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Ralph H. Baer Papers

Creator:
Baer, Ralph H., 1922-2014  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet (44 boxes and 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
Cd-roms
Diagrams
Drawings
Interviews
Videotapes
Correspondence
Sketches
Photographs
Oral history
Notes
Manuals
Date:
1943 - 2015
Summary:
Ralph H. Baer was a German-born ordnance specialist, inventor, and engineer. He was a pioneer of early videogame technology. The papers include autobiographical materials; firearms notes, manuscripts, and photographs; and videogame and television engineering notes, diagrams, schematics, and video documentation.
Scope and Contents:
The Ralph Baer Papers include autobiographical materials and an extended oral history interview. The Papers also include materials about military small arms created by Baer during his World War II service. The largest portion of the collection documents Baer's work on video games.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 12 series.

Series 1: Autobiographical Documents, 1962-2006

Subseries 1.1: Manuscript, book and other documents, 1962-2006

Subseries 1.2: Other Media: CDs, VHS videos, periodical, 1991, 2000-2003

Series 2: WW II Small Arms Documents, 1943-1953

Subseries 2.1: Correspondence, 1950-1953

Subseries 2.2: Writings and notes, 1943-1948

Subseries 2.3: Drawings and schematics, undated

Subseries 2.4: Manuals and encyclopedias, 1943

Subseries 2.5: Photographs, 1945

Series 3: Hans Otto Mauksch Materials, 1944-1964

Subseries 3.1: Personal background information, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1964

Subseries 3.2: Instructional materials, 1944-1946, undated

Subseries 3.3: Ft. Riley, Kansas, 1946, 1953

Series 4: TV Game Documents, 1966-1972

Subseries 4.1: Working notes, diagrams and schematics, 1966-1971

Subseries 4.2: Administrative documents, 1966-1972 Subseries 4.3: Notebooks, 1966-1968

Subseries 4.4: TV game development documentation, 1966-1968

Series 5: Sanders Associates, Transitron, and Van Norman Industries, 1952-2003

Series 6: Product Development Documents, 1974-2015

Series 7: Product Guides and Technical Support, 1943-2011

Series 8: Legal and Patent Documents, 1966-2014

Series 9: Writings and Notes, 1946-1999

Series 10: Miscellaneous, 1961-2012

Series 11: Correspondence, 1983-2014

Series 12: Publicity and Awards, 1979-2015
Biographical / Historical:
Ralph H. Baer (1922-2014) was born in Germany and immigrated to the United States with his family in 1938. A graduate of the National Radio Institute (1940), Baer worked as a radio technician in the New York City area, servicing all types of home and auto radios. During World War II, Baer served in the United States Army, one year stateside, and two years in Europe. He was assigned to Military Intelligence and became an expert on military small arms. Baer returned to the United States with eighteen tons of foreign small arms for use in exhibits at Aberdeen, Maryland; Springfield, Massachusetts Armory; and Ft. Riley, Kansas.

After the war, Baer attended the American Television Institute of Technology in Chicago, graduating with a BS in television engineering. In 1949, Baer joined a small electro medical equipment firm, Wappler, Inc., as their chief engineer. He designed and built surgical cutting machines, epilators, and low frequency pulse generating muscle-toning equipment. In 1951, Baer moved to Loral Electronics of Bronx, New York as a senior engineer, designing power line carrier signaling equipment for IBM. During 1952-1956, Baer worked at Transitron, Inc., in New York City as a chief engineer and later as vice president. In 1956, Baer joined Sanders Associates in Nashua, New Hampshire building airborne radar components. He became manager of the Electronic Design Department at Sanders and eventually Division Manager and Chief Engineer for Equipment Design. Baer retired in 1987.

At Sanders in 1966, Baer began an independent project experimenting with ways for consumers to interact with standard home television sets. Development of interactive TV Game (TVG) ideas became a company-supported project continued by Baer and assisted by William H. Harrison and William T. Rusch (download the TV Game chronology prepared by Ralph Baer in 2006). By mid-1967, ping pong videogames were played inside Sanders, patent disclosures were applied for, and hardware was designed. Baer and his associates called the devices they were developing "boxes" and numbered the various versions one through seven. In 1971, Magnavox became Sanders Associates's first videogame licensee. Between 1972 and 1975, Magnavox produced and sold over 700,000 units of Odyssey, a set of games played on its television receivers. Atari became a licensee in 1976 after the first of many lawsuits won by Sanders in pursuit of patent infringements.

During his tenure at Sanders and thereafter, Baer was a prolific inventor. His creations included many electronic toys and games and other consumer electronic products. Among the better known products based on Baer's work are Milton Bradley's Simon, Galoob's Smarty Bear Video, and Kenner's Laser Command. In 2004 President George W. Bush awarded Baer the National Medal of Technology.

Baer married Dena Whinston in 1952 and they had three children, James, Mark, and Nancy. Ralph Baer died on December 6, 2014, at the age of 92.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Ralph H. Baer Innovative Lives Presentation, August 15, 2009 (AC1179)

The presentation documents a moderated conversation about Baer's life and work. Baer reenacts, with his partner William Harrison, the first time he played "Odyssey," the first home video game for the consumer market, which he invented, and answers questions from the audience. Materials include original video (born digital), master videos, and reference videos.

Materials at Other Organizations

Brian Sutton-Smith Library and Archives of Play at The Strong

Ralph H. Baer Papers, 1968-2010 inclusive; 1975-1998 bulk

The Ralph H. Baer papers are a compilation of correspondence, game designs, drawings, notes, reference materials, photographs, product descriptions, digital videos, schematics, electronic components, and manuals utilized by Ralph H. Baer throughout his lengthy career in the toy and game industry. The bulk of the materials are from 1975 through 1998.

U.S. Ordnance Museum, Fort Lee, Virginia

Materials consist of data on foreign small arms brought back from Europe in 1946 by Ralph H. Baer.

Museum of the Moving Image, Astoria, New York

Holdings include set of seven recreations of "TV game" prototypes originally created between 1966 and 1969, donated by pioneering game developer Ralph Baer. One of Baer's game prototypes, known as the "Brown Box," was licensed by Magnavox and released in 1972 as the Magnavox Odyssey, the world's first commercial home video game console.

University of Texas, Austin, Briscoe Center for American History

Ralph H. Baer "Brown Box" replica, 1952-1983, 2006-2012

The Ralph H. Baer "Brown Box" replica includes a fully-functional replica of Ralph Baer's "Brown Box," the prototype video game console that was used as the basis of the Magnavox Odyssey in 1972. The collection also contains related research materials.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection including early video game prototypes and TV Game products.

TV Game Unit #1 (TVG#1); 1966; vacuum tube spot generator with Heathkit IG-62 Generator (See Accession 2006.0102.01)

Heathkit IG-62; used with TVG #1 (See Accession 2006.0102.02)

TV Game Unit #2 (TVG #2), aka the "Pump Unit," 1967; large aluminum chassis with wooden "pump" handle (See Accession 2006.0102.03)

TV Game Unit #7 (TVG#7), aka "Brown Box," 1967/1968; prototype for Magnavox Odyssey (See Accession 2006.0102.04)

Cardboard program cards for use with Brown Box (See Accession 2006.0102.05)

Lightgun, 1967/1968; game accessory for Brown Box (See Accession 2006.0102.06)

TV Game Unit #8, 1968; "de/dt" (velocity responsive) ballgame chassis for use with Brown Box (See Accession 2006.0102.07)

Magnavox Odyssey (Model ITL200) video game unit, 1972; with all accessories in the original carton (See Accession 2006.0102.08)

Milton-Bradley Company SIMON handheld microprocessor-control game, 1978 (See Accession 2006.0102.09)

Ideal Toy Company MANIAC microprocessor-control game, 1979, in original box with game instructions (See Accession 2006.0102.10)

Golf Game accessory, 1968; golf ball mounted on joystick handle for use with Brown Box (See Accession 2006.0102.11

"Brown Box" programming card, target shooting, 1967 (See Accession 2006.0102.12)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Ralph H. Baer in 2003.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Books  Search this
Firearms  Search this
Games  Search this
Litigation  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Machine guns  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Weapons  Search this
Video games  Search this
Toys -- 20th century  Search this
Television -- History  Search this
Rifles  Search this
Pistols  Search this
Military intelligence  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
CD-ROMs
Diagrams
Drawings -- 1940-1950
Interviews -- 2000-2010
Videotapes
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Sketches
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1940-1950
Photographs -- 20th century
Oral history -- 2000-2010
Notes
Manuals -- 1940-1950
Citation:
Ralph H. Baer Papers, 1943-2015, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0854
See more items in:
Ralph H. Baer Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0854
Online Media:

[Ash tray with cigarettes, cigarette holder, cigarette lighter, and hand : black-and-white photoprint,]

Collector:
Adler, Solomon, 1901-1990  Search this
Creator:
Lowy Adv. Agency (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Adler, Solomon, 1901-1989  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 8" x 10".)
Container:
Box 5, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1951
Scope and Contents:
Black-and-white photograph, apparently retouched. "Lowy Adv. Agency, 41, Park Row, New York" on verso.
Local Numbers:
AC1157-0000010.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Smoking -- 1940-1990  Search this
Cigarettes -- 1950-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Solomon Adler Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Solomon Adler Papers
Solomon Adler Papers / Series 2: Inventions / 2.1: Other Inventions / Combined ash tray, cigarette holder and lighter
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1157-ref715

James W. Holmes Karting Collection

Creator:
Holmes, James W.  Search this
Di Nozzi, Robert  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Posters
Design drawings
Correspondence
Decals
Microfilms
Programs
Business records
Black-and-white negatives
Specifications
Newsletters
Date:
1961-1979
Summary:
Collection documents James Holmes, an advertising agent who specialized in advertising for the Karting industry. Holmes created magazine advertising, product catalogs and event promotional materials as well as logo and patch designs for manufacturers and karting sport sanctioning organizations.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection spans the years 1961-1979, but the majority of the documentation is from the 1960s. The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: James W. Holmes Advertising Agency, 1979, consists of invoices from the Holmes Advertising Agency.

