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Aaron Draper Shattuck papers

Creator:
Shattuck, Aaron Draper, 1832-1928  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1810-1983
Summary:
The papers of Aaron Draper Shattuck measure 0.8 linear feet and date from 1810 to 1983. The papers document the activities of Aaron Draper Shattuck and his son, Walter, and include biographical material, writings, correspondence, notes, financial material, artwork, printed material, photographs, and a sample canvas stretcher.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Aaron Draper Shattuck measure 0.8 linear feet and date from 1810 to 1983. The papers document the activities of Aaron Draper Shattuck and his son, Walter, and include biographical material, writings, correspondence, notes, financial material, artwork, printed material, photographs, and a sample canvas stretcher.

The collection includes biographical material, a birth certificate of William Shattuck and an inventory of Lincoln Family Estate. Writing consists of a diaries that were kept by Aaron Shattuck and his son Walter. Correspondence includes Aaron Shattuck's acceptance letter to the National Academy of Design in 1858, descriptions of travel along the Maine coast and in New England, and letters concerning Shattuck's paintings. Financial material consists of account books, sales receipts for paintings, and receipts from F.W. Devoe & Co. for stretcher keys. Notes are comprised of writings concerning the Shattuck family that were compiled by the donors, Katherine and Eugene Emigh. Art work contains an etching (12.3 x 14.3 cm.) of the painting "White Hills in October," and nine sketchbooks (10.6 x 21.2 cm. or smaller), containing pencil drawings of landscapes and coastal scenes of Vermont and Maine, especially in the White Mountains. One of the sketchbooks is Walter's, and one contains work by both father and son. Printed material includes clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, a copy of Henry Alken's 1849 book, "The Art and Practice of Etching," with an inscription to Shattuck by William Hart. The book contains four etchings, four aquatints, and one National Academy of Design menu with a watercolor drawing. Photographs show Aaron Shattuck and the Shattuck home and garden in West Granby, Connecticut. Other materials include a stretched canvas displaying an advertisement and a sample of Shattuck's Patent Stretcher Key.
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of this collecion the papers are arranged as one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Aaron Draper Shattuck (1832-1928) was a landscape painter and inventor who worked in New York City and West Granby, Connecticut. Born in Francetown, New Hampshire, Shattuck studied art in Boston under portrait painter Alexander Ransom and at the National Academy of Design in 1852, becoming an academician in 1861. The principal subjects of his works are landscapes and pastoral scenes. Shattuck was also the inventor of the "Shattuck" stretcher keys for artists' canvases. In 1860, he married Marian Colman, sister of painter Samuel Colman, and descendant of the John Lincoln family. Their children were William, Walter, Edwin, Isabel, Helen, and Bertha. Shattuck maintained a studio in New York from 1856 until circa 1870, then moved to Granby, Connecticut.
Provenance:
The Aaron Draper Shatutuck papers were donated by Katherine and Eugene Emigh, 1983-1984. Katherine Emigh is Shattuck's granddaughter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Citation:
Aaron Draper Shattuck papers, 1810-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.shataaro
See more items in:
Aaron Draper Shattuck papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-shataaro

Aaron Draper Shattuck Papers

Collection Creator:
Shattuck, Aaron Draper, 1832-1928  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Linear feet (Boxes 1-2)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1810-1983
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Aaron Draper Shattuck contains biographical material, a birth certificate of William Shattuck and an inventory of Lincoln Family Estate. Writing consists of diaries that were kept by Aaron Shattuck and his son Walter. Correspondence includes Aaron Shattuck's acceptance letter to the National Academy of Design in 1858, descriptions of travel along the Maine coast and in New England, and letters concerning Shattuck's paintings. Financial material consists of account books, sales receipts for paintings, and receipts from F.W. Devoe & Co. for stretcher keys. Notes are comprised of writings concerning the Shattuck family that were compiled by the donors, Katherine and Eugene Emigh. Art work contains an etching (12.3 x 14.3 cm.) of the painting "White Hills in October," and nine sketchbooks (10.6 x 21.2 cm. or smaller), containing pencil drawings of landscapes and coastal scenes of Vermont and Maine, especially in the White Mountains. One of the sketchbooks is Walter's, and one contains work by both father and son. Printed material includes clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, a copy of Henry Alken's 1849 book, "The Art and Practice of Etching," with an inscription to Shattuck by William Hart. The book contains four etchings, four aquatints, and one National Academy of Design menu with a watercolor drawing. Photographs show Aaron Shattuck and the Shattuck home and garden in West Granby, Connecticut. Other materials include a stretched canvas displaying an advertisement and a sample of Shattuck's Patent Stretcher Key.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Collection Citation:
Aaron Draper Shattuck papers, 1810-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.shataaro, Series 1
See more items in:
Aaron Draper Shattuck papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-shataaro-ref1

Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture records

Creator:
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture  Search this
Names:
Bishop, Isabel, 1902-1988  Search this
Cummings, Willard Warren, 1915-1975  Search this
Fortess, Karl E. (Karl Eugene), 1907-1993  Search this
Gonzalez, Xavier, 1898-1993  Search this
Simon, Sidney, 1917-1997  Search this
Extent:
35.42 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1945-2013
Summary:
The Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture records measure 35.42 linear feet and date from 1945 to 2013. The paper records of the school document the period from circa 1945 to 1977 and consist of administrative records, financial records, visiting artist files, faculty files, student files, and photographic material. Also included are motion picture films by Jack Eastman and Karl Fortess, dating from circa 1950 to 1968, showing the school's campus and faculty, staff, and students at work and leisure. A large portion of the collection consists of the Skowhegan Lecture Archives, a sound recording archive of lectures given by artists speaking at the school between 1952 and 2013.
Scope and Contents:
The Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture records measure 35.42 linear feet and date from 1945 to 2013. The paper records of the school document the period from circa 1945 to 1977 and consist of administrative records, financial records, visiting artist files, faculty files, student files, and photographic material. Also included are motion picture films by Jack Eastman and Karl Fortess, dating from circa 1950 to 1968, showing the school's campus and faculty, staff, and students at work and leisure., artists, and students. A large portion of the collection consists of the Skowhegan Lecture Archives, a sound recording archive of lectures given by artists speaking at the school between 1952 and 2013.

Administrative records include files for the school's board, exhibitions and benefits, fundraising, government agencies, publicity, and other office files. Financial records consist of accounting procedure documents, bills paid, budgets, student drawing accounts, payroll, real estate expenses, and reports.

Files for visiting artists such as Philip Pearlstein, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, and William Zorach contain correspondence, lecture notes and transcripts, and records regarding the broadcast of artists' lectures. Faculty files consist of correspondence, faculty lists, and other material for Isabel Bishop, Xavier Gonzalez, Sidney Simon, and other faculty members. Student files include alumni records, correspondence, recommendations and rejections, and scholarship material.

Photographs and negatives are of Janet Fish, Paul Rasika, Alice Neel, Bette Davis, Jacob Lawrence, Roy Lichtenstein, faculty and visiting artists, and students at events, lectures, social gatherings, and in class.

Motion picture films include silent, color footage of the school's campus, working faculty and students, and social activities. Footage includes both edited footage and outtakes (footage shot but not used in the edited piece), that form three distinct sets of films from three different periods: 16 mm films from the 1950s, 8 mm films from 1964-1965, and super 8 mm films from 1966-1968. Based on handwritten notes on the original film containers, Karl Fortess was the creator of the 16 mm films, and Jack Eastman was the creator of the 8 mm film. It is unclear who created the super 8 mm films, but some of the footage appears to have been shot by Willard Cummings.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series.

