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Plains

Collection Creator:
Higley, Elmer Ellsworth  Search this
Extent:
96 Lantern slides
Container:
Box 3
Box 4
Box 5
Box 6
Box 7
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Lantern slides
Date:
1900-1924
Scope and Contents:
This subseries contains 96 glass lantern slides from the Plains region. Communities depicted include primarily the Pikuni (Piegan) and Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet) peoples of Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Elmer E. Higley collection, NMAI.AC.228; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.228, Subseries 1.4
See more items in:
Elmer E. Higley collection
Elmer E. Higley collection / Series 1: Lantern Slides
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-228-ref6

Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show

Creator:
Lehner, Frank  Search this
Seiling, J.  Search this
Braithwaite, Charles Henry  Search this
Names:
Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917  Search this
Ludwig, King of Bavaria, III, 1845-1921  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Linear feet
43 Photographs
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Germany -- Bavaria -- Munich
Date:
bulk 1868-1926
Summary:
This collection consists of 38 photographic prints of Native and non-Native peoples involved with Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, primarily in the years 1890-1891.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show collection consists of 38 photographic prints (and 5 copy negatives created at a later date by the NMAI staff). The images portray Native and non-Native peoples involved with Buffalo Bill's Wild West show primarily in the years 1890-1891, and include a number of publicity and studio portrait shots. Notable photographs include King Ludwig III of Bavaria and his daughter, Princess Maria Ludwiga Theresia of Bavaria, visiting with and even photographing some of the Wild West performers in Munich, Germany, in 1890. Although the bulk of the photographs date to either 1890 or 1891, images in the collection encompass a time period of approximatey a half-century, from 1876 to 1926.

The specific identity of the photographers of these images is not certain. While these photographs have historically been attributed to Frank Lehner, it is more likely that he was the collector rather than the photographer. It appears that at least one image (P10215) was probably taken by Bavarian Royal Court Photographer J. Seiling, and one image (P10192) or possibly two (P10193) were taken by Charles Henry Braithwaite, a portrait photographer in Leeds, England, in 1891.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection are organized into folders.
Biographical / Historical:
William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody opened the first Wild West show in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1883. Within four years the fame of the Wild West had grown so great that Cody took his fellow performers on an international tour of Europe, performing between 1887 and 1906 in the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Austria, and a host of other countries.

Undeniably, Cody's Wild West constructed and promoted inaccurate views of Native Americans, defining "real Indians" as only those who lived in tipis, rode horses, and wore feather headdresses. Such stereotypes have sadly been perpetuated in dime novels, television shows, and major motion pictures down to the present, ignoring the staggering cultural diversity of the Indigenous peoples of North America.

In spite of the Wild West show's culpability in creating and perpetuating narrow views of who Native peoples are and what they look like, several recent scholars have argued that there were some upsides for those Native Americans who chose to perform with this traveling show. One of the major bonuses was the relative freedom Wild West performers experienced compared with their community members who had to remain on the reservations. L.G. Moses in Wild West Shows and the Images of American Indians, 1883-1933 and Michelle Delaney in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Warriors both note Native performers' opportunities to not only see the world and earn an income, but also to practice their beliefs and live their days free from the interference of the ever-present missionaries, politicians, and BIA agents back at home.

In addition, Wild West performers experienced opportunities otherwise unimaginable to many Americans of their day, including being presented to Queen Victoria at her Golden Jubilee in London in 1887, attending the 1889 World's Fair in Paris with its debut of the newly constructed Eiffel Tower, and having their photograph taken by the daughter of the future King of Bavaria, Ludwig III, in Munich in 1890.
Provenance:
This collection was exchanged with Frank Lehner in 1932.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Wild west shows  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; 1890; Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, NMAI.AC.147; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.147
See more items in:
Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-147
Online Media:

Portrait photograph of an unidentified Native American man, possibly Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]

Collection Creator:
Lehner, Frank  Search this
Seiling, J.  Search this
Braithwaite, Charles Henry  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 8
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1890
Scope and Contents:
Photographic portrait of an unidentified Native American man, possibly Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana].
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; 1890; Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, NMAI.AC.147; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.147, Item P10223
See more items in:
Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-147-ref36

William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs

Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Names:
Great Northern Railway Company  Search this
Extent:
12 Photomechanical prints (collotypes (Albertypes))
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photomechanical prints
Place:
Glacier National Park (Mont.)
Date:
approximately 1915
Summary:
This collection includes 12 portraits photographed by William Bull of Chiefs from the Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation] shot in Glacier National Park, Montana, around 1915. The collotypes (photomechanical prints) were hand-colored and published by the Albertype company of Brooklyn, New York.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes 12 colored photomechanical prints of Blackfeet Chiefs originally shot by William Bull around 1915. The original photographs were reproduced as collotypes (Albertypes) by the Albertype Company and used as promotional materials for the newly created Glacier National Park and Glacier Park Hotel in Montana. The images include portraits of Chief Two Guns White Calf, Chief Curly Bear, Chief Eagle Calf, Chief Many Tail Feathers, Chief Big Spring, Chief White Dog, Chief Eagle Ribs, Chief Bird Rattler, Chief Lazy Boy, Chief Bull Calf, Chief Eagle Child and Chief Wades-in-the-Water.