Series 2: Manufacturers, ca. 1960s, is arranged alphabetically by manufacturer name (clients Holmes handled) and consists of negatives and some photographs of parts produced by the manufacturers. The negatives were used to create catalogs for various companies selling go-karts.

Series 3: Go-Kart Races, 1961-1978, undated, is arranged alphabetically by the race site. Almost exclusively negatives, there are some photographs and two microfilm reels depicting races throughout the United States.

eries 4: Go-Kart Associations, 1964-1968, undated, contains documentation on associations, councils and clubs associated with the go-karting industry. Of interest are seven issues of the Grand Prix Press, a newspaper published by Meadowdale International Raceways, Inc.

Series 5: Miscellaneous, undated, consists of one folder of material which includes newspaper clippings, business cards, art work, and articles.
Arrangement:
Collection is aranged into five series.
Biographical/Historical note:
The first go-kart was built in southern California by Art Ingels in 1957. Three other individualsBBill Rowles, Duffy Livingstone, and Roy DesbrowBfounded GoKart Manufacturing Company in 1957, and offered the first commercially available kart, the GoKart 400. James Holmes was a prominent advertising agent involved with the karting industry in the midwest from the 1960s to 1980s. He created magazine advertising, product catalogs and event promotional materials as well as logo and patch designs for manufacturers and karting sport sanctioning organizations. Some of Holmes= clients included: G.E.M. Products, Evans Supply Company, Max-Torque, Inc., Rolfe Aircraft Associates, Rupp Mfg., and Simplex Mfg.
Provenance:
Collection donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Robert DiNozzi, January 16, 2002. Items donated are from the personal collection of Mr. James Holmes of the James Holmes Advertising Agency
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Go-Karts  Search this
Karting  Search this
Karts (Automobiles)  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Posters -- 20th century
Design drawings
Correspondence -- 1960-1990
Decals
Microfilms
Programs -- Sports
Business records -- 1950-2000
Black-and-white negatives
Specifications
Newsletters -- 1950-2000
Citation:
James W. Holmes Karting Collection, 1961-1979, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0787
See more items in:
James W. Holmes Karting Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0787

W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews

Interviewee:
Sun Ra  Search this
Gaskin, Leonard, 1920-  Search this
Taylor, Billy  Search this
Sullivan, Maxine, 1911-1987  Search this
Wells, Ronnie  Search this
Whiting, Margaret  Search this
Towers, Jack  Search this
Venuti, Joe, 1903-1978  Search this
Pullen, Don, 1941-  Search this
Roney, Wallace  Search this
Pizzarelli, Bucky, 1926-  Search this
Pizzarelli, John, 1960-  Search this
Shaw, Artie, 1910-2004  Search this
Shepp, Archie, 1937-  Search this
Sanders, Pharaoh  Search this
Grant, Felix, 1918-1993  Search this
Scott, Jimmy  Search this
McPhail, Jimmy  Search this
McPartland, Marian  Search this
McFerrin, Bobby  Search this
Krall, Diana  Search this
O'Connell, Helen  Search this
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Metheny, Pat  Search this
McShann, Jay  Search this
Horn, Shirley, 1934-  Search this
Hinton, Milt, 1910-  Search this
Hill, Andrew, 1937-  Search this
Hendricks, Jon, 1921-  Search this
Keane, Helen  Search this
Kaminsky, Max, 1908-  Search this
Jordan, Sheila, 1928-  Search this
Humes, Helen, 1913-1981  Search this
Hampton, Lionel  Search this
Harris, Eddie, 1934-  Search this
Heath, Jimmy, 1926-  Search this
Frishberg, Dave  Search this
Ennis, Ethel  Search this
Farmer, Art, 1928-  Search this
Flanagan, Tommy, 1930-  Search this
Hampton, Slide  Search this
D'Rivera, Paquito, 1948-  Search this
Daniels, Billy  Search this
Davison, Bill  Search this
Donegan, Dorothy, 1922-  Search this
Crouch, Stanley, 1945-  Search this
Conyers, John, 1929-  Search this
Cruz, Celia, 1920-  Search this
Byard, Jaki  Search this
Brown, Ruth  Search this
Carter, Betty, 1930-  Search this
Byron, Don  Search this
Betts, Keter, 1928-  Search this
Bellson, Louis  Search this
Bowie, Lester, 1941-  Search this
Blakey, Art, 1919-1990  Search this
Allen, Steve, 1921-2000  Search this
Adderly, Nat, 1931-  Search this
Bailey, Benny, 1925-  Search this
Collector:
Stokes, W. Royal, Dr., 1930-  Search this
Names:
Armstrong, Louis, 1901-1971  Search this
Davis, Miles  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Gillespie, Dizzy, 1917-  Search this
Extent:
9.65 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Photographs
Publicity photographs
Date:
1970-2003
Summary:
Publicity photographs of musicians and entertainers, mostly jazz musicians, such as Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, and Dizzy Gillespie, but including many rock and even a few classical performers. The collection also contains tape recorded radio interviews conducted between 1970 and 2003. In addition there are posters relating to musical performances.
Scope and Contents:
This collection was formed by W. Royal Stokes in the course of his professional work as a music and arts critic. It is composed primarily of publicity portraits of musical performers, both single acts and groups. The emphasis is on jazz musicians and singers, although many rock stars and groups, and other popular musical performers are included. Even a few classical musicians are represented. The pictures are primarily mass-produced black and white publicity photographs distributed to newspapers, writers, etc., by agents for entertainment personalities. Some prints were made from the original negatives, while others clearly were made from copy negatives after typography was stripped together with a print and re-photographed. However, there are some rarer original photographs included in the collection, such as personal color snapshots, higher quality prints by art photographers, etc. Nearly all the prints are unmounted, and are 8 x 10 inches or smaller in size. The bulk of the photographs date from circa 1970 to 2000, however, a number of the earlier photographs are included as well as slightly later examples.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1, Photographs of Musicians and Ensembles, circa 1970-2000; undated

Subseries 1.1, Musicians and Ensembles

Subseries 1.2, Recording Company Photographs

Subseries 1.3, Unidentified Musicians

Series 2, Photographs of Performances, 1987-2002; undated

Subseries 2.1, Music Festivals, 1987-2002; undated

Subseries 2.2, Concerts, Music Clubs and Other Venues, 1920s-1940s and circa 1980s-1990s; undated

Series 3, Formal and Informal Groups, circa 1980s-2000; undated

Series 4, Photographs of Musicians in Films, Radio, Television and Theater, 1940s-2000; undated Series 5, Photographs of Subjects and Products related to Musicians and Music, 1970-2000; undated

Series 6, Photographs of Non-Musicians, circa 1980s-2000; undated

Series 7, Interviews with Musicians, 1970-2003

Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1970-2003

Subseries 8.1, Audio Recordings - Audiocassettes

Subseries 8.2, Audio Recordings-Audiotapes

Series 9, Posters, 1976-1990; undated
Biographical / Historical:
Born in Washington, D.C., W. Royal Stokes served in the Army and then embarked on an academic career, teaching at the University of Pittsburgh, Tufts University, Brock University and the University of Colorado. He left the academic profession in 1969 and become a writer, broadcaster and lecturer, journalist, and critic and authority on jazz music. A follower of jazz since his teens in the 1940s, Stokes has written about music for such publications as Down Beat, Jazz Times, and the Washington Post, and hosted the public radio shows "I Thought I Heard Buddy Bolden Say . . ." and "Since Minton's". Today he is the editor of the quarterly Jazz Notes, and is the author of The Jazz Scene: An Informal History From New Orleans to 1990 and Swing Era New York: The Jazz Photographs of Charles Peterson.. He is also the author of Living the Jazz Life: Conversations with Forty Musicians about Their Careers in Jazz (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). Dr. Stokes lives in Silver Spring, Maryland.
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of Ameican History:
Duke Ellington Collection, 1928-1988 (AC0301)

Herman Leonard Photoprints, 1948-1993

Frank Driggs Collection of Duke Ellington Photographic Reference Prints [copyprints], 1923-1972

Jazz Oral History Collection, 1988-1990

Ernie Smith Jazz Film Collection, 1910s-1970s (mostly 1930s-1960s)

Jeffrey Kliman Photographs

Stephanie Myers Jazz Photographs, 1984-1987, 2005

Chico O'Farrill Papers

Paquito D'Rivera Papers, 1989-2000.