Series 1: Administrative Records, 1945-1977 (Boxes 1-5, 12, OV 31; 5.0 linear feet)

Series 2: Financial Records, 1945-1967 (Boxes 5-8, 12, OV 31; 3.0 linear feet)

Series 3: Visiting Artists Files, 1948-1965 (Boxes 8; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Faculty Files, 1946-1965 (Boxes 8-9; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 5: Student Files, 1946-1964 (Boxes 9-12; 2.0 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographic Materials, 1955-1977 (Boxes 11-12; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Motion Picture Films, circa 1955-1970 (Box 11, film cans FC 13-30; 1.9 linear feet)

Series 8: Skowhegan Lecture Archives, 1952-2013
Biographical / Historical:
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture (est. 1946) is an art school and artist residency in Skowhegan, Maine. Since the school's beginnings, it has attracted prominent visiting artists and faculty members such as Jacob Lawrence, Philip Pearlstein, Ben Shahn, Isabel Bishop, and Yasuo Kuniyoshi.

The school was founded by Willard W. Cummings, Henry Varnum Poor, Sidney Simon, and Charles Cutler. While serving in Europe during World War II on The War Art Unit project, a project that sent artists to battle zones in order to record their impressions, they noticed that the European system of studying art allowed students intimate access to artists, their studios, and creative life. The Skowhegan School founders wanted to create a similar intimacy between students and artists in the U.S. After returning to the U.S., Cummings, Poor, Simon, and Cutler built an art program that included visiting artists and an artist lecture series that enabled students to interact with professional, well-established artists. In 1960, the school's administration was reorganized due to a fire that burned down the barn, which served as a fresco painting studio, and other nearby buildings. The reorganization introduced trustees and other facets of the administration that were needed to sustain the school's funding and operations.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming on reels N68-27-N68-30, N68-78-N68-80, and N68-96-N68-97. Loaned materials were returned to the donor and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture records were lent to the Archives of American Art for microfilming in 1968. The Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture via Willard Cummings and Jack Eastman donated portions of the lent material from 1968 to 1977. The lecture archive was donated between 2002 to 2014 via the Executive Director.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Rights:
Skowhegan Lecture Archives: Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Skowhegan in addition to the copyright holders. A list of copyright holders is available at the Archives of American Art Washington, D.C. office. Transcripts may not be duplicated.

The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art, American -- Study and teaching  Search this
Function:
Art Schools -- Maine -- Skowhegan
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture records, 1945-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.skowscho
See more items in:
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-skowscho

Alford -- Little Sutton

Landscape architect:
Wilcox, Edmund G.  Search this
Marconica  Search this
Provenance:
Lenox Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Little Sutton (Alford, Massachusetts)
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Berkshire County -- Alford
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a work sheet, garden plan, vegetable garden diary (1943); copies of photographs, and copy of section in Herb Garden Design.
General:
Little Sutton, approximately 80 acres, was built in 1941 as a summer home. A garden plot, large enough to feed the family, was planted north of the house soon after it was built. The south terrace and porch has an outdoor fireplace and is planted with a yellow sedum This is bordered with low field stone walls and edged with roses and blue flowering bulbs. The owners added a square herb garden on the east side of the house near the kitchen door in 1942. In 1956, the main garden (now called the Terraced Garden) drawings were finalized and planted as well as the addition of a swimming pool to the south of the house. The bog garden and "bog pool," added in 1958, is shielded by Mugho pines, hemlock and junipers. Three years later, a more formal herb garden, two lathe houses, a fountain, two terraces edged in red brick rick rack fashion, and an entrance garden were added. The terrace near the house takes full advantage of the view of Mount Everett to the south and west.
Persons associated with the property include:Harding and Seaver (house architects, 1941); Marconica (landscape architects, 1941-?); Edmund G. Wilco (landscape architect, 1952); Sermini and Sons (stone masons); Roy Hare, Jonathan H. Rose (architects, 1963-1997); Santogostino (artist of large garden mosaic)
Related Materials:
Little Sutton related holdings consist of 1 folder (19 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Massachusetts -- Alford  Search this
Formal gardens  Search this
Herb gardens  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File MA345
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Massachusetts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref17551

Lucy R. Lippard papers

Creator:
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Names:
Addison Gallery of American Art  Search this
Alliance for Cultural Democracy  Search this
Art Workers Coalition  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Political Art Documentation/Distribution (Organization)  Search this
Printed Matter, Inc.  Search this
Studio International (Firm)  Search this
University of Colorado -- Faculty  Search this
Women's Caucus for Art  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Chicago, Judy, 1939-  Search this
Darboven, Hanne  Search this
Edelson, Mary Beth  Search this
Hammond, Harmony  Search this
Henes, Donna  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-  Search this
Judd, Donald, 1928-  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Pearson, Henry, 1914-2006  Search this
Stevens, May  Search this
Extent:
56.5 Linear feet
0.454 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Sound recordings
Interviews
Photographs
Date:
1930s-2007
bulk 1960-1990
Summary:
The papers of New York and New Mexico writer, art critic, and curator, Lucy R. Lippard, measure 56.5 linear feet and 0.454 GB and date from the 1930s to 2007, with the bulk of the material dating from the 1960s to the 1990s. Over half of the collection consists of correspondence files documenting Lippard's professional relationships with artists, writers, galleries, art institutions, and political organizations, and her interest in conceptual and minimalist art, feminism and political activism. Also found are Lippard's notes and writings including sound recordings and interviews, teaching and exhibition files, printed and digital material, several works of art, and photographs of artwork and artists. Scattered throughout the collection are a small number of records concerning Lippard's personal life. An addition of 3.0 linear feet donated 2015 includes subject files on feminist and conceptual art as well as land use, development, and local politics and history in New Mexico.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York and New Mexico writer, art critic, and curator, Lucy R. Lippard, measure 56.5 linear feet and 0.454 GB and date from the 1930s to 2007, with the bulk of the material dating from the 1960s to the 1990s. Over half of the collection consists of correspondence files documenting Lippard's professional relationships with artists, writers, galleries, art institutions, and political organizations, and her interest in conceptual and minimalist art, feminism and political activism. Also found are Lippard's notes and writings including sound recordings and interviews, teaching and exhibition files, printed and digital material, several works of art, and photographs of artwork and artists. Scattered throughout the collection are a small number of records concerning Lippard's personal life. An addition of 3.0 linear feet donated 2015 includes subject files on feminist and conceptual art as well as land use, development, and local politics and history in New Mexico.

A small amount of biographical material comprises resumes and an address book.

Correspondence files document all aspects of Lippard's professional life including her relationships with artists such as Carl Andre, Judy Chicago, Hanne Darboven, Ray Johnson, Sol LeWitt, and Henry Pearson; feminist artists including Mary Beth Edelson, Harmony Hammond, Donna Henes, and May Stevens; political and art-related activist groups such as Alliance for Cultural Democracy, Art Workers Coalition, Political Art Documentation/Distribution, Printed Matter, and Women's Caucus for Art; galleries and museums including Addison Gallery of American Art and the Museum of Modern Art, and publishers including Art International and Art Forum. The series also traces the development of Lippard's involvement in activist causes including censorship and the rights of artists, Central America and the impact of U.S. policy on the region, and equality and reproductive rights for women, as well as her interest in conceptual and minimalist art. The series includes scattered artwork and photographs of artists.

Writings are primarily by Lippard and include correspondence, manuscript drafts, extensive notes, and publication records for some of her best-known books such as The Graphic Work of Philip Evergood (1966), Six Years: The Dematerialization of the Art Object (1973), Eva Hesse (1976), Ad Reinhardt (1985), and Mixed Blessings: New Art in a Multicultural America (1990), as well as essays for publications such as Art Forum and Studio International and contributions to exhibition catalogs. Also found are edited transcripts from conferences, symposia and interviews conducted by and of Lippard, some audio recordings of interviews and symposia, including an interview with Donald Judd, and notes and typescripts for lectures and speeches.

A small number of files document Lippard's teaching work during the 1970s and 1980s, primarily at the University of Colorado, Boulder where she taught several courses and seminars.

