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Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Administrative records
Articles
Books
Clippings
Contracts
Drawings
Photographs
Patents
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Scrapbooks
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-seven series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Addenda
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but Series 11 and films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audiovisual materials. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Communications equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Administrative records
Articles
Books
Clippings
Contracts
Drawings
Photographs -- 19th century
Patents
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Specifications
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Online Media:

Yadkin River Dam Photograph Album

Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Engineering and Industry  Search this
Creator:
Kemmer, Frank  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Engineering and Industry  Search this
Extent:
0.33 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Yadkin River (N.C.)
North Carolina
Date:
1916-1917
Summary:
Photograph album showing all aspects of construction of the Narrows Dam on the Yadkin River in North Carolina.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of one album containing 101 photographs documenting the hydroelectric project and construction of the Narrows Dam on the Yadkin River near Badin, North Carolina. Frank Kemmer took the photographs from December 30, 1916 through April 25, 1917. Images include the trusses, piers, cranes and other equipment.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series.

Series 1, Photograph Album, 1916-1917
Biographical / Historical:
Narrows Dam is located on the Yadkin River, one of the largest rivers in North Carolina. The dam and its hydroelectric station was constructed by the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa), to supply power for an aluminum production plant nearby.
Related Materials:
Other Archives Center collections relating to dams and hydroelectric power plants include Robert F. Olds Collection and John L. Savage Collection.
Separated Materials:
Four lantern slides of electric furnace operation were placed in the Division of Work and Industry Lantern Slide Collection (NMAH.AC.1013)and received no numbers.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Department of the History of Science and Technology, Division of Engineering and Industry by Frank Kemmer's granddaughter, Anne Wheelock, in 1990. It was transferred to the Archives Center in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Rivers -- North Carolina  Search this
Dams -- North Carolina  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1910-1920
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
Yadkin River Dam Photograph Album, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1041
See more items in:
Yadkin River Dam Photograph Album
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1041

Binney & Smith, Inc. Records

Creator:
Binney & Smith, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Binney, Edwin  Search this
Smith, Harold  Search this
Extent:
24 Cubic feet (64 boxes and 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Catalogs
Color charts
Annual reports
Price lists
Newsletters
Photographs
Date:
1897-1998
Summary:
Collection documents Binney & Smith, Inc. creators and manufacturers of Crayola crayons. Includes documentation on 20th century advertising, commercial packaging, commercial imagery, and retail merchandising: newsletters, annual reports, research and development records, color charts, advertising materials, and product information, including catalogs and price lists.
Scope and Contents:
The Binney & Smith Inc. Records, document twentieth century advertising, commercial packaging, commercial imagery, and retail merchandising. They are a major source for research on American consumer culture. This collection is divided into thirteen (13) series.

Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995, consists of annual and corporate reports, by-laws, minutes, correspondence, annual reports, stockholder materials and the attempted merger of Binney & Smith by Cheeseborough-Ponds in the early 1970s and the Kellogg Co., ca. 1979.

Series 3: Financial, Sales, and Marketing Records, 1902-1990, consists primarily of sales information and statistics for crayons and other products. The correspondence, 1913-1931, includes documentation on monthly sales with explanations and analysis. Binney & Smith created comparative data on a yearly basis for products and salesmen. The salesmen data, 1919-1932, contains the amount of sales, expenses, percentages, time periods, and increases and decreases in business. Specific salesmen are cited in reports. All of the sales information should be consulted as there is considerable overlap.

Series 4: Employee/Personnel Records, 1917-1993, contains payroll rate books, employee reports and miscellaneous documentation. The payroll rate books include the names of employees and the rate at which they were paid per hour. In some instances it is noted if the employee left the company.

Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995, include newsletters and other publications produced by Binney & Smith, Inc. Arranged alphabetically, this series contains publications intended for both internal distribution such as the Rainbow Insider and external distribution such as the Art Educationist and Drawing Teacher. This series provides valuable information on the history of the company, how it operates, the types of products produced, and the employees. The Art Educationist, formerly known as the Drawing Teacher, which began publication in 1926, was a publication for art teachers that promoted the value of art in schools. It contains editorials, comments from teachers, and suggested art activities.

Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987, includes a wide variety of materials documenting the Research and Development Department. The bulk of the materials include crayon formulas. Other formulas for products such as chalk exist.

Series 7: Advertising and Marketing Records, 1918-1998, contains several subseries with the bulk of the material being documentation on labeling and packaging. The advertising accounts are arranged chronologically and then within each year, alphabetically by the name of the journal or magazine in which Binney & Smith advertised. The cards provide the name, address, date of contract, date of expiration, space allotted, rate, subject of the ad, and remarks if applicable. Information on distribution and "specials" is available for some years. The promotional materials consist of licensing information, press kits, and printed literature, particularly Promotional Plans which describe the details of each promotion offered for each product along with suggestions for merchandising activities.

Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995, and Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1995, are arranged alphabetically by division within Binney & Smith, Inc. Both series provide documentation on the types of products available to the consumer and costs associated with each product.

Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1995, consists of printed literature on a variety of products produced by Binney & Smith, Inc. The series is arranged alphabetically. The product inventories, 1920-1925, are arranged by product number in sequential order. There are three distinct inventories--those arranged by product number (#1-#7026); those arranged alpha-numerically (#04-#04Y); and those arranged alphabetically.

Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992, contains published catalogs and advertising of crayon competitors. There is a scrapbook of competitors advertising contains correspondence, product information, advertisements, and newspaper clippings for the American Crayon Co., Art Crayon Co., Botts Mfg., Eberhard Faber Co., Ferst Brothers, Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Milton-Bradley Co., and National Crayon Co.

Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1900s-1997, includes several subseries documenting buildings and office spaces,displays, employees and machinery, products, portraits, photo albums, and oversized. The oversized photographs contain some panoramic shots of Binney & Smith company "annual outings." The photograph albums consist of several albums including the Middletown Township Workshop, 1952, an art workshop sponsored by Binney & Smith, Inc. Three albums contain photographs of various construction and expansion projects from the 1960s to 1975. Of note is the photo album containing photographs and newspaper clippings from the 1959 California Pacific Crayon Company fire. Also, there are Binney & Smith company albums, 1949-1976, that document a variety of activities within the company. Each album was photographed by W. H. Milliken, Jr., and specified the location, date, and number of photographs in the album. The albums cover topics such as art shows, trade shows, suppers, dinner parties, office shots, employee anniversaries, and retirement parties. The scrapbooks span the years 1962-1975, and contain both newspaper clippings and some black and white photographs documenting various company activities and its employees.

Series 13: Audio-Visual Materials, circa 1980s-1998, contain two 1/2" VHS tapes documenting the 40th anniversary of the Crayola 64 box and Silly Putty.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Historical Background

Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995

Series 3: Financial, Sales, and Marketing Records, 1902-1990

Series 4: Employee/Personnel Records, 1917-1993

Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995

Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987

Series 7: Advertising and Promotional Records, 1918-1998

Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995

Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1925

Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1925

Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992

Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1900s-1997

Series 13: Audiovisual Materials, circa 1980-1998.
Series 1: Historical Background, 1956-1990s

Series 2: Executive Records, 1897-1995

Series 3: Financial, Sales and Marketing Records, 1902-1990

Series 4: Employee and Personnel Records, 1917-1993

Series 5: Newsletters and Publications, 1948-1995

Series 6: Research and Development Records, 1905-1987

Series 7: Advertising and Promotional Records, 1918-1998

Series 8: Catalogs, 1916-1995

Series 9: Price Lists, 1916-1995

Series 10: Product Information, 1918-1995

Series 11: Competitors, 1918-1992

Series 12: Photographs and Scrapbooks, circa 1900s-1997

Series 13: Audio-Visual Materials, circa 1980-1998
Biographical / Historical:
In 1864, Joseph W. Binney (1836-1898), began a small chemical works in Peekskill, New York. He ground and packaged hardwood charcoal and manufactured small quantities of lamp black from whale oil. In 1880, he opened a New York City office taking on his nephew, C. Harold Smith (1860-1931) as a salesman. Later, Joseph Binney's son, Edwin Binney (1866-1934), joined the business. The organization was known as the Peekskill Chemical Co. Joseph W. Binney retired and in May 1885, Edwin Binney and C. Harold Smith formed a partnership, Binney & Smith. Their early products included red oxide pigment used in barn paint and carbon for black tires. In 1900, the company began producing slate school pencils in its Easton, Pennsylvania mill. With the assistance of John Ketchum, the owner of a talc mine in North Carolina, Binney began combining old slate waste with cement and the talc supplied by Ketchum to produce slate pencils. Two years later, Binney & Smith introduced their white dustless blackboard chalk, "Au-Du-Septic" and in 1903, the company produced a box of eight crayons, which sold for a nickel. The word "Crayola" coined by Edwin Binney's wife, Alice, comes from "craie" the French word for chalk, and "ola," from oleaginous, meaning oily or pertaining to oil. Binney & Smith's best known product is Crayola crayons. However, its product line now includes: tempera, washable, and fabric paints, Liquitex acrylic paints, Magic Marker, chalk, clay, and Jazzy fashion and craft accessories. Binney & Smith acquired Silly Putty in 1977 and in 1984, became a subsidiary of Hallmark Cards, Inc. Products are still manufactured in Easton, Pennsylvania (world headquarters), as well as Mexico, and Indonesia and are available in twelve languages. In 2007, the company changed its name to Crayola LLC.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts were donated to the National Museum of American History, Division of Cultural History (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) on November 18, 1997 and March 15, 1998. The artifacts consist of more than 150 objects, including 79 boxes of Crayola crayons from the 1900s to 1998; 24 boxes of chalk from the 1890s to 1998, 18 art kits; 10 sets of EDU-CARDS from the 1960s and 1970s; and 10 packages of Silly Putty from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center on November 18, 1997, by Binney & Smith through Patrick Morris. Additional materials were donated in March 1998, by Binney & Smith through Tracey Muldoon Moran and in February 2000 through Stacy Gabrielle.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Chalk -- 1910-2000  Search this
Crayons -- 1910-2000  Search this
Packaging -- 20th century  Search this
Paint -- 1910-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Catalogs -- 1910-2000
Color charts -- 1910-2000
Annual reports -- 20th century
Price lists
Newsletters -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Binney & Smith, Inc., Records, 1897-1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0624
See more items in:
Binney & Smith, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0624
Online Media:

