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Frank Spencer Papers

Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Names:
Dawson, Charles, 1864-1916  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Keith, Arthur, Sir, 1866-1955  Search this
Extent:
40 Linear feet (94 boxes, 1 oversized box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Piltdown (England) -- early man site
Date:
1836-1999
bulk 1970-1999
Summary:
Frank Spencer was a historian of biological anthropology who began his career as a medical laboratory technician. His papers include correspondence, manuscripts, notes, research files, teaching materials, photographs, and audiotapes. Spencer's research on the Piltdown hoax as well as the Piltdown research of Ian Langham, whose work Spencer continued after his death in 1984, and Spencer's research on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička for his dissertation are both represented in the collection.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the research and professional activities of anthropologist Frank Spencer through his correspondence, manuscripts, notes, research files, teaching materials, photographs, and audiotapes. As a historian of physical anthropology, Spencer did a great deal of archival research. Well-represented in the collection is Spencer's research on the Piltdown hoax as well as the Piltdown research of Ian Langham, whose work Spencer continued after Langham's death in 1984. Among the materials collected are negatives of Piltdown-related papers and negatives of Sir Arthur Keith's papers held at the Royal College of Surgeons. Spencer, who theorized that Keith was behind the Piltdown hoax, had organized his papers with a grant from Wenner-Gren. Also represented in the collection is Spencer's research on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička for his dissertation. Although most of Hrdlička's papers and photos that Spencer collected are copies of materials held at the National Anthropological Archives (NAA), the collection does contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; and copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece. The collection also contains an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute. Spencer's 1975 taped interviews with Henry Collins, Harry Shapiro, Ashley Montagu, and Lucille St. Hoyme can also be found in the collection. Other projects represented in the collection include A History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia, The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence, and Fallen Idols, Spencer's unpublished book on the history of scientific attitudes towards human origins. In addition, the collection contains copies of Physical Anthropology News, which Spencer co-founded and edited. Photos in the collection include images of Frank Spencer as well as of the 1981 and 1988 annual meetings of the Association of American Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) and the 1980 symposium Spencer and Noel T. Boaz organized on the history of American physical anthropology.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 15 series: (1) Correspondence, 1864, 1910, 1920, 1972-1999 (bulk 1972-1999); (2) Piltdown, 1836-1997; (3) Ales Hrdlicka, 1866-1867, 1893-1942, 1971-1981, 1994-1999; (4) Encyclopedia, 1881-1891, 1911-1999 (bulk 1991-1998); (5) Projects, 1858-1884, 1897-1909, 1919-1929, 1939-1999 (bulk 1982-1995); (6) Human Antiquity Research, 1960-1980, 1991-1998; (7) Subject Files, 1863-1999 (bulk 1970-1998); (8) Coded Files, 1836-1983 (bulk 1970-1983); (9) University Material, 1959, 1973-1998; (10) Personal Papers, 1966-1975, 1985-1994; (11) Notebooks, 1976-1999; (12) Card Files, undated; (13) Photographs, 1885-1990 (bulk 1980-1990); (14) Audiotapes, 1942, 1961, 1975-1976, 1998 (bulk 1975); (15) Realia, undated
Biographical Note:
Frank Spencer was born in Chatham, England, on May 1, 1941. Best known as a historian of biological anthropology and for his book Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery (1990), Spencer began his career as a medical laboratory technician, publishing two books on medical laboratory procedures in 1970 and 1972. He immigrated to Canada, where he earned his BA in anthropology at the University of Windsor in Ontario in 1973. The following year, he enrolled at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, with C. Loring Brace as his advisor. Spencer wrote his dissertation on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička and was awarded his PhD in biological anthropology in 1979. That same year he joined the faculty of the Department of Anthropology at Queens College as an assistant professor and was soon promoted to department chair in 1984. Over the course of his career, he wrote and edited several books on the history of physical anthropology including A History of Physical Anthropology, 1930-1980 (1992), The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (1984), Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology (1986), and History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia (1997). Spencer was also a co-founder and editor of the Physical Anthropology News bulletins. It was his book Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery, however, that garnered him the most attention. In this book, he theorized that the well-respected Sir Arthur Keith master-minded the Piltdown hoax. On May 30, 1999 Frank Spencer died of cancer at the age of 58.