Exhibition files document Lippard's involvement with exhibitions she helped to organize or curate such as A Different War: Vietnam in Art (1989-1991) 557,087 and 955,000 (1969, 1970), 2,972, 453 (1971) c.7,500 (1973-1974) and those for which she wrote catalog contributions.

Printed material includes a collection of articles written by Lippard and a small amount of material concerning events, such as speaking engagements, in which Lippard was involved. Other printed material reflects Lippard's wide range of artistic, political and activist interests and documents exhibitions and performances and the activities of art-related and political groups. Material includes many exhibition catalogs, announcements, invitations, printed posters, news clippings, journal articles, brochures, pamphlets and other publications.

Artwork includes sixteen items by unidentified artists, including two by children. Photographs consist primarily of photographs of works of art in addition to a small number of photos of exhibition installations.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as eight series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1960s-circa 1980s (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1950s-2006 (Boxes 1-28, 51, OVs 54-63; 28.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1930s-1990s (Boxes 28-41, 51-52, OVs 64-66; 13.24 linear feet, ER01; 0.454 GB)

Series 4: Teaching Files, 1966-1993 (Boxes 41, 52; 0.76 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibitions, 1960s-1990s (Boxes 42-45, 52, OVs 67-68; 4.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1940s-2007 (Boxes 45-49, 52, OVs 69-77; 5.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork and Ephemera, circa 1960s-circa 1990s (Boxes 50, 53; 4 folders)

Series 8: Photographs, 1950s-circa 1990s (Boxes 50, 53, OV 71; 1.0 linear foot)
Biographical / Historical:
New York and New Mexico writer and art critic, Lucy R. Lippard, is the curator of numerous exhibitions and the author of over twenty-four books and other writings that trace the emergence of minimalist and conceptual art and document Lippard's commitment to feminism and political activism.

Born in New York City in 1937, Lippard earned a B.A. from Smith College in 1958 and an M.A. in 1962 from New York University's Institute of Fine Arts. In the 1960s she began writing art criticism for the journals Art International and Artforum. In 1966 she curated the landmark exhibition Eccentric Abstraction at the Fischbach Gallery in New York City. Lippard then curated the first of four defining conceptual art exhibitions that became known as her "numbers" shows, each titled after the populations of the cities in which they took place, with catalogs in the form of a set of 10 x 15 cm index cards. Opening at the Seattle Art Museum in 1969, 557,087 was followed by 955,000 in Vancouver, Canada, a few months later. 2,972,453 was held at the Centro de Arte y Comunicacíon in Buenos Aires in 1971 and c.7500 opened in Valencia, California, in 1973-1974 before traveling to several other venues in the United States and Europe.

Lippard's first book, The Graphic Work of Philip Evergood was published in 1966, followed by Pop Art the same year, and a collection of her early essays, Changing, in 1971. Six Years: The Dematerialization of the Art Object (1973) and From the Center: Feminist Essays on Women's Art (1976) documented the emergence of conceptual art and the early years of feminist art respectively. In 1976 Lippard published her seminal book on the life and work of Eva Hesse.

Between 1977 and 1978 Lippard lived on a farm in Devon, England, and worked on a novel, The First Stone, about the role of politics in the lives of three generations of women. During her walks across the English countryside she became interested in landscape art and conceived of her book Overlay: Contemporary Art and the Art of Prehistory which was subsequently published in 1983. Other books include Get the Message?: A Decade Of Art For Social Change (1984), Ad Reinhardt (1985), and Mixed Blessings: New Art in a Multicultural America (1990). Lippard has also written regular columns on art and politics for the Village Voice, In These Times and Z Magazine, and has been a contributing editor of Art in America.

Lippard was radicalized during a trip to Argentina in 1968 when she was invited to be a juror at the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires. On her return to the United States she became heavily involved in anti-war activities and the Art Workers Coalition. She is a co-founder of several feminist and artist organizations including the feminist collective Heresies, which produced Heresies: A Feminist Journal on Art and Politics from 1977-1992, Ad Hoc Women Artists, Alliance for Cultural Democracy, Artists Call Against U.S. Intervention in Central America, Women's Action Coalition, and Women's Art Registry. In 1976 she was a founder of Printed Matter, a New York nonprofit dedicated to producing artists' publications. She also worked closely with Franklin Furnace, an artist-run space devoted to the promotion of artists' books, installation art, and video and performance art, and served on the organization's International Committee.

Lippard has been a visiting professor at the School of Visual Arts, the University of Colorado, Boulder, and the University of Queensland, Australia, and was Eminent Artist in Residence at the University of Wyoming Department of Art in 2015. She has received honorary doctorates in fine arts from Maine College of Art, the Massachusetts College of Art, Moore College of Art, San Francisco Art Institute, and others, and awards including a Guggenheim Fellowship, two National Endowment for the Arts grants in criticism, the Smith College Medal, the ArtTable Award for Distinguished Service to the Visual Arts, and the Bard College Center for Curatorial Studies Award for Excellence.

Lippard has lived in New Mexico since 1992 and works as a freelance writer and speaker.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Lucy Lippard conducted in 2011 March 15, by Sue Heinemann, for the Archives of American Art's Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts project, funded by a grant from the A G Foundation.
Provenance:
Lucy R. Lippard donated her papers in several increments between 1972-1995, and 2006.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Lucy R. Lippard papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Artists -- Political activity  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Conceptual art  Search this
Art criticism -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Art critics  Search this
Minimal art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Photographs
Citation:
Lucy R. Lippard papers, 1930s-2007, bulk 1960s-1990s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lipplucy
See more items in:
Lucy R. Lippard papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lipplucy
Online Media:

