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Lawrence Oschinsky papers

Creator:
Oschinsky, Lawrence, 1921-1965  Search this
Extent:
18 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Photographs
Date:
circa 1900-1965
Summary:
The papers of Lawrence Oschinsky primarily document his research and professional activities from 1940s-1965 as an American physical anthropologist, but include some personal materials as well. The collection contains his published works, dissertations, field notes, correspondence, teaching materials, and many photographs depicting both his personal travels and his research subjects in the Canadian Arctic, Africa, Asia, and other regions.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Lawrence Oschinsky primarily document his professional life and research on the racial affinities and evolutionary characteristics of various peoples. The collection contains his published works, dissertations, field notes, correspondence, teaching materials, and many photographs depicting both his personal travels and his research subjects in the Canadian Arctic, Africa, Asia, and other regions.
Arrangement:
The Lawrence Oschinsky papers are organized into 9 series:

Series 1: Personal Information and Effects

Series 2: Correspondence

Series 3: Education

Series 4: Research and Notes

Series 5: Published Works

Series 6: Writings

Series 7: Teaching Materials

Series 8: Photographs

Series 9: Motion picture film
Biographical / Historical:
Lawrence Oschinsky was born on April 19, 1921, to Lea Pollak Oschinsky and John Oschinsky in New York City. He received his B.A. degree from Brooklyn College in 1943, where he was first drawn to anthropology. In 1947 he received his master's degree in Anthropology from the University of Chicago, with the thesis entitled "Islam in Chicago: Being a Study of the Acculturation of a Muslim Palestinian Community in That City." He attended the University of Zurich from 1947-1950 pursuing graduate coursework in anthropology.

From 1950-1951 he was instructor of anatomy at Makerere College Medical School, in Kampala Uganda, studying the racial affinities of various African tribes. From 1951-1952 he was a Research Student at the University of Cambridge, England. He returned to the University of Zurich in 1952 and received his PhD in Anthropology. His doctoral dissertation, published in 1953, was entitled "The Racial Affinities of the Baganda and Other Bantu Tribes of British East Africa." In October 1953, Oschinsky returned to the United States and began his teaching and research career as an Instructor in Physical Anthropology at the Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. He also acted as research assistant to Dr. Wilton M. Krogman, Professor of Physical Anthropology, and took anthropometric measurements of school children for Krogman's child growth research program.

Concurrently, Oschinsky cooperated with police and other agencies in the forensic identification of unknown human remains and cases of disputed paternity. Toward the end of 1953, he obtained a position as a Research Scholar in Physical Anthropology at the United States Educational Foundation in Burma. He spent a year studying the peoples of Burma in relation to those of Thailand, Indonesia, Malaya, and the Philippines. From 1956-1957, he was an Instructor in Anatomy at Howard University Medical School in Washington, DC. During 1957-1958, he was Visiting Lecturer in Physical Anthropology at the University of Arizona, Tucson. In 1958, Oschinsky was offered the position of Curator of Physical Anthropology at the National Museum of Canada, in Ottawa, where he devoted himself to an intensive study of the museum's osteological collections. In 1962 he became a part-time instructor in Physical Anthropology at St. Patrick's College, University of Ottawa. In July 1963, Oschinsky became Assistant Professor, and later Associate Professor of Physical Anthropology, University of Toronto, where he taught until his death on December 19, 1965.

Oschinsky wrote several scientific papers during these years, culminating in 1964 with the monograph The Most Ancient Eskimos: The Eskimo Affinities of Dorset Culture Skeletal Remains.. In this book, Oschinsky explored Eskimo prehistory via skeletal specimens.

Chronology

1921 April 19 -- Born in New York City, NY

1939-1943 -- Bachelor of Arts, Brooklyn College

1943-1947 -- Masters in Anthropology, University of Chicago

1947-1950 -- Graduate Coursework in Anthropology, University of Zurich

1950-1951 -- Anatomy instructor; studied racial affinities of African tribes, Makerere College Medical School, Uganda

1951-1952 -- Research student, University of Cambridge, England

1952-53 -- PhD in Physical Anthropology, University of Zurich

1953 -- Worked with police and other agencies in the forensic identification of unknown human remains and cases of disputed paternity

1953-1954 -- Instructor, Physical Anthropology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Research assistant to Dr. Wilton M. Krogman; took anthropometric measurements of schoolchildren for Krogman's child growth research program.

1954-1955 -- Research scholar in Physical Anthropology, United States Educational Foundation, Burma (currently Myanmar)

1956-1957 -- Instructor in Anatomy, Howard University Medical School, Washington, D.C.

1957-1958 -- Visiting Lecturer in Physical Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson

1958-1963 -- Curator of Physical Anthropology, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa

1962 -- Part-time instructor in Physical Anthropology, St. Patrick's College, University of Ottawa

1963-1965 -- Assistant Professor of Physical Anthropology, University of Toronto

1964 -- Published monograph, The Most Ancient Eskimos: The Eskimo Affinities of Dorset Culture Skeletal Remains

1965 December 19 -- Died in Toronto, Ontario
Related Materials:
The National Anthropological archives holds the records of the Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development.
Separated Materials:
Oschinsky's measuring instruments and a number of dental casts were transferred to the biological anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Lawrence Oschinsky's nephew, Scott Fuller, in 2016.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Access to the Lawrence Oschinsky papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Physical anthropology -- skeletal remains  Search this
Physical anthropology -- Eskimo  Search this
Physical anthropology -- Early man  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Photographs
Citation:
Lawrence Oschinsky papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2016-26
See more items in:
Lawrence Oschinsky papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2016-26

Ralph S. and Rose L. Solecki papers

Creator:
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Solecki, Rose L.  Search this
Extent:
107 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Shanidar Cave (Iraq)
Date:
1904-2017
bulk 1951-1999
Summary:
The papers of Ralph S. and Rose L. Solecki, 1904-2017 (bulk 1951-1999) primarily document their archaeological excavations and subsequent analysis of Near East sites including Shanidar Cave and Zawi Chemi Shanidar in northern Iraq; Yabroud, Syria; and Nahr Ibrahim and El Masloukh, Lebanon primarily during the 1950s-1980s. The papers also include their work at other sites throughout the Near East and North America and files relating to the professional careers at the Smithsonian Institution, Columbia University, and Texas A and M University. The collection consists of field notes, data and analysis, manuscript drafts, publications, corrrespondence, illustrations and maps, photographic prints, negatives, slides, and recorded film.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Ralph S. and Rose L. Solecki document their archaeological excavations and subsequent analysis of Near East sites including Shanidar Cave and Zawi Chemi Shanidar in northern Iraq; Yabroud, Syria; Nahr Ibrahim and El Masloukh, Lebanon primarily during the 1950s-1980s. The papers also reflect their academic careers as students and faculty at Columbia University, staff at the Smithsonian Institution, and adjunct faculty at Texas A&M University.