Louis S. Nixdorff 1928 Olympic Games Collection

Topic:
S.S. President Roosevelt (ship)
Creator:
Nixdorff, Louis S., 1906-1992 (Olympic athlete)  Search this
Names:
Baltimore Sun  Search this
Johns Hopkins University  Search this
Olympic Games (9th : 1928 : Amsterdam, Netherlands)  Search this
Properties Incorporated  Search this
Anderson, Harry  Search this
Biddison, Tom  Search this
Eagan, James  Search this
Fairinholt, Larkin  Search this
Hamm, Ed  Search this
Helfrich, George  Search this
Kegan, Bill  Search this
Lang, John  Search this
Logan, William  Search this
MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964  Search this
Mallonee, C. Gardner  Search this
McKim, Josephine  Search this
Meany, Helen  Search this
Merrill, Vale  Search this
Nice, Deely  Search this
Owens, Helen  Search this
Ray, Joie  Search this
Robinson, Elizabeth (Babe)  Search this
Schwarz, Bill  Search this
Weismuller, Johnny  Search this
Wingate, W. Wilson  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Photographs
Postcards
Clippings
Place:
Thousand Islands
Mohawk Trail
Europe -- description and travel -- 1910-1950
Chesapeake Bay
Virginia Beach
St. Lawrence River
Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Cherbourg (France)
Switzerland
Marken (Holland)
Scheueningue (Holland)
Fontainebleau (France)
Volendam (Holland)
New York (N.Y.)
Québec (Québec)
Paris (France)
Reims (France)
Date:
1926 - 1987
Summary:
The collection documents Louis S. Nixdorff's participation in the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam. He was a member of the University lacrosse team that represented the United States.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains an oversize scrapbook of newspaper clippings, loose clippings from a Baltimore newspaper Sunday supplements, a diary recorded by Nixdorff, and an album of photographs that Nixdorff took on the Amsterdam visit and several other trips.

The newspaper clippings in an oversize scrapbook follow the fortunes of the Johns Hopkins University lacrosse team, national champions for 1926 and 1927, through its 1928 season, a post-season series, the playoffs to represent the United States at the Olympic Games in the summer of 1928, and the Olympic lacrosse games in Amsterdam. Newspaper clippings years later reminisce about the 1928 lacrosse team at the Olympic games in Amsterdam.

The newspaper clippings recounting various games are seldom identified and most of the articles are not dated. Some are from the Baltimore Post, later taken over by the News and were written by Yale Merrill. Others are from the Sunpapers, morning and evening. Some carry an Associated Press identification. Many of the accounts of the 1928 intercollegiate season prior to the Olympic Games were written by W. Wilson Wingate. Some of the news clippings are incomplete.

The trip of the 268 Olympic athletes to Amsterdam on the S.S. President Roosevelt is described graphically by Louis S. Nixdorff in his diary. The diary transcript included later in this Register has been transcribed exactly as written by the author, regardless of omissions of obvious words or occasional misspellings. The diary entries relating to the voyage clearly depict the boredom of the long voyage for young athletes eager to get to Amsterdam and compete in the Olympics. Training was continued during the trip insofar as it was possible on shipboard. Training and meals represented welcome relief from the monotony of the journey.

The diary is written in a clear hand in a soft-cover, lined notebook. Nixdorff presumably purchased it specifically to put his thoughts and observations down on this exciting and, to him, historic trip. The diary covers the period from the departure of the lacrosse team from the Baltimore and Ohio railroad station in Baltimore for New York on July 10, 1928, to the departure from Cherbourg for home on August 15, 1928. It includes Mr. Nixdorff's accounts of shipboard life, the game against the Canadians that the Americans won and their loss to the English team on the following day. England's subsequent loss to Canada meant that each team had a win and a loss. No team was declared a victor. The diary also covers a one-week stay in Paris, including a trip to the nearby World War I battlefields.

The collection contains snapshots that Nixdorff took on the S.S. President Roosevelt en route to Amsterdam, and images of Olympic events and of sightseeing in and around Amsterdam and Paris. These photographs mounted in an album portray an individual's effort to document his travels in a meaningful way.

Other material in the collection includes copies of three reminiscent articles published in the Baltimore Sun magazine section on April 5, 1951, June 26, 1955, and April 23, 1978; photogravure pictures of a Hopkins University of Virginia game and a Hopkins-University of Maryland game without attribution or date; Mr. Nixdorff's visa for France; Gen. Douglas MacArthur's report on the ninth Olympiad to the president of the United States; the official program for August 5, 1928; the passenger list for the S.S. President Roosevelt's return to New York; a cloth Olympic blazer patch; and two cloth lacrosse numbers.