Photographs of Southern California artists / Arnold Chanin, photographer

Photographer:
Chanin, Arnold  Search this
Names:
Arnold, Chuck -- Photographs  Search this
Arnold, Florence M. (Florence Millner), 1900-1994 -- Photographs  Search this
Bassler, Robert Covey, 1935- -- Photographs  Search this
Bell, Larry, 1939- -- Photographs  Search this
Bengston, Billy Al -- Photographs  Search this
Benjamin, Karl -- Photographs  Search this
Berlant, Anthony -- Photographs  Search this
Bieser, Natalie, 1948- -- Photographs  Search this
Block, Irving -- Photographs  Search this
Brigante, Nicholas P., 1895-1989  Search this
Burkhardt, Hans Gustav, 1904-1994 -- Photographs  Search this
Casanova, Aldo John, 1929- -- Photographs  Search this
Chann, George, 1915- -- Photographs  Search this
Crutchfield, William, 1932- -- Photographs  Search this
Csengeri, George -- Photographs  Search this
Cytron, Dan -- Photographs  Search this
Danieli, Edie -- Photographs  Search this
Danieli, Fidel -- Photographs  Search this
De Miranda, Yvonne -- Photographs  Search this
Diebenkorn, Richard, 1922-1993 -- Photographs  Search this
Dimitrov, Lucienne Bloch -- Photographs  Search this
Dimitrov, Steve -- Photographs  Search this
Eversley, Frederick -- Photographs  Search this
Faiss, Fritz -- Photographs  Search this
Falkenstein, Claire, 1908-1997 -- Photographs  Search this
Finch, Keith -- Photographs  Search this
Finkelstein, Max, 1915- -- Photographs  Search this
Fricano, Tom S., 1930- -- Photographs  Search this
Gebhardt, Harold, 1907- -- Photographs  Search this
Gebhardt, Peter Martin, 1943- -- Photographs  Search this
Gibson, George, 1904- -- Photographs  Search this
Gino, Robert -- Photographs  Search this
Gustavus Vasa -- Photographs  Search this
Hanzakos, Claire -- Photographs  Search this
Hanzakos, Mike -- Photographs  Search this
Hartman, Donald -- Photographs  Search this
Jackman, Sandra -- Photographs  Search this
Johnston, Ynez, 1920- -- Photographs  Search this
Kohn, Edmond -- Photographs  Search this
Kohn, Gabriel, 1910-1975 -- Photographs  Search this
Krasnow, Peter, 1886-1979 -- Photographs  Search this
Lagerberg, Don -- Photographs  Search this
Levi, Linda -- Photographs  Search this
Macdonald-Wright, Stanton, 1890-1973 -- Photographs  Search this
Mains, Brian -- Photographs  Search this
Mason, LaNelle -- Photographs  Search this
McLaughlin, John, 1898- -- Photographs  Search this
Mesches, Arnold, 1923- -- Photographs  Search this
Miller, Judith, 1939- -- Photographs  Search this
Mullican, Lee, 1919-1998 -- Photographs  Search this
Murrill, Gwynn, 1942- -- Photographs  Search this
Plagens, Peter -- Photographs  Search this
Richards, Bruce, 1948- -- Photographs  Search this
Saar, Betye -- Photographs  Search this
Schifrin, Arnold, 1926-1994 -- Photographs  Search this
Schwarts, Jilda -- Photographs  Search this
Steinberg, Harry -- Photographs  Search this
Strombotne, James -- Photographs  Search this
Stussy, Jan, 1921- -- Photographs  Search this
Stussy, Maxine Kim, 1923- -- Photographs  Search this
Thompson, J. B. -- Photographs  Search this
Treiman, Joyce -- Photographs  Search this
Tunberg, William -- Photographs  Search this
Valerio, James -- Photographs  Search this
Vilumsons, Alex -- Photographs  Search this
Wagner, Gordon, 1915- -- Photographs  Search this
Woelffer, Emerson, 1914- -- Photographs  Search this
Wullner-Faiss, Janet -- Photographs  Search this
Extent:
121 Photographic prints (b&w ; color, 8 x 10 in. 11 x 14 in.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Date:
1969-2007
Scope and Contents:
Photographs of Southern California artists, taken by Arnold Chanin.
Artists include Chuck Arnold, Florence Arnold, Robert Bassler, Larry Bell, Billy Al Bengston, Karl Benjamin, Anthony Berlant, Natalie Bieser, Irving Block, Nicholas Brigante, Hans Burkhardt, Aldo Casanova, George Chann, William Crutchfield, George Csengeri, Dan Cytron, Yvonne De Miranda, Edie Danieli, Fidel Danieli, Richard Diebenkorn, Lucienne Bloch Dimitrov and Steve Dimitrov, David Elder, Linda Elder, Fred Eversley, Fritz Faiss, Claire Falkenstein, Keith Finch, Max Finkelstein, Tom Fricano, Hal Gebhardt, Peter Gebhardt, George Gibson, Robert Gino, Claire Hanzakos, Mike Hanzakos, Donald Hartman, Sandra Jackman, Ynez Johnston, Kaija Keel, Peter Krasnow, Edmond Kohn, Gabriel Kohn, Don Lagerberg, Linda Levi, Stanton Macdonald-Wright, Brian Mains, La Nelle Mason, John McLaughlin, Vasa Velizar Mihich, Arnold Mesches, Judith Miller, Lee Mullican, Gwynn Murrill, Peter Plagens, Bruce Richards, Betye Saar, Arnold Schifrin, Jilda Schwartz, Harry Steinberg, James Strombotne, Jan Stussy, Maxine Kim Stussy, J. B. Thompson, Joyce Trieman, William Tunberg, James Valerio, Alex Vilumsons, Gordon Wagner, Emerson Woelffer, and Janet Wullner-Faiss. Also included is one photograph of Kaija Keel, Claire Hanzakos and Jilda Schwartz and an exhibition brochure, undated, from the Arts Options Foundation "War & Peace & Clay", regarding sculpture by Keel, Hanzakos and Schwartz.
Photographs of Diebenkorn and Hans Burkhardt, one 11 x 14 in. collage print of Diebenkorn. Three of the photographs and the collage are duplicates of filmed photographs on reel 1818. Also included is one photograph of Chanin by Steve Cohen.
Biographical / Historical:
Arnold Chanin (1934-) is a photographer from Encino, Calif.
Provenance:
Donated 1975-2007 by Arnold Chanin. Additions are expected.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Photographers -- California  Search this
Topic:
Artists -- California -- Photographs  Search this
Photography  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.chanarno
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-chanarno

That Ivory Look / so clear..so fresh..so easily yours [Print advertising.] Ladies Home Journal

Advertiser:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (col., 34.5 x 26.5 cm.)
Container:
Box 10, Folder 18
Type:
Archival materials
Tear sheets
Print advertising
Photographs
Date:
1957
Scope and Contents:
Main illistration: Baby in red outfit with doll, with Christmas decorations in background. Smaller image of a woman's face.
Published Jan. 1957.
Local Numbers:
Ivorydata4 1230

0307910035 (Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Reproduction restrictions due to copyright.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Soap  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Christmas  Search this
Feminine beauty (Aesthetics)  Search this
Complexion  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tear sheets
Print advertising
Photographs -- Reproductions
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements / Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref2447

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Agriculture

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
9.93 Cubic feet (consisting of 21 boxes, 9 folders, 12 oversize folders, 3 map case folders, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
1786-1971
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Agriculture forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents note:
This material consists primarily of trade catalogues, printed advertisements, scattered correspondence on letterhead stationery, price lists, bills/receipts, addresses, envelopes, advertising cards, reports, manuals and memorandum books, fair tickets, lithographs, photographs, calendars, descriptive circulars, photographic postcards, handbills, leaflets, receipt/credit books, price lists, almanacs, sales contracts, product manuals, periodicals and order forms from manufacturers and dealers of agricultural implements necessary for the management of the farm.

The different types of products include ploughs, fertilizers, harrows, seed sowers, scythes, elevators binders, hay rakes, mowers, sickle hooks, reaping hooks, reapers, corn shellers, rotary spades, seed-saws, sickle hooks, reap[ing hooks, reapers, corn shellers, rotary spades, pumps and scrapers. Many of the companies sold other products such as hydraulic cement, cedar & willow ware, brooms, brushes, flower pots, plant trellises, leather belting, sleighs, sleds, lumber, woodenware, doors, blinds, sashes, blinds, salt, lime.

There are numerous illustrations throughout this collection. A number of these images are of agricultural implements. Such tools are primarily in trade catalogues and include descriptions of type, function, dimensions and price. Agricultural implements are also included among the engravings illustrating farm tools used in 1790. Other images include people working in the field and factory scenes. There are numerous images of children particularly on advertising cards and calendars from some of the manufacturers and dealers.

A substantial amount of material from experimental stations can also be found among the materials. Such materials consist of notices and correspondence from experimental stations located in New Brunswick (New Jersey), Orono (Maine), Wooster (Ohio), Geneva (New York), Amherst (Massachusetts), Ithaca (New York), Indianapolis (Indiana) and Corvallis (Oregon).

Researchers interested in materials from agricultural societies, organizations and associations will also find information in this collection. Such organizations include the American Agricultural Association, Livestock Society of America, United States Agricultural Society and smaller groups formed on the state level. Most of the information is related to annual fairs.

Publications pertaining to agriculture are in a variety of articles, pamphlets, reports, bulletins, periodicals and journals. Discussions on farming in the United States as well as other countries are among the publications. Mr. Warshaw collected seventy-seven articles from a publication titled The Story of Farming which examines issues such as "Inspection of Cattle on an Egyptian Farm", "Early Farmers in Europe", "A Medieval Farmyard." "In a New England Farming District," "Farming in the French Aids", "Plowing in Portugal", and "Machinery on a Russian Farm." Unfortunately there are no dates on any of the articles.