The bulk of the collection consists of materials relating to the Soleckis' archaeological excavations at Shanidar Cave and Zawi Chemi Shanidar in northern Iraq (1951-1960); Yabroud, Syria (1963-1965, 1981, 1987-1988); Nahr Ibrahim and El Masloukh, Lebanon (1969-1973). These materials include field notebooks, excavation catalogs, research notes, data analysis, manuscript drafts, publications, correspondence, illustrations, maps, photographs, slides, sound recordings, and film. Similar materials from other expeditions and projects include aerial photography projects in the 1950s-1960s; expeditions to Alaska in 1949 and 1961; expeditions to Sudan, Iran, and Turkey through the Columbia University Near East expeditions (or C.U.N.E.) throughout the 1960s-1970s; and various archaeological projects elsewhere in North America such as Ralph's work with the River Basin Surveys in the 1940s-1950s, New York, and elsewhere in the eastern United States, contain similar materials.

The papers also contain research and teaching files in the form of annotated publications, course materials, student theses, and other files from their time as students and faculty at Columbia University, staff at the Smithsonian Institution, and adjunct faculty at Texas A&M University. Correspondence and administrative files such as grant applications, daybooks, and departmental forms and files from their professional careers are also within the collection. Personal files, while sparse, are also represented.
Arrangement:
The Ralph S. and Rose L. Solecki papers are divided into 7 series:

• Series 1: Shanidar Cave and Zawi Chemi Shanidar, Iraq, 1947-2017 (bulk 1951-1990)

• Series 2: Yabroud, Syria, 1964-1992 (bulk 1960s-1980s)

• Series 3: Nahr Ibrahim and El Masloukh, Lebanon, 1968-1998 (bulk 1969-1973)

• Series 4: Other Expeditions and Projects

• Series 5: Research and Teaching Files

• Series 6: Correspondence and Administrative Files

• Series 7: Personal Files
Biographical / Historical:
Ralph S. Solecki (1917-2019) and Rose L. Solecki (b. 1925) are archaeologists that worked in the Near East at Shanidar Cave and Zawi Chemi Shanidar in northern Iraq (1951-1960); Yabroud, Syria (1963-1965, 1981, 1987); and Nahr Ibrahim and El Masloukh in Lebanon (1969-1973). Ralph Solecki also conducted archaeological field work in North America at sites in Nebraska, Alaska, and New York as well as with the Smithsonian Institution's River Basin Surveys. From 1958-1988, Ralph Solecki was a professor of anthropology at Columbia University. The Soleckis became adjunct faculty at Texas A&M University.

Stefan Ralph Solecki was born on October 15th, 1917 in Brooklyn, New York. After graduating from Newtown High School in 1936, he attended the City College of New York from 1936-1941 and received a B.S. in Geology in 1942. Solecki then served in the US Army and fought in World War II. He was discharged in 1945. In 1946, Solecki enrolled at Columbia University to study Anthropology, and he received a M.A. degree in 1950. During this time, Solecki worked for the River Basin Surveys at the Smithsonian Institution. He also accompanied a geological survey to northern Alaska in 1949. In 1951, he became an associate curator of archaeology at the Smithsonian Institution. In that same year, he traveled to Iraq to survey prehistoric sites and began Season I of excavation at Shanidar Cave. Solecki then received a Fulbright fellowship to return to Iraq in 1953-1954 to continue excavations at Shanidar Cave (Season II) and conduct research at the Iraq Museum in Baghdad. In 1958, he received his PhD in Anthropology from Columbia University and accepted a faculty position within the Department of Anthropology at Columbia University. Following the final two seasons of excavation at Shanidar Cave (see below for details on Season III and IV), Solecki led a number of Columbia University expeditions to various locations around the Middle East, Africa, and Europe. He also spent three seasons (1963-1964, 1981, 1987) surveying and excavating the site of Yabroud in Syria and three field seasons excavating the sites of Nahr Ibrahim (1969, 1970, 1973) and El Masloukh (1969) in Lebanon. Solecki retired from Columbia University in 1988.

Rose Muriel (née Lilien) Solecki was born on November 18th, 1925 in New York City, New York. She completed her undergraduate studies in Anthropology from Hunter College in 1945, and she went on to receive her M.A. and PhD degrees in Anthropology from Columbia University. While at Columbia, she studied under William Duncan Strong and joined Strong's excavations in Peru from 1952-1953. Rose Solecki acted as a research associate within the Department of Anthropology at Columbia University until Ralph Solecki's retirement in 1988.

Ralph and Rose met at Columbia University as students and married in 1955. In 1956-1957, both Ralph and Rose Solecki travelled to Iraq, where Ralph conducted a third season of excavation at Shanidar Cave and Rose excavated the nearby Zawi Chemi Shanidar village site. In 1960, the Soleckis returned for a fourth and final field season of excavation at Shanidar Cave and Zawi Chemi Shanidar, where they were accompanied by Smithsonian Institution curator of Physical Anthropology, T. Dale Stewart. Ralph and Rose Solecki both held positions at Columbia University until Ralph's retirement in 1988. In 1990, Ralph and Rose served as adjunct professors at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas. In 2000, they left Texas A&M University and moved to South Orange, New Jersey.