Louis Armstrong Music Manuscripts, undated

Tito Puente Papers, 1962-1965.

Audrey Wells "Women in Jazz Radio Series, 1981-1982

Mongo Santamaria Papers, 1965-2001

Ramsey Lewis Collection, 1950-2007

Earl Newman Collection of Monterey Jazz Festival Posters, 1963-2009

James Arkatov Collection of Jazz Photographs, 1995-2003

Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints, 1953-1966

Floyd Levin Jazz Reference Collection, circa 1920s-2006

Jazz Oral History Program Collection, 1992-2009

Leslie Schinella Collection of Gene Krupa Materials
Provenance:
Donated by W. Royal Stokes to the Archives Center in 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz musicians -- 1950-2000 -- United States  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Publicity  Search this
Portraits -- Musicians  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Rock music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Publicity photographs
Citation:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Jazz Musicians' Photographs, ca. 1970-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0766
See more items in:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0766
Online Media:

Andre Piette Collection

Collector:
Ceramics and Glass, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Ceramics and Glass, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Donor:
Magdoff, Sam  Search this
Magdoff, Sam  Search this
Creator:
Piette, Andre, 1934-1984 (ceramic designer, artist)  Search this
Names:
Johnson, Lady Bird, 1912-  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (8 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Design drawings
Christmas cards
Designs
Clippings
Tracings
Wrapping materials
Date:
1954-1979
Summary:
Collection documents Andre Piette's career as an illustrator and designer. The materials include sketches, drawings, tracings, photographs (color transparencies, slides, and prints), and samples of wallpaper, designs for gift wrap, and a few textiles.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of a wide range of materials documenting Andre Piette's career as an illustrator and designer. The materials include sketches, drawings, tracings, photographs (color transparencies, slides, and prints), and samples of wallpaper, designs for gift wrap, and a few textiles. The materials are the product of the Piette's early years in the United States (1960s) as a landscape artist in New England and as an associate of Norman Rockwell and of his later work for Tiffany & Company as a freelance designer. As an employee of Tiffany, Piette designed the White House china set for Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson. Materials documenting this effort—White House China—are the largest series in the collection. Other design work includes cards, silver, parquet flooring, and china. There also are drawings and tracings not associated with specific functional products.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: White House China, 1967-1970, undated

Series 2: Other Designs, undated

Series 3: Andre Piette Scrapbook, undated

Series 4: Oversize, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Piette, artist and designer, spent his early years studying at the Academie Royale De Beaux-Arts in Liege, Belgium. He is noted for his designs of Christmas cards, wrapping paper, and wallpaper. In 1968 he was commissioned by Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson to design a set of White House state china, consisting of 2,500 pieces.
Provenance:
Donated by Sam Magdoff, Dean of Continuing Education, Parsons School of Design, July 29, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Ceramics  Search this
Porcelain -- 20th century  Search this
Ceramics -- Design  Search this
Design -- United States  Search this
Wallpaper -- Design  Search this
Designers  Search this
White House china  Search this
Christmas card design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1940-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Drawings -- 1950-1990
Design drawings -- 1950-2000
Christmas cards
Designs
Clippings -- 1950-2000
Tracings
Wrapping materials -- Design
Citation:
Andre Piette Collection, 1954-1979, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0129
See more items in:
Andre Piette Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0129
Online Media:

Samuel Yellin Collection

Creator:
Yellin, Samuel, 1885-1940  Search this
Author:
Davis, Myra Tolmach  Search this
Photographer:
Hofmeister, Richard  Search this
Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Names:
Samuel Yellin Metalworkers  Search this
Ahlborn, Richard E., 1933-2015  Search this
Yellin, Harvey  Search this
Extent:
2 Motion picture films
0.33 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
acetate,,16mm.,,Films:,Silver gelatin on,silent.
Photoprints:,fibre-base paper,,8" x 10".,Silver gelatin on
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Theses
Photographs
Articles
Motion pictures (visual works)
Place:
Pennsylvania
Singing Tower (Mountain Lake, Fla.)
Date:
circa 1971-1975
circa 1928 -1930
Summary:
Samuel Yellin was an American master blacksmith. In 1910, he built the Arch Street Metalworker's studio.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into three series: (1) Motion pictures; (2) Documents; and (3) Photographs. There are two 16mm silent black-and-white films, one showing Yellin working; a master's thesis on Yellin and an article about him, both by Myra Tolmach Davis; and 86 photographs of Yellin's studio, factory, and home.

The films are: (1) "The Making of Wrought Iron", produced by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, shows an artist sketching a grille and Yellin shaping a grille for a chair. (2) "The Florida Film" shows examples of Yellin's first work as used in the Singing Tower, Mountain Lake, Florida. Both are distributed by Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

The documents are two items by Myra Tolmach Davis: "Sketches in Iron: Samuel Yellin," a copy of a typescript addressed to George Washington University (Washington, D.C.), for Master of Museology degree, June 6, 1971. 67 pp. The article, "Samuel Yellin's Sketches in Iron," published in Historic Preservation, vol. 23, no. 4 (Oct. Dec.), 1971, pp. 4 13, is virtually identical to the text of her thesis. The photographs (Series 3) are 86 prints from 35mm negatives by Richard Hofmeister, Office of Printing and Photographic Services, Smithsonian Institution, April 1, 1975, with an itemized checklist, "The Samuel Yellin Metal Working Building & Collection, Philadelphia..." These photographs show Smithsonian curator Richard Ahlborn during his visit to the Yellin shop on April 1, 1975, and the exterior of the building, library, factory, study, and collection rooms. The original 35mm negatives by Richard Hofmeister, who accompanied Ahlborn on this research trip, are in the Office of Imaging, Printing and Photographic Services (OIPP) negative library, nos. 75 4495 to 75 4499.

The photographs were made by Richard Hofmeister on a visit with curator Richard Ahlborn to the Samuel Yellin Metalworkers factory, Philadelphia, 1 April 1975. The master's thesis and article by Davis relate to an exhibition of Yellin's work at the Dimock Gallery, George Washington University.
Arrangement:
Collection divided into three series.

Series 1, Motion Picture Films,

Series 2, Documents,

Series 3, Photoprints
Biographical / Historical:
Yellin, born in Poland, began learning ironwork at seven. He migrated to America in 1906 and taught at the Pennsylvania Museum and the school of Industrial Art. In 1910, he built the Arch Street Metalworker's studio, which eventually employed more than 200 craftsmen. Yellin was also an avid collector of fine examples of ironwork.
Provenance:
The collection was donated Harvey Z. Yellin in 1975.
Restrictions:
reference copies do not exist. Special arrangements must be made with the Archives Center to view the motion picture films.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees regarding intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Metal-workers  Search this
Art metal-work  Search this
Wrought-iron  Search this
Metal-work  Search this
Ironwork  Search this
Emigration and immigration  Search this
Artisans  Search this
Genre/Form:
Theses
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Articles -- 20th century
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Samuel Yellin Collection,1928-1975, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0254
See more items in:
Samuel Yellin Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0254

William Claxton Photographs

Creator:
Claxton, William  Search this
Names:
George Williams Brass Band.  Search this
Stan Kenton Band.  Search this
Armstrong, Louis, 1901-1971  Search this
Baker, Chet  Search this
Baker, Halima  Search this
Charles, Ray, 1930-2004  Search this
Charles, Roosevelt  Search this
Coleman, Ornette  Search this
Coltrane, John, 1926-1967  Search this
Davis, Miles  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Evans, Bill, 1929-1980  Search this
Gillespie, Dizzy, 1917-1993  Search this
Jones, Elvin  Search this
Kenton, Stan  Search this
Monk, Thelonious  Search this
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Parker, Charlie, 1920-1955  Search this
Rollins, Sonny  Search this
Sinatra, Frank, 1915-1998  Search this
Washington, Dinah, 1924-1963  Search this
Webster, Ben  Search this
Williams, Cootie  Search this
Williams, Joe, 1918-  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (28 items)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1955-1960.
Summary:
Photographs consist of 16 x 20 inch silver gelatin; selenium-toned archival photographic prints of jazz musicians performing and recording music throughout the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 16 x 20-inch silver gelatin; selenium- toned archival photographic prints. It is divided into two series.

Series 1, Duke Ellington, 1955-1960, consists of Duke Ellington performing and recording music in Hollywood and Monterey, California and Las Vegas, Nevada, between 1955 and 1960. The photographs are arranged chronologically by date.