Agricultural journals and periodicals that were published in different sizes during their existence are among these materials and can also be found in another section of the Warshaw Collection. The American Agriculturist, Wisconsin Agriculturist an Farmer and the Cultivator and Country Gentlemen are also stored in flat oversize boxes due to their size.

Manufacturers and distributors of farming implements are in boxes one through fifteen and are arranged in alphabetical order by name of company. Patents, general images, import/export documents and legal documents are also in box fifteen. Box sixteen through twenty-one contains related publications and are organized by type and then alphabetically by name of publication.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Agriculture is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Agriculture, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Agriculture
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Agriculture
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-agriculture
Online Media:

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia , 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1169 boxes )
7 Film reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Wes Taukchiray photograph collection of American Indians

Collector:
Taukchiray, Wes  Search this
Red Thunder Cloud, 1919-1996  Search this
Author:
Red Thunder Cloud, 1919-1996  Search this
Extent:
180 Copy prints (circa)
3 Color prints
57 Copy negatives (circa)
1 Print (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Montauk Indians  Search this
Tunica Indians  Search this
Narragansett Indians  Search this
Alabama Indians  Search this
Tuscarora Indians  Search this
Pee Dee Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Lumbee Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Shinnecock Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Color prints
Copy negatives
Prints
Photographs
Place:
New York (State)
South Carolina
Rhode Island
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs collected by Wes Taukchiray, probably during work with American Indian groups in the 1970s and 1980s. The collection largely consists of images and narratives depicting Narragansett, Montauk, and Shinnecock Indians, most of which comes from "Rare Eastern Indian Photo Series" distributed by Red Thunder Cloud, a common correspondent of Taukchiray. It also includes one image of a member of the Clark family near Summerville, South Carolina and one image of Tuscarora or Lumbee Indians Will and Roberta Bullard Locklear in their home in the Chavis Settlement in North Carolina, made by Mark Price of the Fayetteville [North Carolina] Times and collected while Taukchiray was living with them in the 1980s. There are two photographs of Chief Hudson Crummie, possibly a Pee Dee Indian, during a visit by Taukchiray, as well as six photographs depicting Tunica Indians and artifacts and some images of Alabama and Catawba Indians.
Biographical/Historical note:
Wes Taukchiray, born Wes White in 1948, is an ethnohistorian and author of numerous publications about Indians of the American Southeast, particularly South Carolina. In 1969 he began trying to determine the origins of the Four Holes Indian Community and other American Indian groups in South Carolina; this work was continued in contract work in 1974 and 1975 for the Smithsonian Institution's Center for the Study of Man. From 1972-1982 he worked as a private researcher and genealogist based in the South Carolina Archives. He was employed by the Lumbee Regional Development Association (1976-77) before becoming the main researcher for the Indian Law Unit of the Lumbee River Legal Services (1982), where he cowrote the Lumbee tribe's petition for federal recognition. In 1988, he changed his name to Taukchiray, which means "white" in the Catawba language.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R98-45, NAA Photo Lot 97-3, NAA Photo Lot 88-3, NAA Photo Lot 83-6, NAA Photo Lot 81-65, NAA Photo Lot 77-65
Reproduction Note:
Most of the copy prints and negatives made by Smithsonian Institution, 1977, 1980, 1997, 1999.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photo Lot 97-3, Photo Lot 88-3, Photo Lot 83-6, Photo Lot 81-65, and Photo Lot 77-65 have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot R98-45. These photographs were also collected by Wes Taukchiray and form part of this collection.
The National Anthropological Archives holds the Lumbee petition for federal acknowledgement 1987 (MS 7523).
Wes (White) Taukchiray's papers from his work for the Center for the Study of Man can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the Records of the Center for the Study of Man.
Provenance:
Donated by Wes Taukchiray in 1977, 1980, 1982, 1988, 1996, and 1998.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
The copy prints in this collection have been obtained for reference purposes only. Contact the repository for terms of use and access. The images from printed sources will not be reproduced unless the researcher can establish that relevant copyrights have expired.
Topic:
Catawba Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot R98-45, Wes Taukchiray photograph collection of Narragansett, Montauk, Shinnecock, and Tunica Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R98-45
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r98-45

Museum of the Cherokee Indian photograph collection

Collector:
Museum of the Cherokee Indian  Search this
Names:
Confederate States of America. Army. Thomas Legion  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Photographer:
Guth and Hensel  Search this
Sherrill's Studio, Waynesville, North Carolina  Search this
Adams, Clifton  Search this
Fiske, Frank Bennett, 1883-1952  Search this
Vivienne Roberts  Search this
Extent:
100 Copy prints (circa)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Shoshoni Indians  Search this
Nez Percé Indians  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Photographs
Place:
Fort Yates (N.D.)
Fort Thompson (S.D.)
North Carolina
Cherokee (N.C.)
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Mostly images of Cherokee Indians, including informal portraits, group portraits, and views of Cherokee Indians engaged in agriculture, food preparation, craft, and games. There are also several images of the town of Cherokee, including the museum building, a school, homes, and the main street, as well as Cherokee artifacts. Numerous photographs depict the Thomas' Confederate Legion of Cherokee Indians, and the statue and sculptor of Sequoyah in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC. In addition, there are photographs of Fort Thompson and Fort Yates, including one of the Indian boarding school at Fort Yates and another of an encampment at the Fort Yates Fourth of July celebration in 1902.

There are several photographs made at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, including one taken at the ceremony in 1918 in which the school was turned over to the United States Army. The Carlisle photographs include images of Nez Perce Indians and other tribes. There is also a photograph of a group of Shoshonis, including Arimo. Photographers include Sherrill's Studio, Waynesville, North Carolina; Vivienne Roberts; Clifton Adams; Guth and Hensel; and F. B. Fiske.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Museum of the Cherokee Indian, established in 1948, has as its mission, "To perpetuate the history, culture, and stories of the Cherokee people." It does so through exhibits, education and outreach, and its collections and archives.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R82-1
Reproduction Note:
Copy prints made by Smithsonian Institution, circa 1981.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs from the Carlisle School can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4241, MS 4537, MS 4544, MS 4574, MS 4988, and Photo Lot 73-8, Photo Lot 81-12 and Photo Lot 90-1.
Additional Fiske photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 25, Photo Lot 59, and Photo Lot 89-14, MS 4602, and the BAE historical negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
This copy collection has been obtained for reference purposes only. Contact the repository for terms of use and access.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot R82-1, Museum of the Cherokee Indian photograph collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R82-1
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r82-1

Charles W. Brashares photographs of India, Africa, Portugal, Japan, South America, and Palestine

Creator:
Brashares, Charles W., 1891-1982  Search this
Extent:
281 Color slides
21 Lantern slides
Culture:
Palestinian Arabs  Search this
Liberians  Search this
Nigerians  Search this
Lokele (African people)  Search this
Zulu (African people)  Search this
Japanese  Search this
Bolivians  Search this
Peruvians  Search this
Ghanaians  Search this
East Indians  Search this
Bengali (South Asian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color slides
Lantern slides
Photographs
Place:
South Africa
Liberia
Portugal
Ghana
Nigeria
Palestine
India
Peru
Bolivia
Date:
1923-1924, 1945-1954
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Charles W. Brashares in India (1948-1949), Portugal, Africa (including Liberia, Nigeria, Ghana, and South Africa, 1945), Japan (1948) Bolivia (1951), and Peru (1951) documenting the people, ceremonies, architecture, and scenery of each location. The collection also includes lantern slides depicting Palestinian people, architecture, and cities (including Jerusalem), made in 1923-1924.
Biographical/Historical note:
Charles W. Brashares (1891-1982) was ordained by the Methodist Episcopal Church and served as a pastor in Massachusetts, Maine, Ohio, and Michigan from 1917 to 1944. He was bishop of the Des Moines area from 1944 to 1952 and bishop of Chicago area from 1952 to his death.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 99-1
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The Bentley Historical Library at the University of Michigan holds the Charles W. Brashares papers, 1912-1972.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
Weddings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 99-1, Charles W. Brashares photographs of India, Africa, Portugal, Japan, South America, and Palestine, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.99-1
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-99-1

Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to the Handbook of South American Indians

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Names:
Métraux, Alfred, 1902-1963 (probable photographer)  Search this
Extent:
950 Negatives (circa, acetate)
47 Prints (silver gelatin (some copies))
Culture:
Toba Indians -- depicted  Search this
Pilaga Indians -- depicted  Search this
Chané Indians -- depicted  Search this
Aymara  Search this
Gran Chaco  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Prints
Maps
Illustrations
Photographs
Date:
circa 1940s
Scope and Contents note:
The collection is composed of photographs and copies of published illustrations which were collected for use in the Handbook of South American Indians (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143). These include images of South American Indians, their artifacts, and their built and natural environments. There are also maps detailing the movements and location of various tribes. Also included are some original photographs that were probably made by Alfred Metraux and documenting Aymara, Chaco, Chane, Matako, Pilaga, and Toba people and artifacts.
Biographical/Historical note:
In 1932, the National Research Council appointed a committee of anthropologists, including Robert H. Lowie, John M. Cooper, and Leslie Spier, to assess what work would be needed to prepare a comprehensive Handbook of South American Indians. The handbook's main objective would be to "provide a concise summary of existing data that will serve as a standard reference work for the scholar, a textbook for the student, and a guide to the general reader. At the same time, it is intended to take stock of the present state of knowledge, revealing its deficiencies and suggesting problems that will stimulate future research in both the field and library." In 1940, the Bureau of American Ethnology accepted the task of compiling the handbook under special appropriation through the Department of State and with the collaboration of over 100 scientists across the American continents. The result of this work was BAE Bulletin 143; six volumes were published in 1946-1950 and an index was published in 1959.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 90
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Copies of photographs published in BAE Bulletin 143, which were previously filed in Photo Lot 14, have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 90. Materials associated with the relocation are available with the collection.
The National Anthropological Archives holds additional collections of illustrations for BAE bulletins in MS 3611, MS 3279, MS 3715-b, MS 3078, Photo Lot 80-39, MS 2894, MS 3251, Photo Lot R87-2Q, and Photo lot 133.
Additional materials relating to Aldred Metraux's work in South America are held in the Institute of Social Anthropology photographs (MS 4623) and the Handbook of South American Indians Records.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Maps
Illustrations
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 90, Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to the Handbook of South American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.90
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-90

John K. Hillers photographs of Ute and Paiute Indians

Creator:
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Extent:
37 Mounted prints (albumen)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Paiute Indians  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mounted prints
Photographs
Place:
Colorado
Arizona
Utah
Date:
circa 1871-1874
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of photographs depicting Ute and Paiute Indians, mostly informal portraits, with some individuals holding baskets, bow and arrows, and rifles. The photographs may have been made on a Powell expedition. Many of the prints are the same as those normally used to make stereographs, and the mounts appear to be pages removed from an album.
Biographical/Historical note:
John K. Hillers (1843-1925) immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1852. He spent almost twenty years photographing American Indians and the landscape of the Indian Territories, California, the Southwest, and the Southeast, largely for the Bureau of American Ethnology and the United States Geological Survey. He began work on the Survey as a boatman on John Wesley Powell's second expedition down the Colorado River in 1871. He soon became the assistant, and then the main photographer (1872) for the expedition. From 1879 to 1900, Hillers served as the first staff photographer of Powell's Bureau of Ethnology, and in 1881 he took pictures for the United States Geological Survey.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 87-2N
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs by John K. Hillers can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 28, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 143, Photo Lot 83-18, Photo Lot 90-1, Photo Lot 92-46, and the BAE historical negatives.
The National Anthropological Archives holds Powell's inventory of photographs made on expeditions 1871-1875 (MS 1795-c).
The National Anthropological Archives holds Hillers's diary from 1871-1872 and 1874, 1875 (MS 4410).
The National Archives and Records Administration and the New York Public Library also hold Hillers photographs of Utes and Paiutes.
The National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian American Art Museum, National Portrait Gallery, Duke University, Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at University of California at Berkeley, University of Oregon, Bancroft Library at the University of California at Berkeley, and Southern Methodist University also hold photographs by Hillers.
Contained in:
Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collections, undated
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 87-2N, John K. Hillers photographs of Ute and Paiute Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.87-2N
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-87-2n

Photographs of Southern California artists / Arnold Chanin, photographer, 1969-2007

Creator:
Chanin, Arnold, 1934-  Search this
Subject:
Arnold, Chuck  Search this
Arnold, Florence M. (Florence Millner)  Search this
Bassler, Robert Covey  Search this
Bell, Larry  Search this
Bengston, Billy Al  Search this
Benjamin, Karl  Search this
Berlant, Anthony  Search this
Bieser, Natalie  Search this
Block, Irving  Search this
Brigante, Nicholas P.  Search this
Burkhardt, Hans Gustav  Search this
Casanova, Aldo John  Search this
Chann, George  Search this
Crutchfield, William  Search this
Csengeri, George  Search this
Cytron, Dan  Search this
De Miranda, Yvonne  Search this
Danieli, Edie  Search this
Danieli, Fidel  Search this
Diebenkorn, Richard  Search this
Dimitrov, Lucienne Bloch  Search this
Dimitrov, Steve  Search this
Eversley, Frederick  Search this
Faiss, Fritz  Search this
Falkenstein, Claire  Search this
Finch, Keith  Search this
Finkelstein, Max  Search this
Fricano, Tom S.  Search this
Gebhardt, Harold  Search this
Gebhardt, Peter Martin  Search this
Gibson, George  Search this
Gino, Robert  Search this
Hanzakos, Claire  Search this
Hanzakos, Mike  Search this
Hartman, Donald  Search this
Jackman, Sandra  Search this
Johnston, Ynez  Search this
Krasnow, Peter  Search this
Kohn, Edmond  Search this
Kohn, Gabriel  Search this
Lagerberg, Don  Search this
Levi, Linda  Search this
Macdonald-Wright, Stanton  Search this
Mains, Brian  Search this
Mason, LaNelle  Search this
McLaughlin, John  Search this
Mesches, Arnold  Search this
Miller, Judith  Search this
Mullican, Lee  Search this
Murrill, Gwynn  Search this
Plagens, Peter  Search this
Richards, Bruce  Search this
Saar, Betye  Search this
Schifrin, Arnold  Search this
Schwarts, Jilda  Search this
Steinberg, Harry  Search this
Strombotne, James  Search this
Stussy, Jan  Search this
Stussy, Maxine Kim  Search this
Thompson, J. B.  Search this
Treiman, Joyce  Search this
Tunberg, William  Search this
Valerio, James  Search this
Gustavus Vasa  Search this
Vilumsons, Alex  Search this
Wagner, Gordon  Search this
Woelffer, Emerson  Search this
Wullner-Faiss, Janet  Search this
Topic:
Artists -- California -- Photographs  Search this
Photography  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11161
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209533
AAA_collcode_chanarno
Theme:
Audio - Visual
Photography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209533

Robert M. Cronbach papers, 1914-2004

Creator:
Cronbach, Robt.(Robert M.), 1908-  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art teachers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7553
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209713
AAA_collcode_cronrobe
Theme:
The Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209713
Online Media:

MS 4658 Field notes and ethnographic material on Alabama, Choctaw, and Koasati (latter incomplete), plus a partial Southeast comparative ethnology of southeastern U.S.