Ralph Solecki died in Livingston, New Jersey on March 20, 2019.

Chronology of the Life of Ralph S. Solecki

1917 October 15 -- Born in Brooklyn, New York, USA

1942 -- B.S. in Geology from City College of New York

1942-1945 -- Served in the United States Army during World War II

1948 -- Started working with the Smithsonian Institution's River Basin Surveys

1948-1949 -- Accompanied a United States Geological Survey party to the upper Kokpowruk and Kokolik rivers at the Brooks Range in northwestern Alaska

1950 -- M.A. in Anthropology from Columbia University

1951 -- First field season at Shanidar Cave, Iraq

1953-1954 -- Fulbright fellowship to conduct fieldwork in Iraq Second field season at Shanidar Cave, Iraq Shanidar Child skeleton discovered

1955 -- Married Rose M. Lilien

1956-1957 -- Third field season at Shanidar Cave, Iraq Shanidar I, II, and III skeletons discovered

1958 -- Appointed Associate Curator of Archaeology at the Smithsonian Institution PhD in Anthropology from Columbia University Accepted post at Columbia University as Associate Professor of Anthropology

1960 -- Fourth field season at Shanidar Cave Shanidar IV, V, VI, VII (or IV-VII), and VIII skeletons discovered

1961-1962 -- Columbia University Nubian Expedition to Sudan

1963 -- Columbia University Near East (C.U.N.E.) Expedition to Seberde, Turkey and Yabroud, Syria

1964-1965 -- Columbia University Near East (C.U.N.E.) Expedition to Yabroud, Syria

1969-1973 -- Three field seasons at Nahr Ibrahim and El Masloukh, Lebanon

1971 -- Authored Shanidar: The First Flower People

1981 -- Archaeological survey at Yabroud, Syria

1987-1988 -- Field season at Yabroud, Syria

1988 -- Retired from Columbia University

1990-2000 -- Served as Adjunct Professor of Anthropology at Texas A&M University

2004 -- Coauthored The Proto-Neolithic Cemetery in Shanidar Cave with Rose L. Solecki and Anagnostis Agelarakis

2019 March 20 -- Died in Livingston, New Jersey

Chronology of the Life of Rose L. Solecki

1925 November 18 -- Born in New York City, New York

circa 1945 -- B.S. in Anthropology at Hunter College

1946 -- Enrolled at Columbia University

1952-1953 -- Field season in Peru under William Duncan Strong

1956 -- PhD from Columbia University

1956-1957 -- Field season at Zawi Chemi Shanidar, Iraq

1960 -- Field season at Zawi Chemi Shanidar, Iraq

1990-2000 -- Served as Adjunct Professor of Anthropology at Texas A&M University

2004 -- Coauthored The Proto-Neolithic Cemetery in Shanidar Cave with Ralph S. Solecki and Anagnostis P. Agelarakis
Related Materials:
The Smithsonian Insitution's National Museum of Natural History's Department of Anthropology contains archaeological and ethnographic collections relating to the work of Ralph and Rose Solecki including accession numbers 202536, 209544, 217009, 220078, 220920, 224956, 232170, 242336, 249217, 356696.

Accession 220078 contains archaeological and archaeobiological material excavated by Ralph and Rose Solecki at Shanidar Cave and Zawi Chemi Shanidar. An accretion transferred in 2016 was cataloged as part of the Ralph S. and Rose L. Solecki Papers and Artifacts Project (2017-2019) and cross-references excavation and artifact analysis within the Solecki papers.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ralph and Rose Solecki and their sons, John and William, in 2016, 2018, and 2019.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Occupation:
Women archaeologists  Search this
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Archaeology -- Iraq  Search this
Archaeologists  Search this
Early man -- Neanderthal  Search this
Human evolution  Search this
Citation:
Ralph S. and Rose L. Solecki papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2016-29
See more items in:
Ralph S. and Rose L. Solecki papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2016-29
Online Media:

Grover Sanders Krantz papers

Creator:
Krantz, Grover S.  Search this
Extent:
7.38 Linear feet (14 manuscript boxes, 1 oversize box, 1 manuscript folder, 47 floppy disks, and 9 audio cassettes.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1904-2001
bulk 1955-2001
Summary:
Grover Sanders Krantz was a professor of physical anthropology at Washington State University and was considered a leading authority in hominoid evolution and primate bone structure, specializing in the reconstruction and casting of hominid fossils. Materials include articles, bibliographies, card files, clippings, correspondence, diplomas, computer disks, legal documents, manuscripts, maps, notebooks, notes, programs, school records, sketches, telegrams, transparencies and typescripts.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the personal papers of Dr. Grover S. Krantz and documents his research in physical anthropology as well as his 30-year teaching career. The collection also contains materials on Krantz's activities in the field of cryptozoology, especially his investigations of Sasquatch. Materials include his writings, correspondence, notes, sketches, newspaper clippings, sound recordings, photographs, and electronic records. Some materials in the collection are written in code and noospel, a phonetic spelling system he had developed.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 9 series: (1) Correspondence, 1964, 1974-2001; (2) Writings, 1955-2001; (3) Research, 1959-2001; (4) Professional Activities, 1958-2001; (5) Sasquatch, 1963-2001; (6) Teaching, 1957-2001; (7) Biographical and Personal Files, 1904-1911, 1931, 1952-2002; (8) Sound Recordings, 1988-1997, undated; (9) Electronic Records, 1987-2001
Biographical Note:
Grover Sanders Krantz was born on November 5, 1931, to Swedish immigrants in Salt Lake City, Utah, and spent his childhood in Salt Lake City and Rockford, Illinois. His undergraduate studies began at the University of Utah in 1949 but were postponed in 1951 by 18 months of service in the United States Air Force. After being honorably discharged, Krantz attended the University of California, Berkeley, and earned his bachelor's and master's degrees in Anthropology. In 1970, he earned his doctorate in physical anthropology from the University of Minnesota.