1941 -- Born on May 1 in Chatham, Kent, England

1964 -- Obtained Associate diploma in Clinical Microbiology, [Britain], Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences

1966 -- Fellowship diploma in Clinical Parasitology

1971 -- Advanced diploma in Clinical Biochemistry & Microbiology, Canadian Society of Medical Laboratory Technology

1973 -- BA (Anthropology) University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada

1974 -- MA (Biological Anthropology) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

1976-1977 -- Adjunct Lecturer, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Windsor

1979 -- PhD, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, "Biological Anthropology, Aleš Hrdlička, MD (1869-1943): A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist"

1979-1982 -- Hired as Assistant Professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College

1982 -- Published A History of American Physical Anthropology, 1930-1980

1983 -- Associate Professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College

1984 -- Published The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence

1986 -- Full professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College Published Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology

1990 -- Published Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery Published The Piltdown Papers 1908-1955: The Correspondence and Other Documents Relating to the Forgery

1997 -- Published The History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia

1999 -- Passed away on May 30 of cancer
Related Materials:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Provenance:
Donated in 2002 by Elena Peters-Spencer, wife of Frank Spencer.
Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology -- History  Search this
Physical anthropology -- frauds  Search this
Crohn's disease  Search this
Piltdown forgery  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2002-21
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2002-21

Annual Reports

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 404, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1938 - 1941
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 12: Publications / 12.1: Annual Reports
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref15246
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Arthur R. Sanger photographs from the California Channel Islands

Creator:
Sanger, Arthur R.  Search this
Names:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
16 Photographic prints
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Channel Islands (Calif.)
Date:
1920-1926
Summary:
Photographs by Arthur R. Sanger from excavations on the Channel Islands, California, around 1926.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains 16 photographic prints shot by Arthur R. Sanger on the San Nicholas, San Miguel, and Santa Rosa Islands in Southern California. The majority of these photographs contain images of human remains and are therefore restricted due to cultural sensitivity. The photographs are undated, but likely accompanied Sanger's first collection sold to the Museum of the American Indian in 1926, so were likely shot sometime before that date. In addition to photographs of the excavation of burials, there are a handful of landscape shots of the islands themselves.
P07766 - P07781.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Arthur Randall Sanger (1880-1971) was born in Palmer, Massachusetts, but later moved to California where he spent the rest of his life. Sanger was a founder of the Catalina Island Yacht Club and owner of the yacht Dreamer which he used to access the California Channel Islands where he excavated an untold number of Native burials. He also claimed to have excavated stone pipes and effigies from various island sites. Sanger maintained a long term relationship with George Gustav Heye and the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation selling multiple collections of these excavated California materials to the Museum between the years of 1926 and 1951. It was later discovered that Sanger, along with Orville T. Littleton, knowingly sold many fraudulent materials to the museum, as well as to other institutions and private collectors. It is believed by several scholars that Sanger made many of the effigies himself. For more information about the controversy see;

Lee, Georgia. Fake Effigies from the Southern California Coast? Robert Heizer and the Effigy Controversy in Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 15(2): 195-215, 1993

Koerper, Henry C. and and Paul G. Chace. Heizer, Strandt, and the Effigy Controversy in Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 17(2):280-284, 1995

Koerper, Henry C., and Sherri Gust. Additional Revelations Concerning Arthur Sanger and Archaeological Fakery in Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly

Koerper, Henry C. More on Arthur Sanger's Skullduggeries in Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly. Volume 52, Number 2. 2016
Provenance:
Sold to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation by Arthur R. Sanger along with field collections in 1926.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Photographs with burials, human remains or any other cultural sensitivity are restricted.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Archeology -- frauds  Search this
Physical anthropology -- skeletal remains  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Arthur R. Sanger photographs from the California Channel Islands, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.056
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-056

