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N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia , 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1463 boxes, 33 map-folders, 7 films)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Prince Street Loft Dinners

Collection Creator:
Lanyon, Ellen  Search this
Container:
Box 52, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1980-2000
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Ellen Lanyon papers, circa 1880-2015, bulk 1926-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ellen Lanyon papers
Ellen Lanyon papers / Series 12: Photographic Material / 12.1: People and Places / Parties
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lanyelle-ref920

Self-Portraits

Collection Creator:
Lanyon, Ellen  Search this
Container:
Box 53, Folder 25
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1980-2000
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Ellen Lanyon papers, circa 1880-2015, bulk 1926-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ellen Lanyon papers
Ellen Lanyon papers / Series 12: Photographic Material / 12.2: Artwork and Exhibitions / By Series or Subject
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lanyelle-ref965

Modern Multiples records

Creator:
Modern Multiples  Search this
Duardo, Richard, 1952-2014  Search this
Names:
Aztlán Multiples  Search this
Hecho en Aztlán  Search this
Almaraz, Carlos  Search this
Banksy  Search this
Bojórquez, Chaz  Search this
Fairey, Shepard  Search this
Garcia, Camille Rose, 1970-  Search this
Marin, Cheech  Search this
Van Hamersveld, John  Search this
Zoell, Bob  Search this
Extent:
25.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Date:
1970s-2017
Summary:
The records of Modern Multiples printmaking workshop measure 25.2 linear feet and date from the 1970s to 2017. The collection contains administrative files related to the daily operations of the print workshop, gallery, and other associated businesses owned and operated by Richard Duardo. Also included are correspondence with artists and arts institutions, as well as some personal correspondence; project and artist files; printed material; photographic material, including photograph albums; artwork; and a small amount of material related to Richard Duardo, including biographical statements, a recorded interview, and journals.
Scope and Contents:
The records of Modern Multiples printmaking workshop measure 25.2 linear feet and date from the 1970s to 2017. The collection contains administrative files related to the daily operations of the print workshop, gallery, and other associated businesses owned and operated by Richard Duardo. Also included are correspondence with artists and arts institutions, as well as some scattered personal correspondence; project and artist files; printed material; photographic material, including photograph albums; artwork; and a small amount of material related to Richard Duardo, including biographical statements, a recorded interview, and journals.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as seven series.

Series 1: Administrative Files, 1978-2013 (Boxes 1-7, OV 26; 7.1 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1982-2014 (Boxes 7-10, OV 26; 2.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Project Files, 1981-2014 (Boxes 10-22; 12.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1980-2017 (Boxes 22-24, OV 27; 1.9 linear feet)

Series 5: Photographic Material, 1970s-2000s (Boxes 24-25; 1 linear foot)

Series 6: Artwork circa 1980s-2000s (Box 25, OV 26; 0.3)

Series 7: Richard Duardo Papers 1988-2005 (Box 25; 0.1)
Biographical / Historical:
Modern Multiples is a printmaking workshop in Los Angeles founded by Richard Duardo (1952-2014). Richard Duardo, an artist and fine art printer, was prominent in the Chicano art movement in Los Angeles, California. After helping to found the Centro de Arte Publico, Duardo opened Hecho en Aztlán, which became Aztlán Multiples, Multiples Fine Art Printing, and finally Modern Multiples. His sister, Lisa Duardo, took over the organization in 2015. Along with the printing workshop, Duardo also opened Future Perfect Gallery and started Art & Commerce, a business to sell the work of up-and-coming artists. In the early 2000s, Duardo sat on the Los Angeles County Museum of Art's Board of Trustees and chaired the Print Commission for the Prints and Drawings Council.

Modern Multiples and its predecessor studios worked with artists including Carlos Almaraz, Banksy, Chaz Bojorquez, Shepard Fairey, Camille Rose Garcia, John Van Hamersveld, and Bob Zoell.
Provenance:
The Modern Multiples records were donated to the Archives of American Art by Lisa Duardo, Richard Duardo's sister, in 2019.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Chicano movement  Search this
Function:
Printmaking studios (organizations) -- California
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Citation:
Modern Multiple records, 1970s-2017. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.modemult
See more items in:
Modern Multiples records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-modemult

Matt Mullican papers

Creator:
Mullican, Matt, 1951-  Search this
Names:
König, Kasper  Search this
Mullican, Lee, 1919-1998  Search this
Weiner, Lawrence, 1942-  Search this
Extent:
27.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Notebooks
Diaries
Writings
Date:
circa 1968-2017
Summary:
The papers of New York City and Berlin, Germany based multi-media and conceptual artist Matt Mullican measure 27.8 linear feet and date from circa 1968-2017. The collection consists of biographical material, including a few interview transcripts; correspondence; over 100 notebooks; gallery and exhibition files; project and commission files; personal business records; printed material; and photographs. The notebooks document nearly five decades of Mullican's work process and illustrate his material and conceptual explorations. Large sequences of gallery and exhibition files, as well as project and commission files comprise the remaining bulk of the collection, providing detailed documentation of his professional career, particularly from the 1980s-2000s.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York City and Berlin, Germany based multi-media and conceptual artist Matt Mullican measure 27.8 linear feet and date from circa 1968-2017. The collection consists of biographical material, including a few interview transcripts; correspondence; over 100 notebooks; gallery and exhibition files; project and commission files; personal business records; printed material; and photographs. The notebooks document nearly five decades of Mullican's work process and illustrate his material and conceptual explorations. Large sequences of gallery and exhibition files, as well as project and commission files comprise the remaining bulk of the collection, providing detailed documentation of his professional career, particularly from the 1980s-2000s.

Biographical material includes address books, high school and college ephemera, papers and photographs relating to Mullican's family, identification cards, interview transcripts, a resume, and a few writings.

The small amount of correspondence arranged in Series 2 is with friends, artists, colleagues, fans, and museum professionals. Notable correspondents include artist Lawrence Weiner and museum director Kasper König. Additional professional correspondence is located in the Gallery and Exhibition Files, as well as the Project and Commission Files.

Over 100 notebooks document nearly five decades of Mullican's work process and artistic explorations from the time he was a student up to the present.

A large sequence of gallery and exhibition files encompass a variety of material documenting Mullican's extensive solo and group exhibition history throughout the United States, Europe, and Japan.

Extensive project and commission files contain documentation of international public and corporate commissions, academic engagements, performances, publishing projects, print editions, illustrations, grants, residencies, and other project based artwork. Public and corporate commissions include artworks and installations for banks, airports, office complexes, university buildings, public transit stations, and other spaces.

Personal business records relate to bookkeeping and sales, donations, inventories, publication, copyright, supplies, invoicing, recommendations, residences, storage of works, and studio administration.

Printed material includes announcements, posters, articles, reviews, exhibition catalogs, and periodicals related to Mullican's career.

One folder of photographs documents Mullican, his family, and installations of his work at various venues and exhibitions.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as eight series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1968-2002 (0.6 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1986-2000s (0.2 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Notebooks, circa 1968-2017 (7.2 linear feet; Box 1-8)

Series 4: Gallery and Exhibition Files, 1985-2000s (6.1 linear feet; Box 9-13, OV and RD 23-25)

Series 5: Project and Commission Files, 1980-2000s (10.3 linear feet; Box 14-19, OV and RD 26-43)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1978-2000s (1.7 linear feet; Box 19-21)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1971-2000s (1.5 linear foot; Box 21-22, RD 44)

Series 8: Photographs, 1980s-1990s (1 folder; Box 22)
Biographical / Historical:
Matt Mullican (1951- ) is a multi-media and conceptual artist working in New York City and Berlin, Germany. Born in Santa Monica, he is the son of abstract surrealist painters Lee Mullican and Luchita Hurtado Mullican. Educated at the California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) in the early 1970s, and mentored by John Baldessari, Mullican moved to New York City after earning his BFA and became associated with the "Pictures Generation" artists, including friends Troy Brauntuch, Jack Goldstein, James Welling, and Robert Longo. His multi-disciplinary practice encompasses drawing, painting, collage, video, installation, and performance under hypnosis as his alter ego, 'That Person.' Through these media, Mullican explores systems of knowledge, the construction of reality, as well as meaning, language, and signs. Throughout his career, Mullican has participated in international solo and group exhibitions, and has undertaken dozens of public and corporate commissions.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives of American Art in 2014-2017 by Matt Mullican.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of born-digital records requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Conceptual artists -- Germany -- Berlin -- Interviews  Search this
Conceptual artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Topic:
Artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Multimedia (Art)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Notebooks
Diaries
Writings
Citation:
Matt Mullican papers, circa 1968-2017. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.mullmatt
See more items in:
Matt Mullican papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-mullmatt
Online Media:

W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews

Interviewee:
Sun Ra  Search this
Gaskin, Leonard, 1920-  Search this
Taylor, Billy  Search this
Sullivan, Maxine, 1911-1987  Search this
Wells, Ronnie  Search this
Whiting, Margaret  Search this
Towers, Jack  Search this
Venuti, Joe, 1903-1978  Search this
Pullen, Don, 1941-  Search this
Roney, Wallace  Search this
Pizzarelli, Bucky, 1926-  Search this
Pizzarelli, John, 1960-  Search this
Shaw, Artie, 1910-2004  Search this
Shepp, Archie, 1937-  Search this
Sanders, Pharaoh  Search this
Grant, Felix, 1918-1993  Search this
Scott, Jimmy  Search this
McPhail, Jimmy  Search this
McPartland, Marian  Search this
McFerrin, Bobby  Search this
Krall, Diana  Search this
O'Connell, Helen  Search this
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Metheny, Pat  Search this
McShann, Jay  Search this
Horn, Shirley, 1934-  Search this
Hinton, Milt, 1910-  Search this
Hill, Andrew, 1937-  Search this
Hendricks, Jon, 1921-  Search this
Keane, Helen  Search this
Kaminsky, Max, 1908-  Search this
Jordan, Sheila, 1928-  Search this
Humes, Helen, 1913-1981  Search this
Hampton, Lionel  Search this
Harris, Eddie, 1934-  Search this
Heath, Jimmy, 1926-  Search this
Frishberg, Dave  Search this
Ennis, Ethel  Search this
Farmer, Art, 1928-  Search this
Flanagan, Tommy, 1930-  Search this
Hampton, Slide  Search this
D'Rivera, Paquito, 1948-  Search this
Daniels, Billy  Search this
Davison, Bill  Search this
Donegan, Dorothy, 1922-  Search this
Crouch, Stanley, 1945-  Search this
Conyers, John, 1929-  Search this
Cruz, Celia, 1920-  Search this
Byard, Jaki  Search this
Brown, Ruth  Search this
Carter, Betty, 1930-  Search this
Byron, Don  Search this
Betts, Keter, 1928-  Search this
Bellson, Louis  Search this
Bowie, Lester, 1941-  Search this
Blakey, Art, 1919-1990  Search this
Allen, Steve, 1921-2000  Search this
Adderly, Nat, 1931-  Search this
Bailey, Benny, 1925-  Search this
Collector:
Stokes, W. Royal, Dr., 1930-  Search this
Names:
Armstrong, Louis, 1901-1971  Search this
Davis, Miles  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Gillespie, Dizzy, 1917-  Search this
Extent:
9.65 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Photographs
Publicity photographs
Date:
1970-2003
Summary:
Publicity photographs of musicians and entertainers, mostly jazz musicians, such as Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, and Dizzy Gillespie, but including many rock and even a few classical performers. The collection also contains tape recorded radio interviews conducted between 1970 and 2003. In addition there are posters relating to musical performances.
Scope and Contents:
This collection was formed by W. Royal Stokes in the course of his professional work as a music and arts critic. It is composed primarily of publicity portraits of musical performers, both single acts and groups. The emphasis is on jazz musicians and singers, although many rock stars and groups, and other popular musical performers are included. Even a few classical musicians are represented. The pictures are primarily mass-produced black and white publicity photographs distributed to newspapers, writers, etc., by agents for entertainment personalities. Some prints were made from the original negatives, while others clearly were made from copy negatives after typography was stripped together with a print and re-photographed. However, there are some rarer original photographs included in the collection, such as personal color snapshots, higher quality prints by art photographers, etc. Nearly all the prints are unmounted, and are 8 x 10 inches or smaller in size. The bulk of the photographs date from circa 1970 to 2000, however, a number of the earlier photographs are included as well as slightly later examples.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1, Photographs of Musicians and Ensembles, circa 1970-2000; undated

Subseries 1.1, Musicians and Ensembles

Subseries 1.2, Recording Company Photographs

Subseries 1.3, Unidentified Musicians

Series 2, Photographs of Performances, 1987-2002; undated

Subseries 2.1, Music Festivals, 1987-2002; undated

Subseries 2.2, Concerts, Music Clubs and Other Venues, 1920s-1940s and circa 1980s-1990s; undated

Series 3, Formal and Informal Groups, circa 1980s-2000; undated

Series 4, Photographs of Musicians in Films, Radio, Television and Theater, 1940s-2000; undated Series 5, Photographs of Subjects and Products related to Musicians and Music, 1970-2000; undated

Series 6, Photographs of Non-Musicians, circa 1980s-2000; undated

Series 7, Interviews with Musicians, 1970-2003

Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1970-2003

Subseries 8.1, Audio Recordings - Audiocassettes

Subseries 8.2, Audio Recordings-Audiotapes

Series 9, Posters, 1976-1990; undated
Biographical / Historical:
Born in Washington, D.C., W. Royal Stokes served in the Army and then embarked on an academic career, teaching at the University of Pittsburgh, Tufts University, Brock University and the University of Colorado. He left the academic profession in 1969 and become a writer, broadcaster and lecturer, journalist, and critic and authority on jazz music. A follower of jazz since his teens in the 1940s, Stokes has written about music for such publications as Down Beat, Jazz Times, and the Washington Post, and hosted the public radio shows "I Thought I Heard Buddy Bolden Say . . ." and "Since Minton's". Today he is the editor of the quarterly Jazz Notes, and is the author of The Jazz Scene: An Informal History From New Orleans to 1990 and Swing Era New York: The Jazz Photographs of Charles Peterson.. He is also the author of Living the Jazz Life: Conversations with Forty Musicians about Their Careers in Jazz (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). Dr. Stokes lives in Silver Spring, Maryland.
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of Ameican History:
Duke Ellington Collection, 1928-1988 (AC0301)

Herman Leonard Photoprints, 1948-1993

Frank Driggs Collection of Duke Ellington Photographic Reference Prints [copyprints], 1923-1972

Jazz Oral History Collection, 1988-1990

Ernie Smith Jazz Film Collection, 1910s-1970s (mostly 1930s-1960s)

Jeffrey Kliman Photographs

Stephanie Myers Jazz Photographs, 1984-1987, 2005

Chico O'Farrill Papers

Paquito D'Rivera Papers, 1989-2000.

Louis Armstrong Music Manuscripts, undated

Tito Puente Papers, 1962-1965.

Audrey Wells "Women in Jazz Radio Series, 1981-1982

Mongo Santamaria Papers, 1965-2001

Ramsey Lewis Collection, 1950-2007

Earl Newman Collection of Monterey Jazz Festival Posters, 1963-2009

James Arkatov Collection of Jazz Photographs, 1995-2003

Francis Wolff Jazz Photoprints, 1953-1966

Floyd Levin Jazz Reference Collection, circa 1920s-2006

Jazz Oral History Program Collection, 1992-2009

Leslie Schinella Collection of Gene Krupa Materials
Provenance:
Donated by W. Royal Stokes to the Archives Center in 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz musicians -- 1950-2000 -- United States  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Publicity  Search this
Portraits -- Musicians  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Rock music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Publicity photographs
Citation:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Jazz Musicians' Photographs, ca. 1970-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0766
See more items in:
W. Royal Stokes Collection of Music Photoprints and Interviews
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0766
Online Media:

Dorothy C. Miller papers

Creator:
Miller, Dorothy Canning, 1904-2003  Search this
Names:
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
Chase Manhattan Bank -- Art collections  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Mark Rothko Foundation  Search this
Municipal Art Exhibition (1st : 1934 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
PepsiCo, Inc.  Search this
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey -- Art collections  Search this
Rockefeller University  Search this
Smith College -- Students  Search this
Smith College. Museum of Art  Search this
World Trade Center (New York, N.Y.) -- Art collections  Search this
Asher, Elise, 1914-  Search this
Barr, Alfred H., Jr., 1902-1981  Search this
Bontecou, Lee, 1931-  Search this
Byars, James Lee  Search this
Cahill, Holger, 1887-1960  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Canady, John  Search this
Charlton, Maryette  Search this
Christo, 1935-  Search this
Chryssa, 1933-  Search this
Coggeshall, Calvert, 1907-1990  Search this
Copley, Alfred L.  Search this
Davis, Stuart, 1892-1964  Search this
DeFeo, Jay, 1929-1989  Search this
Feininger, Lyonel, 1871-1956  Search this
Feitelson, Lorser, 1898-1978  Search this
Gorky, Arshile, 1904-1948  Search this
Guggenheim, Peggy, 1898-  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Hicks, Edward, 1780-1849  Search this
Horwitt, Will  Search this
Johns, Jasper, 1930-  Search this
Karpel, Bernard, 1911-1986  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
Mather, Eleanore Price, 1910-  Search this
Matisse, Pierre, 1900-1989  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Noguchi, Isamu, 1904-1988  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia , 1887-1986  Search this
Pereira, I. Rice (Irene Rice), 1902-1971  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Reinhardt, Ad, 1913-1967  Search this
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich), 1908-1979 -- Art collections  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Sage, Kay  Search this
Scharf, William, 1927-  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Sterne, Hedda, 1910-2011  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-1980  Search this
Extent:
34.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketches
Christmas cards
Drawings
Date:
1853-2013
bulk 1920-1996
Summary:
The papers of contemporary and folk art curator, historian, and consultant Dorothy C. Miller measure 34.6 linear feet and date from 1853-2013, with the bulk of the material dating from 1920 to 1996. The papers primarily concern Miller's private art consulting work outside of her curatorial work at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Found are scattered biographical materials, extensive correspondence and subject files, and project files for her art consulting work for the Rockefeller family, Rockefeller University, Chase Manhattan Bank, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the World Trade Center, and other miscellaneous corporate and private clients. Miller's work as a trustee and committee member of various public and private boards and commissions is also represented here. Additionally, the papers contain Miller's research files on Edward Hicks and folk art, and a small number of files of her husband Holger Cahill about his work as Director of the Federal Art Project. There is a scattered documentation of Miller's early curatorial work with Holger Cahill on the First Municipal Art Exhibition (1934) held at the RCA Building in Rockefeller Center. Also found is Dorothy Miller's collection of artists' Christmas cards and photographs of Miller and others. An addition to the papers includes biographical material; family papers; correspondence; professional files; art collection and client files; printed material; and photographic material. While a small number professional files are included, the majority of the addition relates to her personal life, including correspondence with her husband Holger Cahill, and files pertaining to her personal art collection.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of contemporary and folk art curator, historian, and consultant Dorothy C. Miller measure 34.6 linear feet and date from 1853-2013, with the bulk of the material dating from 1920 to 1996. The papers primarily concern Miller's art consulting work outside of her curatorial work at the Museum of Modern Art in New York city. Found are scattered biographical materials, extensive correspondence and subject files, and project files for her art consulting work for the Rockefeller family, Rockefeller University, Chase Manhattan Bank, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and other miscellaneous corporate and private clients. Her work as a trustee and committee member of various public and private boards and commissions is also represented here. Additionally, the papers contain Miller's research files on Edward Hicks and folk art, and a small number of files related to Miller's husband Holger Cahill and his work as Director of the Federal Art Project. There is important documentation of Miller's early curatorial work with Holger Cahill on the First Municipal Art Exhibition (1934) held at the RCA Building in Rockefeller Center. Artwork includes scattered sketches and drawings enclosed with correspondence and original Christmas cards sent to Miller by various artists. Photographs of Miller date from 1926 - circa 1950.

Scattered biographical material mostly concerns Miller's education at Smith College and awards and honorary degrees that she received. Extensive correspondence and subject files document her professional and personal relationships with family, friends, colleagues, museums, art dealers and artists, as well as her research interests. Individual files may contain a mix of correspondence with, as well as about, the person or subject, compiled research documents, printed materials, and scattered photographs. Files are found for Lewin Alcopley, Alfred Barr, Betty Parsons Gallery, Cahill family members, Lee Bontecou, James Byars, Holger Cahill, Alexander Calder, Christo, Chryssa, Calvert Coggeshall, John Canaday, Maryette Charlton, Stuart Davis, Jay DeFeo, Lorser Feitelson, Arshile Gorky, Peggy Guggenheim, Grace Hartigan, Will Horwitt, Jasper Johns, Julien Levy, Pierre Matisse, Louise Nevelson, Barnett Newman, Isamu Nauchi, Georgia O'Keeffe, Pablo Picasso, Robert Rauschenberg, Ad Reinhardt, Kay Sage, Charles Sheeler, Hedda Sterne, travel, Clyfford Still, William Scharf, among many others.

Detailed records of Miller's art consulting and advisory work for the Rockefeller family include correspondence with Nelson A. Rockefeller and David Rockefeller about building their personal collections of contemporary and folk art, meeting notes and minutes, research notes and writings, and printed materials. The largest group of records concerns the writing and publication of The Nelson A. Rockefeller Collection: Masterpieces of Modern Art. Miller's curatorial work for David Rockefeller and the Rockefeller University's Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Hall art collection is documented in Series 4 through curatorial files, correspondence, printed materials, photographs and slides, artists files, and design records.

