Central America
Houston, Harris County, Texas, United States, North and Central America
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1983
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.17
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd516419a20-d7d3-4570-a5c9-78bd4c89cfee
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.17
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