Creator:
Taylor, Lyda Averill  Search this
Extent:
3 Boxes
Culture:
Alibamu  Search this
Alibamu  Search this
Choctaw Indians  Search this
American Indian -- Southeast  Search this
Coushatta (Koasati)  Search this
Alabama Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Date:
1936-1940 (part)
Scope and Contents:
Shelf list: Box 1. Alabama, Choctaw, and Koasati field notes. Box 2. Ethnographic material on Alabama and Koasati, plus incomplete manuscript on ethnography of southeastern U.S. Box 3. Miscellaneous notes on Alabama and Koasati. Detailed list of contents accompanies main catalog card.
Arrangement:
Divided into 15 series:
(1) Alibamu field notes, miscellaneous subjects July 2 - August 27, 1940;
(2) Alibamu field notes, miscellaneous subjects June 7 - July 28,
(3) Choctaw field notes on native medicinal practices. July 12 - July 17,
(4) Choctaw (at least in part) field notes on medicinal plants July - July 27,
(5) Alabama, Choctaw, Koasati?? field notes, miscellaneous notes from published sources, and questions,
(6) Alibamu? field notes on folktales July 31 - August 11,
(7) Questions,
(8) Alabama ethnographic material ,
(9) Koasati culture summary,
(10) Comparative Southeast ethnographic material ,
(11) Linguistic notes,
(12) Tribal names and kinship charts,
(13) Lyda Averill Taylor Photographs,
(14) Miscellaneous notes,
(15) Indian artifacts from Harrington, Texas,
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4658
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Citation:
Manuscript 4658, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4658
See more items in:
MS 4658 Field notes and ethnographic material on Alabama, Choctaw, and Koasati (latter incomplete), plus a partial Southeast comparative ethnology of southeastern U.S.
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4658
Online Media:

MS 2520 The Ceremonies of the Pawnee

Creator:
Murie, James R.  Search this
Editor:
Wissler, Clark, 1870-1947  Search this
Translator:
Weltfish, Gene, 1902-1980  Search this
Extent:
2,275 Pages
18 Photographs
27 Sketches
Culture:
Pawnee -- Ceremonies  Search this
Pawnee  Search this
Pawnee -- Morning Star Ceremony  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Photographs
Sketches
Drawings
Date:
1921
Scope and Contents:
Material arranged and edited by Clark Wissler. [1921.] Phonetic texts revised and translated by Gene Weltfish. [1930-32.] Includes parts of a carbon copy of the typescript, 1 box. 18 photographs, including Pawnee chart of the heavens with 2 page letter of explanation from James R. Murie, Pawnee, Oklahoma, June 24, 1911; 27 sketches by James R. Murie, with notations for the artist, 46 pages; and partial set of photostats of sketches; 1 box.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2520
Local Note:
Manuscript 4243, Catalogue of Bureau of American Ethnology Musical Recordings, includes an entry for "95 records of songs of the White Beaver ceremony, etc...apparently intended to accompany the Manuscript on Ceremonies of the Pawnee." There is no available list of these songs, and the original recordings were presumably sent to the Library of Congress in the 1940's.
See also companion paper, Manuscript Number 1788, Helen H. Roberts, "Ceremonial Songs of the Pawnee," No date, 624 pages.
History of Manuscript 2520: 8/3/1921. Original Manuscript, ca. 1560 pages, arranged and edited by Clark Wissler, received. 7/11/1930. Portion of Manuscript sent to Dr Gene Weltfish for use in the field by order of Chief of Bureau of American Ethnology. 5/23/1932 Manuscript returned to Bureau of American Ethnology. 4/30/1946 Manuscript mailed to Clark Wissler in response to letter, 4/12/46. Summer, 1946. Two envelopes of Murie Manuscript on Morning Star ceremony found at Columbia University and sent to Bureau of American Ethnology in belief it belonged to Bureau of American Ethnology, and had been borrowed by Dr Boas. Bureau of American Ethnology had no record of such loan; thought Manuscript fragment might belong to AMNH. Fragment forwarded by Bureau of American Ethnology to AMNH to be kept by them if theirs, or returned with main body of Manuscript previously borrowed by Wissler. See correspondence in files under "Murie Ms." especially Bella Weitzner to M. W. Stirling, July 18, 1946. 3/10/1954. All parts of Manuscript here, as enumerated.--MCB
Topic:
Astronomy -- Pawnee  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 2520, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2520
See more items in:
MS 2520 The Ceremonies of the Pawnee
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2520

Ruth Landes papers

Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
Columbia University Research in Contemporary Cultures  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Fisk University  Search this
Johnson, Charles S.  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Park, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet ((63 document boxes and 1 oversized box))
Culture:
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
African American  Search this
Santee Indians  Search this
African  Search this
Acadians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Jews -- American  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Latinos -- California  Search this
Brazilians  Search this
Basques  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Dakota -- Santee  Search this
Afro-Brazilians  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Quebec -- Bilingualism
United Kingdom -- colored immigration
South Africa
Date:
1928-1992
Summary:
Most of Ruth Landes's papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research, her work in Brazil, and her study of bilingualism. There is also a considerable amount of material that relates to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There is only small amount of material related to her other interests. Her collection also has material of and relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a large amount of printed and processed materials in the collection, mainly in the form of newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of the professional papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes. Included are correspondence, journals, published and unpublished manuscripts of writings, research materials including field notes and reading notes, photographs, drawings, scholarly papers and publications by other scholars, and clippings from newspapers and periodicals.

Landes's field research on Candomblé in Brazil is well-represented in this collection, consisting of her field journals, writings, and photographs. Also present are Maggie Wilson's stories that were the basis for Landes's The Ojibwa Woman. Unfortunately, Landes was unable to locate her journals for her early research with the Ojibwa/Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Dakota. There are, however, field photographs of the Ojibwa/Chippewa and Potawatomi in the collection. There is also a great deal of her research on groups, especially minorities, in multilingual states with particular focus on the French of Quebec, Basques of Spain and the United States, Boers and Blacks of South Africa, the several socio-linguistic groups of Switzerland, and Acadians (Cajuns) of Louisiana. In the collection are several drafts of her unpublished manuscript on bilingualism, "Tongues that Defy the State." There is also a small amount of material about Black Jews of New York and considerable material about Landes's experience among African Americans when she taught briefly at Fisk University, including her unpublished manuscript "Now, at Athens," containing fictional and autobiographical accounts of her time at Fisk.

Reflections of other facets of Landes's professional activities are also included. Some materials concern her teaching activities, and there is also documentation of her work with the Fair Employment Practices Commission (a federal government agency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt) and a similar private organization which immediately succeeded the FEPA; Gunnar Myrdal's research into the plight of African Americans ("The Negro in America"); the Research in Contemporary Cultures project at Columbia University; and the American Jewish Congress.

Among Landes's correspondents are Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ralph Bunche, Herbert Baldus, Edison Carneiro, Sally Chilver, Frances Densmore, Sol Tax, Elmer S. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, Robert E. Park, and Hendrik W. van der Merwe.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: (1) Correspondence, 1931-1991; (2) Research Materials, circa 1930s-1990; (3) Writings, circa 1930s-1990; (4) Teaching Materials, 1935-1975, undated; (5) Biographical and Personal Files, 1928-1988; (6) Graphic Materials, 1933-1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Ruth Schlossberg Landes was born on October 8, 1908 in New York City. Her father was Joseph Schlossberg, an activist in the Yiddish labor socialist community and one of the founders of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. She studied sociology at New York University (B.A. 1928) and social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W. 1929). While in graduate school, Landes studied Black Jews in Harlem for her master's thesis, a topic that developed her interests in anthropology.

After graduating in 1929, she worked as a social worker in Harlem and married Victor Landes, a medical student and son of family friends. Their marriage ended after two years when she enrolled in the doctoral program in anthropology at Columbia against her husband's wishes. She kept his surname due to the stigma of being a divorced woman.