This collection represents a contribution to both sports history and the history of the Olympics. The collection complements several Archives Center photographic collections, emphasizing international travel and touring by an American between the two World Wars.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1926-1987

Series 2: Diary, 1928

Series 3: Photographs, 1928

Series 4: Newspaper clippings/Scrapbook, 1928, 1951, 1955, 1978

Series 5: Programs, Awards, Invitations, 1928
Biographical / Historical:
Louis S. Nixdorff (October 1, 1906-January 23, 1992), a native Baltimorean, spent his life there. He graduated from the Polytechnic Institute in 1924 and from the Johns Hopkins University in 1928 with a degree in business administration. While attending Johns Hopkins he was a member of the University lacrosse team that represented the United States at the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam. He later became a real estate executive and president of Properties Incorporated in Baltimore. Mr. Nixdorff continued to make real estate appraisals and to manage properties after retirement. He belonged to the Johns Hopkins Club, the Baltimore City Real Estate Brokers Round Table and the Maryland Historical Society. He also was an enthusiastic golfer.

The tremendous interest and excitement generated by lacrosse in Baltimore in 1928 is clear from the press coverage of intercollegiate lacrosse for that year. Stories on important games began at least a day before the event, continued during the day of the game in morning and evening papers and lasted for at least a day afterward.

The process that culminated in the selection of the Johns Hopkins University team to represent the United States in the Olympic games in Amsterdam was a formal one. The lacrosse ladder selected by the Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association to place before the Olympic Committee included ten teams. Of these, six were chosen by the Olympic Lacrosse Committee for national playoffs: the Mount Washington Club, Army, Navy, the University of Maryland, Rutgers and the Johns Hopkins University. In the playoffs the University of Maryland defeated Rutgers 7-2 and Navy 6-2. Hopkins defeated Mt. Washington 6-4 and Army 4-2. In ever-mounting excitement, Hopkins on June 23, 1928, overwhelmed Maryland 6-3. The executive committee of the American Olympics Commission formally ratified this selection of the Johns Hopkins University lacrosse team to represent the United States at the 1928 Olympics. Four members of that team are in the Lacrosse Hall of Fame: C. Gardner Mallonee, John Lang, Tom Biddison, and Bill Logan.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

George W. Sims Collection (AC0127)

Clyde W. Stauffer Photographic Album (AC0139)

Donald Sultner-Welles Collection (AC0145)
Separated Materials:
An Olympic blazer patch and two lacrosse numbers are in the Division of Community Life (now Division of Cultural and Community Life).
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center by Mrs. Anne Byrd Nixdorff, January 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Photographers (amateur)  Search this
Olympics  Search this
Sailing  Search this
Travel photography -- 1910-1950  Search this
Travel  Search this
Sports  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Postcards
Clippings
Citation:
Louis S. Nixdorff 1928 Olympic Games Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0443
See more items in:
Louis S. Nixdorff 1928 Olympic Games Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0443
Online Media:

Jantzen Knitting Mills Collection

Creator:
Jantzen, Carl C.  Search this
Names:
Jantzen Knitting Mills.  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Costume  Search this
Portland Knitting Company.  Search this
Zehntbauer, John C.  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Catalogs
Photograph albums
Date:
1925-1977
Summary:
Carl C. Jantzen and John C. Zehntbauer founded the Portland Knitting Company in 1910 as a retail store selling knitted products (i.e. sweaters, hosiery, jackets). Carl Jantzen later invented an automated circular knitting machine that allowed the company to make light-weight materials for swimsuits. In 1916, the company first used the name Jantzen as their trademark and went on to specialize in swimsuits.
Scope and Contents:
This collection has a thorough representation of company newsletters, Jantzen Yarns, and many sample and print catalogues from the 1970s which show the Jantzen clothing and swimwear lines for misses, juniors, and men during that time. There are several company histories written by Zehntbauer which were printed in Jantzen Yarns. The photographs, though few in number, are a good sampling documenting Jantzen headquarters, as well as employees at work. The films, are aimed at store buyers and feature different lines of Jantzen clothing or swimwear, or are training films for sales representatives.

Series 1: SAMPLE CATALOGUES, 1974-1976, includes sample catalogs are for misses, juniors, and men.

Series 2: PUBLICATIONS, 1925-1977, contains issues of Jantzen Yarns (house publication), 1925-1973 (some of the covers of the newsletters include cover art by noted "pin-up" artists George Petty, Jon Whitcomb, Pete Hawley, and Rene Gruau); Intra-Views (company newspaper); and clothing and swimwear catalogues for women, juniors, and men, 1972-1977.

Series 3: COMPANY HISTORY, 1921, 1923-32, 1973, includes photocopies of various company histories written by John A. Zehntbauer; a photocopy of a patent; and an annual report for 1973 (many volumes of Jantzen Yarns [Series 2] have annual reports as an issue).

Series 4: PHOTOGRAPHS, ca. 1920s/30s, consists of a group of photos (originally from an album) showing the main office building, warehouses, and photographs of groups of employees at work or in posed groups.