Series 5 contains files relating to Miller's work as the first art consutant to the Chase Manhattan Bank and the building of the corporation's extensive collection of contemporary art. There is a draft of Miller's text for the bank's published catalog, Art At Work: Chase Manhattan Bank Collection. A smaller set of records is found in Series 6 documenting Miller's work on the Art Committee of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, including files about selecting artwork for the World Trade Center during the early 1970s. Files concerning Miller's advisory work with additional public and private clients, boards, and commissions are arranged in Series 7 and 8 and concern the Amstar Corporation, Fidelity International Bank, First National Bank of Tampa, First National City Bank, Inmont Corporation, Pepsico, United Mutual Savings Bank, the Empire State Plaza Art Commission, the Hancock Shaker Village, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the Mark Rothko Foundation, the Museum of American Folk Art, and the Smith College Museum of Art.

Miller's papers include a small group of files relating to the WPA Federal Art Project (FAP)created by her husband Holger Cahill when he was director of the FAP, Holger Cahill. A small series is devoted to Miller's work with Eleanore Price Mather researching and writing Edward Hicks: His Peaceable Kingdom and Other Paintings. A series of general research files contain miscellaneous research notes and photographs related to Miller's interests in early American art and folk art. Series 12 contains important documentation of Miller's early curatorial work with Holger Cahill on the First Municipal Art Exhibition (1934) held at the RCA Building in Rockefeller Center.

Works of art are primarily in the form of Christmas cards sent to Miller by various artists including Elise Asher, Lyonel Feininger, Bernard Karpel, and Irene Rice Pereira. A small group of photographs includes photographs of Miller from 1926-circa 1950 and a few photographs of others.

The addition includes biographical material; family papers; correspondence; professional files; art collection and client files; printed material; and photographic material. While a small number of professional files are found here, the majority of material relates to Miller's personal life, including correspondence with her husband Holger Cahill, and files pertaining to her personal art collection. Scattered correspondence, inventories, research, and notes created by curator and donor of the papers, Wendy Jeffers, are found throughout the collection. These materials date from the 1980s-2000s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 15 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1986 (Box 1; 0.3 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence and Subject Files, circa 1912-1992 (Boxes 1-8, OV 27; 7.2 linear ft.)

Series 3: Rockefeller Family Art Collections, circa 1949-1985 (Boxes 8-12, 25; 3.9 linear ft.)

Series 4: Rockefeller University Collection, 1923-1984 (Boxes 12-13, OV 27; 1.0 linear ft.)

Series 5: Chase Manhattan Bank Collection, 1959-circa 1985 (Boxes 13-14, 26; 1.4 linear ft.)

Series 6: Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Art Committee, circa 1965-1987 (Boxes 14-15, OV 27; 0.8 linear ft.)

Series 7: Other Corporate and Private Clients, 1968-1984 (Boxes 15-16; 1.3 linear ft.)

Series 8: Other Boards, Committees and Commissions, 1925, 1949-1985 (Boxes 16-20; 3.6 linear ft.)

Series 9: Works Project Administration Federal Art Project Files, 1935-1979 (Box 20, OV 27; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 10: Edward Hicks Catalog, 1934-1984 (Boxes 20-22; 1.5 linear ft.)

Series 11: Research Files, 1930s-1980 (Boxes 22-23; 0.8 linear ft.)

Series 12: Exhibition Files, 1932-1986 (Box 23; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 13: Works of Art, circa 1924-circa 1982 (Boxes 23-25; 1.5 linear ft.)

Series 14: Photographs, 1926-circa 1970s (Boxes 24-25; 0.3 linear ft.)

Series 15: Addition to the Dorothy C. Miller Papers, 1853-2003, bulk 1920-1996 (Boxes 28-38, OVs 39-41; 9.9 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Dorothy Canning Miller (1904-2003) worked in New York City as a highly influential curator of contemporary and folk art at the Museum of Modern Art and as the first curator of the museum. Later, she was the primary art consultant for Nelson A. Rockefeller, the Rockefeller family, Rockefeller University, Chase Manhattan Bank, and the Port Authority of and New Jersey. Dorothy Miller was also married to Holger Cahill, director of the WPA Federal Art Project.

Dorothy C. Miller was born in Hopedale, Massachusetts in 1904 and received her Bachelor of Arts from Smith College in 1925. She was first introduced to modern art through classes at the Newark Museum taught by John Cotton Dana and Holger Cahill. Miller joined the curatorial staff of the Newark Museum in 1926. The museum was one of the first to organize exhibitions of American folk art, American Primitives (1930-1931) and American Folk Sculpture (1931-1932). Miller worked with Cahill and others on the exhibition and developed a life-long interest in folk art.

After four years at the Newark Museum, Miller moved to New York city, hoping to get involved with the newly opened Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), and, likely, to be with Holger Cahill, with whom she lived with on 8th Street prior to their marriage in 1938. Between 1930 and 1932 she took odd jobs and worked with Mrs. Henry Lang cataloging, researching and installing Lang's collection of Native American art Lang donated to the Montclair Art Museum. At the same time, Holger Cahill was serving as Acting Director of the Museum of Modern Art during an absence of Director Alfred H. Barr. In 1932, Cahill asked Miller to assist him with curating the American Painting and Sculpture, 1862-1932 exhibition at MoMA, and together they also curated the First Municipal Art Exhibition, 1934 at the Rockefeller Center.

In 1934, Barr hired Miller as his assistant and one year later appointed her as MoMA's first curator. Miller spent the next 35 years organizing many of this country's most important exhibitions of contemporary art and building personal relationships with new artists and photographers, as well as the collections of MoMA. Miller retired from MOMA in 1969 and focused more on her art consulting work begun in the late 1950s.

Dorothy Miller's most notable client was Nelson A. Rockefeller. She assisted and advised Rockefeller as he acquired a vast personal collection of modern art - some of which was later donated to MoMA. Just prior to her retirement, Miller organized a large exhibition of Rockefeller's collection. The exhibition catalog written by Miller was the basis for the book she worked on with Rockefeller up until and following his death in 1979, ultimately published as The Nelson A. Rockefeller Collection: Masterpieces of Modern Art. In the preface, Rockefeller credited Miller with being one of the four people to whom he was indebted "for the understanding and endless joy I have found in the collecting of modern art in all forms."

Miller also served as the primary art consultant for projects to furnish federal spaces, including Henry Kissinger's State Department office suite, and the official Vice-Presidential residence at the Admiral's House in Washington D.C.

In 1959 Miller was invited to join the art collection committee of the Chase Manhattan Bank and served on the committee until the mid-1980s, contributing her expertise to the development of one of this country's oldest and largest corporate collections of modern and contemporary art.

Miller was also an advisor to other members of the Rockefeller family, including David Rockefeller, and assisted with developing the art collections of Rockefeller Institute/University. From 1960 through the late 1980s Miller was a member of the art committee for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANJY) and was responsible for selecting much of the artwork for the World Trade Center in the 1970s. She served on numerous boards and commissions, including the Hancock Shaker Village, the Smithsonian Institution's Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the Empire State Plaza in Albany, Smith College Museum of Art, and the Museum of American Folk Art. She also became a member of the Mark Rothko Foundation Board of Directors after the litigation following Rothko's death between Rothko's executors and his daughter.

In the mid-1970s Miller assisted the Whitney Museum of American with planning an exhibition and supporting catalog of the work of folk artist Edward Hicks. Although the exhibition and catalog were only partially realized in 1980, Miller and Eleanore Price Mather compiled and published a book on Hicks, Edward Hicks: His Peaceable Kingdoms and Other Paintings, published in 1983.

In 1982-1983 Miller received the Art Dealers Association Special Award, an honorary degree from Williams College, and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture governor's award. In 1984 she was named honorary trustee of the Museum of Modern Art. In 1985 the Smith College Museum of Art honored her important contributions to museum connoisseurship with the exhibition Dorothy C. Miller: With An Eye to American Art.

Dorothy Miller died in 2003 at the age of 99 at her home in Greenwich, New York.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art holds two oral history interviews with Dorothy C. Miller. The first was conducted by Paul Cummings between May 26, 1970 and September 28, 1971, and details Miller's life from childhood up to, and including, her years at the Museum of Modern Art. The second was conducted by Avis Berman on May 14, 1981 and covers Miller's relationships with Mark Rothko and Clyfford Still. Also found among the holdings of the Archives are the papers of Holger Cahill, Dorothy Miller's husband and colleague.

The Museum of Modern Art Achives holds Dorothy Miller's papers related to her curatorial work at the museum.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Dorothy C. Miller via Wendy Jeffers between 1986 and 1997, and Reid White, Executor of Miller's estate, in 2004. Two subsequent additions were donated by Wendy Jeffers in 2014 and 2015.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art historians -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Artists -- United States  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Exhibitions  Search this
Art museum curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Corporations -- Private collections  Search this
Art -- Private collections  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Christmas cards
Drawings
Citation:
Dorothy C. Miller papers, 1853-2013, bulk 1920-1996. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.milldoro
See more items in:
Dorothy C. Miller papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-milldoro
Online Media:

Jamison Thomas Gallery Records

Creator:
Jamison Thomas Gallery  Search this
Names:
Folk Craft Gallery (Portland, Or.)  Search this
Jamison Thomas Gallery  Search this
Backstrand, Jay, 1934-  Search this
Bartow, Rick, 1946-  Search this
Buehler, Stuart  Search this
Bulwinkle, Mark, 1946-  Search this
Calderon, Mark  Search this
Diakité, Baba Wagué  Search this
Gilkerson, Robert, 1922-  Search this
Grenon, Gregory, 1948-  Search this
May, Dan  Search this
Serl, Jon, 1894-1993  Search this
Thomas, Jeffrey  Search this
Van Sant, Gus  Search this
Extent:
27.2 Linear feet
0.001 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Date:
1940-2000
bulk 1980-1995
Summary:
The Jamison Thomas Gallery records measure 27.2 linear feet and 0.001 Gb and date from 1940-2000, with the bulk of the records dating from 1980-1995, reflecting the years the Gallery operated in Portland Oregon. About 1/2 of the records consist of artists' files of artists represented by the gallery and artists of interest. Also found are administrative records, client and collector files, financial and legal records, exhibition files, and publicity files.
Scope and Contents:
The Jamison Thomas Gallery records measure 27.2 linear feet and 0.001 GB and date from 1940-2000, with the bulk of the records dating from 1980-1995, reflecting the years the Gallery operated in Portland Oregon. About 1/2 of the records consist of artists' files of artists represented by the gallery and artists of interest. Also found are administrative records, client and collector files, financial and legal records, exhibition files, and publicity files.

Among those represented in the artists' files are Robert Gilkerson, Gregory Grenon, Dan May, Jon Serl, Rick Bartow, Mark Bulwinkle, Jay Backstrand, Stuart Buehler, Mark Calderon, Baba Wague Diakite, and Gus Van Sant.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Administrative Records, 1980-1996 (2.4 linear feet; Box 1-3)

Series 2: Client and Collector Files, 1980-1995 (4.5 linear feet; Box 3-7, 0.001 GB; ER01)

Series 3: Financial and Legal Records, 1980-2000 (2.8 linear feet; Box 7-10)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1975-1995 (2 linear feet; Box 12-12)

Series 5: Publicity Files, 1980-1996 (1.5 linear feet; Box 12-14)

Series 6: Artists' Files, 1940-1996 (14 linear feet, Box 14-28)
Biographical / Historical:
Jamison Thomas Gallery opened in Portland, Oregon in 1980 as the Folk Craft Gallery founded by William Jamison and Jeffrey Thomas. The gallery changed its focus and name in 1985 and began to specialize in contemporary photography, sculpture, and textile arts. Among the most notable artists represented by the gallery were Rick Bartow, Stuart Buehler, Dennis Cunningham, Susan Seubert, Dan May, Gus Van Sant, Ruza Erceg, Mark Bulwinkle, Jon Serl, Gregory Grenon, and Erik Stotik. Jamison Thomas Gallery closed in 1995, after William Jamison died from complications with AIDS.
Provenance:
The Jamison Thomas Gallery records were donated to the Archives of American Art in 2001 by gallery director Charles Froelick.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is available in the Archives' Washington, D.C. research facility. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- Oregon -- Portland  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture  Search this
Photography  Search this
Textile crafts  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- Oregon -- Portland  Search this
Citation:
Jamison Thomas Gallery records, 1940-1996, bulk 1980-1996. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.jamithog
See more items in:
Jamison Thomas Gallery Records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-jamithog
Online Media:

Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers

Creator:
Ehricke, Krafft, 1917-1984  Search this
Names:
Bell Aircraft Corporation  Search this
Convair (Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp)  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc.  Search this
Rockwell International  Search this
Space Global  Search this
Dornberger, Walter, 1895-  Search this
Von Braun, Wernher, 1912-1977  Search this
Extent:
124.9 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notes
Papers, technical
Audiotapes
Sketches
Vhs (videotape format)
Photographic prints
Illustrations
Videotapes
Articles
Newspaper clippings
Date:
1949-1984
Summary:
This collection is composed of Krafft Ehricke's files including Ehricke's published and unpublished papers as well as papers and works by others that Ehricke gathered, presumably as reference material.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Krafft Ehricke's writings and interviews spanning 1949-1984 and items gathered by Ehricke as reference material for his various writing projects. The files on his writings include handwritten manuscripts, typed drafts, publication proofs, and/or final published versions and reprints, and in some cases include correspondences or other documents relating to publication. The collection also includes original paste-up versions of graphics created by or for Ehricke to illustrate his writings. The reference material includes technical reports, scientific papers, and newspaper and magazine articles gathered by Ehricke during his career.
Arrangement:
The collection remained in the possession Ehricke's family for nearly two decades after his death and apparently was largely unorganized prior to processing. The material has been arranged in five series, with oversized materials filed at the end of the collection in series order by size.

Series I. Writings (Boxes 1-80) – copies of papers, articles, and lectures by Ehricke, including a mix of manuscript (MS), typescript (TS), paste-up, and published copies. Reports written by Ehricke as part of a study conducted as part of his professional duties are filed in Series IV as part of the "Studies and Projects" section of each subject group (see below). The materials are organized chronologically with different versions of the same work filed together by date of publication (if published) or completion. Ehricke rarely labeled MS or TS pages by title, generally wrote on the similar topics, and often cut finished text blocks or figures from one paper to use in another, a process he referred to cannibalization. As a result, although efforts have been made to organize loose MS and TS pages by their final works these assignments must be considered tentative and some pages have been left unassigned due to lack of sufficient information.

Series II. Graphics (Boxes 81-94) – copies of original and paste-up graphics (charts, graphs, illustrations) designed or created by Ehricke. Because these materials were mainly found in their original folders, they have been filed consistent with their original labeling. As a result they fall into groups roughly corresponding to Ehricke's tenures at General Dynamics, North American Rockwell, and Space Global.

Series III. Company Files (Boxes 94-104) – files and materials relating to business activities at the various companies for which Ehricke worked, organized by company in chronological order of Ehricke's tenure. Within each company, materials are organized by named files (filed alphabetically) and proposals and related material (filed chronologically). The proposals filed in this series represent studies or programs for which no other documentation exists in the collection.

Series IV. Reference Files (Boxes 104-253) – files and documents arranged by broad subject areas, based upon the subject organization for Ehricke's existing lecture transparencies. Within each subject area files are organized into three groups: named files (arranged alphabetically); studies (arranged chronologically by the start of the study); and other reports (arranged chronologically). Named files usually contain a variety of papers, reports, and articles and sometimes include items written by Ehricke. Studies often include correspondence, papers, or reports by Ehricke in addition to documents by other members of the study team; items by Ehricke have been filed in this series, rather than in Series I to preserve the context in which they were created and used. Other reports are generally filed chronologically by date of publication unless it could be clearly established that Ehricke acquired the material significantly later than its publication date (for instance: in cases where order forms attached to document bundles show that Ehricke had requested copies of the documents a decade after they were published). The subject areas are:

Subseries

2. General (Boxes 104-108)

3. Vehicle Technology (Boxes 108-154)

4. Planets and Planetary Missions (Box 154-203)

5. Transportation Systems (Boxes 204-208)

6. Space Habitation and Human Factors (Boxes 208-219)

7. Space and Lunar Industry (Boxes 219-229)

8. Earth / Resources / Open World Synthesis (Boxes 229-234)

9. Energy (Boxes 234-249)

10. Space Light (Boxes 249-250)

11. Information Services (Boxes 250-253)

Unfortunately, there is significant overlap between these subject areas, especially between subseries 2, 3, 4, and 5; subseries 5, 6, and 9; and subseries 7, 8, and 9. Researchers are cautioned to examine several subject areas.

Series V. Miscellaneous Personal and Posthumous Materials (Boxes 253-254) – files and documents not otherwise related to Ehricke's research and writing or which post-date his death.
Biographical/Historical note:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke (1917-1984) was an engineer and scientist who made vital contributions to the American space program. Ehricke was considered "one of the few philosophers of astronautics" by the early 1960s (note 1) and until his death remained a visionary and public champion of the cause of space exploration and colonization.

Ehricke was born in Berlin, Germany on 24 March 1917. He was inspired by Fritz Lang's 1929 science fiction film Frau im Mond (Woman in the Moon) and attempted to join the German rocket society, Verein für Raumschiffarht (VfR), but, denied membership due to his youth, he instead conducted his own experiments. He spent two years (1936-1938) fulfilling military service requirements in Germany's new Panzer Corps, then earned an Aeronautical Engineering degree (MS equivalent) from the Technical University of Berlin (1938-1940). With World War II underway, Ehricke was recalled to service and was wounded during the Blitzkrieg on the Western Front in 1940. While recuperating from his wound he took graduate courses in Celestial Mechanics and Nuclear Physics from the University of Berlin (1940-1941). He returned to duty in 1941 as an officer to participate in the German attack on Russia. In 1942 he was again wounded, but his earlier engineering work had come to the attention of Wernher von Braun and he was recruited into von Braun's rocket development team, a move he later credited with saving his life. Ehricke spent the next two years (1942-1944) as a propulsion engineer at Peenemünde, then became an ordnance lecturer in Köslin, Germany (now Koszalin, Poland) until the end of the war. In January 1945 Ehricke married Ingeborg Maria Mattull. As the Third Reich collapsed in May he returned to her in Berlin and went into hiding to escape being "recruited" by the Soviet Union. He was finally located by an American officer in 1946 and was reunited with von Braun and the other Operation Paperclip (note 2) scientists under United States Army auspices.

In January 1947 Ehricke began work as a Research Engineer for the Research and Development Service of the United States Army Ordnance Corps at Ft. Bliss, TX, moving to Huntsville, AL, in 1950 when the Army transferred missile development from Ft. Bliss to Redstone Arsenal, AL. In 1952 Ehricke was recruited by Walter Dornberger (note 3), left government service for private industry, and moved to Buffalo, NY, to work as a Design Specialist at Bell Aircraft. For the next two years he worked on Bell's Orbital Glider project, a precursor to Project Dyna-Soar, the Air Force reusable boost-glide weapon system that itself prefigured NASA's Space Shuttle.

In November 1954 Ehricke moved to San Diego, CA, to begin a decade-long career with what was then the Convair Division of General Dynamics. For several years he was a key figure in the development of the Convair's SM-65 Atlas ICBM and Atlas launch vehicle. NASA used the man-rated Atlas LV-3 for the orbital flights of the Mercury Program and as of this writing the Atlas V family of Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles remains a mainstay of the United States launch vehicle inventory. Between 1959 and 1962 Ehricke directed the development of the Centaur booster, the first high-energy upper stage powered by liquid hydrogen. Although Centaur was not successfully launched until 1965, it eventually served as the upper stage for Atlas, Titan, and Delta launch vehicles and was the last stage for the Viking (Mars) and Voyager (Outer Planets) missions. During this time he also authored Space Flight, a two-volume textbook on celestial mechanics and launch vehicle design (note 4). In 1962 Ehricke became the director of the Advanced Projects Department of General Dynamics Astronautics, where he directed and contributed to studies of next-generation (Post-Saturn) launch vehicles and propulsion systems, planetary exploration programs, and post-Apollo space activities.

At the end of October 1965 Ehricke left General Dynamics to become the assistant director of Astrionics at the Autonetics Division of North American Aviation (note 5), later rising to become Chief Scientist in the Advanced Systems Department of North American Rockwell's Space Division (1968-1973) and Chief Scientific Advisor for Rockwell International's North American Space Operations (1973-1977). While at North American Ehricke was involved in some aspects of the Space Shuttle program but primarily worked advanced project studies, including studies relating to NASA's space station and deep space exploration programs, and culminating in a multi-year study of space industrialization which began in 1976. During this time he also acted as scientific advisor to the abortive Satellite Power Corp (1974-1976), which proposed using satellites to generate and transmit electrical power to the Earth.

Ehricke retired from Rockwell in July 1977 and established Space Global Company with himself as president. Space Global was, in essence, a vehicle to promote space exploration and to promulgate his vision of a future space civilization, a concept he originally called the "Extraterrestrial Imperative" but later referred to as the "Open World Synthesis." The basic concept was relatively straightforward: because Earth's resources, although great, are limited, they place a limit on mankind's development. The only way to escape that limit is to move beyond the Earth and exploit the resources available in space. It was an argument for space exploration and colonization that Ehricke developed during the 1950s and 1960s, and finally crystallized in a manuscript he co-authored with Elizabeth Miller. Doubleday planned to publish the book in 1971, but then cancelled the project. Ehricke managed to get facets of the idea published in a number of technical journals, most notably in a four-part article in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (1979-1981), and gave numerous lectures on the topic, but The Extraterrestrial Imperative never appeared in the general media. Described as a "warm, witty man" and "a popular lecturer," he kept up an active speaking career until his health began to fail in 1984. He died of complications from leukemia on 11 December 1984.

During his life Ehricke wrote over 200 scientific and technical papers, contributed to a number of dictionaries and encyclopedias, and authored or co-authored several books. His final book The Seventh Continent: Industrialization and Settlement of the Moon (published in German as Der Siebente Kontinent – Die Industri Alisierung und Besiedlung des Mondes (Müchen: Thiemig Verlag, 1984)) was being edited for English publication at the time of his death. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters by the National College of Education (note 6) (1961) and received numerous awards including the International Astronautical Federation's Guenther Loeser Medal (1956), the American Rocket Society's Astronautics Award (1957) and Edward J. Pendray Award (1963), the New York Academy of Sciences' I. B. Laskowitz Award (1972), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics' Goddard Astronautics Award (1984), and was inducted into the Aerospace Hall of Fame (1966).