Series 2, Other Jazz Musicians and Singers, 1955-1970, consists of photographs of musicians and singers such as Charlie Parker, Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane, Chet Baker, Stan Kenton, Miles Davis, Dinah Washington, Cootie Williams, Thelonious Monk, Dizzy Gilliespie and Ray Charles. The performers are all photographed with their instruments. Photographs are arranged in chronological order.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Duke Ellington, 1955-1960

Series 2: Other Jazz Musicians and Singers, 1955-1970
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History:
Duke Ellington Collection, 1928-1988 (AC0301)

Herman Leonard Photoprints, 1948-1993 (AC0445)

Frank Driggs Collection of Duke Ellington Photographic Reference Prints [copy prints], 1923-1972 (AC389)

W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Publicity Photoprints, Interviews and Posters circa 1970-2003 (AC0766)

Charismic Productions Records of Dizzy Gillespie, 1940s-1993 (AC0979)
Provenance:
Collection purchased on March 31, 1999.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Gloves required with unprotected photographs.
Rights:
Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Topic:
Musicians -- 1950-1960 -- United States  Search this
Music -- West coast -- 1950-1960  Search this
Jazz  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
William Claxton Photographs, 1951-1971, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0695
See more items in:
William Claxton Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0695
Online Media:

Bob Wobbrock Gardena High School Papers

Creator:
Gardena High School  Search this
Wobbrock, Bob  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
4 electronic_discs_cd
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Electronic_discs_cd
Yearbooks
Photographs
Date:
1952-1964
undated
Summary:
This collection consists of yearbooks, school newspapers, sports programs, photographs and other documents from a California high school in the 1950s-1960s (bulk 1952-1956).
Scope and Contents:
This collection provides insight into the lives of teenagers in California in the 1950s. The publications, particularly the newspapers, document the educational experiences and social activities of students as seen through their eyes. The photographs illustrate some of the sporting events while the yearbooks provide detailed information about the student body. Bob Wobbrock, a graduate of the winter class of 1956 saved the records of this high school created while he was a student.

Series 1, Publications, 1952-1964 consists of the school's newspapers, yearbooks and football game programs. Students in journalism class and print shop created the school newspapers, The Lark and Smoke Signals. This collection offers a complete run of The Lark during this period and eight copies of Smoke Signals from the period 1956-1964. Also included are four CDs consisting of copies of The Lark and created by Wobbrock to share with classmates. The school's yearbook, El Arador , meaning the plowman, came out before summer vacation, and there are four copies included among these materials. The materials are arranged first by type and then in chronological order.

Series 2, Photographs, 1953 1955 1956 undated, includes football games, cheerleaders, track races, and other social activities used in the yearbook. The materials are arranged by subject.

Series 3, Documents, 1953-1956 includes one high school diploma, one hall of fame certificate and five athletic letter certifications.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in three series.

Series 1, Publications, 1952-1964

Series 2, Photographs, 1953 1955 1956 undated

Series 3, Documents, 1953-1956
Separated Materials:
Artifacts were also donated to the Museum's Division of Culture and the Arts. See accession number 2006.3098.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Bob Wobbrock in 2006.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.

Technical Access: Do not use original materials when reference copies are available.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
High schools -- Alumni and alumnae  Search this
High school students -- California  Search this
High school student activities  Search this
High school athletes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Yearbooks -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-1960
Citation:
Bob Wobbrock Gardena High School Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0932
See more items in:
Bob Wobbrock Gardena High School Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0932

Breck Girls Collection

Creator:
Williams, Ralph William  Search this
Breck Company.  Search this
Dial Corporation.  Search this
American Cyanamid Company  Search this
Sheldon, Charles  Search this
Names:
Basinger, Kim  Search this
Gray, Erin  Search this
Hamill, Joan  Search this
Shields, Brooke  Search this
Tiegs, Cheryl  Search this
Extent:
6.5 Cubic feet (16 boxes, 188 pieces of original artwork)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Pastels (visual works)
Advertisements
Business records
Date:
circa 1936-1995
Summary:
The collection documents the development and evolution of the Breck Girl, a highly successful and long-lived advertising campaign whose hallmark was its vision of idealized American womanhood through correspondence, photographs, paintings, and print advertisements.
Scope and Contents:
188 pieces of original advertising art (mostly pastel drawings), and photographs, correspondence, and business records, documenting the development and evolution of the Breck Girls advertising campaign. Original advertising art includes portraits of famous models, such as Cheryl Tiegs, Brooke Shields, Kim Basinger, and Erin Gray. Artists represented include Charles Sheldon and Ralph William Williams. The 2006 addendum consists of approximately one sixth of one cubic foot of papers relating to Cynthia Brown's selection as a Breck Girl, 1988 and her induction into the Breck Hall of Fame.
Arrangement:
Collection divided into four series.

Series 1: Company history, 1946-1990

Series 2: Photographs, 1960-1995

Series 3: Print ads, 1946-1980

Series 4: Original artwork, 1936-1994
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. John Breck is credited with developing one of the first liquid shampoos in the United States, in Springfield Massachusetts in 1908; Breck is also credited with introducing the first ph-balanced shampoo, in 1930. During the early years of the business, distribution remained localized in New England, and the product was sold exclusively to beauty salons until 1946. Advertising for the brand began in 1932, but appeared only in trade publications, such as Modern Beauty Shop.

Edward Breck, son of the founder, assumed management of the company in 1936. Breck became acquainted with Charles Sheldon, an illustrator and portrait painter who is believed to have studied in Paris under Alphonse Mucha, an artist noted for his contributions to Art Nouveau style. Sheldon had achieved some measure of fame for his paintings of movie stars for the cover of Photoplay magazine in the 1920s, and had also done idealized pastel portraits for the cover of Parents magazine. He created his first pastel portraits for Breck in 1936, launching what would become one of America's longest running ad campaigns. When the company began national advertising (and mass distribution) in 1946, the campaign featured Sheldon's 1937 painting of seventeen-year old Roma Whitney, a spirited blonde. Ms. Whitney's profile was registered as Breck's trademark in 1951. When he retired in 1957, Sheldon had created 107 oil paintings and pastels for the company. Sheldon was known to favor ordinary women over professional models, and in the early years of the campaign, the Breck Girls were Breck family members, neighbors or residents of the community in which he worked; company lore holds that nineteen Breck Girls were employees of the advertising agency he founded in 1940. A Breck advertising manager later described Sheldon's illustrations as, "illusions, depicting the quality and beauty of true womanhood using real women as models." The paintings and pastels form a coherent, if derivative, body of work which celebrates an idealized vision of American girlhood and womanhood, an ideal in which fair skin, beauty and purity are co-equal.

Ralph William Williams was hired to continue the Breck Girls campaign after Sheldon's retirement. Between 1957 and his death in 1976, Williams modified the Breck Girl look somewhat through the use of brighter colors and a somewhat heightened sense of movement and individuality. The advertising manager during his tenure recalled that Aat first Williams continued in Sheldon' manner, but in later years, as women became more independent, he would take care to integrate each girl' particular personality; he studied each girl and learned her special qualities. During these years, Breck Girls were identified through the company's sponsorship of America's Junior Miss contests. Williams work includes pastels of celebrities Cybil Shepard (1968 Junior Miss from Tennessee), Cheryl Tiegs (1968), Jaclyn Smith (1971, 1973), Kim Basinger (1972, 1974) and Brooke Shields (1974) very early in their careers.

By the 1960s, at the height of its success, Breck held about a twenty percent share of the shampoo market and enjoyed a reputation for quality and elegance. Ownership of the company changed several times (American Cyanamid in 1963; Dial Corporation in 1990). The corresponding fluctuations in management of the company and in advertising expenditures tended to undermine the coherence of the national advertising campaign. In addition, despite William's modifications, the image had become dated. Attempts to update the image misfired, further limiting the brand's coherence and effectiveness. Finally, increased competition and an absence of brand loyalty among consumers through the 1970s and 1980s helped push Breck from its number one position into the bargain bin. The Breck Girl campaign was discontinued around 1978, although there have been at least two minor revivals, first in 1992 with the Breck Girls Hall of Fame, and again in 1995 when a search was begun to identify three new Breck Women. Scope and Content: The 188 pieces of original advertising art (62 oil paintings on board, 2 pencil sketches on paper, and 124 pastels on paper) and related photographs, correspondence and business files in this collection document the development and evolution of the Breck Girl, a highly successful and long-lived advertising campaign whose hallmark was its vision of idealized American womanhood. The collection is a perfect fit with other 20th century Archives Center collections documenting the efforts of American business to reach the female consumer market. The Estelle Ellis Collection (advertising and promotions for Seventeen, Charm, Glamour and House & Garden and many other clients) the Cover Girl Collection (make-up), the Maidenform Collection (brassieres), and the Tupperware Collections offer a prodigious body of evidence for understanding the role women were expected to play as consumers in the 20th century.