The Fourth Skull: A Tale of Authenticity and Fraud

Author:
Walsh, Jane M.  Search this
Hunt, David R.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2013
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
See others in:
Anthropology
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_115665

Miscellaneous negatives

Photographer:
Brady, Mathew B  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H. 1840-1882  Search this
Bell, William 1830-1910  Search this
Pywell, William R  Search this
Mindeleff, Victor 1860-1948  Search this
Schadenburg, Alexander  Search this
Sloan, Thomas L Mrs  Search this
Moorhouse, Lee 1850-1926  Search this
Mooney, James 1861-1921  Search this
Barrett, Otis Warren  Search this
Holmes, William Henry 1846-1933  Search this
Dinwiddie, William  Search this
Hillers, John K. 1843-1925  Search this
Gill, De Lancey W  Search this
Cook, C.C  Search this
Sawyer, Wells 1863-1960  Search this
Kroehle, J. Charles 1876-1902  Search this
Russell, Andrew J  Search this
Kopta, Emry  Search this
Moore, Riley D  Search this
Gilbert, Grove Karl 1843-1918  Search this
McGee, W. J. 1853-1912  Search this
Creator:
Hewett, Edgar Lee  Search this
Elio, John Bible  Search this
Sherman, Penoyer Levi  Search this
Myer, William Edward  Search this
Moore, Clarence B (Clarence Bloomfield) 1852-1936  Search this
Bushnell, David Ives Jr 1875-1941  Search this
Walter, Hough  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš 1869-1943  Search this
Willis, Bailey 1857-1949  Search this
United States Geographical Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian  Search this
Yellowstone Expedition of 1873  Search this
Kuhn Photo of Atlanta  Search this
Illustrator:
Eastman, Seth  Search this
Artist:
Heitmuller, Wilhelm  Search this
Collector:
Bache, René 1861-1933  Search this
Herndon, William Lewis  Search this
Gibbon, Lardner  Search this
Donor:
Bolles, T. Dix  Search this
Photographers:
Skeen and Company  Search this
Subject:
Kissell, Mary Lois  Search this
McDonnell  Search this
Prince, L. Bradford  Search this
Goode, George Brown family  Search this
Antonio Apache  Search this
United States Fish Commission  Search this
Jamestown (Virginia) Tercentenary Exposition (1907)  Search this
Depicted:
Parker, Quanah 1845?-1911  Search this
Smith, John  Search this
Physical description:
ca. 2700 negatives
Culture:
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Philippines  Search this
Flathead  Search this
American Indians weaving  Search this
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Eskimo carving  Search this
American Indians fire signals  Search this
Amazonia  Search this
Hopi  Search this
Egypt art and architecture  Search this
Greece art and architecture  Search this
Rome art and architecture  Search this
Renaissance art and architecture  Search this
Iroquois village  Search this
Dioramas  Search this
Finnish spindle  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Comanche Indians  Search this
Walla Walla Indians  Search this
Nez Percé Indians  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Sauk Indians  Search this
Samoan  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Samoans  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America Northeast  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America Plateau  Search this
Salish Indians  Search this
Type:
Petroglyphs
Photographs
Place:
Oceania
Morgantown (W. Va.)
Southwest
Topic:
Weaving--American Indian  Search this
Mummies--fake  Search this
Baskets  Search this
Civil War  Search this
Tattoos  Search this
Cicatrization  Search this
Spindle--Finnish  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Archeology--frauds  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_2285

Material on the Calaveras Skull 1891, 1899

Addressee:
Wilson, Thomas  Search this
Creator:
Brier, William Wallace  Search this
Childs, T. S  Search this
Dall, William Healey 1845-1927  Search this
Physical description:
6 pages
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1891, 1899
Topic:
Calaveras skull  Search this
Physical anthropology--frauds  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_87735

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