Papers, films, and collected materials of 20th century comedian Julius Henry "Groucho" Marx.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: Correspondence, 1932-1977 is arranged alphabetically by correspondent. In 1965, Marx gave the Library of Congress a portion of his correspondence with well-known personages. The majority of the correspondence in this collection dates from the post World War II era (Marx's early correspondence is located at the Library of Congress.) This series includes correspondence from well-known persons, fans, admirers and friends. There is an extensive amount of correspondence with the screenwriter Nunnally Johnson. The series includes letters concerning public relations, Walt Disney caricatures of the Marx Brothers, The Grouchophile permission letters, unidentified correspondence and one letter from Chico Marx to Gummo Marx.
Series 2: Publications, Manuscripts and Print Articles by Marx, 1930-1958, undated is arranged chronologically with circa and undated material placed before the book manuscripts. This series contains written material by Groucho Marx excepting scripts and sketches. The series includes articles written by Marx for national magazines, various speeches and manuscripts for three of Marx's books.
Series 3: Scripts and Sketches, 1939-1959, undated, is arranged alphabetically with television scripts and sketches placed before full-length movie and theatre scripts. This series contains television, motion picture and theatre scripts and sketches, monologues, and related written material pertaining to works starring or featuring Marx. It also contains scripts for the one theatrical play written by Marx, A Time for Elizabeth.
Series 4: Scrapbooks, 1923-1978 is arranged chronologically and contains sixteen scrapbooks spanning Marx's career from his first Broadway success, I'll Say She Is to the year after his death. Of particular interest are the early scrapbooks for the Marx Brothers career, a scrapbook spanning the years 1934-1958 complied by Marx himself for his daughter Melinda, a photographic scrapbook compiled by the staff of Life magazine documenting a 1963 magazine layout of Marx and his then wife Eden Hartford Marx. There is also a scrapbook devoted to Chico Marx's brief career as a bandleader in the mid-late 1940s.
Series 5: Music,circa 1930-1975, undated is arranged alphabetically and includes original music manuscripts written by Marx and songs for Marx's shows and motion pictures and unidentified manuscripts perhaps written by Marx, his friends, his daughter Melinda or her music teacher. It also includes commercially produced sheet music purchased by Marx, copies of songs featured in Marx's motion pictures, music from "Minnie's Boys the theatrical production based on the Marx Brothers and their mother, an autographed copy of "Stay Down Here Where You Belong" by Irving Berlin, songs written by Marx published commercially, and Marx's copy of a collection of songs by Gilbert and Sullivan.
Series 6: Publicity, ca. 1911-1977 contains theatre programs, motion picture reviews, newspaper clippings both foreign and domestic, record album covers, a book cover and one poster of the Marx Brothers. There are items related specifically to Chico Marx. This series is arranged chronologically.
Series 7: Artwork and Photographs, 1911-1976, undatedis arranged according to subject matter and includes artwork, features cartoons and caricatures of the Marx Brothers by various artists including the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer art department and Hirschfield, sketches of the Marx Brothers by Sheila Smith, Peggy Jacobs, Bridget Crowe and Mark E. Williams (all probably fans of the Marx Brothers), various candid photographs, publicity photographs and studio portraits of Marx, his brothers, his immediate family, correspondence and related images and photographic negatives and transparencies.
Series 8: Personal and Family Documents, 1925-1975, undated contains documents relating to Marx's personal life and his brothers Chico Marx, Harpo Marx, and his daughter Melinda. Of particular interest is Marx's copy of the transcript of his divorce deposition from Eden Hartford Marx, two proclamations from the City of Los Angeles and a portfolio cover made for him by his daughter Melinda. This series is arranged chronologically.
Series 9: Audiovisual, 1929-1970 includes home movies of Groucho, brothers Harpo and Chico, and Groucho's wife and children as well as film and kinescope copies of television programs featureing Groucho as the star or guest.
The collection is organized into 9 series.