These advertising images also offer fertile ground for research into the evolution of popular images of American girlhood and womanhood. The research uses of the collection derive primarily from its value as an extensive visual catalog of the ideal types of American women and girls, arising and coalescing during a period in which 19th century ideals of womanhood were being revisited (the depression, the war years, the immediate post-war period) and continuing, with slight modifications and revisions, through several decades during which those historical ideals were being challenged and revised.
Related Materials:
Several items of packaging, 1930s-1980s are held in the former Division of Home and Community Life; an 18k gold Breck insignia pin is in the former. See Accession #:
Provenance:
The Dial Corporation through Jane Owens, Senior Vice President, Gift, June 1998.
Restrictions:
Original artwork stored at an off-site facility. Contact the Archives Center staff for access.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Shampoos -- advertising  Search this
Hair -- Shampooing  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Feminine beauty (Aesthetics)  Search this
Beauty contestants  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Pastels (visual works)
Advertisements -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Breck Girls Collection, ca. 1936-1995, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0651
See more items in:
Breck Girls Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0651
Online Media:

Goya Foods, Inc. Collection

Creator:
Unanue, Prudencio  Search this
Goya Foods, Inc.  Search this
Unanue family  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (62 boxes, 6 oversize folders)
8 Sound recordings
15 Video recordings
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Photographs
Packaging
Calendars
Clippings
Color prints (photographs)
Cookbooks
Date:
undated
1856-2000
bulk 1960-2000
Summary:
Goya Foods, Inc., supported the cultural life of various communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. The company's current headquarters is in Secaucus, New Jersey. Photographs, calendars, sales promotional materials, cookbooks, packaging, and news clippings. Photographs depict primarily company sponsored events, but a few are family pictures.
Scope and Contents:
The Goya Foods, Incorporated Collection documents the history of the company from the 1960s to 2000. (A few earlier documents pertaining to Unanue and Sons and family photographs can be found in the collection, as well.) Materials include photographs, calendars, sales promotional materials, cookbooks, recipe packages, point-of-purchase items, and box and can labels, scrapbooks, and clippings files. Sound recordings, televisions advertisements, and anniversary video productions are also included. The material documents sales meetings, plant activities, and workers' events as well as the office life of the company and the philanthropic efforts and community activities of Goya Foods, Incorporated. Series 1, History and Biography 1960s-1990s, includes photographs and biographies of the Unanue family members. Also includes company anniversary programs. Series 2, United States Publicity Materials, 1970-2000, undated, contains extensive files of news clippings (compiled by an outside agency) arranged in chronological order. Also, press releases and publicity materials and copies of the newsletter La Voz Femenina[2], 1982-1989. Series 3, United States Photographs, 1960s-1990s, includes photographs of Goya "sponsored" activities, which took place in the United States. The majority of the photos are unlabeled and undated. The series is divided into twelve subseries. Subseries 3.1, Parades and Festivals, 1966-1999, include parades and festivals which Goya participated in, mainly in New York City and New Jersey. For many parades, Goya created a special float for participants to ride on. Many parades feature pageant contestants (see Subseries D). Tito Puente is a frequent performer. Subseries 3.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970s-1990s, include many of the banquets and parties included are related to the various parades and pageants, this may or may not be obvious from looking at the photographs. Also included are employee parties. Subseries 3.3, Community Events, 1970s-1990s, Goya prides itself on its civic work within the Hispanic communities of the United States. This subseries reflects many of the events Goya has sponsored or been a part of, including its support of the Manhattan Valley Golden Age Senior Center and Casa de Don Pedro, a home for children. Subseries 3.4, Pageants, 1980s-1990s, include beauty pageants sponsored throughout the 1980s and 1990s, usually associated with a community parade (for example, a Dominican Parade Pageant). Sometimes the photos from the pageants and related events are included, though the parades themselves can be found in Subseries A. Subseries 3.5, Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1960s-1990s, include photographs of Goya employees (both line workers and executives), offices, and plant facilities. Events in which employees participated (dances, parties, and picnics) are included here. Subseries 3.6, Awards, 1970s-1990s, include awards given to the Unanues or Goya Foods, Incorporated by various organizations and awards given to others by Goya. Subseries 3.7, Celebrities, 1980s-1990s, mainly events with celebrities in attendance. Prominent people include: Cardinal Cooke, Gloria Estefan, Michael J. Fox, Ed Koch, Spike Lee, David Letterman, Olga Elena Mattei, and Tito Puente. Subseries 3.8, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s-1990s, soccer, baseball, bowling, volleyball, and softball teams are included, as well as little league teams and sporting workshop participants (mainly children with "professional" players). Teams are mostly Goya sponsored, though some professional players appear. Subseries 3.9, Concerts, 1980s-1990s, include Tito Puente, Eddie Palmieri, and Willie Colón concerts at Penns Landing, plus multi-city Festival de Musica Goya, 1990. Subseries 3.10, Trade Shows, 1966, 1980s, include Food expositions, trade shows, and demonstrations. Subseries 3.11, Travel, 1970s-1990s, trips taken by [presumably] Goya employees. Santo Domingo, Peru, and Haiti were destinations. Subseries 3.12, Unidentified, 1970s-1990s Sub-subseries 3.12.1, Parade related events, 1980s-1990s Sub-subseries 3.12.2, Other, 1970s-1990s Series 4, United States Corporate Materials, 1960s-1990s, includes product labels and packaging, advertising materials, press kits, and memos. Series 5, Puerto Rican Publicity Materials, 1980s-2000, consists of publications arranged chronologically within each title. Series 6, Puerto Rican Photographs, 1960s-2000; undated, include photographs documenting events sponsored by Goya in Puerto Rico. The majority of the photographs were not identified or dated. The items that could be identified were arranged by subject including parades, parties, banquets, community events, employees, plants, offices, award ceremonies, sporting events, travel and products. Subseries 6.1, Parades, 1977, include images from one parade, Reina el Dario la Prenza. Subseries 6.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970-1996, primarily document employee parties. Subseries 6.3, Community Events, 1972-1999; undated, documents Goya's involvement with the Puerto Rican community and some of the events that the company sponsored. Subseries 6.4, Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1961-1999, undated, include images of Goya employees (both line workers and executives), offices, and plant facilities. Events in which employees participated (dances, parties, and picnics) are included here.

Subseries 6.5, Awards, 1970s-1996; undated, awards given to the Unanues or Goya Foods, Incorproated by various organizations and awards given to others by Goya. Subseries 6.6, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s, contains one (1) folder of sporting events and teams sponsored by Goya. Subseries 6.7, Travel, 1960s; undated, document trip(s) taken by [presumably] Goya employees primarily to Boca Cagrejos and Puerto Rico. Subseries 6.8, Products, 2000, undated, contain images of Goya products and of a photograph shoot for an advertisement. Series 7, Puerto Rican Corporate Materials, 1970s-2000, included are office forms, blank letterhead, advertising materials, press kits, annual reports, and newsletters. Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1990s; undated, consists of commercials and biographical programs on the Unanues. ** No reference copies exist for most audiovisual materials; please see the Reference Archivist for availability in viewing.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in eight (8) series: Series 1, History and Biography 1960s-1990s, Series 2, United States Publicity Materials, 1970-2000; undated Series 3, United States Photographs, 1960s-1999; undated Subseries 3.1, Parades and Festivals, 1966-1999 Subseries 3.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.3, Community Events, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.4, Pageants, 1980s-1994 Subseries 3.5, Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1960s-1990s Subseries 3.6, Awards, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.7, Celebrities, 1980s-1990s Subseries 3.8, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.9, Concerts, 1987-1990; undated Subseries 3.10, Trade Shows, 1966-1994; undated Subseries 3.11, Travel, 1970s-1996 Subseries 3.12, Unidentified, 1970s-1990s Sub-subseries 3.12.1, Parade related events, 1983-1993 Sub-subseries 3.12.2, Other, 1970s-1992; undated Series 4, United States Corporate Materials, 1960s-1990s Series 5, Puerto Rican Publicity Materials, 1980s-2000 Series 6, Puerto Rican Photographs, 1960s-2000; undated Subseries 6.1, Parades, 1977 Subseries 6.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970-1996 Subseries 6.3, Community Events, 1972-1999, undated Subseries 6.4 Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1961-1999, undated Subseries 6.5, Awards, 1970s-1996, undated Subseries 6.6, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s Subseries 6.7, Travel, 1960s, undated Subseries 6.8, Products, 2000, undated Series 7, Puerto Rican Corporate Materials, 1970s-2000; undated Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1990s, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Prudencio Unanue (1886-1976) was born in the Basque region of northern Spain. He immigrated to the island of Puerto Rico in 1902 and married Carolina Casal (1890-1984) in 1921. In 1916, he moved to New York where he studied business and worked for a customs agency. Missing the tastes and smells of home cooking, the Unanues believed that there was an expanding immigrant market for the ingredients of "authentic Spanish cuisine." In 1936, they opened Unanue, Incorporated, a warehouse on Duane Street in lower Manhattan, to supply corner stores or bodegas. Over thirty years, the Unanue and Sons import business grew tremendously. Eventually, the business began to do its own food processing, canning, and packaging. In 1958, Goya Foods bought its first factory in Brooklyn, New York. The Unanues and Sons Company purchased the name "Goya"[1] in 1936 from a Moroccan sardine supplier for one dollar. In 1946, the company changed its name to Unanue and Sons, Incorporated. It assumed the name Goya Foods, Incorporated in 1961, although it had used the name Goya for its products since 1936. Goya Foods Company continued to innovate, pioneering television advertising in Puerto Rico. During the 1960s, Goya Foods sought out opportunities to expand its customer base as larger numbers of Caribbean immigrants moved into the United States. By sponsoring music festivals, sports teams, and other activities Goya Foods supported the cultural life; parades, beauty pageants, festivals, of various communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. In 1974, Goya Foods moved to its current office headquarters and factory building in Secaucus, New Jersey. By 2000, Goya owned factories in upstate New York, California, Illinois, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Texas, Florida, as well as Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Spain.
Footnotes:
[1] Francisco de Goya (1746-1828) was an influential Spanish artist whose paintings reflected the historical upheavals of his time. For many, the art of Francisco de Goya truly revealed Spain because he painted all of its people.