Notes

2. Dandridge M. Cole to Krafft Ehricke, 12 February 1964.

3. Operation Paperclip was a program by the United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) to bring German scientists to the United States in the immediate aftermath of World War II. More than 1500 scientists and engineers and nearly 4000 members of their families had entered the US by the end of 1947.

4. Walter Robert Dornberger (1895-1980) was a German artillery officer and engineer. In 1942 he was placed in charge of coordinating V-1 and V-2 development at Peenemünde. Captured by the British in 1945, he participated in Britain's -- Operation Backfire -- before being brought to the United States as part of -- Operation Paperclip -- , working on guided missile development for the United States Air Force. Between 1950 and 1965 he worked for Bell, eventually becoming a Vice President of the company. According to some stories he was responsible for poaching several -- Paperclip -- scientists away from the Army's Huntsville team for USAF projects.

5. Krafft A. Ehricke, -- Space Flight -- , Vol. I – -- Environment and Celestial Mechanics -- (Princeton (NJ): D. Van Norstrand, 1960) and Kraftt A. Ehricke, -- Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- (Princeton (NJ): D. Van Norstrand, 1962)

6. In September 1967 North American Aviation merged with Rockwell Standard and was renamed North American Rockwell. In 1973 North American Rockwell merged with Rockwell Manufacturing to form Rockwell International.

7. In 1990 National College of Education (NCE, est. 1886) expanded and reorganized into the National Louis University (NLU), headquartered in Chicago, IL, with NCE becoming one of the NLU's three colleges.

Chronology

1917 Mar 24 -- born (Berlin, Germany)

1923-1926 -- Grammar School (Berlin, Germany)

1927-1936 -- Gynasium (Berlin, Germany)

1936-1938 -- German Army (military service, Panzer Corps)

1938-1941 -- Berlin Technical University (Aeronautical Engineering Diploma, 1941)

1940 -- German Army (Sergeant, Panzer Corps) – Western Front

1941-1942 -- University of Berlin (Nuclear Physics and Celestial Mechanics; predoctoral studies)

1942 -- German Army (Lieutenant, Panzer Corps) – Eastern Front, wounded

1942-1944 -- Peenemünde Research and Development Center (Development Engineer and Assistant to Director, Propulsion Development)

1944-1945 -- Köslin, Germany (Lecterer, Army Ordnance)

1945 Jan 19 -- married Ingeborg Maria Mattull (Berlin, Germany)

1947-1950 -- Ft Bliss, TX (Research Engineer)

1950-1952 -- Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL (Thermodynamics Research Engineer, Chief of Gas Dynamics Dept)

1952-1954 -- Bell Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, NY (Preliminary Design Specialist)

1954-1955 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Design Specialist)

1956-1958 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Chief of Preliminary Design and Systems Analysis)

1956 -- received Gunther Loesler Medal (International Astronautics Federation)

1957 -- received Astronautics Award (American Rocket Society)

1958-1959 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Assistant to Chief Engineer)

1959-1962 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Director, Centaur Development)

1959-1961 -- NASA Research Advisory Committee on Electric Energy Systems (Chairman)

1961 -- awarded Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters (National College of Education, Evanston, IL)

1962-1965 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Director, Advanced Studies Dept/Astronautics Division)

1963 -- received Edward Pendray Award (American Rocket Society)

1965-1968 -- North American Aviation, Anaheim, CA (Assistant Director, Astrionics Division)

1966 -- inducted into Aerospace Hall of Fame (San Diego, CA)

1968-1973 -- North American Aviation / Rockwell International, Anaheim, CA (Chief Scientist, Advanced Systems Department, Space Division)

1972 -- received I. B. Laskowitz Award (New York Academy of Sciences)

1973-1977 -- Rockwell International, Anaheim, CA (Chief Scientific Advisor, North American Space Operations)

1977-1984 -- Space Global Co (President)

1981 -- received Space Systems Award (IAA)

1984 -- received Goddard Astronautics Award (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics)

1984 Dec 11 -- died of complications from leukemia (La Jolla, CA)

Partial Bibliography of Papers, Reports, Lectures, and Interviews by Krafft Ehricke

"1990 A.D. and Man's Flight to the Planets" (extract from Ehricke & Betty A. Miller, -- Exploring the Planets -- (Morristown (NJ): Slver Burdett, 1969))

"Absolute Comparisons of Management Systems" (no date)

Accuracy Improvement of Martian Probe by Post-Escape Correction and Improved Determination of the Astronomical Constant -- (Convair report AZM-049; 1 Aug 1958)

"Acquisition of Geospace" (Nov 1968)

"Acquisition of the Solar System" (presented to "Contemporary Americans in an Intricate Society – 1969", The Hackley School Program for a Special Senior Conference, 19-29 May 1969)

"Advanced Nuclear Reactor Propulsion Concepts" (AIAA Lecture Series – Advanced Propulsion Systems for Space Applications, 6 Apr 1965)

"Aero-Thermodynamics of Descending Orbital Vehicles" ( -- Astronautica Acta -- 2, fasc.1 (1956))

"Aerojet-General Nucleonics Non-Chemical Propulsion Program" (presented to USAF, 11 Feb 1966)

"Aerospace and National Economic Development" (Feb 1976)

"Aerospace Contribution to Solving the Energy and Pollution Crisis" (delivered to luncheon meeting of Capital Section of AIAA, 27 Jun 1973)

"Aerospace Transportation" (Jun 1966)

"Aerospace Transportation – Concepts and Advanced Systems" (Jun 1966)

"Air Traffic in the Coming Space Age" (published as "Toward Aviation's New Infinities", -- Jet Tales -- 1/81)

An der Schwelle des Industriellen Raumzeitalters -- (report E75-9-1, Sep 1975)

"Analysis of a New Orbital Supply System and Optimization of Satellite Orbits for Interplanetary Flight" (presented to ARS 8th Annual Meeting, 2-4 Dec 1953; published as "A New Supply System for Satellite Orbits", -- Jet Propulsion -- 24, No.5 (Sep-Oct 1954) : 302-309 and No.6 (Nov-Dec 1954) : 369-373)

"Analysis of Orbital Systems" (1st edition, Feb 1954)

"Analysis of Orbital Systems" (2nd edition; presented to IAF 5th International Astronautical Congress, 5-7 Aug 1954)

"Analysis of Transportation Systems Flight Performance" (1970)

"Anthropology of Astronautics (The)" ( -- Astronautics -- 2 no.4 (Nov 1957) : 26-29, 65-68; reprinted in -- Astronautics and the Future -- )

Apollo 11 Flight [5th] Anniversary "Town Hall Talk" (circa 1974)

"Apollo and the Future" (delivered to Industrial Management Club of Reading and Berks County, Reading, PA, 25 Mar 1971)

Ascent and Descent of Rocket Vehicles -- (Convair report AZP-071; no date)

"Ascent of Orbital Vehicles" (published in -- Astronautica Acta -- 2 fasc.4 (1956))

"Aspects Concerning the Impact of Manned Heliocentric Mission on Space Station and Space Shuttle" (NR report PD70-5; Jan 1970)

"Aspects of Deep Space Probes Requiring Cryogenic Engineering Solutions" (University of California, Engineering X428GHI, Lecture 14, 14-17 May 1962)

"Astro-ecology and the Human Environment" (no date)

"Astrogenic Environments – The Effect of Stellar Spectral Classes in the Evolutionary Pace of Life" ( -- Space Flight -- 14 no.1 (Jan 1972); NR report SD71-716)

"Astronautical and Space-Medical Research with Automatic Satellites" (presented to the Franklin Institute; Jun 1956)

"Astronautical Vehicles" (no date)

"Astronautical Vehicles" ( -- Colliers Encyclopedia Year Book -- , 1960)

"Astronautics" (San Diego State College course, Physics 131, Fall Semester 1960)

"Astropolis and Androcell / Thermonuclear Power Generation Satellite / Lunar Productivity Center" (extracts from papers and testimony, 1972-1975; SG reprint SG578-1R, May 1978)

"Astropolis and Androcell – The Pyschology and Technology of Space Utilization and Extraterrestrialization" (presented to Session 2, International Space Hall of Fame Dedication Conference, 3-9 Oct 1976)

"Astropolis: The First Space Resort" ( -- Playboy -- , Nov 1968 : 96-98, 222)

"Atlas Family of Spacecraft & Preliminary Data on 990000 and 2x106 lb 3-Stage System with O -- 2 -- /H -- 2 -- Second and Third Stage" (30 Sep 1958)

Atmosphere Braking Entry and Associated Technologies -- (NR report X6-624/3061, 1968)

"Aufstieg und Abstieg von Raketengeraten" (published as Chapter 8 of -- Handbuch der Astronautik -- (Karl Schütte and Hans K. Kaiser, eds; Akademische Verlaggesellschaft Athenaion, 1958), pp.235-254; also Convair report AZP-071, circa 1958)

"Ausbeutung des Roten Planeten" (with unidentified "German author", circa Oct 1975)

"Ballistic Ascent to Satellite Orbits" (no date)

Beyond Earth: The Story of Astronautics -- (with Betty A. Miller, 1970 [not published])

"Beyond the First Space Stations" (Jan 1971; presented to Alabama AIAA Meeting, 20 Jan 1971)

"Blaue Planet hat doch eine Zukunft (Der)" ( -- Die Welt -- , 29 Jun 1974)

"Brief Outline of Steps for Commercial Development of Solar Power Systems on Earth and Power Transmission Through Space" (no date)

"Brief Study of the Application of Three Nerva Engine Models to Comparatively Modern Manned Interplanetary Missions Such as Capture in an Elliptic Orbit around Venus in 1975 and Return to Earth" (with B. Brown, B. Oman, and W. Strobl; GDA report GDA 63-1223, 20 Nov 1963)

Будущее Космической Индустрии (Москва: Машиностроение, 1979) [ -- The Future of Space Industry -- (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979)]

"Buck Stops Here (The)" (Viewpoint column; -- Fusion -- , Sep 1981)

"Busy World of Outer Space (The)" ( -- Discovery -- ; ABC TV, aired 28 Jan 1968; includes Ehricke interview)

"Calculations on a Manned Nuclear Propelled Space Vehicle" (ARS paper 532-57; presented at ARS 12th Annual Meeting, 2-5 Dec 1957)

"Case for Space (A)" (presented to the Citizen's Campaign for Space, Sponsored by The Center of American Living Inc, New York City, NY, 17-18 Feb 1970; NR report SD70-65; Feb 1970)

"Case for Space" [II] (presented to unidentified meeting, 27 Jun 1970; also to California State Polytechnical College, Aerospace Education Workshop, 14 Jul 1970)

"Case for the Space Station (The)" (circa Feb 1970)

CBS News Interview (Krafft Ehricke/Walter Cronkite, Sep 1966)

"Changing Role of Technology (The) – Yesterday Today and Tomorrow" (presented to 8th Space Congress, 19-23 Apr 1971; NR SD71-536)

"Circular Satellite Orbits" (no date)

"Cislunar Operations" (ARS paper 467-57; presented at ARS Semi-Annual Meeting, 10-13 Jun 1957)

Cislunar Orbits -- (Convair report AZP-004, 30 Mar 1957)

"Comments on Space Station Paper by R Gilruth" (presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968; response to Robert R. Gilruth, "Manned Space Stations - Gateway to Our Future in Space," presented at the Orbital Laboratory Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics, 18 Oct 1968)

"Comments on the Question of the Usefulness of the Scramjet to Boost and Reentry Vehicle Program" (no date)

"Communications and the New Life Style" (address to Public Broadcasting System Annual Meeting, 1972)

Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Systems: Solar-Heating, Arc Thermo-dynamics and Arc Magneto Hydrodynamics -- (Convair report AZK-002, 1 Dec 1957)

"Comparison of One-Way Transfers and the Effect of Specific Impulse I -- sp -- and Mass Fraction x on Gross Payload Fraction" (no date)

"Comparison of Propellants and Working Fluids for Rocket Propulsion (A)" (Sep 1952; published in -- Journal of ARS -- 23, no.5 (Sep/Oct 1953))

"Comparison of Rocket Propulsion at Constant Thrust and Constant Acceleration (A)" (Jun 1951; published in -- Rocket Science -- 5, no.3 (Sep 1951))

"Computation of Number of Binary Bits of Information for Venus Radar Mapping" (no date)

"Concept of Shuttle Stations and Their Functions in Geolunar Space Utilization (The)" (NR report PD70-4, 15 Jan 1970, revised Jan 1970)

"Contributions of Space Reflection Technology to Food Production, Local Weather Manipulation and Energy Supply, 1985-2020" (presented to 17th European Space Symposium, 4-6 Jun 1980; published in -- JBIS Space Technology -- 34 no.12, Dec 1981))

"Cost Reductions in Energy Supply through Space Operations" (IAF paper IAF-A-76-25; presented to the Sixth International Cost Reduction in Space Operations Symposium II, session 34 of the IAF 27th International Astronautical Congress, 10-16 Oct 1976)

"Cost Reductions in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit" (presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972, 5th Lunar International Laboratory Symposium; NR report SD72 SA-0174, Sep 1972; published as "Cost Reduction in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit in a Swing Station"" ( -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 17 no.3 (May/June 1973) : 126-135)

"Cost Reductions in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit in a Swing Station" (Raumfahrtforschung 17 no.3 (May/June 1973) : 126-135; NR report SD72-SA-0174, Sep 1972; presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972, 5th Lunar International Laboratory Symposium as "Cost Reduction in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit")

Delta -- (California Museum of Science and Industry, TV Pilot, Jun 1974; Ehricke included in on-screen interview)

"Destination Mankind – Proposal for a Saturn V-Apollo Mission into Geosynchronous Orbit" (19 May 1972)

Development of a Basic Planetary Transportation System Model, Interim Report -- (GDA report, circa 1964)

"Development of Large Earth Orbital Space Station" (presented to IAF 21st Interntional Astronautical Congress, 4-10 Oct 1970; NR report SD 70-641, Nov 1970)

Early Manned Interplanetary Missions, Intermediate Report No. 1 – Missions and Operations Studies -- (GDA report AOK 62-0001, 30 Jul 1962)

"Earth Environment and Resources Management from Space" (presented to IAF 22nd International Astronautical Congress, 20-24 Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-734, Sep 1971)

Earth's Seventh Continent – Industrialization and Settling of the Moon -- (in preparation for publication, 1984)

"Earth-Moon Transportation" (presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-338)

"Earth-Space Meta-Environment and the Future of Man 1970-2070" (presented to ISF 1971 Conference on International Science Policy with the International Meta-University, Sep 1971)

"Economy of Large Launch Vehicles including Labor Costs" ( -- Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets -- 1, no.6 (Nov 1964) : 611-619; originally presented as part of "Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Launch Vehicle"; AIAA Summer Meeting, paper 63-277, 17-20 Jun 1963; originally titled "Economy of Saturn V and Post-Saturn Vehicles with Consideration of Orbital Labor Cost")

"Economy of Saturn V and Post-Saturn Vehicles with Consideration of Orbital Labor Cost" (originally presented as part of "Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Launch Vehicle"; AIAA Summer Meeting, paper 63-277, 17-20 Jun 1963; published as "Economy of Large Launch Vehicles including Labor Costs", -- Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets -- 1, no.6 (Nov 1964) : 611-619)

Effective Initial Contributions of a Manned Space Station -- (report KAE-11, 6 Nov 1970)

"Electric Propulsion Systems Model" (no date)

"Electromagnetic Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technolog -- y, vol. 4 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Elements of Rocket Science -- (unpublished textbook, no date)

"ELV Comparison and Evaluation Methodology" (Summer 1963)

EMPIRE Follow-On Final Report -- , Vol. I – -- Condensed Summary Report -- (GDA report AOK 64-006, 1 Jan 1964)

EMPIRE Follow-On Final -- [Third] -- Presentation -- (GDA report AOK 64-002, 28 Jan 1964)

EMPIRE Follow-On – Parametric Mission Analysis -- (GDA report AOK 63-024, 30 Aug 1963)

"Energy and the Shuttle Compatible Space Energy Test (SET) Facility Briefing, September 25, 1974"

"Engineering and Space Operations" (presented to Space Station Utilization Conference, NASA/Ames Research Center; 9-10 Sep 1970)

"Engineering Problems of Manned Space Flight" (presented to USC Symposium on the 75th anniversary of the University and 59th Anniversary of the Engineering Dept, Apr 1955)

"Engineering the Reality of Lunar Industrialization" (presented to CSU Northridge School of Engineering and Computer Science Colloqium, 24 Feb 1983)

"Erde und Raum als Integrale Aktionsumwelt des Menschen" (no date)

Error Analysis of Keplerian Flights Involving a Single Central Force Field and Transfer Between Two Central Force Fields Spacecraft Orbits -- (Convair report AZM-7-551; 17 Jan 1958)

"Error Analysis of Single and Two-Force Field Spacecraft Orbits" (Ehricke; presented to Franklin Institute Lecture Series on Space Flight, Mar 1958; Convair report AZM-054, 22 Sep 1958)

"Evolution of Interstellar Operations" (presented to AAS Joint National Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 17-20 Jun 1969; NR report SD69-420, Jun 1969)

"Evolution of Space Flight" (no date)

Evolution of the Space Ship -- (not published)

"Ex Mens[is] – 1: On the Integrated Plan" (15 Feb 1970)

"Ex Mens[is] – 2: Perspective" (no date)

Excerpts of Chapter 7 "Low Thrust Space Flight" of -- Space Flight, Vol. II "Dynamics" -- (Convair report KE62/1, no date)

Exoindustrial Productivity – The Extraterrestrial Imperative of Our Time -- (report E75-5-1, May 1975)

"Exoindustrialization as a System" (no date)

Exoindustry: A Macro-System Analysis -- (report E76-1-1, Jan 1976)

Exploration of the Solar System -- (with Betty A. Miller; published as -- Exploring the Planets -- (Learning Corp, 1969))

"Exploration of the Solar System and Interstellar Space" (presented to 2nd International Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, NY Academy of Science, 26-27 Oct 1967; NR report X7-3215/060)

Exploration of the Solar System and Interstellar Space -- (with Elizabeth A. Miller, 1971 [not published])

Exploring the Planets -- (with Betty A. Miller; (Learning Corp, 1969); originally titled -- Exploration of the Solar System -- )

"Extraterrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" (published as "Space Dumping – Extra-terrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" in -- The Environment This Month -- 1 no.1 (Jul 1972) : 36-45)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative" (published as "The Extraterrestrial Imperative – Grow and Live", NY -- Times -- , 23 May 1972)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) -- (with Elizabeth A. Miller, 1971 (first version), not published)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) -- (with Elizabeth Miller, 1974 (second version), not published)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part I – Evolutionary Logic -- (SG report SG1078-1, Oct 1978)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part II – Productive Earth Orbits – New Partnership Through Pressures and Promise" ( -- JBIS -- 32 no.11 (November 1979) : 410-418)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part III – New Earth-Space Energy Metabolism, I – Energy Demand Model, Near-Term Space Assist, Space Disposal of Nuclear Waste" ( -- JBIS -- 33 no.11 (November 1983) : 379-390; SG report SG779-1, Jul 1979)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part IV – Evolution II -- (SG report SG-OW-9ET-4-182, Jan 1982)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Air University Review -- 29 no.2 (Jan-Feb 1978) : 2-20)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Futures -- 13 no.2 (Apr 1981) : 107-114; originally titled "The Extraterrestrial Imperative – Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy")

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists -- 27 no.9 (Nov 1971) : 18-26; reprinted in -- New Worlds -- 2 no.2 (Feb 1972) : 12-23)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Evolutionary Logic and Realistic Promise" (SG report SG678-1; submitted to -- Smithsonian -- , circa 1978)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy" (published as "The Extraterrestrial Imperative", -- Futures -- 13 no.2 (Apr 1981) : 107-114)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Grow and Live" (NY -- Times -- , 23 Mar 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative – Road Into the Future" (presented to SYNCON '72, 17-21 May 1972; NR report SD72 SA-0120, Jun 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – The Logic of Social and Realistic Promise" (CSU Northridge extension course SOC X496G/X896G, 30 Jan-14 May 1980)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The): Why Mankind Must Colonize Space" ( -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 5 no.6 (Dec 1982) : 18-24)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative and Lunar Development" (originally presented to NASA Symposium, Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 29-31 Oct 1984 as "Lunar Industrialization and Settlement – Birth of Polyglobal Civilization")

"Extraterrestrial Imperatives" (presented to Future Oriented Activities in the United Nations, 30 Nov 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Industry – A Challenge to Growth Limitation" (Jun 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Industry – A Challenge to Growth Limitation" (presented to The Conference Board, The Essential Resources Conference, 16 Apr 1973; NR report SD 73-SH-0134, Apr 1973)

"Extraterrestrial Nuclear Mining" (no date)

"Fast Flight Profiles for Manned Helionautical Missions" (presented to 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space, 24-27 Jun 1968, San Antonio, TX))

"Flight Profiles and Navigation of Interorbital Transports in Geolunar Space" (presented to ION National Space Meeting, 23-25 Feb 1971; NR report SD71-475, Mar 1971)

"For a Synergistic Space Program – Excerpts from Material Presented to the Advanced Aerospace Projects Office, NASA Langley Research Center, on July 16, 1970" (16 Jul 1970)

Forward to -- Into the Unknown -- (Don Dwiggins; San Carlos (CA): Golden Gate Junior Books, 1971)

Foundations of Interplanetary Flight -- (unpublished textbook, no date)

