Relate to Arapaho(s), Dakota (some Oglala) and probably Dakota Indians (25), most on mount of D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming, others on unprinted mounts; and 1 Shoshoni photograph on mount of Howard, Fort San[ders ?], Wyoming Territory. All on carte de visite style mounts.
Catalog Number 4754: (1) Tribe: Arapaho Description: "Sharp Nose" Photographer: D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,703. (2) Arapaho "White Horse" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 132-c. (3) Arapaho "Friday" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,704. (4) Arapaho "Black Coal" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,705. (5) Cheyenne "Little Wolf" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 54,855-B. (6) Dakota (Oglala) "Red Cloud" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 3237-d. (7) Dakota (Oglala) "American Horse" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 3214-c. (8) Dakota (Oglala) "Little Big Man" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 3215-b. (9) Dakota (Oglala) "Three Bears" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 3207-b. (10) Dakota (Oglala) "He Dog" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 3229-b. (11) Dakota (Oglala) Red Dog D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 3208-b. (12) Dakota (Oglala) "Little Wound" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 3219-b. (13) Dakota (Oglala) "Slow Bull" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,717. (14) Dakota (Oglala) Young Man Afraid of His Horses D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne , Wyoming Negative Number 55,718. (15) Dakota (Oglala) "Red Shirt" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,719.
Catalog Number 4754: Tribe: (16) Dakota Description: "Rockey Bear" Photographer: D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 3711-o-1. (17) Dakota "The one that Sleeps Negative Number 3711-p. (18) Dakota "Long Bull" Negative Number 3656-c. (19) Dakota "Washington Enlisted Man" See (20), below Negative Number 3655-d. (29) Dakota "Stands First" Same individual as (19), above. Bureau of American Ethnology file print gives name as Stands First Negative Number 55,708. (20) Dakota "Pawnee Killer" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,707. (21) [Dakota ?] Man wearing three-cornered hat, holding pipe D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,709. (22) [Dakota ?] "6 Feather" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,710. (25) [Dakota ?] "Little Wolf" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,713. (23) [Dakota ?] "Black Bear" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negaive Number 55,711. (24) [Dakota ?] "White Bird" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,712. (26) [Dakota ?] "Walking Cane" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,714. (27) [Dakota ?] "Money" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,715. (19) ? [Dakota ?] "Yellow Bear" D. S. Mitchell, Eddy Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming Negative Number 55,706. (28) [Dakota ?] "Feather Head Negative Number 55,716. Shoshoni "Shoshone Squaw" Photographer: Howard, Fort San[ders ?], Wyoming Territory Negative Number 55,720.
NAA MS 4754
Copy negatives are on file for all (Negatives 54,855-B and 55,703-55,720 made 2/66; others were previously on file.)
Cheyenne stories and ethnological notes collected by Truman Michelson at the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana. Michelson worked with William Somers, White Bull, White Eagle, Albert Duster, Wolf Chief, Left Hand Bull, American Horse, Grasshopper, Iron Shirt, Medicine Top, Handing Crow, Sweet Medicine, and Bull Thigh. The topics include camp divisions, war societies, weapons, dances, camp circle, personal narratives, and origin myths. Somers, who served as translator for Michelson, also authored many of the stories in this collection. These include: "Story of Great Foolish Dogs Society," "Morning Star or White Rabbit," "The Star Husband," "Indian looking for work," and "Story of Pipe and Smoke."
NAA MS 2822
Title changed from "Ethnological notes on Cheyenne origin myths, camp divisions, war societies, weapons, dances, camp circle, and personal narratives and stories, August-September 1919" 4/1/2014.
The photograph was taken by Wilbur A. Riegert at Green Grass, South Dakota, on Cheyenne River Reservation. Mrs. Bad Warrior was the keeper of the sacred Buffalo Calf Pipe Bundle, the only tribal bundle of the Lakotas. In order to end the long drought that afflicted the plains, she sat all day in the hot sun, holding a pipe on her lap, praying for rain. Mrs. Bad Warrior died October 25, 1936. [Source: Raymond J. DeMallie, Jr., 20 June 2007]
Biographical / Historical:
Date: August 1936.
Written on back of print: "Property of Wilbur A. Riegert, Wounded Knee, S. Dakota. "[Martha Bad Warrior] Died October 25 - 1936. Given to Lucy Looking Horse on 10-29-64 by W. A. Riegert, Everett C. Jordan, Mrs A. M. Clark." [Lucy Looking Horse, daughter of Martha Bad Warrior, died in April, 1966. At the giveaway after her death, this picture was given to Mrs Belva Jack.]