From 1968-1998, Krantz served as a professor of physical anthropology at Washington State University in Pullman, Washington. He was considered a leading authority in hominoid evolution and an expert on primate bone structure, specializing in the reconstruction and casting of hominid fossils. Among his numerous publications are the books Climatic Races and Descent Groups, The Process of Human Evolution, and Geographical Development of European Languages. Publicly known for his interest in cryptozoology, Krantz was one of the first established researchers to pursue the question of Bigfoot, or Sasquatch, from a scientific approach. Other research interests included the origin of language and speech, sex identification of skeletons, and early human immigration into America.

After a battle with pancreatic cancer, Krantz passed away on February 14, 2002. At his request, his remains were sent to the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, where scientists performed skeletal research of great forensic value. His bones were processed and sent to the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History to be used in an educational capacity. In 2010, Grover Krantz's skeleton and that of his Irish Wolfhound Clyde were mounted in the museum's exhibit, "Written in Bone: Forensic Files of the 17th-Century Chesapeake."

Sources Consulted

"Dr. Grover Krantz." Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Accessed September 30, 2011. http://anthropology.si.edu/writteninbone/grover_krantz.html

"Grover S. Krantz, 70, Port Angeles, Wash." Lewiston Morning Tribune (Lewiston, ID), February 16, 2002.

Krantz, Grover. "Curriculum Vitae."

Ruane, Michael E. "Natural History Museum Grants Professor's Dying Wish: A Display of his Skeleton." Washington Post, August 11, 2012. Accessed April 12, 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/10/AR2009041003357.html.

"Sasquatch expert Grover Krantz dies at age 70." Spokesman-Review (Spokane, WA), February 19, 2002.

Chronology

1931 -- Born November 5 in Salt Lake City, Utah, to Carl Victor Emmanuel Krantz and Esther Maria (Sanders) Krantz

1949 -- Begins undergraduate studies at University of Utah

1951-1952 -- Serves in the United States Air Force at Clovis, New Mexico, as a desert survival instructor

1953 -- Marries Patricia Howland Transfers from University of Utah to University of California, Berkeley

1955 -- Receives B.A. in Anthropology from UC Berkeley

1958 -- Receives M.A. in Anthropology from UC Berkeley

1959 -- Marries Joan Brandson

1960-1966 -- Works as Museum Technician, R.H. Lowie Museum of Anthropology, UC Berkeley

1964 -- Marries Evelyn Einstein

1966-1968 -- Works as Visiting Lecturer, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

1968 -- Begins work as Assistant Professor in the Anthropology Department, Washington State University

1971 -- Receives Ph.D. in Anthropology from University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, with the publication of his dissertation "The Origin of Man"

1972 -- Promoted to Associate Professor in the Anthropology Department, Washington State University

1973 -- Starts serving on Editorial Board, Northwest Anthropological Research Notes

1979 -- Starts serving on Editorial Board, Evolutionary Theory

1982 -- Serves as founding member and member of the Board of Directors for the International Society of Cryptozoology (ISC) Marries Diane Horton

1984 -- Due to high scores on the Miller Analogy Test, is accepted into Intertel, an organization that accepts only individuals who have scored at or above the 99th percentile on a standardized IQ test

1987 -- Appears in well-publicized creationism vs. evolution debate with Duane Gish, Washington State University

1988 -- Organizes and chairs Early Man symposium at the American Anthropological Association meeting in D.C.

1994 -- Offered Full Professor title within the Anthropology Department, Washington State University

1998 -- Publishes Only a Dog, a story about the relationship between Krantz and his first Irish Wolfhound Clyde Retires from Washington State University

1999 -- Appears in the documentary "Sasquatch Odyssey"

2002 -- Dies February 14 of pancreatic cancer His remains are processed at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility His bones and bones of his Irish Wolfhounds are donated to the Smithsonian Institution for educational purposes

2010-2013 -- His mounted bones and bones of his Irish Wolfhound, Clyde, appear in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History exhibit "Written in Bone: Forensic Files of the 17th-Century Chesapeake"
Separated Materials:
Film and video, including copies of the Patterson-Gimlin film, have been transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA accession 2003-04).

Grover S. Krantz's specimens were donated to the National Museum of Natural History's Physical Anthropology Collections.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Grover Krantz's wife Diane Horton and his brother Victor Krantz, a former Smithsonian photographer.
Restrictions:
Materials that include student grades are restricted until 2081. Nude photographs of Grover were restricted until 2017. Electronic records are restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Grover Sanders Krantz papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology  Search this
Sasquatch  Search this
Human evolution  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Primates  Search this
Citation:
Grover Sanders Krantz papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2003-21
See more items in:
Grover Sanders Krantz papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2003-21