"Four Objectives – The Fundamental Principles of Our Commitment to Space" (5 Jul 1970; published as "Our Commitment to Space", -- Spaceflight -- 13 no.3 (Mar 1971) : 82)

"From Closed to Open World" (presented to NASA Study Group on "Outlook for Space", 23-24 Oct 1974)

From Dust to Stars: The Evolution of Space Flight -- (with Elizabeth Miller and J. Sentovic, 1967)

"Further Analyses of the Slide Lander and of Drop Delivery Systems for Improved Lunar Surface Access" (IAF paper IAA-82-216; presented IAF 33rd International Astronautical Congress, 12th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits: Socio-Economics Benefits of Space Operations, 27 Sep-3 Oct 1982)

"Further Comments on the Power Relay Satellite Concept" (Jan 1974)

"Future in Space" (presented to Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL, 18 May 1972)

Future of Space Industry (The) -- (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979) [Будущее Космической Индустрии (Москва: Машиностроение, 1979)]

"Geolunar Industrial Transportation for Low Propellant Expenditure with New Energy Management Concepts for Lunar Access, Part I" (IAF paper 79-120, presented to IAF 30th International Astronautical Congress 16-22 Sep 1979; SG report SG779-1, Jul 1979)

Geospace Development – Presentation to C. W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC -- (NR report PD70-24; Mar 1970)

"Good Heavens, Santa!" (television script with Leon Leonidoff and Elizabeth A. Miller, 20 Jul 1978)

"Government, Industry and Research Responses to Space Exploration" (presented to ARDC 7th Annual Science and Engineering Symposium, 29-30 Nov 1960)

Guidance and Navigation Approach to Lifting Reentry Vehicle Missions -- (NA report T6-2580/060, Oct 1966)

"Habeus Extraterrestrium – Kultur und Technik im gesetz Jenseits der Erde" (no date)

Hard and Soft Power Relay Satellite Systems – Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Over Great Distances -- (SG reprint SG879-2R, Aug 1979; reprint of -- Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Systems Using a Power Relay Satellite (PRS) -- ; report E74-12-1, Dec 1974)

"Harenodynamic Cooling: The Use of Lunar Sand as a Cooling Medium" (published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 11 no.6 (Jun 1984) : 319-325)

"Helionautics in the Year 2000" (no date)

Helionauts (The) -- (proposed TV series, circa 1966; also titled -- The Infinauts -- )

"Heritage of Apollo – Presentation to the Town Hall of California (The)" (report E74-7-1, 16 Jul 1974)

"How Do We Get There From Here?" (presented to Los Angeles Council of Engineers and Scientists [LACES], 3 Apr 1975)

"I Can Get Us There by 1966" ( -- Space World -- 1 no.2 (Jul 1960) : 16-19, 48-49)

"Identification of Manned Space Activities Beyond Apollo at Modest Orbital Work, Attractive to Scientific Community" (n.d)

"In-Depth Exploration of the Solar System and Its Utilization for the Benefit of Earth" (presented to 3rd Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, New York Academy of Sciences, 28-29 Oct 1970; NR report SD 71-290, Jan 1971)

"Industrial Productivity as a New Overarching Goal of Space Development" (Oct 1975)

"Industrialisierung des Mondes (Die) – Der erste Schritt in eine Neue Offene Welt" ( -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 3 no.2 (Mar 1982) : 38-51 and -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 3 no.3 (May 1982) : 40-50)

"Industrialization of Space" (presented to the Wisconsin American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Milwaukee, WI, 28 Apr 1978)

"Industrializing the Moon – The First Step into a New Open World" ( -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 5 no.2 (Dec 1981) : 21-31 and -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 6 no.1 (May-Jun 1984) : 46-55)

"Industrielle Evolution und Revolution im Geolunaren Raum 1980-2010" (presented to 21 Raumfahrt-tagung der HOG, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 28 Sep-1 Oct 1972; NR report SD72-0173, Sep 1972)

Infinauts (The) -- (proposed TV series, circa 1966; originally titled -- The Helionauts -- )

"Instrumented Comets – Astroanutics of Solar and Planetary Probes" (ARS paper 493-57; presented to IAF 8th International Astronautical Congress, 6-12 Oct 1957)

Integrated Geolunar Transportation and Occupation System Using Space Station Modules in Highly Eccentric Orbits -- (report KAE-4, 18 Nov 1969)

"Interplanetary Maneuvers in Manned Helionautical Missions" (AIAA paper 65-695; presented to the AIAA/ION Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, 16-17 Sep 1965; reprinted in -- Progress in Astronautics -- , Vol. 17, -- Methods in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics -- (NY: Academic Press, 1966))

Interplanetary Mission Profiles -- (GDC report AZM-023, 30 Apr 1958)

Interplanetary Mission Profiles – Pt. II -- (report KE60/2, 1 Dec 1960; published as part of -- Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- )

"Interplanetary Probes: Three Problems" ( -- Astronautics -- , Jan 1959 : 20-22, 42, 44, 46)

"Ion Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 7 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Ion Propulsion System for Orbital Stabilization of Satellites, Especially of Several Satellites in Closely Similar Orbits (Pt. 1) -- (Convair report ASM-2, 13 Sep 1957)

Kraftsoletta – Eine Industrie-Sonne für Europa -- (SG report SG1177-1, Nov 1977)

"Künstliche Kometen – Eine Analyse der Enforschüng der Interplanetaren Raums mit hyperbolischen Sonden" (no date)

"Large Scale Processing of Lunar Material" (presented to LSI 7th Lunar Science Conference "Utilization of Lunar Materials and Expertise for Large Scale Operations in Space", 15-19 Mar 1976; report E76-3-1, Mar 1976)

Light and Shadow Distribution in a Circular Satellite Orbit with and without Precession -- (Convair report ZP-7-019; 3 Nov 1953)

"Long-Range Perspective and Some Fundamental Aspects of Interstellar Evolution (A)" (Apr 1975; published in -- JBIS -- 28, no.11 (Nov 1975); report E75-6-1, Jun 1975)

"Low Cost Commercial Space Traffic Operations and the Swing Station" (presented to IAF 24th International Astronautical Congress, 7-13 Oct 1973; report E73-10-2, Oct 1973; published in -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 18 no.4 (Jul/Aug 1974) : 173-182)

"Lunar Atmospheric Research by Lunar Satellite and the Landing of Lunar Probes Within Pressurized Structures" (circa 1960)

"Lunar Bases – Complexes for Exploration and Colonization of the Moon" (with Betty Ann Miller, pp.1380-1391 of unidentified publication)

"Lunar Industrialization and Settlement – Birth of Polyglobal Civilization" (presented to NASA Symposium, Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 29-31 Oct 1984; later retitled "Extraterrestrial Imperative and Lunar Development")

"Lunar Industries and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" (presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972; NR report SD72-SA-0176, Sep 1972; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 1 no. 5 (May 1974): 585-622)

"Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" ( -- Acta Astronautica -- 1, no.5-6 (May-Jun 1974) : 585-622; originally titled "Permanent Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth")

"Lunetta System Analysis" (IAF paper 80-A-11: presented at IAF 31st International Astronautic Congress, Symposium on Space and Engery; possibly SG report SG-OW-21-182)

"Magnetogas Dynamics" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 8 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Magnificent Heritage – Missions to New Worlds and the New Solar System (The) -- (documentary; with Elizabeth Miller, Jul 1970)

"Man Can Use Interstellar Space" (Los Angeles -- Times -- , 28 Jun 1972)

"Man, Resources and Planets" (presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress, 13-19 Oct 1968; NR report X8-2233/060)

"Maneuvers and Navigation in Manned Helionautics" (presented to ION National Space Meeting, 23-25 Feb 1971; NR report SD 71-474, Mar 1971)

"Manned Orbital and Lunar Space Vehicles" (presented to 2nd International Symposium on the Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, 10-12 Nov 1958; Convair report AZM-059, 25 Nov 1958; reprinted in Southwest Research Institute, -- The Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space -- (John Wiley, 1960))

"Manned Planetary Spacecraft Commonality with Space Station" (with A. L. Jones; presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-342, Jun 1970)

Manned Space Service Program -- (report KAE-16, Nov 1968)

"Manned Spaceflight in the Seventies, Part I – Alternatives for Manned Spaceflight in the Seventies" (Jan 1971)

"Manned Versus Unmanned Spaceflight" (Oct 1968)

"Material on Space Industrialization Presented to J. T. Murphy, NASA-MSFC, 31 Aug 1976"

"Mehr Mut, die Brücke in eine große Zukunft zu betreten" ( -- Die Welt -- no.304, 31 Dec 1982)

"Mensch, Umwelt, Technik und wachstum – Dem 'Klub von Rom' zum Zehnten ins Stammbuch" (no date)

"Metaprobe – A Concept for Regional Exploration of the Solar System and a Means to Develop International Teamwork in Space Research" (presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress (Oct 13-19, 1968). NR report X-2209/060; originally presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968 as "Metaprobe – A Tool for the Synoptic Exploration of Space", NR report X-2291/060)

"Metaprobe – A Tool for the Synoptic Exploration of Space" (presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968; NR report X-2291/060; also presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress (Oct 13-19, 1968) as "Metaprobe – A Concept for Regional Exploration of the Solar System and a Means to Develop International Teamwork in Space Research" (NR report X-2209/060))

"Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System (A)" (published as "Saturn-Jupiter Rebound – A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System", -- JBIS -- 25 no.10 (Oct 1972) : 561-571)

"Method of Using Small Orbital Carriers for Establishing Satellites" (ARS paper 69-52, Dec 1952)

Methodology of Mission and Systems Synthesis of Manned Planetary Flights with Particular Emphasis on Venus and Mars as Target Planets -- (GD report AOK-63-019, 1 Jul 1963)

"Methods of Minimizing Shuttle-Based High- and Low-Thrust Transportation Costs to Geosynchronous Orbit" (IAF paper A74-03; presented to IAF 25th International Astronautical Congress, 30 Sep-5 Oct 1974)

"Mission Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars" (presented to Interplanetary Mission Conference, AAS 9th Meeting, 15-17 Jan 1963)

Mission Map Parameters: Hyperbolic Excess Velocity, Inclination, Path Angle, Perihelion Distance, and Tranfer Angle, Vol. II – Earth-Mars-Earth 1972-1985 -- (GD report AOK63-0005, 20 Jan 1963)

"Missions Between Planets and to Selected Asteroids of this Solar System, Covering the Period of 1973 to 2000" (presented to AIAA National Meeting, Washington, DC, 28 Jun-2 Jul 1964)

"Morphological Analysis and Comparison of Nuclear Pulse Drive Mechanization Concepts" (presented to AIAA 5th Joint Propulsion Specialist Conference, 9-13 Jun 1969)

"New Cosmos and Homo Extraterrestris (The)" (delivered to AIAA Symposium: "Our Extraterrestrial Heritage – from UFOs to Space Colonies", 28 Jan 1978)

"New Growth in an Open World at the Threshold of the First Cosmopolitan Millenium – Collected Works of K. A. Ehricke, 1939 through 1980" (introduction to SG "OpenWorld" document series)

"New Growth in an Open World: Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy" (IAF paper IAA-81-234, Aug 1981; presented to IAF 32rd International Astronautical Congress, 11th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits II, 6-12 Sep 1981)

"New Supply System for Satellite Orbits (A) – Part 1" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24 No.5 (Sep-Oct 1954) : 302-309)

"New Supply System for Satellite Orbits (A) – Part 2" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24 No.6 (Nov-Dec 1954) : 369-373)

"Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Earth Launch Vehicle (with Freeman D'Vincent; presented at AIAA Summer Meeting, 17-20 Jun 1963; GDA report 63-0065; AIAA paper 63-277)

"Nexus Concept (The)" (with Freeman D'Vincent; -- Astronautics and Aerospace -- 2 no.1 (Jan 1964))

Non-relativistic Interstellar Mission Performance Analysis to Alpha Centauri -- (report KAE-19, circa 1971)

"Notwendigkeit der Weltraumfahrt (Die) – Der Extraterrestrischel Imperativ" (published in -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 4 no.4 (Fall 1983) : 29-41)

"Offene Neue Welt" (no date)

Omni -- Interview ( -- Omni -- 3 no.12 (Sep 1981) : 87-91, 124)

"On Bounding the Problem of Growth" (17 Jul 1972)

"On the Application of Solar Power in Space Flight" (presented to IAF 7th International Astronautical Congress, 17-22 Sep 1956)

"On the Commercial Satellite Project" (no date)

"On the Descent of Winged Orbital Vehicles" ( -- Astronautica Acta -- 1, fasc.3 (1955))

"On the Mechanics of Descent to a Celestial Body" (presented to ARS Annual Meeting, Dec 1954; -- Journal of Astronautics -- 2 no.4 (Winter 1955) : 137-144)

"On the Need for New Launch Vehicles" (session paper for "Do We Need New Propulsion Systems (Post Saturn) for Lunar and Planetary Flight?", panel for AIAA Annual Meeting, 29 Nov-2 Dec 1966 (chaired by Ehricke); NA report X7-158/060)

"On Space Dynamics at Moderately Low Accelerations" (no date)

"Ӧppen värld med obegränsad tillväxt (En)" ( -- Energi and Utveckling -- , no date, 50-58)

"Orbit Change at Moderate Infra G Acceleration" (no date)

"Our Commitment to Space" ( -- Spaceflight -- 13 no.3 (Mar 1971) : 82; originally titled "Four Objectives – The Fundamental Principles of Our Commitment to Space" (5 Jul 1970))

"Our Philosophy of Space Missions", ( -- Aero/Space Engineering -- 17 no.5 (May 1958) : 38-43; originally titled "Philosophy of Our Space Mission")

"Out There ... Why Not?" (no date)

"Outer Atmosphere Research Program" (Jan 1954)

"Outlook for Space 1980-2000" (6 Sep 1974)

"Outlook for Space, Economy of Infinity aned Economy of Durability" (extract from -- Extraterrestrial Industy - A Challenge to Growth Limitations -- , Proceedings of the Essential Resources Conference, The Conference Board)

Parametric Mission Analysis -- (GDA report AOK 63-024, 30 Aug 1963)

"Passive Power Relay Satellite (The) – Concept and Appraisal of Extraterrestrial Means to Contribute to Overcoming the Energy Confrontation" (circa 1974)

"Passive Power Relay Satellites for Global Energy Distribution" (presented to 10th Annual Space Congress, 11-13 Apr 1973; RI report SD73-SA-0016, Feb 1973)

"Peenemünde: The Coming of the Future" (CSULB-Nova; Ehricke interviewed for program; possibly aired as "Hitler's Secret Weapon", -- NOVA -- , 5 Jan 77)

"Peenemuende Rocket Center" (3 Jan 1950)

"Permanent Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" (published as "Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth"; -- Acta Astronautica -- 1 no.5-6 (May-Jun 1974) : 585-622)

"Perspective and Systems Engineering of Manned Planetary Flight" (presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-339, Jun 1970)

"Pesticides, Fungicides, Oxides of Nitrogen = Recognized Environmental Hazards" (no date)

Philosophy and Outline of Long-Range Space Planning for the Needs of This Nation and Mankind -- (NR report PD71-16; Jul 1971)

"Philosophy of Our Space Mission" (published as "Our Philosophy of Space Missions", -- Aero/Space Engineering -- 17 no.5 (May 1958) : 38-43)

"Planning Space Stations for Long Range Utilization" (presented to Short Course in Space Station Utilization, University of Tennessee, Tullahoma, Mar 1971; NR report SD 71-473, Mar 1971)

"Planning Space Stations for Long Range Utilization of Space for Earthians" (presented to von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Brussels, during the Short Course on Space Station Technology and Utilization, Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-562, Sep 1971)

Pollution of the Future (The) -- (SG report SG879-1, Aug 1978)

Post-Nova Launch Vehicles, Intermediate Report No.1, Advanced Concepts, Extraterrestrial Operation Models and Launch Vehicle Requirements -- (GDA report AOK62-0005, 5 Sep 1962)

Post-Nova Launch Vehicles, Intermediate Report No.2, Extraterrestrial Options, Concept Selections and Schedule (GDA report AOK62-0012, 13 Nov 1962)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Distribution of Electricity from Large Remotely Located Energy Factories Processing Solar, Nuclear or Other Sources of Primary Energy -- (report E74-11-1, Nov 1974)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Energy Transmission Through Space, Part I: Technology, Operation, Performance and Economics of the Power Relay System -- (report E74-3-1, Mar 1973)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Energy Transmission Through Space, Part II: The Power Relay Satellite Concept in the Framework of the Overall Energy Picture and Complete Terrestrial Energy Systems -- (report E74-6-1, Jun 1974)

"Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of World Electrification through Space Transmission" (Aug 1973; presented to IAF 24th International Astronautical Congress, Symposium on Cost Reduction in Space Operations, 7-13 Oct 1973)

"Power Relay Satellite (The) – Problem Areas" (circa Jan 1974)

Power Relay Satellite (PRS) Concept in the Framework of the Overall Energy Picture (The) -- (report E73-12-1, Dec 1973)

"Powered Ascension Path of Satellite Vehicles" (no date)

"Powered Flight Without Atmosphere" (published as Chapter 6.1 of -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961); Convair report AE61-0199, 19 Mar 1961)

"Powered Flyby" (no date)

"Practical Approach to the Disposal of Highly Toxic and Long-Lived Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Between Venus and Earth (A)" (presented to 10th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits II: Socio-Economic Benefits of Space Operations, 31st International Astronautical Congress, 22-27 Sep 1980; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 10 no.11 (Nov 1983))

"Producing Advanced Fusion Fuel on the Moon" ( -- Fusion -- (English language ed.), Sep 1982)

"Profitability of Manufacturing in Space in View of Lunar Industrial Development and Geo-Socio-Economic Benefit" (presented to ASME Winter Meeting – Manufacturing in Space, Boston 17-18 Nov 1983; published in L. Kops, Ed. -- Manufacturing in Space -- [PED Vol.11] (NY: ASME, 1983), pp.183-198)

Programmatic Comparison of Initial Manned Missions to Venus and Mars (A) -- (GDA report AOK 63-031, 16 Oct 1963)

"Project Orbital Carrier" (1st edition, May 1952)

"Project Orbital Carrier" (2nd edition, Aug 1952)

"Propellant for Booster of a Two-Stage Missile" (PGAF Memorandum #3, 1 Feb 1949)

"Propulsion System for Fast Manned Reconnaissance Flights to Mars and Venus" (presented to IAS National Flight Propulsion Meeting, 6 Mar 1959; Convair report AZM-068)

"Propulsion Systems Comparison and Evaluations for Space Missions" (published as Chapter 18 of -- Jet, Rocket, Nuclear, Ion, and Electric Propulsion – Theory and Design -- , W. H. T. Loh, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1968); NA report X7-626/060, Mar 1967)

"Raumfahrtsziele und Weltraumtechnik von Morgen" (presented at Industry Fair, Hannover, 26-27 Apr 1971; published in -- Astronautik -- 8 no.3/4 (Aug-Dec 1971) : 95-109; -- Technische Möglichkeiten von Morgen III -- (Düsseldorf and Vienna: Econ Verlag, 1971); -- Junkers Nachrichten -- 14 no.2 (Mar-Apr 1972) : 3-5; no.3 (May-Jun 1972) : 5-7; no.4 (Jul-Aug 1972) : 4-6; no.5 (Sep-Oct 1972) : 4-6; no.6 (Nov-Dec 1972) : 4-6)

Re-entry Characteristics of Recoverable Spherical Satellites, Satelloids and Lunar Vehicles -- (Convair report AZP 001, 25 Jun 1957)

"Re-entry of Spherical Bodies Into the Atmosphere at Very High Speeds" (presented to ARS 12th Annual Meeting, Dec 1957)

"Regional and Global Energy Transfer Via Passive Power Relay Satellites" (presented to 10th Annual Space Congress, 11-13 Apr 1973; RI report SD73-SH-0117, Apr 1973)

"Regional Power Distribution Via Power Relay Satellite" (presented to 1st Greater Los Angeles Area Energy Symposium, 3 Apr 1975)

"Rescue from Space by a Secondary Vehicle" (presented to 2nd International Symposium on the Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, 10-12 Nov 1958)

"Response to Questions by the Subcommittee on Energy (Congressman Mike McCormack, Chairman) and the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications (Congressman James W. Symington, Chairman) Following Testimony Before Both Subcommittees on 24 May 1973" (23 Jul 1973)

"Restricted 3-Body Systems Flight Mechanics in Cislunar Space and the Effect of Solar Perturbation" (presented to American Mathematical Society for Orbit Symposium, January 1957; Convair report AZM-013, Mar 1957)

"Review and Evaluation of Solar Central Power Stations for Use in the U.S., Mideast and Japan and Associated Solar Engineering Business Development (A)" (19 Jul 1974)

"Review of Important Aspects Concerning the Use of Power Relay Satellite for Icelandic Energy Export by Means of Beamed Microwave Transmission (A)" (no date)

Review of Future Space Applications for House Science and Astronautics Committee -- (RI report SSV74-41; 25 Sep 1974)

"Role of the Army in Space" (presented to Association of the United States Army "Rockwell Night", 24 Feb 1970)

"Safety Aspects in Planning Manned Interplanetary Missions" (submitted to AIAA 4th Annual Meeting, 1967)

"Satellite Orbits for Interplanetary Flight" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24, No. 6 (Nov-Dec 1954): 381)

"Satelliten zur irdischen Energie-Übertragung Technische und sozio-ökonomische Untersuchungen" (presented at HOG 23rd Raumfahrtkongreß, Jun 1974; published in -- Astronautik -- 12 no.2 (1975) : 19-25)

"Satelloid (The)" (presented to IAF 6th International Astronautical Congress, Copenhagen, 1-6 Aug 1955; -- Astronautica Acta -- 2 no.2 (1956) : 63-100)

"Saturn-Jupiter Rebound – A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System" (originally titled "A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System", -- JBIS -- 25 no.10 (Oct 1972) : 561-571)