Men, Including Chiefs Plenty Coups And Plenty Coups and Two Moons, in Costume with Feather Headdresses, Bear Claw Necklaces and Peace Medals, Holding Lances and Fans, Smoking Pipe Inside Tipi at Last Great Indian Council
Copyright: Rodman Wanamaker, 1912. Dates as per Thomas W. Kavanagh, Curator of Collections, William Hammond Mathers Museum
Albums probably assembled by William Henry Jackson, mostly containing portraits of Native American delegates in Washington, D.C. and photographs made on US Geological Surveys (including the Hayden and Powell surveys). Photographs from the field include John K. Hillers' photographs of the Southwest, photographs of Fort Laramie (possibly by Alexander Gardner), Orloff R. Westmann's photographs of Taos Pueblo, and Jackson's photographs of Crow, Shoshoni, Pawnee, and Nez Perce Tribes and related sites. Most of the photographs were made circa 1860s-1870s.
The albums were probably by Jackson while working under Ferdinand V. Hayden for the United States Geological Survey of the Territories. The reason for their creation is uncertain, though it may have been a project set up by Hayden or a continuation of William Henry Blackmore's tradition of publishing albums. Some of the albums include captions pasted from Jackson's Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians (1877) while others have handwritten captions.
William Henry Jackson (1843-1942) was an American painter, photographer and explorer. Born in New York, he sold drawings and retouched photographs from an early age. After serving in the Civil War, he opened a photography studio in Omaha, Nebraska, with his brother Edward. As photographer for the US Geological and Geographical Surveys (1870-1878), he documented the American west and published the first photographs of Yellowstone. When the surveys lost funding in 1879, Jackson opened a studio in Denver, Colorado, and also worked for various railroad companies. Many of Jackson's photographs were displayed at the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago (1893), for which he was the official photographer.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4420
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for many of the photographs in this collection can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds William Henry Jackson photographs and negatives.
Additional Jackson photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4605, MS 4801, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 29, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 93, Photo lot 143, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 87-20, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Correspondence from Jackson held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4517, MS 4881, MS 4821, and collections of personal papers.
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
The papers have been divided into three general categories: the papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, the papers of Francis La Flesche, and the ethnographic research of Fletcher and La Flesche. The first two categories represent personal and professional materials of Fletcher and La Flesche. The third section holds the majority of the ethnographic material in the collection.
Of primary concern are Fletcher and La Flesche's ethnological investigations conducted among the Plains Indians, particularly the Omaha and Osage. Fletcher's Pawnee field research and her allotment work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs among the Omaha, Nez Perce, and Winnebago are represented in the collection. A substantial portion of the ethnographic material reflects Fletcher and La Flesche's studies of Native American music. Much of the correspondence in the papers of Fletcher and La Flesche is rich with information about the situation of Omaha peoples in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Also included in the collection are documents related to Fletcher's work with the Archaeological Institute of America and the School for American Archaeology. Additionally, substantial amounts of Fletcher's early anthropological and historical research are found among her correspondence, lectures, anthropological notes, and early field diaries. La Flesche's literary efforts are also generously represented.
The collection is divided into the following 3 series: 1) Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers, 1873-1925; 2) Francis La Flesche papers, 1881-1930; 3) Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, 1877-1939.
Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers is divided into the following 10 subseries: 1.1) Incoming correspondence, 1874-1923 (bulk 1882-1923); 1.2) Outgoing correspondence, 1873-1921; 1.3) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1925; 1.4) Correspondence between Fletcher and La Flesche, 1895-1922; 1.5) Publications, 1882-1920; 1.6) Organizational records, 1904-1921; 1.7) General anthropological notes, undated; 1.8) Lectures, circa 1878-1910; 1.9) Diaries, 1881-1922; 1.10) Biography and memorabilia, 1878-1925.
Series 2: Francis La Flesche papers is divided into the following 6 subseries: 2.11) General correspondence, 1890-1929; 2.12) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1930; 2.13) Publications, 1900-1927; 2.14) Literary efforts, undated; 2.15) Personal diaries, 1883-1924; 2.16) Biography and memorabilia, 1886-1930.
Series 3: Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche is divided into the following 12 subseries: 3.17) Alaska, 1886-1887; 3.18) Earth lodges, 1882, 1898-1899; 3.19) Music, 1888-1918; 3.20) Nez Perce, 1889-1909; 3.21) Omaha, 1882-1922; 3.22) Osage, 1896-1939; 3.23) Pawnee, 1897-1910; 3.24) Pipes, undated; 3.25) Sioux, 1877-1896; 3.26) Other tribes, 1882-1922; 3.27) Publications collected, 1884-1905, undated; 3.28) Photographs, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923) was an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Francis La Flesche (1856-1923) was an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Chronology of the Life of Alice Cunningham Fletcher
1838 March 15 -- Born in Havana, Cuba
1873-1876 -- Secretary, American Association for Advancement of Women
1879 -- Informal student of anthropology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University
1881 -- Field trip to Omaha and Rosebud Agencies
1882 -- Assistant in ethnology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University
1882 -- Helped secure land in severalty to Omaha Indians
1882-1883 -- Begins collaboration with Francis La Flesche on the Peabody Museum's collection of Omaha and Sioux artifacts
1883-1884 -- Special Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Omaha Agency
1886 -- Bureau of Education investigation of Alaskan native education
1887-1888 -- Special Disbursing Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Winnebago Agency
1889-1892 -- Special Agent for allotment, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Nez Perce Agency
1890-1899 -- President, Women's Anthropological Society of America
1891-1923 -- Mary Copley Thaw Fellow, Peabody Museum, Harvard University
1892-1893 -- Department of Interior consultant, World's Columbian Exposition
1896 -- Vice-President, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science
1897 -- Collaborator, Bureau of American Ethnology
1899-1916 -- Editorial board, American Anthropologist
1900 -- Published Indian Story and Song from North America
1901-1902 -- Advisory committee, Anthropology Department, University of California at Berkeley
1903 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington
1904 -- Published The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony with James Murie
1908-1913 -- Chair, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology
1911 -- Honorary Vice-President, Section H, British Association for Advancement of Science
1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Francis La Flesche
1913 -- Chair Emeritus, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology
1915 -- Published Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs Arranged from American Indian Ceremonials and Sports