Frank Spencer Papers

Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Names:
Dawson, Charles, 1864-1916  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Keith, Arthur, Sir, 1866-1955  Search this
Extent:
40 Linear feet (94 boxes, 1 oversized box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Piltdown (England) -- early man site
Date:
1836-1999
bulk 1970-1999
Summary:
Frank Spencer was a historian of biological anthropology who began his career as a medical laboratory technician. His papers include correspondence, manuscripts, notes, research files, teaching materials, photographs, and audiotapes. Spencer's research on the Piltdown hoax as well as the Piltdown research of Ian Langham, whose work Spencer continued after his death in 1984, and Spencer's research on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička for his dissertation are both represented in the collection.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the research and professional activities of anthropologist Frank Spencer through his correspondence, manuscripts, notes, research files, teaching materials, photographs, and audiotapes. As a historian of physical anthropology, Spencer did a great deal of archival research. Well-represented in the collection is Spencer's research on the Piltdown hoax as well as the Piltdown research of Ian Langham, whose work Spencer continued after Langham's death in 1984. Among the materials collected are negatives of Piltdown-related papers and negatives of Sir Arthur Keith's papers held at the Royal College of Surgeons. Spencer, who theorized that Keith was behind the Piltdown hoax, had organized his papers with a grant from Wenner-Gren. Also represented in the collection is Spencer's research on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička for his dissertation. Although most of Hrdlička's papers and photos that Spencer collected are copies of materials held at the National Anthropological Archives (NAA), the collection does contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; and copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece. The collection also contains an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute. Spencer's 1975 taped interviews with Henry Collins, Harry Shapiro, Ashley Montagu, and Lucille St. Hoyme can also be found in the collection. Other projects represented in the collection include A History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia, The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence, and Fallen Idols, Spencer's unpublished book on the history of scientific attitudes towards human origins. In addition, the collection contains copies of Physical Anthropology News, which Spencer co-founded and edited. Photos in the collection include images of Frank Spencer as well as of the 1981 and 1988 annual meetings of the Association of American Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) and the 1980 symposium Spencer and Noel T. Boaz organized on the history of American physical anthropology.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 15 series: (1) Correspondence, 1864, 1910, 1920, 1972-1999 (bulk 1972-1999); (2) Piltdown, 1836-1997; (3) Ales Hrdlicka, 1866-1867, 1893-1942, 1971-1981, 1994-1999; (4) Encyclopedia, 1881-1891, 1911-1999 (bulk 1991-1998); (5) Projects, 1858-1884, 1897-1909, 1919-1929, 1939-1999 (bulk 1982-1995); (6) Human Antiquity Research, 1960-1980, 1991-1998; (7) Subject Files, 1863-1999 (bulk 1970-1998); (8) Coded Files, 1836-1983 (bulk 1970-1983); (9) University Material, 1959, 1973-1998; (10) Personal Papers, 1966-1975, 1985-1994; (11) Notebooks, 1976-1999; (12) Card Files, undated; (13) Photographs, 1885-1990 (bulk 1980-1990); (14) Audiotapes, 1942, 1961, 1975-1976, 1998 (bulk 1975); (15) Realia, undated
Biographical Note:
Frank Spencer was born in Chatham, England, on May 1, 1941. Best known as a historian of biological anthropology and for his book Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery (1990), Spencer began his career as a medical laboratory technician, publishing two books on medical laboratory procedures in 1970 and 1972. He immigrated to Canada, where he earned his BA in anthropology at the University of Windsor in Ontario in 1973. The following year, he enrolled at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, with C. Loring Brace as his advisor. Spencer wrote his dissertation on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička and was awarded his PhD in biological anthropology in 1979. That same year he joined the faculty of the Department of Anthropology at Queens College as an assistant professor and was soon promoted to department chair in 1984. Over the course of his career, he wrote and edited several books on the history of physical anthropology including A History of Physical Anthropology, 1930-1980 (1992), The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (1984), Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology (1986), and History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia (1997). Spencer was also a co-founder and editor of the Physical Anthropology News bulletins. It was his book Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery, however, that garnered him the most attention. In this book, he theorized that the well-respected Sir Arthur Keith master-minded the Piltdown hoax. On May 30, 1999 Frank Spencer died of cancer at the age of 58.

1941 -- Born on May 1 in Chatham, Kent, England

1964 -- Obtained Associate diploma in Clinical Microbiology, [Britain], Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences

1966 -- Fellowship diploma in Clinical Parasitology

1971 -- Advanced diploma in Clinical Biochemistry & Microbiology, Canadian Society of Medical Laboratory Technology

1973 -- BA (Anthropology) University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada

1974 -- MA (Biological Anthropology) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

1976-1977 -- Adjunct Lecturer, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Windsor

1979 -- PhD, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, "Biological Anthropology, Aleš Hrdlička, MD (1869-1943): A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist"

1979-1982 -- Hired as Assistant Professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College

1982 -- Published A History of American Physical Anthropology, 1930-1980

1983 -- Associate Professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College

1984 -- Published The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence

1986 -- Full professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College Published Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology

1990 -- Published Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery Published The Piltdown Papers 1908-1955: The Correspondence and Other Documents Relating to the Forgery

1997 -- Published The History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia

1999 -- Passed away on May 30 of cancer
Related Materials:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Provenance:
Donated in 2002 by Elena Peters-Spencer, wife of Frank Spencer.
Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology -- History  Search this
Physical anthropology -- frauds  Search this
Crohn's disease  Search this
Piltdown forgery  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2002-21
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2002-21

CE-1

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Extent:
3 Folders
Container:
Box 59
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1887-1903
1916-1920
1935-1956
1971-1981
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes in folder 1: Hrdlička and other history anthropology; in folders 2 and 3: history of physical anthropology, papers, conference, and other miscellany.
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Frank Spencer Papers / Series 8: Coded Files
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref1019

CK-1

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Container:
Box 59
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1881-1886
1896
1936
1982
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes Hrdlička's report card and history of the Physical Anthropological Association.
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Frank Spencer Papers / Series 8: Coded Files
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref1025

Photographs

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Extent:
4.1 Linear feet (11 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1885-1990
bulk 1980-1990
Scope and Contents:
This series contains prints, negatives, and slides for Spencer's research and publications. The slides and negatives are stored separately from the prints. Photographs of Spencer can be found in this series along with photos of conferences he attended, including the annual meeting of the AAPA held in Detroit in 1981, the 1988 AAPA meeting in Kansas City, and the 1980 symposium at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, that Spencer and Noel T. Boaz organized on the history of American physical anthropology. "CK-1" contains an assortment of photos including prints of a 1939 AAPA meeting, Henry Collins on Nunivak Island, and Aleš Hrdlička's family photos. The slides were most likely used for teaching purposes and presentations. Slides for Spencer's course on the history of anthropology contain photographs of several important figures in anthropology. The negatives in boxes 89-91 are most likely photos of Sir Arthur Keith's papers.
Arrangement:
This series is arranged in 2 sub-series: (13.1) Prints, 1885-1990; (13.2) Negatives & Slides, 1918, 1966-1988
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2002-21, Series 13
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref1140

CK-1

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Container:
Box 83
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1906-1917
1927
1939
1981
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes Hrdlička and photos for 1980 conference on history of physical anthropology.
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Frank Spencer Papers / Series 13: Photographs / 13.1: Prints
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref1161

"Dental Anthropology: Its History in Physical Anthropology with Specific Reference to the Contributions of Aleš Hrdlička" (Turner)

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Container:
Box 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Frank Spencer Papers / Series 3: Aleš Hrdlička
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref337

Encyclopedia

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Extent:
3.13 Linear feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1911-1999
bulk 1991-1998
Scope and Contents:
In 1991, Spencer began work on A History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia, which was originally to be published by Garland in 1994. Due to delays, however, it was not published until 1997.