Series 1: Correspondence,1932-1977
Series 2: Publications, Manuscripts, and Print Articles by Groucho Marx, 1930-1958, undated
Series 3: Scripts and Sketches, 1939-1959, undated
Series 4: Scrapbooks, 1923-1978
Series 5: Music, circa 1930-1975, undated
Subseries 5.1: Original Music Manuscrpts
Subseries 5.2: Commercially Produced Sheet Music and Collections
Series 6: Publicity, circa 1911-1977
Series 7: Artwork and Photographs, 1911-1976, undated
Subseries 7.1: Artwork
Subseries 7.2: Photographs
Subseries 7.3: Photographic Negatives and Transparencies
Series 8: Personal and Family Documents, 1925-1978, undated
Series 9: Audiovisual
Subseries 9.1: Moving Images
Subseries 9.2: Sound Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
One of 20th century America's most enduring comics and cultural icons was Groucho Marx. Julius Henry Marx, better known as Groucho, was born in New York City on October 2, 1890. He was the third of five sons born to Minna and Samuel Marx. Minna's brother, Al Shean, was a part of the well-known vaudeville team, Gallagher and Shean.
The Marx family consisted of five boys: Leonard (Chico), Arthur (Harpo), Julius (Groucho), Milton (Gummo) and Herbert (Zeppo). The family lived in the Yorkville section of New York City. Groucho had a high soprano singing voice and his first job was singing in the choir of an Episcopal church. He joined Gus Hall and his vaudeville troupe when he was eleven. Groucho attended P.S. 86 but never went beyond the 7th grade. Minna organized the Three Nightingales with Groucho, Gummo and a girl singer. The girl was eventually replaced by a boy tenor and Harpo joined the troupe. The name of the group was changed to The Four Nightingales. Minnie acted as the group's manager. The group became known as the Marx Brothers with everyone except Gummo taking part in the act. The family moved to Chicago ca. 1904 where their grandfather lived.
The brothers toured the South and Midwest performing a vaudeville skit called, "Fun in Hiskule". It is noted that the comedy act began in Nacogdoches, Texas. The Marx Brothers first big success came in 1919 with their vaudeville act entitled "Home Again". In 1920, they were booked into the Palace Theatre in New York City and played there for thirteen months. They were later banished from the circuit due to a contract violation - they had accepted employment without Albee's permission. Groucho married Ruth Johnson on February 4th, 1920 and divorced her in July 1942. They had one daughter, Miriam and one son, Arthur born in 1921.
In 1923, they toured with the show, "I'll Say She Is", a collection of vaudeville routines that Groucho had written in collaboration. The show ran on Broadway for thirty-eight weeks. On December 8, 1925, the brothers (using their nicknames professionally for the first time) opened on Broadway in "The Cocoanuts". The play was written expressly for them by George S. Kaufman and Morris Ryskind with music by Irving Berlin. The brothers made a silent film circa 1924 called "Humor Risk" but it was never released. "Animal Crackers" opened on October 23, 1928. It was in this show that Groucho created one of his most famous characters, Captain Spaulding, the African explorer. Groucho was by this time paired with Margaret Dumont, stooge and foil, whom Groucho claimed never, really understood the Marx Brothers comedy.
On the strength of their success in "The Cocoanuts", they were signed to a film contract. In 1929, they made the film version of "The Cocoanuts" while performing "Animal Crackers" on the stage. Their mother, Minna Marx died the same year. The following year they starred in the film version of "Animal Crackers". Both films were made in New York City. In 1931, Groucho moved to Hollywood where The Marx Brothers made thirteen films. The brothers signed with Paramount Pictures and made "Monkey Business" (1931), "Horsefeathers" (1932) and "Duck Soup" (1933) while at the studio. In 1933, Zeppo left the troupe and Samuel Marx died.
In February 1934, Groucho and Chico teamed up in a radio program called, "Flywheel, Shyster and Flywheel", about characters who were comic lawyers. In March 1934, they replaced Ethel Waters on a weekly radio series sponsored by the American Oil Company. In 1935, the brothers starred in "A Night at the Opera" for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, a film produced by Irving Thalberg and a sequel, "A Day at the Races" (1937). In addition to working for MGM, the brothers starred in "Room Service" (1938) for the RKO studio.