Series 5: AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS, 1951, 1976, undated, is divided into two subseries. Subseries 5.1: Films, circa 1951, undated, consists of four films produced for store buyers and sales representatives. Subseries 5.2: Slide Presentation Materials, 1976, includes slides, script, and audiocassette for an in-plant presentation on the Misses Fall 1976 line of Jantzen clothing.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Sample Catalogues, 1974-1976

Series 2: Publications, 1925-1977

Series 3: Ccompany History, 1921, 1923-32, 1973

Series 4: Photographs, circa. 1920s-1930s

Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, 1951, 1976, undated

Subseries 5.1: Films, 1951

Subseries 5.2: Slide Presentation Materials, 1976
Biographical / Historical:
Known primarily for its swimsuits, the Jantzen Knitting Mills are located in Portland, OR. John A. Zehntbauer and Carl C. Jantzen founded the company in 1910. It was then called the Portland Knitting Co. and consisted of a retail store and "a few knitting machines on the second floor" where heavy sweaters, woolen hosiery and other articles of clothing were manufactured.

The two partners were intent on expanding their company, especially by means of a product that would give them an edge in the highly competitive knitting industry. Fortunately, a member of a rowing club approached them one day and asked if they could make him a pair of rowing trunks "of a rib stitch." The success of this item led to the company's specialization in the manufacture of swimsuits in the elastic rib stitch. A patent for this suit was granted in 1921. Carl Jantzen's inventiveness was responsible for the development of an automated circular knitting machine, a derivative of hosiery knitting machines, with a fine needle-bed which produced the light-weight material needed for swimsuits. It also reduced the cost of knitting dramatically.

In 1916 the company first used the name Jantzen as a trademark in advertising, and in 1918 they changed the name officially to the Jantzen Knitting Mills. The name was again changed in 1954 to Jantzen Inc.

Early advertising campaigns were aimed at encouraging swimming. One of the longest used slogans was "the Suit that Changed Bathing to Swimming." An idea for a cut-out sticker of a "diving girl" in a red Jantzen suit and knitted cap was reported in a 1923 issue of Men's Wear N.Y. as "proving popular with auto-drivers--[and that] many windshields carry as many as 3 or 4 of the figure." It also became the Jantzen logo. Billboards were used extensively with artwork by George Petty and McClelland Barclay. Ads in Life and Vogue in 1921 represented the first national advertising of the bathing suits and established the product as "first class."

Before the peak year of 1930, the firm operated factories in Canada, England, and Australia, in addition to exporting to many countries in Europe, South America, and the Phillippines. After the Depression years of 1931-34, a decision was made to license companies in Europe, rather than operating there. The decision was based on the uncertainty of U.S. foreign trade regulations and on the awareness of Zehntbauer, after a trip to Europe, of the political changes taking place.

In 1936 Jantzen made one of its greatest plant investments: a new spinning mill which was considered "the most up to date dying and spinning mill in the U.S." It enabled Jantzen to experiment with different fibers instead of having to purchase them from other mills. In the same year the firm hired their first female designer.

In 1937 serious considerations of making satin latex swimsuits--which were cut and sewn--were resolved in favor of keeping the elastic knit stitch. By 1973 sales and earnings were the highest in the 63 year history. Employees numbered 4,500.

Currently, Jantzen is owned by Vanity Fair Corporation. The company also operates an archives which is limited to serious research inquiries. Some historical information may also be located on their website: http://www.jantzen.com.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Industry on Parade Film Collection (AC0507)

Contains a 1952 film about Jantzen entitled "Suited for Swimming!" which describes the manufacture of swim suits at the company's Portland, Oregon, plant.
Separated Materials:
Related collections in the Division of Home and Community Life (now Division of Cultural and Community Life). The collection includes bathing and swimming suits and men's, women's and children's clothing (tennis and exercise outfits, blouses, and trousers (1912-1990s). Items have been donated by Jantzen as well as private donors. Also available in the Division are samples of advertisements from the 1940s to 2000 and news articles about Jantzen.
Provenance:
Donated by Jantzen, Inc. in November 1973 and November 1978.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Bathing suits  Search this
Clothing Manufacturers  Search this
Knitting companies (Mills)  Search this
Textile industry  Search this
Textile fabrics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 20th century
Catalogs
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
The Jantzen Knitting Mills Collection, 1925-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0233
See more items in:
Jantzen Knitting Mills Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0233
Online Media:

Japanese American Documentary Collection

Creator:
Tanaka, Peter, Dr.  Search this
Tsukamoto, Mary  Search this
McGovern, Melvin  Search this
Nitta, Eugene T.  Search this
Ishimoto, Norman  Search this
Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Armed Forces  Search this
Names:
Japanese Americans Citizens League  Search this
Emi, Frank  Search this
Hashimoto, M.  Search this
Kamikawa, Juichi  Search this
Kamikawa, Kazu, Mrs.  Search this
Kawashiri  Search this
Kihari, Shigeya  Search this
Matsumoto  Search this
Miyake, Takashi  Search this
Oliver, Floyd A.  Search this
Ozamoto, T.  Search this
Vogel, Mabel Rose  Search this
Wakabayashi, Ron  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Armed Forces  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes and 1 oversized folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Typescripts
Passports
Albums
Books
Cartoons (humorous images)
Christmas cards
Comic books
Newsletters
Panoramas
Personal papers
Photograph albums
Photographs
Posters
Ration books
Scrapbooks
Telegrams
Place:
Minidoka
Manzanar
Idaho
Amache (Calif.)
California -- 1940-1950
Date:
1900s-1993
Scope and Contents:
The collection is an assortment of souvenirs and memorabilia, which have survived the years since World War II. Many of them, Christmas cards, high school graduation programs, notes to friends, snapshots, and photographic prints in the form of dance programs reflect the interests and concerns of all teenagers. There are camp newsletters and Japanese passports, identification cards, ration books, meal passes, posters; a photograph album contains both family photographs and a record of achievements of members of the Kamikawa family. There is a transcript of a taped interview with Mrs. Kamikawa, who was nearly 90 in February 1982, the time of the interview. A book, Lone Heart Mountain by Estelle Ishigo, portrays in text and sketches life in the relocation centers.