"Science Policy and the Extraterrestrial Imperative" (adapted and exerpted from -- Extraterrestrial Imperative -- (1971); presented to Congressman G. P. Miller, Chairman, Committee on Science and Astroanutics, US House of Representatives, Feb 1972; later identified as report KE72-1-1, Jan 1972)

Selection of Promising Initial Planetary Missions and Mission Modes -- (GDA report ASO 63/24, 18 Sep 1963)

"Shuttle and Apollo – The Nature of their Differences" (circa 1971)

Shuttle Station as Element of Low-Cost Geospace Transportation to Geosynchronous Orbit, Interlinking with Earth-Space Shuttle -- (NR report PD70-24, Feb 1970)

"Sidereal Civilization" (no date)

Siebente Kontinent (Der) – Die Industri Alisierung und Besiedlung des Mondes -- (Müchen: Thiemig Verlag, 1984)

"Significance of Earth-To-Low-Orbit Shuttle for the Cost Effectiveness of Space Operations (The)" (presented to IAF 22nd International Astronautical Congress, 20-24 Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-780, Sep 1971; published in -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 16 no.2 (Mar/Apr 1972) : 65-77)

"Social Relevance" ( -- Skyline -- 30 no.2 (1972) : 50-55)

"Socio-Economic Determinants of a Program for Lunar Industrialization In Support of Space Light Development Lunetta and Soletta" (IAF paper IAF-A-77-66; presented to the Seventh Symposium on Cost Effectiveness in Space Operations, at the IAF 28th International Astronautical Congress, 25 Sep-1 Oct 1977)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – I. Principles and Overall System Strategy" (IAF paper 78-A-40; presented to the Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits, IAF 29th International Astronautical Congress, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 1-8 Oct 1978; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 8 no.11-12 (Nov-Dec 1981) : 1389-1433; SG report SG778-1, Jul 1978)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – II. Energy for the Selenosphere" (IAF paper 79-A-16, presented to IAF 30th International Astronautical Congress, Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits); published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 8 no.11-12 (Nov-Dec 1981) : 1407-1433; SG report SG779-3, Jul 1979)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – III. Selenospheric Economics and Cislunar/Terrestrial Market Analysis" (IAF paper IAA-82-235; presented IAF 33rd International Astronautical Congress, 27 Sep-3 Oct 1982,12th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits: Socio-Economics Benefits of Space Operations; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 11 no.2 (Feb 1984)

"Solar Energy" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Solar Option (The) – A Study -- (report E74-4-1, Apr 1974)

"Solar Power from Space" (circa 1973)

"Solar Power Module Concept and Data Summary" (no date)

"Solar Powered Space Ship (The)" (ARS paper 310-56; presented to ARS Semi-Annual Meeting, 18-20 Jun 1956

"Solar Transportation" (presented to AAS 4th Goddard Memorial Symposium, 15-16 Mar 1966; NA report X6 661/3061, Mar 1966 rev. May 1996)

"Some Basic Aspects of Operation in Cislunar and Lunar Space" (no date)

"Space" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space – 1980" (circa 1970)

"Space and a World Society Under Law" (no date)

"Space and Energy Sources" (presented to the World Electrotechnical Congress, Moscow, USSR, June 21-25, 1977; RI report, May 1977)

"Space and Human Dividends" (no date)

"Space Applications for Earth-to-Low-Orbit Shuttle Vehicles" (presented as the University of Tennessee, Tullahoma Short Course in Reusable Launch and Re-Entry Vehicles for Space Flight, Oct 1970; and Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Lecture Series in the Technology of Space Shuttle Vehicles, Nov 1970; NR report SD70-637, Nov 1970)

"Space Applications for Low Cost Ferry Vehicles" (presented at the Space Institute of the University of Tennessee Tullahoma Short Course in Reusable Launch and Re-Entry Vehicles for Space Flight Technology and Applications, 18-22 Aug 1969; NR report SD70-66, Feb 1970)

"Space Dumping – Extra-terrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" ( -- The Environment This Month -- 1 no.1 (Jul 1972) : 36-45; originally titled "Extraterrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal")

"Space Engineering" (no date)

Space Flight -- , Vol. I – -- Environment and Celestial Mechanics -- (Princeton: D Van Nostrand Co, 1960)

Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- (Princeton: D Van Nostrand Co, 1962)

Space Flight -- , Vol. III – -- Missions, Operations, Vehicles and Planning -- (not published)

"Space Industrial Productivity – New Options for the Future" (Jul 1975; presented to the Committee on Science and Technology and the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, Hearings on Future Space Flight, 22-30 Jul 1975)

"Space Industrialization – New Growth Through An Open World" (presented to AIAA 13th Annual Meeting; Jan 1977)

Space Industrialization – Statement to the Commitee on Science and Technology Hearing on Future Space Projects, US House of Representatives -- (SG report SG178-1, Jan 1978)

"Space Light: Space Industrial Enhancement of the Solar Option" (published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 6 no.12 (Dec 1979) : 1515-1633; SG report SG812-1, Feb 1981)

"Space Light – The Enhanced Solar Option" (published in -- Swann Oil Energy Digest -- 2 no.17 (24 Aug 1977); SG report SG777-1)

Space Light Illumination from Sun-Synchronous Orbits -- (SG report SG278-2, Feb 1978)

"Space Medicine" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Pilot" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Planning Methodology" (circa 1969)

Space Shuttle – The Timing is Right -- (RI report E73-4-1, Apr 1973)

"Space Shuttle and the Energy Crisis" (no date)

"Space Shuttle and the Power Crisis" (no date)

"Space Shuttle May Point the Way to Safe Disposal of Atomic Waste" (Huntsville -- Times -- , 30 Jun 1972)

"Space Station" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

Space Station Accessibility and Launch Complex Selection -- (Convair report KE-59/3, 15 Sep 1959)

Space Station Accessibility and Launch Complex Selection -- (Convair report KE-59/4, rev. 25 Feb 1960)

Space Station for Development and Orbital Flight Training -- (Convair report KE-59/2, 12 May 1959)

"Space Stations – Symbols and Tools of New Growth in an Open World" (keynote address to Session 1 (International Space Stations) of the International Space Hall of Fame Dedication Conference, 3-9 Oct 1976; RI report SD 76-SA-0200)

"Space Stations – Tools of New Growth in an Open World" (5th IAF Invited Lecture, presented to IAF 25th International Astronautical Congress, 30 Sep-5 Oct 1974; later report E74-9-1, Sep 1974)

Space Technology and Energy – Presentation to the Space Science and Applications and the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee of Science and Astronautics, US House of Representatives -- (RI report SD 73-SH-139, 24 May 1973)

Space Technology Course – "Interplanetary Operations" (UCLA course, Engineering X461, , 1958)

"Space Tourism" (AAS paper 67-127; presented to AAS 13th Annual Meeting, 1-3 May 1967)

"Space Transportation Lecture" (presented to 3rd Conference on Engineering for Executives, University of Texas; NA report BR6-802/3061, Mar 1966)

"Space Travel" -- (Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Vehicles" (published as Chapter 24.1, "Advanced Launch and Carrier Vehicle", -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961))

"Space Vehicles" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Vehicles Prototypes" (published as Chapter 24.18, "Advanced Space Vehicle Prototypes", -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961)

"Spacecraft" (presented to 3rd Jet Age Conference, 26-28 Feb 1958; Convair report AZM-020, 25 Feb 1958)

"Spacecraft Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacecraft Propulsion, Fusion Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacecraft Propulsion, Nuclear Pulse Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacelab – Model for International Teamwork" (presented to 12th Space Congress, 9-11 Apr 1975)

"Sprung In Die Unendlichkeit – Der Flug Des Pioneer Zum Jupiter" (circa 1974)

"STEPP, A Computerized System for Space Technology Evaluation and Program Planning" (no date)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke , Chief Scientific Adviser to the Space Division of Rockwell International, Before the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate" (RI report, 31 Oct 1973)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke, Scientific Advisor, North American Space Operations, Rockwell International Corporation, before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate" (RI report, 27 Jun 1974)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke , Space Division, Rockwell International, Before the Space Science and Applications and the Energy Subcommittees of the House Science and Astronautics Committee" (25 May 1973)

"Statement to Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space; Commitee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, Symposium on the Future of Space, US Senate" (SG report SG278-1, Feb 1978)

"Statement to the Committee of Science and Astronautics, House of Representatives, Congress of the United States" [1973 NASA Authorization, 92nd Congress, Second Session] (Jan 1972)

"Strategic Approach to Interplanetary Flight (A)" (presented to 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and The Exploration of Space, 24-27 Jun 1968, San Antonio, TX; NR report X8-1689/060)

"Strategic Approach to the Development of Geolunar Space (A)" (presented to IAA Orbiting International Laboratory and Space Sciences Conference, Oct 1969; NR report SD69-710, Oct 1969)

Study of Interplanetary Missions -- (GDA report, circa Jan 1964)

Study of Interplanetary Missions to Mercury through Saturn with Emphasis on Manned Missions to Venus and Mars 1973/82 Involving Capture -- (GDA report GDA 63-0916, 30 Sep 1963)

Study of Interplanetary Vehicle Assembly Modes, Part I -- ( GDA report AOK 63-029, 23 Sep 1963)

"Summary of Fundamental Rules of Space Navigation" (published as part of -- Space Flight -- Vol. II, -- Dynamics -- ; Convair report KE61/2, 22 Sep 1961)

Summary of Preliminary Data on Earth-to-Orbit Vehicles -- (Convair report KE59/1, 4 May 1959)

"Sun-Synchronous Power Generation and Space Light Systems Lunetta/Soletta" (IAF paper 76-120; presented to session 15 of the IAF 27th International Astronautical Congress, 10-16 Oct 1976)

Sun-Synchronous Power Generation Satellite System (The) -- (report E76-1-2, Jan 1976)

"Sun, Wind, and Space (Testimony Before the Senate Interior Committee)" (no date)

"Synoptic Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Systems for Maneuvering Operations Associated with Several Employment Modes in Geolunar Space" (presented to 5th Symposium on Advanced Propulsion Concepts, 8-10 Apr 1968; NR report X8-1353/060, Apr 1968)

System Analysis of a New Concept for Low-Cost Transportation Involving Geosynchronous and Lunar Space -- (report KAE-8-1, no date)

"System Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars – Part I: Mission Philosophy, Life Support, Scientific Reconnaissance and Prototype Vehicle Layout" (published in -- Transactions of the ASME – Journal of Engineering for Industry -- 83B no.1 (Feb 1961) : 1-12; Convair report AZM-072, 11 Mar 1959)

"System Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars – Part II: Storage of Liquid and Solid Hydrogen on Nuclear Powered Interplanetary Vehicles" ( -- Transactions of the ASME - Journal of Engineering for Industry -- 83B no.1 (Feb 1961) : 13-28)

System Concepts for STS Derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles, Special Emphasis Task Decsription -- (circa Apr 1975)

Systems Integration, Mission-Performance Analysis, Vehicle Comparisons -- (with B. H. Ohman; GDA report AOK62-0010, 1 Dec 1962)

Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Systems Using a Power Relay Satellite (PRS) -- (report E74-12-1, Dec 1974; reprinted as -- Hard and Soft Power Relay Satellite Systems – Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Over Great Distances -- (SG reprint SG879-2R, Aug 1979))

"Technology and Economy of Extraterrestrial Industrialization (The)" (no date)

"Toward Aviation's New Infinities" (originally titled "Air Traffic in the Coming Space Age", -- Jet Tales -- 1/81)

"Toward a 3-Dimensional Civilization" (interview; -- Skyline -- 28 no.3 (Jul 1970))

"Ultraplanetary Probe (The)" (AAS paper AAS-71-164; presented to AAS 17th Annual Meeting, 28-30 Jun 1971; NA report SD 71-542)

"Und Wieder wind die Welt gerettel" ( -- Die Welt -- 106, 7 May 1983); review of Fritjof Capra, -- Wendezeit -- (Bern/Munich: Scherz Verlag, 1983), originally published as -- The Turning Point -- (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982))

United Nations and the Power Relay Satellite as Element of Global Energy Development (The -- ) (report KE75-4-1, 5 Apr 1975)

"Use of Shuttle in Establishing Large Space Installations" (presented at American Association for the Advancement of Science 7th Annual Meeting, Dec 27-28, 1972; NR report SD 73-SA-0015, Jan 1973)

"Utilization of Space Environment for Therapeutical Purposes" (with B. D. Newsom; AAS paper 66-19; presented to AAS 12th Annual Meeting, 21-22 Feb 1966; NR report X6-1962/060, August 1966)

"Vision of Space: We Must Expand to Survive" (Don Barr interviews Ehricke; Los Angeles -- Herald Examiner -- , 9 Apr 1970)

"Wachsen in die Offene Welt" ( -- Die Welt -- no.89, 17 Apr 1982)

"Wachstum als überlebenschance des Modernen Menschen" (published as "Wie ist das eigentlich mit den Grenzen des Wachstums?", -- Geistige Welt -- 244, 18 Oct 1980)

"We Must Colonize the Planets" (Don Barr interviews Ehricke; Los Angeles -- Herald Examiner -- , 10 Apr 1970)

"Weltraum Technik als Mittel der Produktionssteigerung" (no date)

"Wie ist das eigentlich mit den Grenzen des Wachstums?" ( -- Geistige Welt -- 244, 18 Oct 1980; originally titled "Wachstum als überlebenschance des Modernen Menschen")

Wirtschaft, Weltall und Wachstum -- (with E. A. Miller, 1978)

"World Electrification through Space Transmission (WEST)" (Jan 1973)

Abbreviations

AAS -- American Astronautical Society

ABMA -- Army Ballistic Missile Agency

AFOSR -- Air Force Office of Scientific Research (USAF)

AFSC -- Air Force Systems Command (USAF)

AIAA -- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

ARS -- American Rocket Society

ASME -- American Society of Mechanical Engineers

AWST -- Aviation Week and Space Technology

CRS -- Congressional Research Service (Library of Congress)

GD -- General Dynamics

GD|FW -- General Dynamics, Fort Worth

GDA -- General Dynamics Astronautics

GDC -- General Dynamics Convair

GE -- General Electric

HOG -- Hermann Oberth Gesellschaft

IAF -- International Astronautical Federation

IAS -- Institute for Aeronautical Sciences

ION -- Institute of Navigation

JBIS -- Journal of the British Interplanetary Society

JPL -- Jet Propulsion Laboratory

LC -- Library of Congress

LLL -- Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

LSI -- Lunar Science Institute

MIT -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MSC -- Manned Spacecraft Center (NASA)

MSFC -- Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA)

NA -- North American Aviation

NAS -- National Academy of Sciences

NASA -- National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NIH -- National Institutes of Health

NR -- North American Rockwell (successor to NA)

ONERA -- Office National d'Études et de Recherches Aérospatiale (France)

ONRL -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory

PWA -- Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Corp

RI -- Rockwell International (successor to NR)

SAMSO -- Space and Missile Systems Organization (USAF)

SG -- Space Global Co

TUB -- Technische Universität Berlin

UAC -- United Aircraft Corp

UARL -- United Aircraft Research Laboratory
Provenance:
Ingeborg M. Ehricke, Gift, 2003
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Rocket engines  Search this
V-2 rocket  Search this
Interplanetary voyages  Search this
Space stations  Search this
Centaur Rocket  Search this
Launch vehicles (Astronautics)  Search this
Space scientists  Search this
Space colonies  Search this
Space industrialization  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notes
Papers, technical
Audiotapes -- Open reel
Sketches
VHS (videotape format)
Photographic prints
Illustrations
Videotapes
Articles
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Krafft A. Ehricke Papers, Accession 2003-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2003.0025
See more items in:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2003-0025
Online Media:

Records of Wedge Innovations

Interviewer:
Shayt, David H.  Search this
Creator:
Wedge Innovations  Search this
Extent:
13 Cubic feet (28 boxes, 5 oversized folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Notebooks
Oral histories (document genres)
Audiotapes
Financial records
Financial statements
Interviews
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Advertisements
Date:
1985-1996
Summary:
The records of Wedge Innovations document the invention and development of a new hand tool, the SmartLevel, an electronic builder's level; also included are company management and policies.
Scope and Contents:
The SmartLevel story gives excellent insight into the life cycle of a small Silicon valley start-up in the 1980s. SmartLevel's creator, Wedge Innovations, established a market for a new product, achieved national distribution, off-shore manufacturing, and product licensing, before going out of business due to pressure from profit-hungry venture capitalists.

The records of Wedge Innovations is a "tool biography" that documents the invention and development of a new hand tool, the SmartLevel, an electronic builder's level first conceived in 1985 by Andrew Butler. The SmartLevel Collection is divided into seven series: Corporate Records, Engineering Records, Financial Records, Marketing Records, Operations Records, Product Development Records, and Corporate Culture, reflecting both the organizational structure of Wedge Innovations and the company's working environment.

Series 1, Corporate Records, 1985-1993, address the overall management of Wedge Innovations and document its policies, especially through the company's annual business plans, 1986-1992, and the monthly reports prepared for the Board of Directors' meetings, 1989-1992. This series also details the workings of each department through weekly departmental reports. The staff meetings files, July-November 1989, February 1990-November 1992, are particularly useful for understanding the day-to-day operation of the company.

Series 2, Engineering Records, 1985-1993, document the design and development of the SmartLevel from its conception in 1985 as the WedgeLevel, through its production as the SmartLevel in 1989, and through its refinement into the Pro SmartLevel and the Series 200 SmartLevel in 1991. The design process is particularly well documented through Andrew Butler's and Kevin Reeder's design notebooks and through the detailed technical drawings done by Butler, Reeder, and Ronald Wisnia. Also well documented are the efforts made to solve the many problems associated with the development and quality control of the electronic sensor module that was the heart of the SmartLevel.

Series 3, Financial Records, 1985-1992, include Wedge's summary financial statements from 1985 to 1992.

Series 4, Marketing Records, 1986-1992, document customer and dealer relations through marketing department correspondence, operational records, and advertising campaigns. This series is particularly rich in promotional material (1988-1992), such as advertisements, advertising copy, photographs, product promotion plans, and videotapes that demonstrate the varied features and uses of the products.

Series 5, Operations Records, 1990-1993, document the manufacturing process and the Company's offshore operations.

Series 6, Product Development Records, 1986-1993, document the company's intended development of an entire "Smart Tools" line.

Series 7, Corporate Culture, 1985-1996, contains employee photographs and oral history interviews with key Wedge personnel conducted in 1995 and 1996 by David Shayt, Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History. The interviews discuss the background of the participants, the company's origins and history, product development, the Silicon Valley context, and the efforts of Wedge Innovations successor firm, SmartTool Technologies.
Arrangement:
The collection organized into seven series.

Series 1, Corporate Records, 1985-1993

Series 2, Engineering Records, 1985-1993

Series 3, Financial Records, 1985-1992

Series 4, Marketing Records, 1986-1992

Series 5, Operations Records, 1990-1993

Series 6, Product Development Records, 1986-1993

Series 7, Corporate Culture, 1985-1996
Biographical / Historical:
Andrew G. Butler (b. 1955), the founder of Wedge Innovations exhibited an interest in building construction and an entrepreneurial spirit early in life. From age 12 to 17 he built a boat that he then sailed alone from California to Tahiti, where he spent several years as an independent carpenter and building contractor. After returning to the United States, he earned a B.S. degree in electromechanical engineering from Stanford University (1983) and became a software specialist for Bechtel Construction. In 1985, he conceived of an idea for an electronic carpenter's level that could read a range of angles. Butler formed Wedge Innovations in 1986. He worked in the basement of his home in order to develop and market this level, selling his boat to finance the venture. He hired Marilyn Crowell as his secretary and Robert Nagle and Dan Kellogg as engineers. This company developed the sensor technology and software necessary to build the company's first product, the WedgeLevel. The heart of this tool was an electronic sensor circuit connected to a microprocessor capable of measuring the tool's orientation. This sensor module fit into an ergonomically-designed teak rail with anodized aluminum edges jointly developed by Butler, engineering design consultant Kevin Reeder, and engineer Ronald Wisnia.

In 1987, Wedge moved to Santa Clara to begin manufacturing the WedgeLevel. The transition from a research and development concern to a manufacturing company proved difficult, due to manufacturing and financial difficulties. It was difficult to obtain a reliable yet inexpensive source of teak for the rails, designs for a plastic composite and aluminum rail were developed, while offshore manufacturing of the sensor components was established. Overarching all concerns was the persistent difficulty of obtaining sufficient investment capital. While managing his growing company, Butler also began planning for a line of hand tools that combined microelectronics and user-oriented, ergonomic design. In 1988, the company changed the name of its product to SmartLevel in order to emphasize the company's proposed line of Smart Tools. That same year, the company adopted a new corporate logo, a stylized W with a red wedge, signaling its growing maturity. Promotion of the product also began through demonstrations of the prototype done by consultant building contractor, Rick Feffer.

In January 1989, the SmartLevel prototype was launched at the National Association of Home Builders Show in Atlanta, Georgia. The favorable publicity generated by this launch and by the company's media campaign generated many orders. To supply these orders, Wedge moved to larger quarters in Sunnyvale on April 1, 1989. In June 1989, Wedge gained further publicity by donating several SmartLevels to a Habitat for Humanity project in Milwaukee, where former president Jimmy Carter used one. Although Wedge expected to ship the first SmartLevels in July 1989, there were considerable delays in manufacturing. In particular, there were stability and performance problems with the sensor, which engineer Ken Gunderson was brought in to remedy. The sensor module was re-engineered to be more rugged and the level was redesigned with a plastic composite and aluminum rail. The new level, known as the Pro SmartLevel, was intended for the professional construction market. The first SmartLevels were shipped on September 5, 1989.