The brothers discontinued the act in September 1941 but reunited for the film "A Night in Casablanca" (1946) and "Love Happy" (1949). Groucho found work as a solo artist making films for RKO, Warner Brothers and Paramount. In March 1943, the Pabst Blue Ribbon Brewery sponsored a half-hour variety show on CBS starring Groucho. Groucho married his second wife, Catherine "Kay" Gorcey in July 1945, they had one daughter Melinda. They divorced in 1951. Groucho continued to guest on many radio shows and continued to be at his peak when ad-libbing. John Guedel created "You Bet Your Life" for Groucho in October 1947. The show aired over the ABC radio network. It moved to CBS and in 1950 it was purchased by NBC and ran on television until 1961. The show ran for a total of four years on radio and eleven years on television. Groucho won radio's Peabody Award as best comedian on radio in 1948; an Emmy award in 1951; and the Motion Picture Daily Annual TV poll from 1951-1954.
Groucho was also musical. He played the guitar, but never as part of his shows. He was also an author and a playwright. He wrote the stage play, "A Time for Elizabeth", in 1948 with Norman Krasna. The play ran for eight days on Broadway but had longer runs in summer stock. In July 1954, Groucho married his third and final wife Eden Hartford. They divorced in December of 1969. In 1967, Simon and Schuster published excerpts from letters Groucho had donated to the Library of Congress in 1965. The book was entitled The Groucho Letters. Groucho authored other books, Groucho and Me (1959) his autobiography, The Secret Word is Groucho (1976) with Hector Arce and The Grouchophile (1976).
Groucho retired in 1961 but in 1972 with the help Erin Fleming, his companion and manager since 1969, he toured in a solo act. The show entitled, "An Evening with Groucho" played Carnegie Hall in New York City in May 1972. Groucho was made a Commander of the French Order of Arts and Letters at the Cannes Film Festival in 1972. In 1974, Groucho received an honorary Academy Award (Oscar) for the contribution of the Marx Brothers to the art of film. Marx died on August 19th, 1977.
Collection donated by Julius H. (Groucho) Marx, through the Estate of Groucho Marx, August 5, 1987.
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Reference copies of audiovisual materials must be used. Contact the Archives Center for information at firstname.lastname@example.org or 202-633-3270.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
The Smithsonian Institution Festival of American Folklife, held annually since 1967 on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., was renamed the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in 1998. The materials collected here document the planning, production, and execution of the annual Festival, produced by the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage (1999-present) and its predecessor offices (1967-1999). An overview of the entire Festival records group is available here: Smithsonian Folklife Festival records.
Scope and Contents note:
This collection documents the planning, production, and execution of the 1988 Festival of American Folklife. Materials may include photographs, audio recordings, motion picture film and video recordings, notes, production drawings, contracts, memoranda, correspondence, informational materials, publications, and ephemera. Such materials were created during the Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., as well as in the featured communities, before or after the Festival itself.
Arranged in 6 series.
Series 1: Program Books, Festival Publications, and Ephemera
Series 2: American Folklore Society Centennial
Series 3: Festival Music Stage
Series 4: Ingenuity and Tradition: The Common Wealth of Massachusetts
Series 5: Migration to Metropolitan Washington: Making a New Place Home
Series 6: Music from the Peoples of the Soviet Union
The Festival of American Folklife, held annually since 1967 on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., was renamed the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in 1998.
The 1988 Festival of American Folklife was produced by the Smithsonian Office of Folklife Programs and cosponsored by the National Park Service.
For more information, see Smithsonian Folklife Festival records.