At Columbia, Landes studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, her main advisor. Under the guidance of Benedict, Landes moved away from further study of African Americans to focus on Native American communities. Upon Benedict's suggestion, Landes studied the social organization of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids in Ontario from 1932 to 1936 for her Ph.D. fieldwork. Her dissertation, Ojibwa Sociology, was published in 1937. Landes also contributed "The Ojibwa of Canada" in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), a volume edited by Margaret Mead. In 1938, Landes published Ojibwa Women (1938), a book written in collaboration with Maggie Wilson, an Ojibwa interpreter and informant.

In addition to studying the Ojibwa in Ontario, Landes also conducted fieldwork with the Chippewa of Red Lake, Minnesota in 1933, working closely with shaman or midé Will Rogers. Her book, Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin (1968) was based largely on her research with Rogers and Maggie Wilson. In 1935 and 1936, she undertook fieldwork with the Santee Dakota in Minnesota and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Like Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin, her books on the Santee Dakota and Potawatomi were not published until several years later—The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Sioux was published in 1968 while The Prairie Potawatomi was published in 1970. In between her field research in the 1930s and the publication of The Prairie Potawatomi, Landes returned to Kansas to study the Potawatomi in the 1950s and 1960s.

Landes's plan to continue her studies with the Potawatomi in 1937 changed when Benedict invited her to join a team of researchers from Columbia University in Brazil. Landes was to conduct research on Afro-Brazilians in Bahia, Brazil, while Walter Lipkind, Buell Quain, and Charles Wagley studied indigenous people in the Amazons. To prepare for her research, Landes was at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937 and 1938 to consult with Robert Park and Donald Pierson and to use the university's library collections of African and African American materials. During that time, Landes also held a teaching position at Fisk and lived in the non-segregated women's residence on campus. Landes later wrote "Now, at Athens," an unpublished memoir containing fictional and true accounts of her experiences at Fisk.

From 1938 to 1939, Landes conducted fieldwork on the role of Afro-Brazilian women and homosexuals in the Candomblé religion in Bahia, Brazil. Unable to move freely by herself in Brazil as a single woman, Landes was accompanied by Edison Carneiro, a Bahian journalist and folklorist. With Carneiro as her companion, Landes was allowed access to rituals and people that would have been closed off to her otherwise. Due to her association with Carneiro, a member of the Brazilian Communist Party, Landes was suspected of being a communist and was forced to leave Bahia early. Publications from her research in Brazil include "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality" (1940) and City of Women (1947). She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, a Portuguese translation of City of Women was published, a project that Carneiro had commissioned as the first director of the Ministry of Education and Culture's Special National Agency for the Protection of Folklore.

Landes returned to New York in 1939, working briefly as a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. Unable to obtain a permanent position at a university, she worked in several other short term positions throughout most of her career. During World War II, Landes was a research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs (1941) and consultant for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee on African American and Mexican American cases (1941-44). In 1945, Landes directed a program created by Pearl S. Buck and a group of interdenominational clergy to analyze pending New York anti-discrimination legislation. She moved to California the following year to work for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Welfare Council on a study of race and youth gangs. After her contract ended, she moved back to New York and was hired as a contract researcher for the American Jewish Congress (1948-50). She also participated in Columbia University's Research in Contemporary Cultures (1949-51), studying Jewish families. She coauthored with Mark Zborowski, "Hypothesis concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family." From 1951 to 1952, Landes spent a year in London, funded by a Fulbright fellowship to study colored colonial immigrants and race relations in Great Britain.

After her fellowship ended, Landes returned to the United States and held short term appointments at several universities. She taught at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York (1953-54), the New School for Social Research in New York (1953-55), University of Kansas (1957, 1964), University of Southern California (1957-62), Columbia University (1963), Los Angeles State College (1963), and Tulane University (1964). At Claremont Graduate School, Landes helped to develop and direct the Claremont Anthropology and Education Program (1959-62).

It was not until 1965 that Landes obtained a permanent faculty position at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario; she was recruited for the position by Richard Slobodin. Due to Ontario's age retirement law, Landes was forced to retire in 1973 at the age of 65. She continued to teach part-time until 1977, when she became professor emerita.

Landes passed away at the age of 82 on February 11, 1991.

Sources Consulted

Cole, Sally. 2003. Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Chronology

1908 October 8 -- Born Ruth Schlossberg in New York City

1928 -- B.A. in sociology, New York University

1929 -- M.S.W., New York School of Social Work, Columbia University

1929-1931 -- Social worker in Harlem Married to Victor Landes

1929-1934 -- Studied Black Jews in Harlem

1931 -- Began graduate work in anthropology at Columbia University

1932-1936 -- Studied the Ojibwa in Ontario and Minnesota (in field periodically)

1933-1940 -- Research Fellow, Columbia University

1935 Summer-Fall -- Studied the Santee Sioux (Dakota) in Minnesota

1935-1936 -- Studied the Potawatomi in Kansas

1935 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1937 -- Instructor, Brooklyn College

1937-1938 -- Instructor, Fisk University

1938-1939 -- Studied Afro-Brazilians and Candomblé in Brazil, especially at Bahia

1939 -- Researcher on Gunnar Myrdal's study, "The Negro in America"

1941 -- Research Director, Office of Inter American Affairs, Washington, D.C.

1941-1945 -- Representative for Negro and Mexican American Affairs, Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), President Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration

1944 -- Interim Director, Committee Against Racial Discrimination, New York

1946-1947 -- Researcher, study of Mexican American youth, gangs, and families, Los Angeles Metropolitan Council

1948-1951 -- Researcher, American Jewish Congress, New York

1949-1951 -- Research consultant, study on Jewish families in New York for Research in Contemporary Cultures Project, Columbia University

1951-1952 -- Fulbright Scholar, to study colored colonial immigration into Great Britain

1953-1954 -- Lecturer, William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution, New York

1953-1955 -- Lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York

1956-1957 -- Married to Ignacio Lutero Lopez

1957 Summer -- Visiting Professor, University of Kansas

1957-1958 -- Visiting Professor, University of Southern California

1957-1965 -- Consultant, California agencies (Department of Social Work, Bureau of Mental Hygiene, Department of Education, Public Health Department) and San Francisco Police Department

1958-1959 -- Director, Geriatrics Program, Los Angeles City Health Department

1959-1962 -- Visiting Professor and Director of Anthropology and Education Program, Claremont Graduate School

1962 -- Extension Lecturer, University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Berkeley

1963 -- Extension Lecturer, Columbia University Extension Lecturer, Los Angeles State College

1963-1965 -- Consultant, International Business Machines (IBM)

1964 January-June -- Visiting Professor, Tulane University

1964 Summer -- Field work with Potawatomi in Kansas Professor, University of Kansas

1965-1975 -- Professor at McMaster University

1966 -- Studied urban development in Rio de Janeiro

1968-1975 -- Studied bilingualism and biculturalism in Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, United States, and Canada (in Spain and the United States concentrated on Basques)

1975 -- Became part-time faculty member at McMaster University

1977 -- Professor Emerita, McMaster University

1978 -- Award of Merit from the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

1991 February 11 -- Died in Hamilton, Ontario

1991 -- Establishment of the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund at Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM)
Related Materials:
Correspondence from Ruth Landes can be found in the William Duncan Strong Papers, the Leonard Bloomfield Papers, and MS 7369. The Ruth Bunzel Papers contains a copy of a grant application by Landes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ruth Landes in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Midéwiwin  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Aging  Search this
Candomblé (Religion)  Search this
Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1991-04
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1991-04
Online Media:

Woodrow Wilson Center Library, Upper Main Hall, Smithsonian Institution Building, or Castle

Creator:
Farrar, Richard  Search this
Subject:
Smithsonian Institution Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars  Search this
Physical description:
Gelatin silver prints; 8 x 10;
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
1972
May 4-15, 1972
Local number:
SIA RU000095 [SIA_000095_B31A_F28_001]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions. Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
No Copyright - United States
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_403206
Online Media:

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