[2] Note that words in Spanish are set off in italics; periodical titles are underlined.
Related Materials:
Government of Puerto Rico Division of Community Education Posters, Teodoro Vidal Collection, and Tito Puente Papers.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts holds items related to this collection including promotional items, display props, a neon sign, products and containers, and clothing. See accession number, 1999.3017.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History in 1999 by Goya Foods, Inc. through Rafael Toro, Director of Public Relations.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Technical Access: Do not use when original materials are available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
advertising -- Food  Search this
advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
Parades -- United States  Search this
Ethnic food industry  Search this
Family-owned business enterprises  Search this
Food  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Packaging
Calendars
Clippings -- 20th century
Color prints (photographs)
Cookbooks
Citation:
Goya Foods, Incorporated Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0694
See more items in:
Goya Foods, Inc. Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0694
Online Media:

Frank Paulin Photoprints

Photographer:
Paulin, Frank  Search this
Donor:
Silverstein, Bruce  Search this
Silverstein, Silke  Search this
Names:
Graham, Billy, 1918-  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Chicago (Ill.)
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
New Orleans (La.)
Seville (Spain)
Date:
circa 1951-1961, 1994
Scope and Contents:
Photoprints of city scenes, mostly taken during the 1950s, but including a few later images. Most of the images were made in New York City, Chicago, and New Orleans. One photograph was taken in Seville, Spain. The photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson appears in two of the photographs, photographing the Saint Patrick's Day parade; evangelist Billy Graham in another.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Paulin, born in Pittsburgh in 1926, spent his early life in New York City and Chicago. He apprenticed at a photography studio in Chicago at the age of 16. In 1944 at 18, he went into the Army, serving with the Signal Corps in Europe, where he honed his photographic skills by shooting images of devastated cities. After the war he returned to Chicago and studied first at the Chicago Art Institute, then the Institute of Design with the famed artist and theorist Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and photographer Harry Callahan. In 1953 he returned to New York to work as a fashion illustrator, and studied with Alexey Brodovitch at the New School. During this period he began walking the streets at night and developed his interest in street and documentary photography. His work has been exhibited widely, beginning with the pioneering New York gallery, Limelight, in 1957.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2016 by Bruce and Silke Silverstein.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
"All Frank Paulin photographs copyright 2007Silverstein. Frank Paulin and the Frank Paulin Archive. All rights reserved by: Silverstein Photography / Silverstein Publishing."

Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Photographers -- 20th century  Search this
Documentary photography  Search this
Parades -- 1950-1960  Search this
St. Patrick's Day  Search this
Street photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Frank Paulin Photoprints, 1950s-1994 (bulk 1950-1960), Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Bruce and Silke Silverstein.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1373
See more items in:
Frank Paulin Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1373
Online Media:

[Four men holding a bottle labeled Suntory Royal [whiskey.] [black-and-white photoprint]

Photographer:
Mitchell, Bill  Search this
Collector:
Davis, Luther  Search this
Donor:
Davis, Joan Bassie  Search this
Collection Creator:
Davis, Luther  Search this
Davis, Joan Bassie  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper, 8" x 10")
Container:
Box 12, Item (Legal Sized Materials)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Undated photograph. On back: Bill Mitchell, Photography, E. 106 Ridgewood Ave., Paramus, N.J. 07652, 212-283-4113,201-664-1373.
Local Numbers:
AC1148-0000010.tif (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Gloves required with unprotected photographs.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Alcoholic beverages  Search this
Whiskey  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-2000 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Luther Davis Papers, 1916-2007, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Luther Davis Papers
Luther Davis Papers / Series 3: Works for the Theater / 3.1: Theatrical Productions / Timbuktu! photographs, pages 41-73 featuring Eartha Kitt, Gilbert Price, Melba Moore and others
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1148-ref1099

Cover Girl Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project

Creator:
Bunting, George L., Jr.  Search this
Brinkley, Christie  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Colonel, Sheri  Search this
Giordano, Lynn  Search this
Ford, Eileen  Search this
Hall, L. C. "Bates"  Search this
Grathwohl, Geraldine  Search this
Huebner, Dick  Search this
Harrison, Fran  Search this
Lindsay, Robert  Search this
Hunt, William D.  Search this
McIver, Karen  Search this
MacDougall, Malcolm  Search this
Noble, Stan  Search this
Nash, Helen  Search this
Noxell Corporation.  Search this
Bergin, John  Search this
O'Neill, Jennifer  Search this
Oelbaum, Carol  Search this
Pelligrino, Nick  Search this
Poris, George  Search this
Roberts, F. Stone  Search this
Tiegs, Cheryl  Search this
Troup, Peter  Search this
Weithas, Art  Search this
Witt, Norbert  Search this
Names:
Noxzema Chemical Company  Search this
Extent:
15.5 Cubic feet (30 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Business records
Audiotapes
Bumper stickers
Annual reports
Oral history
Photographs
Press releases
Scrapbooks
Television scripts
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Place:
Hunt Valley (Maryland)
Baltimore (Md.)
Maryland
Date:
1959-1990
Summary:
The Cover Girl Make-Up Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, 1923-1991, is the result of a year-long study in 1990, which examined the advertising created for Noxell Corporation's Cover Girl make-up products from 1959 to 1990. The objective of the project was to document, in print and electronic media, the history of Cover Girl make-up advertising since its inception in 1959.
Scope and Contents:
Twenty-two oral history interviews (conducted by Dr. Scott Ellsworth for the Archives Center) and a variety of print and television advertisements, photographs, scrapbooks, personal papers, business records and related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective was to create a collection that provides documentation, in print and electronic media, of the history and development of advertising for Cover Girl make-up since its inception in 1959.

Collection also includes earlier material related to other Noxell products, including Noxzema, with no direct connection to the Cover Girl campaign.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Research Files

Series 2: Interviewee Files

Series 3: Oral History Interviews

Series 4: Television Advertising Materials

Series 5: Print Advertising Materials

Series 6: Company Publications and Promotional Literature

Series 7: Photographs

Series 8: Scrapbooks
Biographical / Historical:
George Avery Bunting founded the Noxzema Chemical Company in Baltimore, Maryland in 1917. In the 1890s, he left behind a teaching job on Maryland's Eastern shore to move to Baltimore, where he hoped to pursue a career as a pharmacist. He landed a job as errand boy and soda jerk at a local drugstore, where he worked while attending classes at the University Of Maryland College of Pharmacy. Valedictorian of the Class of 1899, Bunting was promoted to manager of the drugstore, which he purchased. Bunting began to experiment with the formulation of medicated pastes and compounds, which he marketed to his customers. In 1909, he began refining a medicated vanishing cream, which he introduced in 1914. "Dr. Bunting's Sunburn Remedy," an aromatic skin cream containing clove oil, eucalyptus oil, lime water, menthol and camphor, was mixed by hand at his pharmacy. Marketed locally as a greaseless, medicated cream for the treatment of a variety of skin conditions, including sunburn, eczema, and acne, the product was renamed "Noxzema" for its reputed ability to "knock eczema." By 1917, the Noxzema Chemical Company was formed. During the 1920s, distribution of the product was expanded to include New York, Chicago, and the Midwest and, by 1926, the first Noxzema manufactory was built in northwest Baltimore to accommodate the demand for nearly a million jars a year.

Having achieved a national market by 1938, Noxzema Chemical Company executives pursued product diversification as a means to maintain the corporate growth of the early years. In the 1930s and 1940s, line extensions included shaving cream, suntan lotion and cold cream, all with the distinctive "medicated" Noxzema aroma.