The collection has been filed under the name of each donor rather than by subject such as passports, newsletters, photographs. With very few exceptions the material is in good condition. The historical sketch of the Matsumoto family tree in the photograph album is badly damaged.
Arrangement:
1 series, arranged alphabetically by donor.
Biographical / Historical:
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and the United States went to war. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 authorizing the military to exclude "any and all persons" from designated areas of the United States to protect the national defense. Thus, without the imposition of martial law, the military were given authority over the civilian population.

Under this order, nearly 120,000 men, women and children of Japanese ancestry, nearly two thirds of who were United States citizens, were forced out of their homes and into detention camps in isolated areas of the west. Many of them spent the years of the war living under armed guards, and behind barbed wire. Children spent their school days in the camps, young men left to volunteer or be drafted for military service. The War Relocation Authority administered the camps.

This collection of documentary materials relates to the involuntary relocation of Japanese Americans was collected by the Division of Armed Forces History in connection with the exhibit A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the United States Constitution at the National Museum of American History in 1988. The donors either were members of the Japanese American Citizens League or reached through the League. Interesting and revealing information is available about a few of the donors. They were primarily teenagers or young adults at the time of the relocation and the materials in the collection reflect their interests and concerns. Juichi Kamikawa, who had completed a year of college in Fresno, California, graduated from the Corcoran School of Art in Washington, D.C. after the war and became a respected artist. His family record is one of distinction in both Japan and the United States for several generations. Masuichi Kamikawa, his father, received the Order of the Sacred Treasure from the Japanese Emperor for outstanding contributions to the cultural heritage of Japan. Among achievements cited were his work in merchandizing and banking in Fresno, California. Mary Tsukamoto is one of the contributors to the video conversations in the exhibit. She is a retired teacher who was 27 years old in 1942 and a long time resident of Florin, California. Along with her entire family, she was sent to the center at Jerome, Arkansas. Mabel Rose Vogel taught high school at one of the camps, Rowher Center, Arkansas.
Related Materials:
The Division of Armed Forces History (now Division of Political and Military History) will have additional documents collected for the exhibit, A More Perfect Union, described above, that may be useful. Another collection on this topic in the Archives Center is collection #450, the Gerald Lampoley Collection of Japanese American Letters, 1942 1943, a collection of six letters written by Japanese Americans to their former teacher. Researchers may also refer to the records of the War Relocation Authority, Record Group 210, or those of the United States Commands, 1947 , Record Group 338, in the National Archives. Further, the National Headquarters of the Japanese American Citizens League in San Francisco, California, and the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles, California, maintain related collections.
Provenance:
Donated by a number of Japanese Americans, many of whom are members of the Japanese American Citizens League, headquartered in San Francisco. This material was acquired for inclusion in the exhibition, A More Perfect Union, described above, but was not placed on display for one reason or another. In certain instances, items in this collection were omitted from the exhibit if they were considered too fragile or too sensitive to prolonged exposure to light. It is possible that related items, currently on display, ultimately will be transferred to the Archives Center; if this occurs, it would be useful to distinguish between the two groups of exhibited and undisplayed materials. Transferred from the Division of Armed Forces History, June 1988.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Collection located at off-site storage area.

Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to LP recordings only possible by special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Military history, Modern  Search this
Concentration camps -- 1942-1945 -- United States  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Typescripts -- 1940-1950
Passports
Albums -- 1940-1950
Books
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 20th century
Christmas cards
Comic books
Newsletters -- 1940-1950
Panoramas
Personal papers -- 1940-1950
Photograph albums -- 1940-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1940-1950
Posters -- 1940-1960
Ration books
Scrapbooks -- 1900-1950
Telegrams -- 1940-1950
Citation:
Japanese American Documentary Collection, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0305
See more items in:
Japanese American Documentary Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0305
Online Media:

Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera

Collector:
Steinberg, Sally L. (Sally Levitt)  Search this
Names:
DCA Food Industries, Inc.  Search this
Doughnut Corporation of America  Search this
Doughnut Machine Company.  Search this
Dunkin' Donuts, Inc.  Search this
Mayflower Doughnut Shop  Search this
Mayflower Doughnuts  Search this
Mister Donut  Search this
Allen, Gracie  Search this
Brown, Joe E.  Search this
Durante, Jimmy  Search this
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969  Search this
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963  Search this
Levitt, Adolph  Search this
Skelton, Red, 1913-1997  Search this
Stevenson, Adlai E. (Adlai Ewing), 1900-1965  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Advertisements
Photograph albums
Catalogs
Clippings
Magazines (periodicals)
Playbills
Sheet music
Photographs
Posters
Videocassettes
Reports
Packaging
Cartoons (humorous images)
Books
Drawings
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- Food industry
Date:
1920s-1987
Summary:
This collection consists of ephemeral materials gathered by Sally L. Steinberg while she was researching her 1987 publication, The Donut Book: The origins, history, literature, lore, taste, etiquette, traditions, techniques, varieties, mathematics, mythology, commerce, philosophy, cuisine, and glory of the donut.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of ephemeral materials gathered by Sally L. Steinberg while she was researching her 1987 publication, The Donut Book: The origins, history, literature, lore, taste, etiquette, traditions, techniques, varieties, mathematics, mythology, commerce, philosophy, cuisine, and glory of the donut. Photographs comprise the bulk of the collection. These depict doughnut making machines, early doughnut packaging, doughnut shops and doughnut production, doughnut promotional activities (many of them sponsored by DCA), celebrities and entertainment figures with doughnuts, and the role of doughnuts in the military. Other ephemeral materials featuring doughnuts include advertisements, posters, newsclippings, music, examples of doughnut packaging, toys, and artwork. Also included are several publications that feature doughnuts, notably such children's classics as Curious George Learns the Alphabet, Who Needs Donuts?, and Homer Price, as well as a copy of Ms. Levitt's book.

Materials relating to the history of the Doughnut Corporation of America include a 1947 memo entitled "History of Mayflower Operations, 1933 1944"; pages and clippings from the company's in house magazines, The Doughnut Magazine, 1931 1936, and DCA News, 1945 1947 (most of which are not in their entirety, since Ms. Steinberg seperated them for the production of her book); a script of the "DCA Merchandising Story"; inter office correspondence from 1947; a 1961 DCA Study of the Donut Market; and a 1973 prospectus for DCA Food Industries, Inc. Also included is a store display figure of "Danny Donut," the symbol of Mayflower Doughnuts. In addition, the collection contains 1980 and 1981 Annual Reports from Dunkin' Donuts, Inc., a sample degree from their "Dunkin' Donuts University," and a large training poster for employees. Also included are in house publications relating to other donut companies, including Krispy Kreme and Winchell, the predecessor of Denny's.
Biographical / Historical:
Sally Levitt Steinberg describes herself as a "doughnut princess," since her grandfather, Adolph Levitt, was America's original "doughnut king." Levitt's family had emigrated to the United States from Russia when he was eight and settled in Milwaukee. In 1920, he moved to New York City, where he invested in a bakery in Harlem. He soon realized that there was a strong consumer demand for doughnuts, sparked by veterans of World War One who fondly remembered those cooked by Salvation Army girls in the trenches in France. Levitt, with a flair for showmanship, placed a kettle in the bakery's window and began to fry doughnuts in it. This attracted crowds of customers, who enjoyed watching the process, smelling the aroma, and eating the doughnuts. Soon, doughnut production could not keep up with the customers' demands.

In consultation with an engineer, Levitt soon developed and patented an automatic doughnut making machine, which he then placed in the bakery's window. The result was the creation of the modern doughnut industry in America. In 1920, Levitt founded the Doughnut Machine Company to make and sell the machine across the country and to sell doughnuts under the tradename of "Mayflower." Soon after, the company began preparing and selling standardized mixes for use in the machine, and began to acquire bakeries in which its products could be made. In 1931, the company opened the first Mayflower doughnut shop at 45th and Broadway in New York City; ultimately, 18 shops were opened across the country the first retail doughnut chain.

The company, which changed its name to the Doughnut Corporation of America, dominated the doughnut industry. Its operations were characterized by a large scale approach, incorporating a full range of product and equipment systems unique in the food industry. As consumers demanded a wider variety of doughnuts from glazed to jelly filled the company developed and manufactured the necessary machinery, prepared the ingredients, and marketed the products. The company diversified its product line in the 1940s to produce pancake mixes and waffle mixes and machinery, including Downyflake Food products. The company is still in operation as DCA Food Industries, Inc.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

The Doughnut Machine Company Scrapbooks (AC #662) contains two scrapbooks documenting the company=s advertising and marketing campaigns, ca. 1928.

The Industry on Parade Film Collection (AC #507) contains a 1956 film (reel #273) about the Doughnut Corporation of America.

The Earl S. Tupper Papers (AC #470) contain a number of World War One photographic postcards that show Salvation Army doughnut girls.

The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC #60) contains four boxes of material on "bakers and baking."