In 1990, patents were granted to Andrew Butler, Donald G. Green, and Robert E. Nagle for an inclinometer sensor circuit and to Butler and Ronald Wisnia for a carpenter's level design. That same year, Brian Bayley joined Wedge as Vice-president for Engineering, and Edwin "Win" Seipp joined as Project Manager - DIY SmartLevel. Seipp's responsibility was to develop a low-cost, "do-it-yourself" version of the SmartLevel, which was eventually called the Series 200 SmartLevel. This level had an all-aluminum rail and a non-removable sensor.

In September 1990, the company moved to San Jose and by 1991 had over 60 employees. Although sales continued to grow and name recognition of the product was quite strong, Wedge had difficulty meeting the expectations of its investors. Butler entered into financial negotiations with the Macklanburg-Duncan Corporation, a large-scale manufacturer of hand tools, to seek investment in his company. These negotiations led in November 1992 to the acquisition of Wedge by Macklanburg-Duncan, which dissolved all but Wedge's engineering section. Macklanburg-Duncan today manufactures a "SmartTool" level, while Butler co-owns D2M (Design To Market), a company that develops new product ideas for the market.

SmartLevel Chronology

1992 -- Butler negotiates with Macklanburg-Duncan for a merger to save Wedge. In the midst of the negotiations, Butler is fired by his Board of Directors. Butler regains control of Wedge three months later, fires the replacement president, and sells Wedge outright to Macklanburg-Duncan, which dissolves all but the engineering functions of Wedge.

1991 -- Wedge sponsors a "New Product Development Conference," where numerous designs for new hand tools are worked on. SmartLevel sales and name recognition grows but not quickly enough to meet overhead expenses of new facility or investors' demands.

1990 -- Yet more redesign work, both in-house and with Kevin Reeder, who also develops idea for "SmartTube" carrying case (not built). Patents granted to Andy Butler et al. for inclinometer sensor circuit and carpenter's level design. Wedge hires Brian Bayley as vice-president for engineering to develop a low-cost model of the SmartLevel. The all-aluminum Series 200 SmartLevel is born. Wedge moves to larger facilities in San Jose.

1989 -- SmartLevel launched at National Association of Home Builders show in January. Good press coverage, but cannot meet orders. More publicity from Habitat for Humanity project when former President Jimmy Carter uses a SmartLevel. But stability and performance problems plague sensor. More redesign work results in more rugged Pro SmartLevel. The first SmartLevels shipped on September 5, 1989.

1987-1988 -- Wedge moves to Santa Clara; intends to begin manufacturing and todevelop an entire line of "Smart Tools" but encounters financial and engineering difficulties; Wedge consults with independent design engineer, Kevin Reeder, on level design. Intensive redesign effort develops the SmartLevel, made of plastic and aluminum rail.

1986 -- Wedge Innovations founded in the basement of Butler's house; basic sensor design worked out; teak & aluminum WedgeLevel developed.

1985 -- Idea for electronic carpenter's level formulated by Andy Butler.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History contains artifacts related to the SmartLevel Collection. These include five SmartLevels (Accession #1991.0823; 1996.0284; 1996.0285; 1996.0288; and 1996.0289). They are an original teak WedgeLevel, a Pro SmartLevel, a Series 200 SmartLevel, a Bosch version of the SmartLevel, and a Macklanburg-Duncan SmartTool level. There are also four sensor modules (torpedo levels), two sensors, two carrying cases, one cap, one tee shirt, and one wooden puzzle with the inscription "The World Isn't Just Level and Plumb."
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Andrew Butler, SmartLevel inventor and company founder, Brian Bayley, Vice-President for engineering at Wedge Innovations from 1989-1992, and Kevin Reeder, an independent industrial designer, 1995-1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Product demonstrations -- 1980-2000  Search this
Technological innovations -- Hand tools -- 1980-2000  Search this
Electronics -- Tools and implements -- 1980-2000  Search this
Industrial design -- 1980-2000  Search this
Leveling -- 1980-2000  Search this
Teak -- Use of -- 1980-2000  Search this
Level indicators -- 1980-2000  Search this
Venture capital -- 1980-2000 -- United States  Search this
Silicon Valley -- 1980-2000  Search this
Tools -- 1980-2000 -- United States  Search this
Small business -- Management -- 1980-2000  Search this
Investors -- 1980-2000  Search this
Inventors -- 1980-2000  Search this
Engineers -- 1980-2000  Search this
Industrial designers -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- Tools -- 1980-2000  Search this
Carpenters -- 1980-2000  Search this
Carpentry -- Tools -- 1980-2000  Search this
Merchandise displays  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Notebooks -- 1980-2000
Oral histories (document genres) -- 1990-2000
Audiotapes
Financial records -- 1980-2000
Financial statements -- 1980-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Correspondence -- 1970-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1980-2000
Drawings -- 1980-2000
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
The Records of Wedge Innovations, 1985-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0534
See more items in:
Records of Wedge Innovations
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0534
Online Media:

Charles Searles papers

Creator:
Searles, Charles Robert, 1937-2004  Search this
Names:
Edmonds, Walt  Search this
Gordon, Russell Talbert, 1936-  Search this
Spicer, Kathleen  Search this
Extent:
3.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Transcripts
Sketches
Date:
1953-2010
Summary:
The papers of African American sculptor and painter Charles Searles measure 3.9 linear feet and date from 1953 to 2010. The collection documents his career through scattered biographical material, correspondence, personal business records, printed material, artwork, photographs, and a scrapbook.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of sculptor and painter Charles Searles measure 3.9 linear feet and date from 1953 to 2010. The collection documents his career through scattered biographical material, correspondence, personal business records, printed material, artwork, photographs, and a scrapbook.

Scattered biographical material includes legal papers, address books, transcripts, and awards. Correspondence includes correspondence with galleries, museums, and organizations. Personal business records consist of Searles' files on commissions, exhibitions, workshops and programs, and employment contracts. Printed material includes exhibition announcements, exhibition catalogs, as well as printed material of interest to Searles, but not directly documenting his career. Artwork consists of sketches, designs, flyers, a portrait of Kathleen Spicer by Russell Gordon, and a portrait of Searles by K. Spicer. Photographs depict Searles, Searles' artwork, and artist Walt Edmonds. Scrapbooks consist of news clippings and loose material that was originally inserted in between the pages in no particular order.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 7 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1963-2004 (0.5 linear ft.; Boxes 1, 6)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1956-2004 (5 folders; Box 1)

Series 3: Personal Business Records, 1969-2007 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 1-2,6)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1953-2010 (1.4 linear feet; Boxes 3-4, 6)

Series 5: Artwork, circa 1980s-2000 (9 folders; Box 5)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1964-2000 (3 folders; Box 5)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, circa 1970s-2005 (0.3 linear ft.; Box 6)
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Robert Searles (1937-2004) was an African American sculptor, painter and muralist in Philadelphia, Pa. and New York, N.Y. Searles attended the University of Pennsylvania and graduated from the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1972. He was influenced by African art after traveling to Nigeria on the Ware Memorial Traveling Scholarship during his studies at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. During his career he participated in over 100 exhibitions in Denmark, Nigeria, and throughout the United States.

Searles taught art at several institutions including the Pratt Institute, the University of the Arts (Philadelphia College of Art), and the Philadephia Museum of Art. He also completed commission work for Newark Station, PATCO (Port Authority Transit Corporation), and MTA (Metropolitan Transportation Authority).

Searles moved to New York, NY in 1978 where he spent most of his career. He was married to artist Kathleen Spicer until his death on November 27, 2004.
Related Materials:
Also at the Archives of American Art is an interview with Charles Searles conducted on June 13, 1991, by Cynthia Veloric, for the Archives of American Art Philadelphia Project.
Provenance:
Donated in 2012 by Kathleen Spicer Searles, Charles Searles' widow.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Muralists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
African American artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Transcripts
Sketches
Citation:
Charles Searles papers, 1953-2010. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.searchar
See more items in:
Charles Searles papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-searchar

Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman papers

Creator:
Koppelman, Chaim, 1920-2009  Search this
Names:
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Associated American Artists  Search this
Audubon Artists (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
DeCordova and Dana Museum and Park  Search this
Pratt Graphics Center  Search this
Print Council of America  Search this
School of Visual Arts (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation  Search this
Terrain Gallery  Search this
Anuszkiewicz, Richard  Search this
Dienes, Sari  Search this
Herz, Nat, 1920-1964  Search this
Kandinsky, Wassily, 1866-1944  Search this
Koppelman, Dorothy  Search this
Kranz, Sheldon  Search this
Lichtenstein, Roy, 1923-1997  Search this
Ozenfant, Amédée, 1886-1966  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Pond, Clayton, 1941-  Search this
Rebay, Hilla, 1890-1967  Search this
Siegel, Eli, 1902-  Search this
Stamos, Theodoros, 1922-1997  Search this
Extent:
4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Illustrated letters
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Date:
circa 1930s-2006
bulk 1942-2005
Summary:
The papers of Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman measure 4.0 linear feet and date from circa 1930s-2006, bulk 1942-2005. The collection documents the activities of Chaim Koppelman and his wife, Dorothy Koppelman, as artists and educators, and their affiliation with the Terrain Gallery and the Aesthetic Realism Foundation. Materials include biographical material, correspondence, writings and notes, subject files, teaching files, exhibition files, personal business records, scrapbooks, printed material, sketches, sketchbooks, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman measure 4.0 linear feet and date from circa 1930s-2006, bulk 1942-2005. The collection documents the activities of Chaim Koppelman and his wife, Dorothy Koppelman, as artists and educators, and their affiliation with the Terrain Gallery and the Aesthetic Realism Foundation. Materials include biographical material, correspondence, writings and notes, subject files, teaching files, exhibition files, personal business records, scrapbooks, printed material, sketches, sketchbooks, and photographs.

Scattered biographical material includes resumes, artist's statements, copies of entries in Who's Who directories, and miscellaneous items.

Correspondence includes personal correspondence and general correspondence. Personal correspondence mostly consists of Chaim Koppelman's letters written to Dorothy while he was serving in the U.S. Army during World War II. He describes his daily activities, observations on army life, and his travels while stationed in England, France, and Germany. Of interest is Chaim Koppelman's letter to Dorothy describing his meeting Picasso and visiting the artist's studio. Personal correspondence also includes Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman's letters with family and friends. Notable correspondents include Sari Dienes, Nat Herz, Sheldon Kranz, Amédée Ozenfant, Hilla Rebay, and Theodoros Stamos. Hilla Rebay's letters to Chaim Koppelman discuss museum-related activities at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, including the Guggenheim's memorial exhibition for Wassily Kandinsky. There is also a file of letters from Eli Siegel to Chaim Koppelman. General correspondence includes mostly incoming letters to Chaim Koppelman from collectors, colleagues, students, and arts institutions. Frequent correspondents include: Associated American Artists, American Federation of the Arts, Audubon Artists, DeCordova and Dana Museum and Park, Pratt Graphics Center and Print Council of America.

Writings and notes contain annotated typescripts and handwritten drafts by Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman. Chaim Koppelman's writings include essays and talks on art, artists, and printmaking based on Aesthetic Realism; also found are some poems. Dorothy Koppelman's writings consist of artist's statements and essay-length pieces that were prepared for Aesthetic Realism talks on the work and lives of artists, held at the Terrain Gallery of the Aesthetic Realism Foundation and other venues. Also found is a sound recording of Chaim Koppelman's 1968 conversation with Richard Anuszkiewicz, Roy Lichtenstein, and Clayton Pond; the artists discuss the influence of the Siegel Theory of Opposites on their work.

Subject files document the activities, projects, and professional affiliations of Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman. Included are materials on exhibitions, applications for fellowships and grants, awards, drafts of writings, donations and acquisitions of artwork by museums. Teaching files provide an overview of the faculty positions held by Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman over the course of their careers. Found are extensive files on Chaim Koppelman's tenure at the School of Visual Arts. Exhibition files chronicle the Koppelmans' solo and group shows at the Terrain and other venues; substantive files contain Chaim Koppelman's correspondence with museums and arts institutions and sales information.

Two scrapbooks contain exhibition-related materials, such as artists' statements, press releases, awards, printed material, and photographs of artwork. Artwork includes sketches and illustrated letters by Chaim Koppelman. There are twenty annotated sketchbooks by Chaim Koppelman and a sketchbook by Dorothy Koppelman. Photographs and snapshots are of Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman; many of the snapshots of Chaim Koppelman and others document his army service while stationed in the United States and Europe. Four photograph albums include black and white photographs of Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman in their studio; included are snapshots of the Koppelmans with family and friends at exhibition openings, gatherings, and on their travels. There are photographs of Regina Dienes, Gerson Lieber, Bernard Olshan, Joseph Solman, and Theodoros Stamos.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 12 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1940-2001 (Box 1; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1942-2003 (Box 1; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1930s-1989, 2005 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1942-2004 (Boxes 1-2; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Teaching Files, 1940s-2006 (Box 2; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Exhibition Files, 1940s-2005 (Boxes 2-3; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Personal Business Records, 1944-1969 (Box 3; 3 folders)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1942-2003 (Box 3; 2 folders)

Series 9: Printed Material, 1937-1971, 2004 (Box 3; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 10: Artwork, 1933-1949, 1980-2000 (Box 3; 3 folders)

Series 11: Sketchbooks, 1944-2005 (Boxes 3-4; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 12: Photographs, 1930-circa 2004 (Box 4; 0.25 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Chaim Koppelman (1920-2009) lived and worked in New York as a printmaker, educator, and Aesthetic Realism consultant. Painter, gallery director, Aesthetic Realism consultant, and educator Dorothy Koppelman (1920-) resides and works in New York City.

Chaim Koppelman was born in Brooklyn in 1920. Koppelman studied at the American Artists School with Carl Holty and at the Art Students League with Jose De Creeft and Will Barnet. Simultaneously, he began to study in classes taught by Eli Siegel, critic, poet, and founder of the philosophy Aesthetic Realism. In 1942, Koppelman was drafted in the U.S. Army. Before going overseas in 1943, he married Dorothy Myers. In the army, Koppelman continued his studies in painting and sculpture, where he attended the Art College in Western England, Bristol, and the Beaux Arts School in Reims, France. Chaim Koppelman took part in the Normandy invasion and was awarded the Bronze Star for his service.

After Koppelman returned to New York in 1944, he studied at the Amédée Ozenfant School, where he eventually became Ozenfant's assistant. Around this time, Koppelman turned from painting and sculpture to printmaking. In 1955, Chaim Koppelman, his wife, Dorothy, and other artists and poets studying Aesthetic Realism established the Terrain Gallery. For many years, Koppelman was the head of the gallery's Print Division and then later became an advisory director.

Chaim Koppelman held a number of teaching positions in universities and arts institutions. He lectured at Brooklyn College, the Art Education Department from 1950-1960. In 1959, Koppelman founded the Printmaking Division at the School of Visual Arts, where he served on the school's faculty until 2007. At the Aesthetic Realism Foundation, he taught artists how to relate their artwork and their everyday lives. He wrote: "After having tested his aesthetic concepts in literally thousands of works of different periods, in different styles, in different media, I say that Eli Siegel's Theory of Opposites is the key to what is good or beautiful in art….When Eli Siegel showed that what makes a work of art beautiful—the oneness of opposites—is the same as what every individual wants, it was one of the mightiest and kindest achievements of man's mind."

Among the awards Chaim Koppelman received were: two Tiffany Grants, 1956, 1959; New York Artists Equity Annual Awards Honoring Will Barnet, Robert Blackburn, Chaim Koppelman, 1992; and the Purchase Prize, Art Students League in 2005. Koppelman was a member of the National Academy and a member of the Society of American Graphic Artists (SAGA). In 2004, SAGA presented him with the Lifetime Achievement Award. In addition to his solo and group exhibitions at the Terrain Gallery, Chaim Koppelman's work was featured at the Beatrice Conde Gallery, International Print Center (New York), Library of Congress, and Minneapolis Institute of Arts. His prints are in the collections of the Guggenheim Museum, Museum of Modern Art (New York), Metropolitan Museum of Art, Victoria and Albert Museum in London, and the National Gallery.

In December 2009, Koppelman died at age 89 in New York City.

Born in 1920, Dorothy Koppelman attended Brooklyn College, the Art Students League, and American Artists School where she trained under Joseph Solman. During this time, she began to study poetry, and the relation of art and the self in classes with Eli Siegel, the founder of Aesthetic Realism.

Dorothy Koppelman has had a number of solo and group exhibitions at the Terrain Gallery. She has also shown her paintings at the Atlantic Gallery, Art Gallery of Binghamton, New York, Beatrice Conde Gallery, the Broome Street Gallery, and at MoMA, Brooklyn Museum, Newark Museum, the Whitney Biennial 2006 Peace Tower, the National Academy, and the Butler Art Institute.

Dorothy Koppelman has served on the faculty at several arts institutions: the National Academy, Brooklyn College School of Education, and the School of Visual Arts. She has given presentations on Aesthetic Realism at the Fondazione Piero della Francesa in Italy, and with Carrie Wilson at the 31st World Congress of the International Society for Education through Art (InSEA). On August 16, 2002, in a talk given on Eli Siegel Day in Baltimore, she said, "Eli Siegel explained the true meaning of art for our lives. No one—no scholar, no artist, no person—in all the centuries ever saw this before: that we can learn about ourselves from the very technique of art!...He showed that far from being in a separate world, art has the answer to the trouble in this one."

She is a member of several professional organizations including the American Society of Contemporary Artists and New York Artists Equity. She has received an Honorable Mention from the Brooklyn Society of Artists, 1957; a Tiffany Grant for painting, 1965; and awards from the American Society of Contemporary Artists, 1996, 1999. Dorothy Koppelman's work has been included in the collections of Hampton University, Virginia; Rosenzweig Museum, Durham, North Carolina; New-York Historical Society; Yale University; the National Museum of Women in the Arts, as well as other institutions.

Dorothy Koppelman lives in New York City. She is a consultant on the faculty of the Aesthetic Realism Foundation, where she also teaches the Critical Inquiry, a workshop for artists. She serves on the Board of Directors of the Aesthetic Realism Foundation, and is President of the Eli Siegel/Martha Baird Foundation. She continues her study in classes with Ellen Reiss, Aesthetic Realism Chairman of Education.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds the Terrain Gallery records of which Dorothy Koppelman is the director.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman in 2006.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Artists' studios  Search this
Gallery owners -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Prints -- Technique  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Illustrated letters
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Citation:
Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman papers, circa 1930s-2006, bulk 1942-2005. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.koppchai
See more items in:
Chaim and Dorothy Koppelman papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-koppchai

Program in African American Culture Collection

Collector:
Maltsby, Portia  Search this
Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Program in African American Culture  Search this
Extent:
100 Cubic feet (309 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Audiotapes
Videotapes
Photographs
Date:
1850-2004, undated
Summary:
The collection primarily documents the activities of the National Museum of American History's Program in African American Culture (PAAC) dating from 1979 through 2004. The Program in African American Culture (PAAC) created public programs documenting the black experience in the United States, as well as, other countries. Archival materials include photographs, programs, administrative files, magnetic tape, audiocassettes, U-matic and VHS video cassettes.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of administrative files, audio, video, and photographic documentation of the programs presented by the Program in African American Culture (PAAC) from 1979 through 2004. There is a substantial amount of material documenting research conducted by the Program in African American Culture (PAAC) for its programming. In addition, administrative paperwork relating to the day-to-day activities of the Program in African American Culture (PAAC) are also included in the materials.