1923 April 6 -- Died in Washington, D.C.
Chronology of the Life of Francis La Flesche
1857 December 25 -- Born on Omaha Reservation near Macy, Nebraska
1879 -- Lecture tour, Ponca chief Standing Bear
1881 -- Interpreter, Senate Committee on Indian Affairs
1881-1910 -- Clerk, Bureau of Indian Affairs
1891 -- Informally adopted as Fletcher's son
1892 -- LL.B., National University Law School
1893 -- LL.M., National University Law School
1900 -- Published The Middle Five: Indian Boys at School
1906-1908 -- Marriage to Rosa Bourassa
1910-1929 -- Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology
1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Alice Fletcher
1921 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part One
1922 -- Member, National Academy of Sciences
1922-1923 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington
1925 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Two
1926 -- Honorary Doctor of Letters, University of Nebraska
1928 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Three
1932 -- Published Dictionary of the Osage Language
1932 September 5 -- Died in Thurston County, Nebraska
1939 -- Posthumous publication of War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians
Additional material related to the professional work of Fletcher and La Flesche in the National Anthropological Archives may be found among the correspondence of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) and the records of the Anthropological Society of Washington.
Sound recordings made by Fletcher and La Flesche can be found at the Library of Congress. The National Archives Records Administration hold the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), including those relating to allotments in severalty for the Nez Perce by Alice Fletcher. The Nebraska Historical Society has diaries, letters and clippings regarding the La Flesche family, including correspondence of Francis La Flesche and Fletcher. The Radcliffe College Archives holds a manuscript account of Alice Fletcher's four summers with the Nez Perce (1889-1892). Correspondence between Fletcher and F. W. Putnam is also located at the Peabody Museum Archives of Harvard University.
Ethnographic photographs from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in Photo Lot 24.
Glass plate negatives from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in the BAE glass negatives collection (Negative Numbers 4439-4515).
The papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche have been received from an undocumented number of sources. Portions of Fletcher's ethnographic papers were donated to the archives by Mrs. G. David Pearlman in memory of her husband in 1959.
The Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers are open for research.
Access to the Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers requires an appointment.
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage Search this
June 30-July 8, 1973
Ten tribes of Northern Plains Indians, from the States of North and South Dakota, Montana and Wyoming, were represented in the Native Americans section of the 1973 Festival. Their participation marked the fourth year of a six-year plan to include Indians of a different region at each Festival, with the Bicentennial Festival to feature the entire country.
Past and present culture and lifestyles of American Indians were explored in these presentations, which included samplings of traditional culture that continue to be central to life within Indian communities. Through workshop sessions, crafts demonstrations, song and dance, Indians demonstrated their traditions. Members of the featured tribes worked with the Festival staff as field coordinators to help plan, develop and carry out the program.
Indian participation in the Festival was both an opportunity for Festival visitors to become acquainted with Indian people and also an opportunity for Indian people to speak about both contemporary and traditional concerns. Among those concerns and priorities are a respect for the land, respect and care of their older members, and an arts tradition that realizes and reflects the role of man in nature.
Clydia Nahwooksy served as Director of the Indian Awareness Program, assisted by Tom Kavanagh. Major sponsors were the U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S. Office of Education.
Frank Backbone, 1917-2005, Crow, singer, Crow Agency, Montana
Pearl Backbone, 1922-1992, Crow, bead worker, Crow Agency, Montana
Ann Bigman, 1922-1999, Crow, bead worker, Crow Agency, Montana
Hugh Little Owl, 1910-1991, Crow, flute maker, Crow Agency, Montana
Kevin Red Star, Crow, tipi painter, Billings, Montana
John Bear Medicine, Blackfeet, doll maker, Browning, Montana
Willy Eagle Plume, Blackfeet, drum maker, Fort Macleod, Alberta
Joan Heavy Runner, Blackfeet, cradleboard maker
Tom Heavy Runner, Blackfeet, tipi sewer
Adolf Hungry Wolf, Blackfeet, singer, Fort Macleod, Alberta
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1973 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.