The 1988 Festival celebrated the centennial of the American Folklore Society, founded one hundred years earlier because of the need to document and study cultures that were seen as disappearing. Much of the Society's attention today, however, is engaged in the documentation and interpretation of emerging traditions and cultural expressions. Folklorists work in inner cities, conduct research on occupational groups, analyze processes of traditionalization and cooperate with other professionals in devising natural conservation and historical preservation strategies, which also promote cultural continuity, equity and integrity. Visitors to the 1988 Festival could learn about what it is that folklorists do and what impacts they have on the communities with which they work.
The other living exhibitions that made up this year's Festival also provided ample illustrations of this same view of the traditional. The Massachusetts program told a paradigmatic American story. Gay Head Wampanoag, Yankee settlers, Afro American migrants, and immigrants from Italy, Greece, Poland, the Cape Verde Islands, Puerto Rico, and Southeast Asia have not only preserved their traditions; through ingenious acts of individual and community creativity they have adapted them and endowed them with new meanings, as circumstances have changed. The Metropolitan Washington program pointed to the heightened consciousness of cultural issues associated with the migration experience. The program asked how immigrants from El Salvador, Ethiopia, China, Trinidad and Tobago, as well as domestic Anglo and Afro American groups historically migrating from nearby states, discard, reinvent, and reconstitute their traditions as they actively make a new place home. A varied contingent of musicians and performers from several republics of the Soviet Union demonstrated how truly ancient traditions nurtured in various pastoral, tribal, and religious environments have not merely survived but actually flourished in contemporary Soviet life. Also at the Festival were American musicians who, as part of a groundbreaking cultural exchange with the Soviet Union, would later travel to Moscow to participate in the International Folklore Festival in August 1988 and be reunited with the Soviet musicians participating in the Smithsonian's Festival.
The 1988 Festival took place for two five-day weeks (June 23-27 and June 30-July 4) between Madison Drive and Jefferson Drive and between 10th Street and 14th Street, south of the National Museum of American History and the National Museum of Natural History (see site plan).
The 1988 Program Book included schedules and participant lists for each program; the Program Book essays provided a larger context for the Festival presentations, extending beyond the traditions actually presented at the 1988 Festival.
The Festival was co-presented by the Smithsonian Institution and National Park Service and organized by the Office of Folklife Programs.
Office of Folklife Programs
Richard Kurin, Acting Director; Diana Parker, Festival Director; Anthony Seeger, Curator, Folkways Records; Thomas Vennum, Jr., Senior Ethnomusicologist; Peter Seitel, Senior Folklorist; Marjorie Hunt, Phyllis M. May-Machunda, Heliana Portes de Roux, Frank Proschan, Nicholas R. Spitzer, Folklorists; Jeffrey Place, Assistant Archivist
National Park Service
William Penn Mott, Jr., Director; Manus J. Fish, Jr., Regional Director, National Capital Region
Forms Part Of:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife forms part of the Smithsonian Folklife Festival records .
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: Papers
1967 Festival of American Folklife records - [Ongoing]
Related Archival Materials note:
Within the Rinzler Archives, related materials may be found in various collections such as the Ralph Rinzler papers and recordings, the Lily Spandorf drawings, the Diana Davies photographs, the Robert Yellin photographs, and the Curatorial Research, Programs, and Projects collection. Additional relevant materials may also be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives concerning the Division of Performing Arts (1966-1983), Folklife Program (1977-1980), Office of Folklife Programs (1980-1991), Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies (1991-1999), Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage (1999-present), and collaborating Smithsonian units, as well as in the administrative papers of key figures such as the Secretary and respective deputies. Users are encouraged to consult relevant finding aids and to contact Archives staff for further information.
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or email@example.com for additional information.
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
This collection, which dates from circa 1930, contains 19 black-and-white photographic prints and 9 black-and-white negatives depicting the family of Mrs. Ruth Marie Hudson, as well as the black community in Eustis, Florida. The images portray African American men, women and children.
The city of Eustis is located in Lake County, Florida. Traditionally African-American neighborhoods in the city include Egypt and East Town. In 2009, the City of Eustis received a grant from the Florida Division of Historical Resources to complete a historical and architectural survey of the two neighborhoods.
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at firstname.lastname@example.org.