The collection is divided into four series. Series one consists of the material created for each program and is arranged in chronological order. Series two contains background materials and publications relating to subjects of program interest and is arranged in alphabetical order. Series three includes correspondence, contracts, resumes of presenters and performers and other forms of administrative files. Series four are materials relating to Smithsonian Institution or outside programs and performances.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Programs Files, 1979-2004, undated

Series 2, Research Files, 1850-1995, undated

Series 3, Administrative Files, 1850-1995, undated

Series 4, Interviews, Speaking Engagements and Performances, 1964-2000, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Program in African American Culture (PAAC) is a Smithsonian Institution research and programming office located in the National Museum of American History that was created as an outgrowth of the African Diaspora component of the 1975 and 1976 Festival of American Folklife. Founding director, Bernice Johnson Reagon, developed the Program in Black Culture, as the PAAC was originally, as a center for researching and presenting topics of interest to the study of African American history and culture. Reagon is a song leader, composer, scholar, and social activist, who was a founding member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Freedom Singers in the Albany Movement in Georgia. The Program, which was transferred to the National Museum of American History in 1983, provided, and continues to provide, a forum for the presentation of traditional and historical forms of African American cultural expression. To accomplish this, Program in African American Culture (PAAC) staff conducted thorough research, which resulted in public programs including conferences, concerts, colloquia, and seminars on a wide range of topics.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Duke Ellington Collection (NMAH.AC0301)

Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (NMAH.AC0415)

Eugene D. Smallwood Gospel Music Collection (NMAH.AC0456)

Wade in the Water Radio Series Collection (NMAH.AC0516)

Moses Moon Civil Rights Movement Audio Collection (NMAH.AC0556)

Bernice Reagon Johnson Collection of African American Sacred Music (NMAH.AC0653)

Edward and Gaye Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (NMAH.AC0704)

Ruth Koenig Mississippi Summer Collection (NMAH.AC0558)

Ed King Collection of Civil Rights Material (NMAH.AC0559)

Smithsonian Institution

Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections

Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife (CFCH.SFF.1969)

Smithsonian Institution Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, June 25-July 6, 1997 (CFCH.SFF.1997)

Diana Davies Photographs (CFCH.DAVIE)

Smithsonian Institution Archivesemph>

Oral History Interview with Bernice Reagon Johnson, 1986 (Accession 009612)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1982-2002 (Accession 05-116)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1983-2004 (Accession 06-002)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1972-1999 (Accession 08-107)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1975-2000 (Accession 12-102)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1976-1999 (Accession 12-358)

National Museum of American History, Program in African American Culture, 1980-1992, 1961 (Accession 96-147)

Duke Ellington Collection Records, circa 1985-1993 (Accession 98-129)

National Museum of American History, Program in Black American Culture, circa 1976-1987 (Accession 98-136)

Smithsonian Institution. Division of Performing Arts (Accession 84-012)
Provenance:
Collection created by the Program in African Amerian Culture at the Smithsonian Institution from 1979-1986.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Use of reference audio and video cassette copies only.
Rights:
Reproduction fees for commercial use. Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Topic:
Civil rights  Search this
African American history  Search this
African American religion  Search this
Gospel music  Search this
African Americans -- Music  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Jazz  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Audiotapes
Videotapes
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Program in African American Culture Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0408
See more items in:
Program in African American Culture Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0408
Online Media:

Gay Games [program,]

Series Collector:
Archives Center, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Series Donor:
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 10-3/4" x 8-1/4".)
Container:
Box 10
Type:
Archival materials
Programs
Date:
August, 1986
Scope and Contents:
Color cover.
Local Numbers:
AC1146-0000008.tif (AC Scan No.: front cover)
Exhibitions Note:
Shown in "Stonewall" display, Archives Center display case, June-July 2000.
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Homosexuality  Search this
Gay rights  Search this
Sports  Search this
Genre/Form:
Programs -- 1980-2000
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 3: Community Life and Subject Files / 3.2: Events, Ephemera and Buttons / Gay Games II (San Francisco, California)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref2711

Robinson and Via Family Papers

Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Names:
Capital Transit Company (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Serenity Farm, Inc.  Search this
Howes, Grace Bourne, ?-1976  Search this
Robinson, Adina Theresa, 1963-  Search this
Robinson, Amanda Baden, 1849-1940  Search this
Robinson, Elizabeth Bourne, 1892-1976  Search this
Robinson, Frank A., 1883-1970  Search this
Robinson, Franklin A., 1841-1905  Search this
Robinson, Franklin A., Sr., 1932-  Search this
Robinson, Martha Walls, 1807-1897  Search this
Robinson, Robert David, 1962-  Search this
Robinson, Robert Henry, 1851-1937  Search this
Robinson, Thomas Wells, 1803-1869  Search this
Townshend, Martha Robinson, 1880-1961  Search this
Via, Adina Mae, 1937-1966  Search this
Via, Robert Delano, 1933-  Search this
Via, Robert Milton, 1906-1983  Search this
Creator:
Conner, Mary Robinson, 1930-2009  Search this
Via, Ida Virginia Woods, 1914-2010 -- 20th century  Search this
Extent:
23.1 Cubic feet (70 boxes, 3 map-size folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Correspondence
Photographs
Postcards
Baby books
Phonograph records
Postcard albums
Ephemera
School yearbooks
Diaries
Albums
Housebooks
Snapshots
Home movies
Family papers
Scrapbooks
Funeral registers
Cookbooks
Architectural drawings
Place:
Maryland -- Family farms
Washington (D.C.)
Prince George's County (Md.)
Arizona -- Motion pictures
Benedict (Md.)
Charles County (Md.) -- Family farms
Calvert County (Md.) -- Family farms
California -- Motion pictures
Bahamas -- Motion pictures
Yosemite National Park (Calif.)
Puerto Rico -- Motion pictures
Washington -- motion pictures
Oregon -- Motion pictures
Disneyland (California)
Brandywine (Md.)
St. Thomas, V.I. -- Motion pictures
Florida -- Motion pictures
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- Westminster
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- Marston
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- New Windsor
Date:
1838-2017, undated
bulk 1872-1985
Summary:
Papers documenting the farming and family life of the Robinson family of Prince George's County and after 1975, Charles County, Maryland. Papers documenting the farming and family of the Via family of Greene County, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Prince George's and Calvert Counties, Maryland, by 1949.
Scope and Contents:
An extensive and comprehensive collection of papers relating to family, farming, and the Southern Maryland tobacco culture, the Robinson and Via Family Papers cover many aspects of family and farm life. The papers are particularly important in regard to the tobacco culture that defined Southern Maryland for generations. The papers concern two distinct family groups, the Robinson and Via families who are connected through the marriage of Franklin A. Robinson and Adina Mae Via. The papers consist of material generated by the Robinson and Via families in their personal and working lives and as farm owners and operators.

The papers are especially strong in 20th century material. They consist of various types of farm records: account books, bills, receipts, tenant farming agreements, ephemera, land rental and purchase agreements, insurance policies, photographs and 8mm and 16mm films of farming practices and procedures, equipment and landscapes, related to the farming of tobacco, small grains, and livestock. The personal records include diaries, letters both personal and business, greeting cards, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, high school yearbooks, baby books, house plans, recipe books, photographs and 8mm films of birthdays, holidays, weddings, baptisms, family occasions, and family travel, oral histories, and funeral ephemera including photographs, and transcription discs. Of particular interest are the "Serenity Farm Tobacco Production Photographs" documenting the crop year 1999-2000 and the films detailing agricultural practices. There is a memorandum book for Black Walnut Thicket, 1885-1901, the Baden farm in Baden, Prince George's County.

This collection includes a comprehensive range of 8mm and 16mm films and photographs documenting farming practices and landscapes as well as family gatherings, birthdays, holidays, and vacations. The researcher is alerted to the fact that in some cases with the memorandum and account books, books printed for a given year were often saved and used for subsequent years, some were dated, some were not.

The collection is divided into seven series arranged by subject and most often chronologically at folder level within each series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series:

Series 1: Ferndale Farm (Potomac Landing), Prince George's County, Maryland, 1861-1973, undated

Subseries 1.1: Farm papers, bill, and receipts, and publications, 1861-1973, undated

Subseries 1.2: Farm papers, bill, and receipts, 1945-1960, undated

Subseries 1.3: Farm papers, bills, and receipts, 1960-1965, undated

Series 2: Robinson Family, 1845-2017, undated

Subseries 2.1: Family Papers and Publications, 1845-1993, undated

Subseries 2.2: Townshend, Martha Robinson, 1896-1961, undated

Subseries 2.3: Robinson, Frank A., 1899-1970, undated

Subseries 2.4: Robinson, Elizabeth Bourne, 1841-1976, undated

Subseries 2.5: Conner, Mary Robinson, 1938-1985, undated

Subseries 2.6: Robinson, Franklin A., 1932-1997, undated

Subseries 2.6.1: Farming, 1948-1976, undated

Subseries 2.6.2: Financial, 1948-1988, undated

Subseries 2.6.3: 4-H and Future Farmers of America (FFA), 1945-1954, undated

Subseries 2.6.4: Travel, 1959-1970, undated

Subseries 2.7: Robinson, Jr., Franklin A., 1959-2001, undated

Series 3: Serenity Farm, Charles County, Maryland, 1962-2000, undated

Series 4: Via Farm, Calvert County, Maryland, 1954-1987, undated

Series 5: Via Family, 1932-2010, undated

Subseries 5.1: Family papers, 1941-1983, undated

Subseries 5.2: Via, Robert M., 1933-1987, undated

Subseries 5.3: Via, Ida Virginia, 1928-2010, undated

Subseries 5.4: Via, Robert D., 1933-1988, undated

Subseries 5.5: Robinson, Adina Via, 1937-1966, undated

Series 6: Photographs, 1872-2000, undated

Subseries 6.1: Photographs, 1872-2000, undated

Subseries 6.2: Photographic negatives, 1927--2000, undated

Series 7: AudioVisual, 1943-1988
Biographical / Historical:
Robinson Family

The Robinson family is thought to be of Scottish origin and appear in the records of Prince George's County, Maryland by the early 18th century. The line has been definitively traced to James Robinson (?-1849). James' father was probably Benjamin Robinson (?-1810), of Prince George's County, Maryland. (Will Book TT1, pg. 15, Records of Prince George's County, Maryland, Maryland State Archives (MSA))

James Robinson and Sarah Wynn were issued a marriage license on February 28, 1802 in Prince George's County, Maryland. (Marriage Records of Prince George's County, Maryland) Eleven children lived to maturity (not listed in birth order); Thomas Wells (1803-1869), Ann, Priscilla, James Monroe, Benjamin (1813-1882), John C. (1819-1895), Mary Sophia, Thomas Stanley (1800-1874), Alfred, Sarah Ann, Matilda, and Rebecca Maria.

James worked as overseer for Benjamin Oden on Oden's estate Bellefields near Upper Marlborough, Prince George's County. (Oden Papers, Maryland Historical Society) The Robinsons and their children, moved to Wood County, Virginia (now West Virginia) on April 18, 1818 where James acted as Oden's land agent (Deed Book 6, pg. 123, Land Records of Wood County, West Virginia). They brought with them three slaves described in the above reference as, "Kate a woman 45 years of age very black; Colonel a boy aged 8 years yellow complexion: and George a boy aged six years of a dark brown complexion." They settled on part of what was known as the "Burnt Mill" tract in the general area where the Hughes River meets the Little Kanawha River. (Deed Book 9, pg. 110 and Deed Book 14, pg. 40, Land Records of Wood County)

Thomas Wells Robinson may not have accompanied his family to Virginia as he has a presence in Prince George's County prior to 1822 and was employed as overseer for Benjamin Oden at least until 1832. He married Elizabeth I. Richards on December 15, 1829 (Robinson Family Bible). They had nine children; Richard Thomas (1831 1906), Rebecca Maria (1832-1895), Mary Wynn (1834-1916), James George (1835-1883), Virlinda Victoria (1837-1838), Elizabeth Ann (1839-1916), Sarah Ann Sophia (1840-1874), Franklin Alexander (1841-1905) and John Alfred (1843); seven lived to maturity. (Robinson Family Bible) Elizabeth died on August 17, 1843 from complications in childbirth. She was buried in the churchyard of Page's Chapel (later known as St. Thomas Episcopal Church), Croom, Prince George's County. In 1843, Thomas purchased the plantation of Dr. Benjamin B. Hodges for $10,000 or approximately $15 an acre. Hodges was a brother-in-law of Benjamin Oden. The deed dated September 7, 1843 describes the parcel as containing, "Six hundred and twenty nine acres of land more or less and constitute that plantation or Estate of the said Benjamin Oden heretofore commonly called "Brown's Quarter Place" being the Land tracts and parcels of land sold by the said Benjamin Oden to the said Benjamin B. Hodges and by deed bearing date the tenth day of December eighteen hundred and thirty five and recorded in Liber AB no. 10 folio 162 also one of the land Records of the County aforesaid". (JBB no. 3 pgs. 312 314, Land Records of Prince George's County) The land was level to rolling bordered on the north by a tributary of Piscataway Creek and generally termed "white oak land". Underlying the whole property was a large strata of gravel and sand. The entire parcel went by the name, Potomac Landing.

Thomas supplemented his land holdings with later purchases. With the exception of twenty acres purchased from Sarah Talbert in 1844, (JBB no. 3 pg. 475, Land Records of Prince George's County) and the purchase of lot #3 consisting of 195 acres, part of the estate of John Townshend in 1856, these purchases were not contiguous to Potomac Landing. By the time of his death in 1869 these non-contiguous parcels had been sold. Thomas sold eighty-six acres of Potomac Landing and Jeffries to Edward Eversfield in October of 1843. (JBB no. 3, pg. 198, Land Records of Prince George's County) On January 13, 1846 Thomas married the widow Martha Ann Walls, daughter of George and Martha Naylor Walls. They had two sons; Benjamin Wells (1848-1849) and Robert Henry (1851-1937).

In addition to his sons, Thomas owned slaves. The number varied from six in 1849 (JBB 6, folio 186, Land Records of Prince Georges' County) to eleven as noted in the census for 1850, and finally six as noted in the census of 1860. The 1867 Maryland Slave Statistics noted that, "at the time of the adoption of the Constitution of Maryland, in the year 1864, . . ." Thomas owned six slaves, their names and ages being; Isaac Franklin age 31, Alfred West age 19, Susan West age 17, Margaret Franklin age 14, Fannie Franklin age 12, and Peter Franklin age 9. All were noted as being in good physical condition. (Prince Georges' County Slave Statistics 1867 1869, C 1307 1, MdHR:6198, page 185, MSA)

In April 11, 1855 Thomas excuted a deed of trust to J.W. & E. Reynolds of Baltimore for securing a loan. At that time the farm was described as, "about five hundred and seventy acres . . . also the following personal property to wit Eight head of horses, nine cows, two mules, twelve work oxen, twenty Eight Sheep, one bull, two colts and all other stock of every description now on the aforesaid land, also the farming utensils and the following named Slaves, Stephen aged Sixty three years, Isaac aged twenty six years, Elvia aged twenty Eight years Alfred aged twelve years, Hanson aged ten years, Henrietta aged twelve years Susanna aged eight years, and Margaret aged three years. Together with the crop of Tobacco now in the house and the crop of wheat now growing." (EWB 1 pages 155 156, Land Records of Prince Georges' County)

Thomas's financial problems began in the mid-1800s when Deeds of Trust appear in the county records securing outstanding loans. In 1856 and 1857 Thomas joined with others as bondsman for his son, Richard who was serving as "Collector of the State and County Taxes" for the 4th collection district, making he and the other signatories liable for any uncollected taxes. This, coupled with poor investments, led to his almost being "sold out" in 1859-1860 by J.W. & E. Reynolds of Baltimore to pay his debts. He executed three drafts on Penn & Mitchell, also of Baltimore, to pay off J.W. & E. Reynolds. (Equity Case #597, Prince Georges' County) Thomas was in poor health and his son James managed the plantation in 1857 and 1858, and again from 1861 to October of 1862 (Equity Case #873, Prince Georges' County)

In October of 1862 Thomas' two sons, James and Franklin, traveled to Richmond to join the Confederate States Army. James enrolled in the 5th Battalion, Local Defense Arsenal and Franklin enrolled in the 5th Virginia Infantry, the Stonewall Brigade. (CSA Military Records, National Archives) James visited home frequently but was captured by the Union Army in St. Mary's County, Maryland on May 15, 1864 and spent the remainder of the war in Point Lookout Prison Camp. He was released on May 14, 1865. Franklin was not able to visit home at all during the war but survived to return home in 1865. In 1865, Thomas surveyed a parcel of 172 acres for his daughter Rebecca Maria. Rebecca had married her second cousin, William B. Robertson, on November 18, 1855. He made a gift of fifty acres, and Rebecca agreed to purchase the remainder. The Robertsons named this parcel Holly Grove. In Equity Case #849 (1872) filed after Thomas' death, his widow Martha and Samuel H. Berry, as executrix and executor, sought to recover payment for this land. At that time, William B. Robertson described this 172 acres of Potomac Landing: "There was no fences on the line which separated this land from the old gentleman's land, but he was to put a fence on it which he agreed to do before we agreed to come there. The land was thin, unimproved, with gullies and scrubby pine. If witness had been a judge of land he would not have given five dollars for it. All the improvements were one comfortable quarter the other indifferent with a poor oak shingle roof, worn out which made it not tenantable." Further along in his testimony, William gave an account of a conversation, "In a few days my father in law Thos. W. Robinson came to Washington and told me there his children had returned from the South, his two sons, that his debts were small and he was a happy man." Rebecca and William built a house on the property, a side-hall, double parlor plan that most likely her brother James was builder. They also built accompanying farm structures. (Records of Prince George's County, Maryland, Equity Case #849, MSA)

Thomas' son, Franklin, managed the farm after the War. In December 1868 Thomas entered into a sharecropping agreement with Edward Hanson, an African-American. After about a year-long illness, on May 16, 1869, Thomas died, deeply in debt. He was buried beside Elizabeth in the graveyard at St. Thomas' Church. He named as executrix his wife, Martha, and his friend and lawyer, Samuel H. Berry, as executor. His will divided the farm into thirds, one third going to his wife and their son Robert Henry, one third to his son James, and one third to his son Franklin. The land was surveyed according to the will. His personal property was sold but not enough profit was realized to pay off his creditors. The Commissioners of Prince George's County sued the estate on behalf of Thomas' creditors. The outcome was that in 1876 the property was sold at public auction. The Notice of Sale dated September 1, 1876 in the local county newspaper, The Prince Georgian, describes the farm as, "containing 514 2/3 acres More or less. The Improvements consist of a SMALL DWELLING, Three Barns, Stabling, and other necessary outbuildings. It is well wooded and watered, and the soil of fair quality. It has recently been divided into three lots and will be offered in lots, a description of which will be given at the time of sale." The sale was held on September 27, 1876, Lot No. 1 was purchased by Robert for $6.00 an acre, Lot #2 was purchased by Franklin for $5.00 an acre and Lot #3 was purchased by James for $4.00 per acre. Robert and Franklin eventually paid off their mortgage, but James defaulted on his purchase and later moved to St. Mary's County, Maryland. His portion later came to be owned by the Hawkins family, some members who had worked on the Robinson farm. (Equity Case #873, Prince Georges' County, MSA)

Lot #1, purchased by Robert from his fathers' estate, consisted of 177-1/3 acres, including the dwelling and farm buildings. On July 24, 1872, he married Amanda Malvina Baden (1849-1940), daughter of Robert W. G. and Margaret Caroline Early Baden. The Baden and Early families were both prominent south county families. Robert and Amanda had eight children; Caroline Early (1873 1967), Lucy Tennent (1875 1958), Albert Henry (1878 1914), Martha Perry (1880 1961), Robert Gover (1882 1882), Frank Alexander (1883 1970), Margaret Baden (1886 1956) and Grace Malvina (1889 1965).

By 1880 Robert had paid off his debt on the property and was fully engaged in farming. Unlike his father, or perhaps because of his father, Robert did not add to his land holdings, choosing to remain relatively debt free for his lifetime. The only land transactions he participated in were the sales of 79-3/4 acres in 1921 of Amanda's inheritance from her father and her interest in two smaller parcels of her father's land sold in 1894 and 1928 respectively. In 1928 he transferred 3.09 acres to his son Frank.

As late as the Federal census of 1880, Franklin was living with Robert and his household, both men engaged in farming. Sometime after 1880, Franklin took up residence on his part of Potomac Landing. His brother James most likely built the side-hall double parlor house that copied the main house at Potomac Landing. On February 18, 1897, Martha Robinson, died at the age of ninety. She was buried in the graveyyard of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden, Prince George's County. Robert continued cultivation of tobacco and small grains as his father before him. The first reference to the farm being named Ferndale is found in the "Communion Record" of Robert's daughter, Martha Perry "Pattie", dated 1896. (Robinson and Via Family Papers) The exact origin or reason for this new name is lost but perhaps the name Potomac Landing held such bitter memories of debt and hardship that, as a symbolic break with the past, a new name was found. It also may have simply been a way to distinguish this portion of Potomac Landing from the others. The farm continued to be listed on tax bills as Potomac Landing well into the 20th century, but was known to the general public and businesses as the Ferndale Farm. (Robinson and Via Family Papers)

Robert served as deputy inspector at the State Tobacco Warehouse in Baltimore for eight years under W.B. Bowie. He also served on the Board of Directors of the Bank of Brandywine. In July of 1905, Franklin died, a bachelor farmer. He was buried facing south in the graveyard of the Church of the Atonement, Cheltenham, (a chapel in St. Thomas' Episcopal Parish) where he had served as vestryman, treasurer, and cemetery custodian. Franklin died intestate and a lengthy process of dividing his estate began. This resulted in the sale of his part of Potomac Landing (Lot #2) in July 1908 to William E. Boswell. The court declared Robert ineligible for any inheritance due to his being " . . . a brother of the half blood." The Boswell family later sold the property to the Billingsley family of St. Mary's County. (Equity Case 3209, Prince George's County)

In 1910, after living in the farm's original home for approximately sixty seven years, the Robinson family built a new home. It was described in a 1956 insurance policy as, "2 story, frame, metal roof, 16x43, wing 14x28, 9 rooms." (Robinson and Via Family Papers) The house design was a simple Victorian with plastered walls, and lit by carbide gas. Electrical lighting was installed in 1951. The house was built with monies from Robert and Amanda, and their son Frank, who served as builder and contractor.

On Tuesday March 9, 1937, "During a celebration in honor of his wifes birthday anniversary, Mr. Robinson collapsed at the table and died immediately without a word or a sigh." (Robinson and Via Family Papers) Robert was buried beside his mother in the cemetery at St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden.

At Robert's death, Ferndale Farm was valued at $30.00 an acre, the total acreage, 174 acres, being valued in the whole at $5,220.00. Robert died intestate, again the fate of the land was in question. He left eight heirs, his widow, Amanda, six of his children and his son Albert Henry's only surviving child, R. Henry Robinson. Rather than have the farm sold and his mother's life disrupted, Frank purchased the estate and personal property from the heirs. Before this could take place, a deed had to be granted the heirs for the property since one had never been recorded after the 1876 sale. Equity case 873 was reopened sixty-two years after its supposed resolution. Frank testified, "over a period of about thirty years I would on a number of occasions, talk about the fact that he had purchased and paid for this property and that a deed had never been executed to him and [he] kept saying he was going to have someone straighten this matter out for him." It was discovered that Robert had fully paid for his part of Potomac Landing. On February 14, 1938 the farm was deeded from Amanda along with Robert''s heirs to Frank. (Book 499, page 334, Land Records of Prince George's County) According to the deed and a 1937 fire insurance policy the farm consisted of 177 1/3 acres, "1 two story dwelling, one tenant house, 1 barrack, 1 tobacco barn, 1 corn house & cow stable, 1 Stable, and 1 Granary & Stable." (Robinson and Via Family Papers)

Frank A. Robinson, now the sole owner of Ferndale Farm, was born August 17, 1883. He learned farming and in addition took up the trade of builder and contractor. As a young man, he worked in the general store of his uncle Robert Baden. He was the contractor for the first Bank of Brandywine and many homes in and around the town of Brandywine, including the home of his cousin Robert E. Baden, DDS. He was secretary of the Building Committee for construction of the Chapel of the Incarnation in Brandywine, a mission chapel for St. Thomas' Episcopal Parish. His success in the building trade gave him disposable income that he invested in land. His first purchase was in August, 1915 of a 2-9/100 acre of land in Brandywine that was being sold by the Board of County School Commissioners; the purchase price was $300. In March 1916 he purchased 38.09 acres of his Uncle Franklin's farm. This property adjoined Ferndale Farm. Over the next fifty-four years of his life, Frank bought and sold many pieces of real estate. Perhaps his most significant purchases were: 18-1/3 acres purchased from The German American Colonization Land Company of Maryland in October 1915 (Book 115, pg. 140, Land Records of Prince George's County); 147.99 acres purchased from August and Wilhelmina Noltensmeir in December 1917 (Book 129, pg. 263, Land Records of Prince George's County) and 320 acres called the Vineyard purchased from William M. Wilson in March 1928. Frank used these three parcels as collateral for other purchases. Never once did he mortgage Ferndale Farm, insuring that no matter what financial stormy seas might blow, his home was secure. Over the course of his life, especially in the case of the Noltensmeir farm, when cash was needed a parcel of land would be surveyed off and sold. He inherited his grandfather Thomas' love of land but had fortunately developed a shrewd business sense to go along with it.