Catalog numbers P11489-P11500.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
William Bull was born in Menomonie, Wisconsin in December 1878. By 1910 Bull had married Llillian Lillibridge and the couple had three sons and were operating photographic studios in the Twin Cities area in Minnesota. Between 1910-1930 Bull was employed by Brown's Photo Craft Studio and by Buckbee Mears Company. Around 1915, Bull was hired by the Great Northern Railway company to create promotional materials for the newly established Glacier National Park in Montana. Bull continued working until his death in 1942.
Provenance:
Unknown source, circa 1935.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Montana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photomechanical prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-404
Online Media:

Chief Two Guns White Calf

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Profile portrait of Chief John Two Guns White Calf (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11489
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref1

Chief Bull Calf

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Bull Calf (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11498
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref10

Chief Eagle Child

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Eagle Child (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11499
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref11

Chief Wades-in-the-Water

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Wades in the Water (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11500
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref12

Chief Curly Bear

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Curly Bear (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11490
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref2

Chief Eagle Calf

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Full profile portrait of Chief Eagle Calf (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11491
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref3

Chief Many Tail Feathers

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Many Tail Feathers (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11492
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref4

Chief Big Spring

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Big Spring (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11493
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref5

Chief White Dog

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief White Dog (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11494
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref6

Chief Eagle Ribs

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Eagle Ribs (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11495
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref7

Chief Bird Rattler

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Bird Rattler (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11496
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref8

Chief Lazy Boy

Collection Photographer:
Bull, William, 1878-1942  Search this
Collection Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 2
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1915
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Lazy Boy (Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation]). Part of a series of twelve hand colored collotypes (Albertypes) made in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known) William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs, image #, NMAI.AC.404. National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.404, Item P11497
See more items in:
William Bull collotypes of Blackfeet Chiefs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-404-ref9

Mary Roberts Rinehart photographs of Glacier National Park

Photographer:
Rinehart, Mary Roberts, 1876-1958  Search this
Extent:
107 Gelatin silver prints
0.25 Cubic feet
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gelatin silver prints
Photographs
Place:
Glacier National Park (Mont.)
Date:
1916
Summary:
This collection contains 107 gelatin silver photographs depicting mystery novelist Mary Roberts Rinehart and her family's travels around Glacier National Park in Montana during the summer of 1916.
Scope and Contents:
P20639- P20762, P21187-P21191

This collection contains 107 gelatin silver photographs depicting mystery novelist Mary Roberts Rinehart and her family's travels around Glacier National Park in Montana during the summer of 1916. The bulk of the photographs were shot by Mary herself. Rinehart wrote about this trip in her 1917 book, Through Glacier Park.

The photographs in the collection depict candid and staged outdoor portraits of Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana] peoples and scenes of community gatherings. Chief Eagle Child and Chief Two Guns White Calf are included in photographs. Other chiefs and leaders that may also be depicted include Medicine Owl; Curly Bear; Big Spring; Bird Plume; Wolf Plume; Bird Rattler; Bill Schute; Stabs-By-Mistake; Mad Plume; and Many Tail-Feathers. Mary Roberts Rinehart was adopted by the Blackfeet tribe and given the name Pi-ta-mak-an (Running Eagle).

Rinehart's family are featured in the photographs including her husband Dr. Stanley Marshall Rinehart, her eldest son Stanley Marshall Rinehart, Jr. (b. 1897), her middle son Alan Gillespie Rinehart (1900-1982) and her youngest son Frederick "Ted" Roberts Rinehart (b. 1902).

The collection also includes depictions of Ralph Radnor Earle (1875-1958) during his trip through National Parks. According to February 3, 1917 issue of Moving Image Picture World, Earle traveled via automobile in the summer of 1916 filming moving image footage of the National Parks, including Glacier National Park. Ernest Thompson Seton (1860-1946)- a founding member of Boy Scouts of America and author of the Boy Scout Handbook- is featured in some photographs as well.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number. 
Biographical / Historical:
Mary Roberts Rinehart (née Mary Ella Roberts) was born in 1876 and raised in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, now the North Side of Pittsburgh. Mary and her parents, Thomas (Tom) and Cornelia Roberts, lived with Tom's mother and siblings until Mary's sister Olive was born. At 17, Rinehart enrolled in the Pittsburgh Homeopathic School for Nurses. She drew on her experiences nursing patients in the Pittsburgh Homeopathic Hospital in some of her writing. In 1896, shortly after her graduation from nursing school, she married Stanley Marshall Rinehart, a young doctor. In their house in Allegheny City, Mary Roberts Rinehart managed the household, assisted with Dr. Rinehart's medical practice, and began raising their family of three sons: Stanley Marshall Rinehart Jr., born 1897, Alan Gillespie Rinehart, born 1900, and Frederick "Ted" Roberts Rinehart, born 1902.