This series primarily contains correspondence (1991-1998) between Frank Spencer and Garland, the contributors to his publication, and other individuals whom Spencer contacted to verify or supply data. In addition, there are draft entries, illustrations, research notes, and biographical information collected by Dr. Spencer for use in the encyclopedia.

For additional materials relating to the encyclopedia, please see Series 11: Notebooks, Series 13: Photographs, and Series 5: Projects, Sub-series 5.7: Fallen Idols.
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2002-21, Series 4
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref362

Projects

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Extent:
2.85 Linear feet (6 boxes and 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1858-1884
1897-1909
1919-1929
1939-1999
bulk 1982-1995
Scope and Contents:
This series is organized by projects undertaken by Spencer throughout his career. In the late '80s and early '90s, Frank Spencer fastidiously researched the Brixham cave affair, believing it to be a predecessor to the Piltdown hoax. Another project is Fallen Idols, his unpublished book on the history of scientific attitudes towards human origins. Copies of the Physical Anthropology News, which Spencer co-founded and edited, are also contained in this series. The illustrations in this series are unidentified and may belong to different projects. Correspondence and questionnaires for Spencer's research on Crohn's disease are restricted.

Additional materials relating to his projects can be found in Series 8: Coded Files and Series 11: Notebooks.
Arrangement:
This series is arranged in 11 sub-series: (5.1) Brixham Cave Project, 1858-1884, 1897-1901, 1929, 1939-1942, 1954-1962, 1977-1998; (5.2) American Journal of Physical Anthropology—Jubilee Issue, 1981; (5.3) Anthropometry and Photography, 1909, 1981-1990; (5.4) Chromosomes, 1970-1973; (5.5) Crohn's Disease, 1976-1995; (5.6) Ecce Homo, 1983-1986; (5.7) Fallen Idols, 1991-1998; (5.8) French Anthropology, 1919-1927, 1980-1990; (5.9) Manuscripts & Papers, 1942-1998; (5.10) Illustrations, 1964-1966, 1992-1999; (5.11) Miscellaneous Projects, 1968-1969, 1982-1997
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2002-21, Series 5
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref577

"Four Important Sources for the Early Twentieth Century History of Physical Anthropology"

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Container:
Box 32
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Frank Spencer Papers / Series 5: Projects / 5.9: Manuscripts & Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref669

"History of Physical Anthropology in Canada" (Meikeljohn)

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Container:
Box 42
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Frank Spencer Papers / Series 7: Subject Files
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref825

"History of Physical Anthropology in Great Britain" (Weiner)

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Container:
Box 42
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1982
undated
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Frank Spencer Papers / Series 7: Subject Files
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref826

Coded Files

Collection Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Extent:
5.6 Linear feet (13 boxes and 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1836-1983
bulk 1970-1983
Scope and Contents:
These files were created during the 1970s and early 1980s when Spencer was first enrolled in graduate school at the University of Michigan and teaching simultaneously, and then in his first years teaching at Queens College. The papers cover many different topics, including contemporary physical and biological anthropology and the history of physical anthropology. Materials relating to Aleš Hrdlička are spread throughout this series. "CK-1" contains Hrdlička's 1869 report card. Some of the materials were annotated by Spencer. Also included are photocopied letters, manuscripts by Spencer and others, and Spencer's notes.
Arrangement:
The coded files themselves were created in roughly chronological order, with papers on sometimes disparate topics grouped together. Within each folder, documents are organized chronologically, with undated materials at the end. The organizational key is the card file in Boxes 62 and 63, which is arranged alphabetically by subject and author.
Collection Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2002-21, Series 8
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-21-ref948

Aleš Hrdlička papers

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Names:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Institute of Population  Search this
International Congress of Americanists  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology. Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
206.71 Linear feet (294 boxes, 138 folders, 9 rolled items, and 4 folios)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Saint Lawrence Island (Alaska) -- Archaeology
Australia
Alaska -- Archaeology
Mexico -- Anthropology
Florida -- Archaeology
Egypt -- Archaeology
Czechoslovakia
Peru -- Physical anthropology
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Date:
1875-1966
bulk 1903-1943
Summary:
The papers of Aleš Hrdlička, curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, offer considerable insight into the development of physical anthropology in the first half of this century. The papers include honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). In addition, there is material of a personal nature. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the USNM.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of both professional and personal materials. The professional material includes honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). The personal material primarily consists of correspondence with his first wife (Marie Dieudonnée Strickler) and other family members, but there are also financial records. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Hrdlička investigated all major questions confronting physical anthropologists of his day (the fossil record of early humans, the arrival of humans in the Americas, human variation, evolution, and eugenics) and made valuable contributions in all these areas. Hrdlička's interests in the establishment of physical anthropology as a distinct and important field, the welfare of the Czech people, early hominids, and variation within the human species are all documented in the collection as are the services he performed for various United States government agencies. He pursued field studies in many different parts of the world, but there are relatively few field notes as such among his papers. There is instead the edited journal "My Journeys," photographs, and physical anthropological forms. There is also relatively little material on his administrative involvement in the USNM. There is no material from Hrdlička's time at the Pathological Institution of the New York State Hospitals; after he resigned, fire destroyed the anthropological records Hrdlička collected as a member of the staff. There are materials in the collection which contradict, or at least complicate, many long-held criticisms of Hrdlička, particularly claims that he was racist and opposed feminist ideas. The collection contains materials of interest to genetic research, including anthropometric measurements, hair clippings and fingerprints.