In the late 1950s, Bill Hunt, director of product development at Noxzema, suggested a line extension into medicated make-up. Creatives at Sullivan, Stauffer, Colwell & Bayles, Incorporated (SSC&B), Noxzema's advertising agency since 1946, suggested that the advertising for the new product focus on beauty and glamour with some reference to the medicated claims made for other Noxzema products. In contrast to other cosmetics, which were sold at specialized department store counters, Noxzema's medicated make-up would be marketed alongside other Noxzema products in grocery stores and other mass distribution outlets. After experimenting with names that suggested both glamour and the medicated claims (including Thera-Blem and Blema-Glow), Bill Grathwohl, Noxell's advertising director, selected Carolyn Oelbaum's "Cover Girl," which conveyed the product's usefulness as a blemish cover-up, while invoking the glamorous image of fashion models. These three elements of the advertising, wholesome glamour, mass marketing, and medicated make-up, remain central to Cover Girl advertising nearly a half-century later.

Beginning with the national launch in 1961, American and international fashion models were featured in the ads. The target audience was identified as women between eighteen and fifty-four and, initially, the "glamour" ads were targeted at women's magazines, while the "medicated" claims were reserved for teen magazines. Television ads featured both elements. Cover Girl advertising always featured beautiful women -- especially Caucasian women, but the Cover Girl image has evolved over time to conform to changing notions of beauty. In the late 1950s and 1960s, the Cover Girl was refined and aloof, a fashion conscious sophisticate. By the 1970s, a new social emphasis on looking and dressing "naturally" and the introduction of the "Clean Make-up" campaign created a new advertising focus on the wholesome glamour of the "girl next door," a blue-eyed, blonde all-American image. In the 1980s, the Cover Girl look was updated to include African-American, Hispanic and working women.

In January 1970, SSC&B bought 49% of the Lintas Worldwide advertising network. After SSC&B was acquired by the Interpublic Group of Companies in 1979, the entire Lintas operation was consolidated under the name SSC&B/Lintas in 1981. With the Procter & Gamble buy-out of the Noxell Corporation in September 1989, the cosmetics account was moved to long-time P&G agency Grey Advertising, in order to circumvent a possible conflict of interest between P&G competitor Unilever, another Lintas account. In 1989 SSC&B/Lintas, Cover Girl's agency since its launch in 1961, lost the account it helped to create and define, but the brand continues to dominate mass-marketed cosmetics.

This project is the result of a year-long study of advertising created for the Noxell Corporation's Cover Girl make-up products, 1959-1990. The effort was supported in part by a grant from the Noxell Corporation. The target audience was identified as women 18-54, and initially, the "glamour" ads were targeted at women's magazines, while the "medicated" claims were reserved for teen magazines. Television ads featured both elements. Cover Girl advertising has always featured beautiful women (especially Caucasian women), but the Cover Girl image evolved over time to conform with changing notions of beauty. In the late 1950s-1960s, the Cover Girl was refined and aloof, a fashion conscious sophisticate. By the 1970s, a new social emphasis on looking and dressing "naturally" and the introduction of the "Clean Make-up" campaign created a new advertising focus on the wholesome glamour of the "girl next door," a blue-eyed, blonde all-American image. Through the 1980s, the Cover Girl look was updated to include African-American and Hispanic models and images of women at work.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records (AC0059)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Home and Community Life, Costume Collection holds eighty-six cosmetic items and one computer that were also donated by the Noxell Corporation in 1990 in conjunction with the oral history project. These artifacts include lipstick, manicure sets, brushes, make-up, eye shadow, blush, powder puffs, eyelash curler, nail polish, and mascara. See accession number 1990.0193.
Provenance:
Most of the materials in the collection were donated to the Center for Advertising History by the Noxell Corporation, 1990. All storyboards and videoscripts, and a large collection of business records and proofsheets were donated by George Poris in June 1990. All mechanicals were donated by Art Weithas in June 1990. (These contributions are noted in the finding aid).
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Women in advertising  Search this
advertising -- 1930-1940 -- California  Search this
Cosmetics -- advertising  Search this
Endorsements in advertising  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
African American women -- Beauty culture  Search this
Modelling -- 1950-1990  Search this
Sex role in advertising  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Bumper stickers
Annual reports
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Press releases
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Television scripts
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Citation:
Cover Girl Advertising Oral History & Documentation Project, 1959-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0374
See more items in:
Cover Girl Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0374
Online Media:

Mel Rosenthal Photoprints

Photographer:
Rosenthal, Mel, 1940-  Search this
Donor:
Perry Mapp, Roberta  Search this
Extent:
49 Items (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Bronx (New York, N.Y.)
Date:
circa 1975-2010
Summary:
Black-and-white photoprints from two documentary projects: "In the South Bronx of America" and "Refuge". Mel Rosenthal's mission in the Bronx project was to record the deterioration and poverty there. Some photographs from the Bronx project have also been used in the "Refuge" project, because they document immigrants who moved into the Bronx.
Scope and Contents:
Silver gelatin black-and-white photoprints from two documentary projects: "In the South Bronx of America" (1975-1983, 42 prints) and "Refuge" (6 prints). According to Leonard Kriegel, Rosenthal's mission in the Bronx project and its book version was simply "to record the horror that is there....He wants us to feel shame at what has been done to the people of the South Bronx by a nation so indifferent to suffering that it can pretend the mean streets were burned down by their inhabitants." (Siegel, "In Sorrowful Celebration of the Bronx," Forward, Feb. 23, 2001, p. 13)
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: In the South Bronx of America, as reproduced in the book

Series 2: Not in Book: From the "South Bronx of America" Project and the "Refuge" Project
Biographical / Historical:
Mel Rosenthal was born on March 5, 1940, and grew up close to the South Bronx neighborhood in which he made many of the photographs in this collection decades later, beginning in 1975. He earned a Ph.D. in English literature and American studies from the University of Connecticut, with a dissertation on the effect of alienation on American writers.

He traveled to Africa and worked as a medical photographer at the University Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. He engaged in other photographic projects there and soon had dedicated himself to documentary photography. He became a Distinguished Professor of Art at SUNY/Empire State College. He has been the photography editor of culturefront, the magazine of the New York Council for the Humanities. He was awarded fellowships from the New York Foundation for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Arts.

He became a Distinguished Professor of Art at SUNY/Empire State College. He has been the photography editor of culturefront, the magazine of the New York Council for the Humanities. He was awarded fellowships from the New York Foundation for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Arts.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Roberta Perry Mapp, July 21, 2012.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Mel Rosenthal retains copyright. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Immigrants -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Mel Rosenthal Photopprints, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1307
See more items in:
Mel Rosenthal Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1307
Online Media:

Fernando Sandoval Washington, D.C. Photoprints

Donor:
Sandoval, Fernando  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (2 boxes, 50 items)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Resin-coated paper
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- 1950-2000
Date:
ca. 1970s-2000, 2008.
Scope and Contents:
Fifty (50) black-and-white photographic prints on resin-coated paper, depicting scenes in Washington, D.C. Printed by the artist. New prints were made by the photographer for this donation.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Fernando Sandoval is a Washington-based studio and freelance photographer, whose photographs have been shown in many exhibitions in the Washington area. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in Visual Communications from American University.
Provenance:
Donated by Fernando Sandoval.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Photographer retains copyright; contact information on request.
Topic:
Buildings -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Resin-coated paper
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Fernando Sandoval Washington, D.C. Photoprints, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of the artist.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1155
See more items in:
Fernando Sandoval Washington, D.C. Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1155
Online Media:

Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials

Manufacturer:
Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company.  Search this
Collector:
Rangeloff, Evan  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
circa 1910-1991
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes thirty-eight punchboards, all unpunched and in very good to excellent condition, and featuring a range of products and imagery. The collection also includes two punchboard manufacturers' catalogs from the 1940s, which detail the money-making opportunities for jobbers and retailers.

The collection also contains correspondence, employment forms, promotional literature, photographs and sales training literature from Evan "Ding" Rangeloff=s early career as a sales representative and regional sales manager for Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company. Of particular interest are sales training manuals which explore the psychology of selling in the 1950s, manuals which detail sales cigarette marketing strategies at military bases and on Indian reservations, and materials relating to Liggett & Myers sponsorship of Formula One car racing in the 1970s.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Business Records, circa 1954-1991

Series 2: Photographs, circa 1920-1970

Series 3: Sales Training Literature, circa 1955-1957, 1974, 1979

Series 4: Punchboards, circa 1910-1970
Historical:
During and after his employment as a salesman and regional sales manager with Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Duluth, Minnesota, Mr. Rangeloff began collecting the gambling and sales promotion devices known as punchboards. In 1999-2000, he donated a large and representative selection of punchboards to the Archives Center. The term "punchboard" (or in some cases "punch board," "push board," "punchcard," or "pushcard") refers to a gambling device popular in the United States from roughly 1910 until 1970. Punchboards could be used for fundraising, sales promotion and gambling--sometimes all at once. Punchboards were typically found in places where men gathered socially, such as bars, pool halls, barber shops, and men's clubs. Punchboards also could be found in beauty parlors, drug stores, and other small retail establishments. With their promise of easy money, punchboards enjoyed great success during the Depression, and continued to enjoy popularity during and after World War II. According to Scarne's Complete Guide to Gambling (New York, N.Y.: Simon and Schuster, 1961), approximately 30 million punchboards were sold between 1910 and 1915. Scarne estimated that 50 million punchboards were sold in 1939 alone, at the peak of their popularity. Punchboard sales declined significantly after WWII, and by the mid-1970s the boards had been outlawed in most states.