In the early 1900's, Rinehart began writing in earnest as a way to contribute to the family's income. The poems and short stories of her early career were published in magazines such as Munsey's Magazine and The All-Story. Her first book, The Circular Staircase, was published in 1908. As her popularity grew so did the family's income, and they moved to a large house in Glen Osborne, Pennsylvania around 1912. In early 1915, Rinehart asked her Saturday Evening Post editor to send her to Europe to report on World War I prior to U.S. involvement. Rinehart toured the Belgian front and interviewed Albert I, King of the Belgians, and Queen Mary of England at a time when very few journalists were granted such access. Rinehart returned to Europe in 1918 to report on the war to the War Department and was in Paris on November 11 when the armistice ended the war.

The Rineharts moved to Washington, D.C. during the winter of 1921-22 when Dr. Rinehart accepted a position with the Veterans' Bureau. There, Rinehart continued to write and also became involved in Washington society, hosting and being hosted by presidents, senators, and ambassadors. In summer the family traveled to their cabin at Eatons' Ranch in Wyoming, a part of the country that Mary fell in love with after being invited to join a horse packing expedition out west in 1916. In 1929 her sons Stan and Ted, along with John Farrar, launched Farrar & Rinehart Publishing Company, which would publish many of her works. Dr. Rinehart died in 1931 after a period of poor health. A few years later, Rinehart relocated to New York City, where she would be closer to her sons and their growing families. In 1937 she purchased a large house in Bar Harbor, Maine, and spent summers there until 1947 when her house burned down in a large fire. Rinehart died in 1958 in New York City at the age of 83. She experienced several episodes of poor health during her life, including breast cancer and coronary thrombosis. Despite this, she lived an active, busy life filled with writing, travel, family, and other pursuits.

More detailed information about Mary Roberts Rinehart's life can be found in her autobiography My Story, published in 1931, and My Story: A New Edition and Seventeen New Years (1948), as well as in Improbable Fiction: The Life of Mary Roberts Rinehart by Jan Cohn (1980).

[Biographical note written by the University of Pittsburgh]
Related Materials:
The University of Pittsburgh holds a collection of Mary Robers Rinehart Papers.
Separated Materials:
The Rinehart family also donated a set of Diné (Navajo) jewelry to NMAI: Object catalog numbers 230710 – 230715.
Provenance:
Gift of Mr. Stanley Rinehart, Jr., 1961.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Mary Roberts Rinehart photographs of Glacier National Park, image #, NMAI.AC.329; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.329
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-329