There are a few items in the collection which are dated earlier than the collection's date span. These are publication dates, and the folders containing the items have been dated accordingly, but they have not affected the dates of the series or collection. There are also a few items which are dated after Hrdlička's death. These dates reflect the fact that the collection was added to by the Department of Physical Anthropology after Hrdlička's death and have been taken into account when formulating dates for the series and collection.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 37 series:

(1) Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1875-1940

(2) Early Personal Correspondence, 1883-1919

(3) Correspondence, 1885-1953

(4) News Clippings and Printed Matter, 1893-1953

(5) Financial Papers, 1910-1943

(6) Journeys to the Southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1919

(7) Journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917

(8) Florida Survey, 1918, 1918-1927

(9) Alaska Archeological Expeditions, 1912-1938 (bulk 1926-1938)

(10) Panama-California Exposition Expeditions, 1912-1914

(11) Journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909

(12) Journey to South America, 1910, 1910-1912

(13) Journey to the Far East, 1920, 1900-1930

(14) Journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe, 1924-1925

(15) Anthropometric Measurements of Indians Taken at the United States National Museum, 1904-1905, most undated

(16) Bone Studies, 1893-1929, most undated

(17) Old Americans, 1914-1930

(18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1928-1936

(19) Early Man Studies, 1906-1930

(20) European Ethnic History, 1908-1938

(21) Miscellaneous Research Notes, 1887-1930

(22) Manuscripts of Writings, 1901-1944, most undated

(23) Writings by Other Authors, 1877-1942

(24) Anthropometry, undated

(25) "From My Journeys", 1898-1938

(26) -- American Journal of Physical Anthropology -- , 1918-1931

(27) American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1931

(28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928

(29) Institute of Population, 1942

(30) Department of Anthropology, 1914-1943

(31) Lecture Notes, 1920-1932

(32) Maps and Charts, 1900-1932

(33) Miscellany, 1895-1954

(34) Index Cards, 1899-1948

(35) Bibliographic Index, undated

(36) Physical Anthropology Folios, undated

(37) Photographs, 1887-1944
Biographical Note:
Aleš Hrdlička was born in Bohemia in 1869 and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals, Hrdlička went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlička arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlička became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlička came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

While in his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlička returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children in 1905 and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

From 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlička amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlička founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president from 1928 to 1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association from 1925 to 1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences from 1928 to 1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. From the 1920s to the 1940s Hrdlicka was a member of the American Eugenics Society and prepared exhibits for various eugenics congresses. In addition, Hrdlička was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Chronology

1869 March 29 -- Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička (Aleš Hrdlička) born in Humpolec, Bohemia

1882 September -- Emigrated to New York City

1888 -- While stricken with typhoid, met M. Rosenbleuth, a physician who arranged for Hrdlička to enroll at the Eclectic Medical College of New York City

1892 -- Enrolled in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital Published first article, "Scheme of Examination (Medical)," Publications of the Eclectic Medical College Graduated first in his class from the Eclectic Medical College

1894 -- Graduated first from his class from the Homeopathic Medical College Became research intern at the State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane in Middletown, New York, where he began his studies in physical anthropology Passed state board examination (allopathic)

1895 -- Joined staff of the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals as associate in anthropology

1896 -- Studied anthropology under Leon Manouvrier in Paris

1896 August 6 -- Married Marie Stickler (Dieudonnée)

1898 March-July(?) -- Accompanied Carl Lumholtz on his expedition to northern Mexico, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and visited the Tarahumara, Huichol, and Tepecan Indians

1899 Spring -- Resigned from the Pathological Institute to take charge of physical and medical anthropological research on the Hyde Expeditions of the AMNH to the southwestern United States

1899 August -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to excavate the site of Pueblo Bonito and to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; visited Grand Gulch caves in southern Utah; included visits to the Navahos and southern Utes

1900 -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Colorado to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; included visits to the Apaches, Yumas, and Pueblo Indians

1902 January-September -- Hyde expeditions for AMNH to southwestern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico to conduct somatological surveys; included visits to the Tepecanos, Papagos, Opatas, Pimas, Yaquis, Mayos, Huichols, Otomis, Tepehuanes, Maricopas, Yumas, Yavapais, Paiutes, Walapais, and Havasupais

1902 October-December -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Mexico for Hrdlička to complete his somatological investigations; included visits to the Tepehuanes, Coras, Huichols, "Nahuas," "Aztecs," and Tarascans

1903 May 1 -- Became assistant curator in charge of the new Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Expedition under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to Arizona and New Mexico to complete the observations on the tribes of this region; Hrdlička especially studied Apache and Pima Indian children

1906 February -- Expedition to western Florida to investigate remains of alleged ancient man

1907 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1908 -- Expedition to Indian schools and reservations in Wisconsin, Washington, California, Arizona, and South Dakota to study tuberculosis for a report to the International Congress of Tuberculosis

1908 December - 1909 May -- Traveled to Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia, Poland, and Germany to examine human skeletal remains from an excavation in Egypt by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to study peoples of the Near East

1910 March 28 -- Promoted to curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology

1910 April-September -- Attended the 17th International Congress of Americanists in Buenos Aires and Mexico City Traveled to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Panama

1912 -- Planned and directed seven expeditions for the physical anthropology exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition held at San Diego in 1915; expeditions included Hrdlička to Siberia and Mongolia and later to Peru; Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands; Vojtech Suk to Africa; Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine; and Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia

1912 May-Summer -- Traveled to London to attend 18th International Congress of Americanists Traveled to Siberia and Mongolia for the Panama-California Exposition

1912 September -- Traveled to Geneva for the 14th International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology

1913 January-April -- Expedition to Peru as part the effort for the Panama-California Exposition

1914 November 18 - 1915 January 18 -- Attended Panama-California Exposition

1915 May -- Research for the Department of Justice at the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations in Minnesota to determine non-Indian mixture among Chippewas