On November 20, 1929, he married Elizabeth Freeland Bourne, daughter of Joseph Blake and Maria Gantt Bourne of Calvert County, Maryland. They had three children: Mary Elizabeth (1930-2009), Franklin Alexander (1932), and Robert Lee (1935-1997). In addition to his construction business he continued farming, raising tobacco, hay, and small grains. He engaged in sharecropping with tenants on his various properties. He was active in community affairs serving on the Board of The Maryland Tobacco Growers Association (MTGA), the Vestry of St. Thomas Parish, and as sheriff of Brandywine. On January 9, 1940 Amanda Baden Robinson died. She was buried next to her husband at St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden. In February 1958, Frank and Elizabeth conveyed 1.57 acres of Ferndale Farm to son Franklin where he and his fiancée, Adina M. Via, were building their new home prior to their marriage in July of that same year.

The booming economy and suburbanization of the Washington metropolitan area in the early 1960's led to the high quality gravel lying beneath Ferndale into becoming a valuable commodity. In October 1962, Franklin and his parents granted a three-year lease to William C. Nolte for mining sand and gravel on the Ferndale Farm at .174 per yard. (Book 2747, pg. 11, Land Records of Prince George's County) From now until 1975 when the property was sold, gravel would be mined from under the farm by various companies. In November 1962, Elizabeth and Frank transferred to Franklin the 38.09 acres Frank had purchased from Fitzhugh Billingsley in 1916. (Book 2754, pg. 99, Land Records of Prince George's County) That same year they transferred 6.754 acres, part of the Vineyard, to son Robert and his wife Lois, (Book 2765, pg. 201, Land Records of Prince George's County)

On December 28, 1965, Frank and Elizabeth participated in a land exchange/purchase of the farm of Ralph W. and Cordelia H. Brown located along the Patuxent River in Benedict, Charles County, Maryland. Franklin had rented this farm the year before and was impressed enough by its location and arability to work out a purchase. Frank and Elizabeth traded 65.9920 acres that would eventually become Franklin's under Frank's will. On February 21, 1966 they deeded the Charles County farm to Franklin and Adina. Adina named this property Serenity Farm. The property consisted of 480.66 acres. (Liber 179, page 708 etc., Land Records of Charles County)

On February 5, 1970, after a short illness, Frank died at Cafritz Memorial Hospital. He was buried at St. Paul's Episcopal Church near his parents. In his will, probated March 4, 1970 he left thirty acres of the property purchased from the German American Land Company and A. Noltensmeir to Elizabeth. He willed forty acres of the same parcel to daughter Mary Robinson Conner. The remainder of Ferndale Farm was willed to Franklin and the remaining acreage of the Vineyard was left to Robert Lee. Franklin Alexander Robinson was born August 13, 1932 at the Garfield Hospital in Washington, D.C.. He received his schooling in the public school system of Prince George's County, graduating from Gwynn Park High School in June 1951. He was a charter member of Gwynn Park's chapter of The Future Farmers of America. He was extremely active in FFA, achieving the Degree of Maryland Farmer in 1950 and their highest award, the Degree of American Farmer at their convention in Kansas City, Missouri in October 1953. He obtained his private pilots license in 1954. He entered the United States Army in February 1955 and went through basic training at Camp Gordon, Augusta, Georgia. After basic training he was transferred to Camp Hanford, Washington State. There he worked part time on the farm of Dick and Theresa Laurent during his off duty hours and began a lifelong friendship with them. He returned home to farming on an agricultural discharge in October of 1956. On July 27, 1958 he married his high school sweetheart, Adina Mae Via, daughter of Robert Milton and Virginia Woods Via. They had three children: Franklin Alexander (1959), Robert David (1962), and Adina Theresa (1963).

Franklin continued expanding and improving the farming operation by modern methods and means. At times, he farmed over one thousand acres, both owned and rented. On February 21, 1966, his parents deeded their purchase of the Ralph W. and Cordelia H. Brown farm in Benedict to he and Adina, later known as Serenity Farm Franklin and Adina engaged an architect to draft house plans for an anticipated new residence. A small A frame vacation home was built on the property so the family could spend weekends there.

On December 14, 1966, after a long illness, Adina died from complications associated with Hodgkin's Disease. She was buried in Trinity Memorial Gardens, Waldorf, Charles County. Franklin married Margaret Walker Lennox (nee Tallen, known as Rita) on August 21, 1970 (Marriage Records of Prince George's County, Maryland). This marriage ended in divorce in 1977. There were no children from this marriage.

On July 14, 1975 the Robinson family, Franklin, his second wife, Margaret, her daughter Margaret W. Lennox, Franklin, Jr., R. David, A. Theresa and Elizabeth B. Robinson, moved to Serenity Farm. On July 17, 1975 Franklin and Elizabeth sold the remaining acreage of Ferndale Farm to Brandywine Sand and Gravel, thus ending 131 years of ownership by the Robinson family. Elizabeth Bourne Robinson died on July 15, 1976 and was buried beside her husband at St. Paul's Church, Baden. Franklin married Hiltrud (Ceddie) Harris (nee Sedlacek) on July 15, 1978. (Robinson Family Bible) This marriage ended in divorce in 1986. There were no children from this marriage. Franklin married Diedre Gale Merhiage on April 19, 1989; this marriage ended in divorce in 1997. There were no children from this marriage. He married Remelda Henega Buenavista on January 13, 2007.

The Robinson family continue day-to-day operations of Serenity Farm. The land is well suited to the growing of tobacco and small grains, which crops, (with the exception of tobacco) along with a flock of sheep, are cultivated there to the present time. After the crop year 2001 the Robinson family took the tobacco buyout program offered by the state of Maryland and ceased growing tobacco. Franklin is active in farming and community affairs having served on the vestry of St. Thomas Episcopal Parish, the Board of Directors of MTGA, the Board of the Production Credit Association, the Boards of three schools, Holy Trinity Day School, Queen Anne School, and Calverton School, and numerous other organizations. Currently the farm consists of approximately 275 acres. In 1981 a state agricultural land preservation district of 222.755 acres was created. This was the first such district in Charles County and one of the first in the state of Maryland.

In 1985, R. David began a greenhouse business for the sale of spring flowering bedding plants and hanging baskets but currently works in conjunction with Farming 4 Hunger to grow produce for local area foodbanks. A. Theresa is involved in the daily running of the farm along with Franklin. Franklin, Jr., obtained a BFA degree in Drama from The Catholic University of America in 1981 and an MA from The American University in Film and Video Production in 1988. He was a civilian employee of the United States Air Force (USAF) from November 1981 to January 1986. He pursued a full time career as a professional actor from 1986-2007 and is a published author and produced playwright. The three siblings have been involved in community affairs, with R. David sitting on the Charles County Agricultural Preservation Board, A. Theresa having served on the vestry of Trinity Episcopal Parish, Charles County, and Franklin, Jr. having served on the vestries of both Trinity Parish and St. Thomas Episcopal Parish, the Board of the Washington Literacy Council, a choir member of the choir at St. Thomas Church, among other church related posts and as chair of the Charles County Historic Preservation Commission.

Via Family

The Via family traces its origins to the colony of Virginia, where the probable progenitor of the line, Amer Via, a French Huguenot, settled in Manakin Town, Albemarle County between 1670-1700. It is impossible to trace the Via line definitively due to the loss of Virginia county records during the Civil War.

The Via family line covered in this collection can be definitively traced to William Via of Fredericksville Parish, Louisa (later Albemarle) County, Virginia. The William Via family lived west of the present day town of Whitehall at the base of the Blue Ridge Mountains, an area commonly known as Sugar Hollow. William Via III served in the Virginia Line during the Revolutionary War. He married Mary Craig, daughter of Thomas Craig and Jane Jameson, on March 17, 1784. William died on June 27, 1836, in Albemarle County (Rev. War Pension Appl. 6363, National Archives). His son Thomas married Sally, widow Griffin, on January 1, 1811 (Albemarle County Marriage Records). Their son, Hiram Karl Via (1812-1893), married Harriet Ardenia Naylor by license dated March 7, 1836 (Albemarle County Marriage Records).

Hiram and Harriet's son, Robert St. Clair Via (1844-1925), served as a private in Company I, 7th Virginia Infantry of the Confederate States Army (CSA Military Service Records, National Archives). After the war he married his first cousin, Mary Frances Naylor, daughter of Samuel Chapman Naylor and Eliza Jane Gardner, on April 3, 1866 in Rockingham County (Rockingham County, Virginia, Marriage Records). Sometime between 1870 and 1872, they moved to Linn County, Missouri, and settled about seven miles from the town of Bucklin. Their son, Hiram Chapman Via (1872-1933), was born there. In 1893, the family returned to Virginia, and settled on a farm in Greene County near the town of Stanardsville.

Hiram Chapman Via operated a mill as well as a farm. On March 15, 1899, he married Adina Eleanor Eusebia Runkle, daughter of Milton D. L. Runkle and Roberta A. Beadles (Greene County, Virginia, Marriage Records). They had three children: Bernice Olive (1902-1999), Robert Milton (1906-1983), and Deward Daniel (1909-1977).

Robert moved to Washington, D.C.. In December 1927 he began employment with the Capitol Traction Company as a streetcar conductor (Robinson and Via Family Papers). During the early 1930s, Robert rented a townhouse at 715 A St., SE, where he lived with his sister Bernice V. McMullan and her son, William C. McMullan; his brother and sister in law, and his parents. Next door, at 717, lived the Moses Albright family, including Moses's stepdaughter Ida Virginia Woods (1914-2010), daughter of Jesse Lee Woods (1894-1918) and Donna Mae Barker (1896-1928) of Frederick County, Maryland. Robert and Virginia began a courtship and on September 3, 1932 were married in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland (Frederick County, Maryland, Marriage Records).

After their marriage, Robert and Virginia lived in various locations in the Washington metropolitan area. Their first child, Robert Delano, was born on March 24, 1933, and their second child, Adina Mae, was born on April 12, 1937. Virginia was employed outside the home while her children were in school. Her first job before her marriage had been with Woolworth's in Martinsburg, WV working the candy counter and then before the birth of her son at The Hecht Company on F St. in Washington, D.C.. After her marriage she worked briefly for the United States Postal Service in Capitol Heights, Maryland. Beginning in the 1950s, she worked for Charles of the Ritz as a receptionist in their beauty salon located in Woodward & Lothrop's F Street store in Washington, D.C.. She also worked as salon manager at the Charles of the Ritz salons in the Woodward & Lothrop stores in Seven Corners, Virginia, and Chevy Chase, Maryland. She retired due to health reasons in 1973.

On September 10, 1941, Robert and Virginia purchased Lot #43 in Woodlane subdivision in Prince George's County. (Book 619, pg. 12, Land Records of Prince George's County) A house was designed for them for this lot by Clyde E. Phillips. They did not construct a home on this property due to the outbreak of World War II. Robert, due to his employment in public transportation, did not serve with the Armed Services in World War II. On October 18, 1946, they purchased approximately thirty acres bordering on Burch's Creek near the towns of Clinton, also know as Surrattsville, and T.B. in Prince George's County from Joseph H. and M. Pauline Blandford. (Book 873, pg. 483, Land Records of Prince George's County) Over the next three years, hiring private contractors, doing work themselves, and with the help of Robert's brother Deward, they built the two story house designed by Phillips in 1941. They moved to the farm from Capitol Heights in 1949. Robert raised hogs, small grains and a crop of tobacco yearly on this farm and also maintained his job with Capitol Transit (formerly Capitol Traction). In 1954, Robert and Virginia purchased a farm of approximately 150 acres in Island Creek, Calvert County, Maryland. The intention was for Robert and his son to enter into a full time farming operation on expanded acreage. Robert D. Via, known as Delano, graduated from Gwynn Park High School in June 1951. Delano was a part-time farmer and pursued a career as a country and western singer with Bashful Bob and the Rhythm Rangers, he being Bashful Bob. He was employed in various jobs, and began a tour in the Army in 1953. By the time the Via family moved to Calvert County in 1956, he decided to pursue careers other than farming. He eventually traveled and worked in various parts of the United States. He married first Delores Cooper, second Gloria J. Irick, and finally Candice Marinelli in December 1974, they had two children, Robert Marin (1975) and Kirstin Marin (1976).

On June 1, 1956 Robert resigned from his position at Capitol Transit due to health reasons. He and his family moved to the farm in Island Creek, Calvert County where he began full time farming. He and Virginia sold the thirty-acre farm in Prince George's County on June 21, 1956 to Melvin C. and Geraldine H. Rardia. (Book 2003, pg. 564, Land Records of Prince George's County) Virginia continued her employment with Charles of the Ritz. Adina, now a graduate of Gwynn Park High School, was employed by the USAF at Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs, Maryland. They both commuted daily from Calvert County to their places of employment.

Robert farmed in Calvert County, raising hogs, cattle, small grains and tobacco. Over the course of the next twenty-seven years, Robert and Virginia sold smaller parcels off the farm. In 1974, Robert and Virginia built a small retirement home designed for them by Calvert Masonry Contractors. Robert died on December 22, 1983. He was buried beside his daughter Adina in Trinity Memorial Gardens. At the time of Robert's death, the farm consisted of 28.694 acres. In 1998, Virginia deeded the remainder of the farm, then less than six acres, to her grandson, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr. who sold all but a one-acre lot in April 1999.

Virginia continued to live on the farm in Calvert County, maintaining a small herd of cattle. In the fall of 1989 Franklin, Jr. went to live with her. In 1993, the onset of Alzheimer's Disease required her to move to Serenity Farm and take up residence with her granddaughter A. Theresa. Virginia participated in various studies on Alzheimer's Disease conducted by the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland beginning in 1992. She was profiled in the September 1997 issue of Washingtonian Magazine. In October of 1998 she moved to All American Senior Care in Brandywine, Maryland and in 1999 she moved to Morningside, an elderly care facility in Waldorf, Maryland. In 2002, she moved to St. Mary's Nursing Center in Leonardtown, Maryland. The remainder of the farm was sold in 1999 and 2002. She died January 14, 2010 and was buried at Trinity Memorial Gardens in Waldorf.

Adina Mae Via was born April 12, 1937 at the Homeopathic Hospital in Washington, D.C.. Adina grew up in Washington, D.C. attending public schools. She moved with her family to the Burch's Creek farm, Prince George's County, in 1949. She enrolled in the Prince George's County school system, and graduated from Gwynn Park High School in June of 1955. After graduation, she was employed by the USAF at Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs.

In July of 1956, she moved with her family to the Via farm in Island Creek, Calvert County. On July 27, 1958 she married Franklin A. Robinson at the Chapel of the Incarnation. They had three children: Franklin Alexander (1959), Robert David (1962) and Adina Theresa (1963). In the fall of 1958, she and Franklin took up residence in the home they had built on Ferndale Farm. She resigned from her position with the USAF in 1959.

On December 14, 1966, at Providence Hospital in Washington, DC, Adina died from complications due to Hodgkin's Disease. She had been battling this disease for many years prior to her death. She was buried in Trinity Memorial Gardens, Charles County.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

The Maryland Historical Society holds items (costume, farming related implements) related to the Robinson and Via families.
Separated Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry (Agriculture Collection) holds agricultural implements and artifacts associated with both the Robinson farms and the Via farm; the Division of Home and Community Life holds clothing, textiles (crib quilt), jewelry, cosmetics and Adina M. Robinson's sewing box and dress patterns; (Costume and Textiles Collection). See accession numbers: 1989.0688, 1990.0394, 1991.0010; 1991.0722, 1992.0184, 1992.0283, 1992.0321, 1992.0474, 1992.3106, 1994.0064, 1994.0304, 1997.0327, 1998.0038, 1998.0129, 2001.0196, 2002.0087, 2003.0015, 2005.0009.

Division of Armed Forces History (National Numismatics Collection) holds the Robert M. Via Trolley Token Collection.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center, by Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., in November 1993.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site to portions of collection, but some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment.
Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farms -- Maryland  Search this
Holidays  Search this
Amusement parks -- California  Search this
Children's parties  Search this
Rural women  Search this
Sheep ranches  Search this
Parks -- California  Search this
Rural families  Search this
Tobacco -- Harvesting  Search this
Tobacco -- Storage  Search this
Street-railroads  Search this
Street-railroads -- Employees  Search this
Travel  Search this
Urban transportation  Search this
Work and family  Search this
Tobacco curing  Search this
Women in agriculture  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Farm buildings  Search this
Family recreation  Search this
Family festivals  Search this
Farm ownership  Search this
Farm life -- 20th century  Search this
Farm management  Search this
Illiterate persons  Search this
Christmas  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Students  Search this
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Family farms  Search this
Easter  Search this
Electric railroads  Search this
Acting -- 1980-2000  Search this
Amateur films  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Agriculture -- 20th century -- Maryland  Search this
Tobacco farmers  Search this
Housewives -- United States  Search this
Weddings  Search this
Farmers  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 20th century
Postcards
Baby books
Phonograph records
Postcard albums
Ephemera
School yearbooks
Diaries
Albums
Housebooks
Photographs -- 19th century
Snapshots
Home movies
Family papers
Scrapbooks
Funeral registers
Cookbooks
Architectural drawings
Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0475
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0475
Online Media:

Kalpana Chawla Collection

Creator:
Chawla, Kalpana, 1961-2003  Search this
Names:
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Extent:
16.75 Cubic feet (12 flat boxes, 6 record center boxes, 6 document boxes, one map folder, and 25 VHS tapes.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
1980s -2000s
Summary:
This collection consists of 16 cubic feet of archival material relating to the astronaut career of Kalpana Chawla, 1980s-2000s.
This collection is in English.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 16 cubic feet of material relating to the astronaut career of Kalpana Chawla, 1980s-2000s. The collection includes the following types of archival material: photographs, correspondence, news articles and related documentation. The correspondence is between Kalpana Chawla and her immediate family, as well as condolence letters and e-mails received by the family after her tragic death.
Arrangement:
Arranged by type and shipment.
Biographical / Historical:
Kalpana Chawla was the first woman of Indian origin to become a NASA astronaut and fly on space missions. Born and educated in India (Karnal, Punjab), she came to the United States for graduate education in aerospace engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) and the University of Colorado. After earning a Ph.D. in 1988, she began work at NASA's Ames Research Center in computational fluid dynamics. Selected into the astronaut corps in 1994, she first flew as a mission specialist and robotic arm operator for the STS-87 microgravity research mission on Columbia in 1997. Her second flight on Columbia, the STS-107 research mission in 2003, ended tragically when the damaged orbiter disintegrated during its return through the atmosphere and the entire crew perished. Even before her untimely death, Chawla was a national hero in India, having risen from humble beginnings to attain the remarkable achievement of spaceflight. In India, schools and scholarships are named in her honor and her birthday is widely celebrated, and she is also memorialized in the United States. Her ashes were scattered in Zion National Park, Utah.
Provenance:
Sunita Chaudhry, Gift, 2020, NASM.2020.0004
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Space Shuttle Orbiter  Search this
Space flight  Search this
Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator Arm  Search this
Space Shuttles, Columbia (OV-102)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Kalpana Chawla Collection, NASM.2020.0004, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2020.0004
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2020-0004

Photos of Friends and Family

Collection Creator:
Tacla, Jorge, 1958-  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 23
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1980-2000
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is temporarily closed to researchers due to archival processing. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Jorge Tacla papers, 1966-2019. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jorge Tacla papers
Jorge Tacla papers / Series 7: Photographic Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-tacljorg-ref41

Harry Sternberg papers, 1927-2000

Creator:
Sternberg, Harry, 1904-2001  Search this
Subject:
Warner, Malcolm  Search this
Walker, Hudson D. (Hudson Dean)  Search this
Zigrosser, Carl  Search this
Wickey, Harry  Search this
Secunda, Arthur  Search this
Kent, Rockwell  Search this
Siqueiros, David Alfaro  Search this
Blume, Peter  Search this
Evergood, Philip  Search this
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Idyllwild School and Museum for the Arts  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Notes
Manuscripts
Interviews
Scrapbooks
Drafts (documents)
Sound recordings
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Drawings
Topic:
Printmakers -- California  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- California  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9477
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211675
AAA_collcode_sterharr
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211675
Online Media:

Michele Zackheim papers, 1976-2012, bulk 1980-2000

Creator:
Zackheim, Michele, 1941-  Search this
Subject:
College of Santa Fe  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Photographs
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Installations (Art)  Search this
Women artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Prints -- Technique  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)16180
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)366895
AAA_collcode_zackmich
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_366895
Online Media:

Charles Searles papers, 1953-2010

Creator:
Searles, Charles Robert, 1937-2004  Search this
Subject:
Spicer, Kathleen  Search this
Gordon, Russell Talbert  Search this
Edmonds, Walt  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Transcripts
Sketches
Topic:
African American artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)16053
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)310299
AAA_collcode_searchar
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_310299
Online Media:

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