Punchboards trace their lineage to 18th century lottery game boards. These handmade boards, with the winning ticket placed by the operator, offered no safeguards against corruption, however, and their misuse may have contributed to the game=s waning popularity. In 1905, C.A. Brewer and C.G. Scannell patented a new version of the traditional game. By 1910, modern manufacturing techniques, including the invention of board stuffing machines and ticket folding machines, contributed to the reinvigoration of the punchboard. The new punchboards were constructed out of cardboard, with a sheet of paper or foil covering both front and back of the board. This covering was intended to prevent the operator from discovering where the winning tickets were or otherwise tampering with the board. Cheap, portable, disposable, and offering a ready vehicle for advertising, punchboards are an exuberant, if ephemeral, expression of 20th century mass culture.

A modern punchboard typically consists of a square or rectangular piece of pressed wood or cardboard (from 2 inch to one inch in thickness) in which hundreds or thousands of holes have been drilled in a regular pattern, then loaded with tiny slips of rolled or folded paper. Each slip of paper had a number or symbol printed on it. Both front and back of the board were covered with a foil or paper seal. The front of the board typically featured some form of attention-getting commercial imagery and a chart listing the winning number or combination of numbers and symbols, along with the prizes or cash amounts to be awarded to the winners. The boards were sold with a metal stylus or "punch" for the players to use.

A player paid the punchboard's operator a set amount of money (typically a nickel, dime, or quarter) for a chance to use a metal stylus to break the seal on the hole of his choice, and punch one of the slips of paper out of the board. If the number or symbols found on the slip of paper matched one of the pre determined winning combinations, the player was awarded the corresponding prize.

Punchboard manufacturers sold the boards blank or preprinted. Blank boards were sold to "jobbers" or salesmen who then added their own imagery or advertisement, and many surviving punchboards feature advertisements for products that were inexpensive and had mass appeal, such as peanuts, candy and cigarettes. Some of these boards offered the advertised product as the prize; these came to be known as prizeboards. Some prizeboards were constructed with a shadow box meant to contain prizes such as rhinestone sunglasses, wristwatches, Bowie knives, or even handguns. Punchboard manufacturers also sold the board pre-printed with various kinds of commercial imagery--sports, gambling, and patriotic imagery were well-represented, as were folk figures, racial and ethnic stereotypes, and the ubiquitous pin-up girls. Most of these boards were played for cash.
Provenance:
Gift of Evan Rangeloff, October 1999.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Probable copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Cigarettes -- 1950-2000  Search this
Tobacco -- Marketing -- 1950-2000  Search this
Sales personnel -- 1950-2000  Search this
Gambling  Search this
Cigarette industry -- 20th century  Search this
Punchboards  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0716
See more items in:
Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0716

Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints

Donor:
Cuscuna, Michael  Search this
Cuscuna, Michael  Search this
Photographer:
Wolff, Francis, 1907?-1971  Search this
Names:
Blue Note Records  Search this
Coltrane, John, 1926-1967  Search this
Davis, Miles  Search this
Monk, Thelonious  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1953-1966
1953-1966
Summary:
Collection consists of photographic prints from negatives by the eminent jazz photographer Francis Wolff, depicting such greats as Miles Davis, John Coltrane, Thelonious Monk, and other important artists.
Scope and Contents:
Twenty-five silver gelatin photographic prints (on fiber-based paper, 20" x 16") from negatives by the eminent jazz photographer Francis Wolff, depicting such greats as Miles Davis, John Coltrane, Thelonious Monk, and other important artists. Descriptions of prints supplied by the donor, Michael Cuscuna.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.

Series 1: Photoprints, 1953-1966
Biographical / Historical:
Wolff (born 1907 or 1908 in Berlin, Germany, died March 8, 1971 in New York City) was a record company executive, photographer and record producer. After a career as a commercial photographer in Germany, Wolff emigrated to the United States in 1939. In New York his childhood friend Alfred Lion, had co-founded Blue Note Records in the same year, and Wolff joined Lion in running the company. During Lion's war service, Wolff worked for Milt Gabler at the Commodore Music Store, and together they maintained the company's catalog until Lion was discharged. Until Lion retired in 1967, Wolff concentrated on the financial affairs of the business and only supervised occasional recording sessions produced during his visits to Europe. For the last four years of his life, when Blue Note was no longer an independent label, Wolff shared production responsibilities with pianist and arranger Duke Pearson. Wolff took photographs during the recordings sessions, usually shot during session rehearsals, throughout the period of Lion's involvement in Blue Note Records. They were used on publicity material and LP album sleeves, and have continued to be used in CD reissue booklets. [Redacted from Wikipedia entry.]
Provenance:
Gift of Michael Cuscuna, Mosaic Images, June 3, 2011.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Michael Cuscuna retains copyright. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz  Search this
Jazz musicians -- 1950-2000 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Michael Cuscuna.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1238
See more items in:
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1238
Online Media:

The Opener [Curtis Fuller] [black-and-white photoprint]

Photographer:
Wolff, Francis, 1907?-1971  Search this
Donor:
Cuscuna, Michael  Search this
Mosaic Images  Search this
Names:
Blue Note Records  Search this
Fuller, Curtis, 1934-  Search this
Collection Donor:
Cuscuna, Michael  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Wolff, Francis, 1907?-1971  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (paper 20" x 16".; Silver gelatin on paper, 36.5 x 36.0 cm. on)
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Later prints
Photographs
Date:
June 16, 1957
1957
Scope and Contents:
Curtis Fuller at his June 16, 1957 session for "The Opener" at the Van Gelder Studio, New Jersey. Recording session with Mobley, Timmons, Chambers, Taylor. Fuller plays trombone and smoke curls above his head. This photograph became the album's cover image.
Local Numbers:
AC1238-0000001 (AC Scan)
Exhibitions Note:
Displayed in "The Blue Note Photographs of Francis Wolff," National Museum of American History, April 1-June 30, 2016; David Haberstich, curator.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright held by Michael Cuscuna, Mosaic Records.
Topic:
Smoke  Search this
Trombone  Search this
Jazz musicians -- 1950-2000 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Later prints
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Michael Cuscuna.
See more items in:
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints / Series 1: Photoprints / Curtis Fuller at his June 16, 1957 session for "The Opener" (Blue Note) at the Van Gelder Studio, Hackensack, N.J. This became the album's cover image. (Missing)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1238-ref541

Art Blakey at his January 24, 1962 session for "The American Beat" at the Van Gelder Studio, New Jersey [black-and-white photoprint]

Photographer:
Wolff, Francis, 1907?-1971  Search this
Donor:
Cuscuna, Michael  Search this
Mosaic Images  Search this
Names:
Blue Note Records  Search this
Blakey, Art, 1919-1990  Search this
Collection Donor:
Cuscuna, Michael  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Wolff, Francis, 1907?-1971  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (paper 20" x 16".; Silver gelatin on paper, 36.5 x 36.0 cm. on)
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Later prints
Photographs
Date:
1962
Local Numbers:
AC1238-0000001 (AC Scan)
Exhibitions Note:
Displayed in "The Blue Note Photographs of Francis Wolff," National Museum of American History, April 1-June 30, 2016; David Haberstich, curator.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright held by Michael Cuscuna, Mosaic Records.
Topic:
Jazz  Search this
Jazz musicians -- 1950-2000 -- United States  Search this
Drums  Search this
Genre/Form:
Later prints
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Michael Cuscuna.
See more items in:
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints / Series 1: Photoprints / Art Blakey at his January 24, 1962 session for "The African Beat" (Blue Note) at the Van Gelder Studio, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1238-ref542

Clifford Brown at his August 28, 1053 session for "The Clifford Brown Sextet (Blue Note) at Audio-Video Studios, New York City [black-and-white photoprint]

Photographer:
Wolff, Francis, 1907?-1971  Search this
Donor:
Cuscuna, Michael  Search this
Mosaic Images  Search this
Names:
Blue Note Records  Search this
Brown, Clifford  Search this
Collection Donor:
Cuscuna, Michael  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Wolff, Francis, 1907?-1971  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (paper 20" x 16".; Silver gelatin on paper, 36.5 x 36.0 cm. on)
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Later prints
Photographs
Date:
1953
Local Numbers:
AC1238-0000001 (AC Scan)
Exhibitions Note:
Displayed in "The Blue Note Photographs of Francis Wolff," National Museum of American History, April 1-June 30, 2016; David Haberstich, curator.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright held by Michael Cuscuna, Mosaic Records.
Topic:
Jazz  Search this
Jazz musicians -- 1950-2000 -- United States  Search this
Trumpet  Search this
Genre/Form:
Later prints
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Michael Cuscuna.
See more items in:
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints
Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints / Series 1: Photoprints / Clifford Brown at his August 28, 1953 session for "The Clifford Brown Sextet (Blue Note) at Audio-Visual Studios, New York City
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1238-ref543

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