1915 December -- Served as General Secretary for the 19th International Congress of Americanists held in Washington

1916 Fall -- Traveled to Florida to examine remains of supposed ancient man

1917 March-July -- Served as Secretary on the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council

1917 Summer -- "Old American" research at Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Virginia and in Tennessee

1917 August -- Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, traveled to Oklahoma to visit the Shawnee Agency in eastern Oklahoma and the Kickapoo Indians in McCloud to search for adequate samples of pure blood Indians

1918 -- Elected to the American Philosophical Society Served as Chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and became its long-time editor Surveyed prehistoric sites on the southwest coast of Florida

1918 October 8 -- Death of his wife Marie

1920 -- Anthropometry published by the Wistar Institute Elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1920 Summer -- Married Mina (Vilemina) Mansfield

1920 January-May -- Visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, northern China, Mongolia, and Hawaii Lectured at Peking Union Medical College in China

1920 Fall -- Visited Minnesota Chippewa (at the White Earth Reservation?) to help the Department of Justice setter the question of mixed and pure bloods among the Chippewa

1921 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1922 -- Visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia, and England Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from the University of Prague Chairman of the American delegation to the 20th International Congress of Americanists in Rio de Janiero

1923 -- Served three and one-half months as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies Visited England, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Croatia, and Italy

1925 -- The Old Americans published by Williams and Wilkins Co.

1925 March-October -- Traveled to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe on a trip sponsored by the Buffalo [New York] Society of Natural Science to obtain cranial measurements of Australian aborigines and Tasmanians, to investigate the Rhodesian Man site in South Africa, to survey the field of early man, and to collect data to support his hypothesis about the peopling of the Earth

1925-1926 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1926 -- Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from University of Brno and D.Nat.Sc. degree from Brunn University

1926 May-September -- First fieldwork in Alaska: reconnaissance down the Yukon River to its mouth, around the Bering Sea and through the Bering Strait along the Alaskan coast to Point Barrow

1927 -- Received Huxley Memorial Medal and gave Huxley Lecture on "the Neanderthal Phase of Man" before the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1928 -- Helped found the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)

1928-1929 -- President of the Washington Academy of Sciences

1928-1932 -- Served as first president of the AAPA

1929 -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Yukon River from Tanana to its mouth, to St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands, to Cape Prince of Wales, up to Point Barrow and back to Unalaska Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from Charles University, Prague

1930 -- Published The Skeletal Remains of Early Man, Vol. 83 Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections Published "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 21-374

1930 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Kuskokwim River from Bethel down river to Apogak and up river to Stony River

1931 -- Children Who Run on All Fours published by McGraw-Hill Book Co.

1931 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1932 -- Kober Foundation lecturer of Georgetown University

1932 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1934 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed Cooks Inlet sites and the mainland opposite the Our Point site

1935 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site

1936 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed the Dutch Harbor caves, some of the Aleutian Islands, and the mummy cave on Kagamil Island

1937 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands

1938 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands, Dutch Harbor caves, and Commander Islands

1939 April 4 -- Testimonial dinner given by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in honor of his 70th birthday

1939 April-June -- Recuperated in London hospital after suffering a coronary occlusion

1942 March 31 -- Retired from curatorship at United States National Museum, becoming an associate in anthropology

1942 December -- Resigned as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology

1943 -- Alaska Diary published by Cattell Press

1943 September 5 -- Died of heart attack

1944 -- Anthropology of Kodiak Island published by Wistar Institute

1945 -- The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants published by Wistar Institute

1969 -- Tenth Anthropological Congress of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences dedicated to Hrdlička in the 100th anniversary year of his birth

Selected Bibliography

1908 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bulletin 34, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908.

1912 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912.

1919 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physical Anthropology: Its Scope and Aims. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1919.

1920 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropometry. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.

1925 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Old Americans. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1925.

1930 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Skeletal Remains of Early Man. Vol. 83, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. City of Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1930. Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropological Survey in Alaska. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1930.

1931 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Children Who Run on All Fours, and Other Animal-like Behaviors in the Human Child. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931.

1943 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Alaska Diary, 1926-1931. Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Cattell Press, 1943.

1944 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1944.

1945 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Aleš Hrdlička can be found in the papers of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, and Frank Spencer; records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution); and glass negatives of Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution illustrations.

Additional related photographs can be found in Photo Lot 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; Photo Lot 9, Photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Photo Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; Photo Lot 78, Miscellaneous negatives; Photo Lot 97, Division of Ethnology collection ("USNM" Collection); Photo Lot 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs relating to the Panama-California Exhibition; Photo Lot 73-26G, Miscellany; Photo Lot 77-48, Group portraits of International Congress; Photo Lot 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; Photo Lot 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and Photo Lot 92-46, Anthropology lantern slides.

Related films can be found in the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1982.2.1, 1982.2.2, 1986.12.1, and 2015.13.1.

Hrdlička's extensive collection of reprints is maintained in the Division of Physical Anthropology.

Frank Spencer's doctoral dissertation "Aleš Hrdlička, M.D., 1869-1943: A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist" (1979) is the only book length biography of Hrdlička. The Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, are available at the NAA and contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece; and an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute.

Further material may be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Provenance:
Hrdlička bequeathed his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. The Division of Physical Anthropology maintained them until they were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives in the 1960s. Some papers have come into the collection since then, most recently in 2018. These new accretions came to the collection through Donald Ortner, David Hunt, T. Dale Stewart, the Department of Anthropology, and the University of Alaska.
Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Human evolution  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Children -- Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-31
Online Media:

Physical Anthropology Folios

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Extent:
8 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
This series is comprised of four large green folios, with the title and author's name in gold lettering on the cover. They include charts and tables. It is not known why these materials were bound as they were, but they may have been used to illustrate a talk.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31, Series 36
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref3555

Hrdlička, Aleš:

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 36: Physical Anthropology Folios
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref4147

Schück, A.:

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Also known as Vojtech Suk.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 36: Physical Anthropology Folios
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref4148

"Physical Anthropology, Grouping, Classifications and Family Trees of Human Races"

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 224
Type:
Archival materials
Books
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 36: Physical Anthropology Folios / Hrdlička, Aleš:
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref4149

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