George Hubbard Pepper photograph collection

Creator:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Extent:
1292 Negatives (photographic)
23 Photographic prints (black & white)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Jemez Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Nambe Pueblo  Search this
Picuris Pueblo  Search this
Pojoaque Pueblo  Search this
Puye Pueblo  Search this
San Felipe Pueblo  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Sandia Pueblo  Search this
Santa Ana Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tesuque Pueblo  Search this
Zia Pueblo  Search this
Hopi [Hano]  Search this
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Mexica (Aztec) (archaeological culture)  Search this
Pueblo (Anasazi) (archaeological)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
New Mexico
Texas
New York
Montana
Arizona
Basin
Illinois
Mexico
Southwest
Guatemala
Ecuador
Utah
Plains
Date:
1895-1918
Summary:
George Hubbard Pepper specialized in the study of cultures of the American Southwest and Ecuador. Tribes which he studied are Acoma, Aztec, Blackfeet, Cochiti, Hopi, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Nambe, Navajo, Picuris, Pojuaque, Puye, San Carlos Apache, San Felipe, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Sandia, Santa Ana, Santa Clara, Taos, Tarascan, Tesuque, Ute, Zia, and Zuni. Photographs in the collection are of an excavation in Tottenville, New York, 1895; Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Cañon, New Mexico: Hyde Expedition, 1896-1900; and expeditions to the occupied Pueblos of the Southwest, 1904; Mexico, 1904, 1906; Guatemala; and Ecuador, 1907. There are also photos which complement a study Pepper did of the technique of Navajo weaving, and miscellaneous scenic and personal photos.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
George Hubbard Pepper was born on February 2, 1873 in Tottenville, Staten Island, New York. As a young boy he exhibited a strong interest in archaeology and after his graduating from high school followed encouragement from Prof. Fredric W. Putnam to study at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University, where Pepper stayed from 1895-96. In 1896 he was appointed assistant curator of the Department of the Southwest in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. From 1896 to 1900, Pepper was a member of the Hyde Exploring Expedition, which conducted excavations at Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. In 1904, he conducted an ethnological survey of the occupied pueblos of the Southwest and at the same time continued his study of the weaving techniques of the Navajo. Pepper also participated in excavations in the yacatas of the Tierra Caliente of Michoacan in Mexico sponsored by George Gustav Heye, and in 1907 he went with Marshall Saville on an expedition to the Province of Manabi in Ecuador, also for Heye. In 1909 Pepper was appointed assistant curator in the Department of American Archaeology at the University Museum of Philadelphia, but after only a year there he joined the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in New York City, where he stayed until his death. In 1914 he excavated a Munsee cemetery of the historic period near Montague, New Jersey and in the following year he went on the exploration of the Nacoochee mound in the old Cherokee region in Georgia. In 1918 he joined the Hawikku explorations of the Hendricks-Hodge Expedition in New Mexico. Pepper died on May 13, 1924, in New York City. George H. Pepper was a co-founder of the American Anthropological Association, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Ethnological Society of New York, a member of the American Folklore Society, and a corresponding member of the Academia Nacional de Historia of Ecuador. A complete bibliography of his works can be found in Indian Notes, v. 1, no. 3, July 1924, pp. 108-110. The George Hubbard Pepper Papers are in the Latin American Library, Tulane University Library, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Provenance:
According to Frederick Dockstader, director of MAI from 1960 to 1975, in a letter dated March 26, 1968, the collection was given to MAI by Pepper. However, the 1965 Annual Report (p. 26) states that the Photographic Department acquired through the donation of Mrs. Jeannette Cameron approximately 500 new negatives pertaining to field work done by her father from 1900-1910; and the 1966 Annual Report (p. 9) states that many papers of Dr. George H. Pepper were acquired through the courtesy of his daughter, Mrs. Jeanette Cameron.
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.034
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-034

Herbert U. Silleck photographs

Photographer:
Silleck, Herbert Underhill  Search this
Extent:
260 Photographs
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Lacandon Maya  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1924-1944
Summary:
This collection contains 260 photographs depicting many American Indian communities including Diné (Navajo); Hopi; Isleta Pueblo; Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]; Taos Pueblo; and Lacandon Maya, as well as others. Photographs were shot by amateur photographer Herbert Underhill Silleck circa 1924-1944 during his travels with his wife Agnes Smartt Silleck.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 260 photographs (196 film negatives and 64 photos in an album) shot by amateur photographer Herbert Underhill Silleck during his travels with his wife Agnes Smartt Silleck circa 1924-1944.

The photographs depict many American Indian communities in western United States including Diné (Navajo), Hopi, Isleta Pueblo, Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana], Taos Pueblo, and Lacandon Maya. The images include scenes of candid portraits; powwows in Flagstaff, Arizona and Montana; Pueblos; tourist goods for sale; Aztec Ruins National Monument, New Mexico, among other scenes.
Arrangement:
The photographs are intellectually arranged by subject matter and physically arranged in boxes by image #.
Biographical / Historical:
Relatively little is known about Herbert Underhill Silleck. He was born in New York in April 24, 1881 and worked for the Brooklyn Trust Company for about 47 years. He married Agnes Smartt on June 1, 1905 and they had one daughter Doris G. Silbeck (born 1918). He died in New York on March 14, 1961. Based on Herbert's photographic record, it appears that he was an amateur photographer who traveled throughout the western United States.
Separated Materials:
Agnes Smartt Silleck also donated a sash, hair tie, and a painting to the museum, which can now be found under object numbers 23/2012 - 23/2014.
Provenance:
Gift of Agnes Smartt Silleck, 1962.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Powwows  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Herbert U. Silleck photographs, image #, NMAI.AC.223; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.223
See more items in:
Herbert U. Silleck photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-223
Online Media:

Pikuni (Piegan)

Photographer:
Silleck, Herbert Underhill  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Silleck, Herbert Underhill  Search this
Extent:
16 Negatives (photographic)
Container:
Box 429-432 (film negatives)
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
circa 1924-1941
Scope and Contents:
N47434-N47449

This series contains 16 photographs depicting the Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana] community circa 1924-1941. Scenes include candid outdoor portraits; tipis and tents; indoor powwow; and traveling on horse. Photographs were shot by amateur photographer Herbert Underhill Silleck during his travels with his wife Agnes Smartt Silleck.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Herbert U. Silleck photographs, image #, NMAI.AC.223; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.223, Series 5
See more items in:
Herbert U. Silleck photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-223-ref5

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