The N W Ayer Collection (AC #59) contains advertising proofsheets for several bakeries.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Sally L. Steinberg, December 12, 1991, 1993, and 2009.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Food habits -- United States  Search this
advertising  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Advertisements
Photograph albums
Catalogs
Clippings
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Playbills
Sheet music
Photographs -- 20th century
Posters
Videocassettes
Reports
Packaging
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 20th century
Books
Drawings -- 1980-1990
Citation:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera, 1920s-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0439
See more items in:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0439
Online Media:

Chief S.O. Alonge photographic collection

Photographer:
Alonge, Solomon Osagie, Chief, 1911-1994  Search this
Names:
Alexandra, Princess, 1936- (granddaughter of George V, King of Great Britain)  Search this
Elizabeth, Queen of Great Britain, II, 1926-  Search this
Philip, Prince, consort of Elizabeth II, Queen of Great Britain, 1921-  Search this
Extent:
100 Photographic prints (black and white, hand-colored.)
4 Photographic albums
1800 Negatives (photographic) (120 mm.)
150 Negatives (photographic) (glass plate)
Container:
Item EEPA.2009-007
Culture:
Bini (African people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographic albums
Negatives (photographic)
Black-and-white photographs
Albums
Negatives
Portraits
Hand coloring
Place:
Benin (Kingdom)
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1926-1989
Summary:
The collection consists of approximately 1,950 glass plate and large format film negatives,100 hand-tinted and black-and-white prints and four photographic albums containing prints of various sizes, taken by Chief Solomon Osagie Alonge, the royal photographer to the Oba of Benin, Akenzua II (1933-1978). These images span six decades (1926 - 1989) and represent a dynamic, continuous record of the Benin Royal Court in Nigeria. Alonge documented the pageantry, ritual and regalia of the Obas, their wives and retainers for over a half-century, including the coronation of the King and the Iyoba, or queen mother. The collection also documents historic visits to Benin by Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip (1956), Princess Alexandra (1960), foreign dignitaries, traditional rulers, political leaders and celebrities. The collection preserves an important historical record of Benin art and culture during the periods of British colonial rule and Nigerian independence in the 20th century. The rarity and historical value of the collection are enhanced by Alonge's privileged access to the Palace as a chief in the Iwebo Palace Society, a position which presents a unique insider's view of Benin royalty. The quality of the collection is testament to Alonge's technological skills in photography and his professionalism in keeping the collection ordered and well-preserved despite the heat, humidity and tropical climate of Nigeria.
Arrangement note:
Arrangement of negatives reflects the original order established by the photographer.
Biographical/Historical note:
Chief Solomon Osagie Alonge (1911-1994) was the first indigenous photographer of the Royal Court of Benin and one of the premier photographers of Nigeria. His significance as one of the earliest indigenous photographers in West Africa has been documented in detail by anthropologist Flora Kaplan. Alonge learned the craft of photography as a youth in Lagos during the 1920s and saw his profession as an honorable and distinguished calling. He clearly demonstrated an inclusive documentary perspective in his efforts to photograph many aspects of the world around him. In 1942, Alonge established the Ideal Photography Studio in Benin City and documented colonial society, the establishment of churches and businesses, and the formation of new civic organizations and social groups like the Benin Social Club (1940s). As a commercial photographer, Alonge photographed individual and group portraits, preserving a visual record of the everyday lives and peoples of Benin City. Alonge's studio portraits illustrate how local Africans presented themselves to the camera and engaged with the practice of photography during the early to mid-twentieth century.
General note:
Title provided by EEPA staff.
Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Diplomats  Search this
Kings and rulers  Search this
Coronations  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Royal households  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Black-and-white photographs
Albums
Negatives
Portraits
Hand coloring
Citation:
Chief S.O. Alonge Photographic Collection, Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
EEPA.2009-007
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-eepa-2009-007

David Herbert papers

Creator:
Herbert, David, 1920-1995  Search this
Names:
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
David Herbert Gallery  Search this
Graham Gallery  Search this
Robert Fraser Gallery  Search this
Sidney Janis Gallery  Search this
Stewart Neill Gallery  Search this
Andrade, Jaime, 1931-  Search this
Berman, Aaron  Search this
Blaszko, Martin, 1920-  Search this
Blum, Irving, 1930-  Search this
Carrington, Leona  Search this
Carsman, Jon, 1944-  Search this
Cotsen, Lloyd E.  Search this
Draper, William F., 1912-  Search this
Feigen, Richard L., 1930-  Search this
Fraser, Robert  Search this
Hoffman, Martin  Search this
Hopps, Walter  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-  Search this
Kelly, Ellsworth, 1923-  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
Lukin, Sven  Search this
McKelvy, Douglas  Search this
Merck, Josephine  Search this
Namuth, Hans  Search this
Negret, Edgar, 1920-2012  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Ossorio, Alfonso, 1916-1990  Search this
Padovano, Anthony  Search this
Ramirez, Eduardo  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne, 1903-  Search this
Smith, Leon Polk, 1906-1996  Search this
Sorel, Paul  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-1980  Search this
Extent:
5.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Greece -- description and travel
Ecuador -- Description and Travel
Puerto Rico -- description and travel
Japan -- Description and Travel
Iwo Jima (Japan)
Date:
circa 1909-1996
bulk 1945-1995
Summary:
The papers of New York gallery owner and art dealer David Herbert measure 5.8 linear feet and date from circa 1909-1996, with the bulk of the material dating from 1945-1995. Herbert's papers document his years working for Betty Parsons Gallery, Sidney Janis Gallery, Graham Gallery, and others; the operation of the David Herbert Gallery from 1959-1962; Herbert's partnerships and agreements with Richard Feigen and others; and his activities as an independent dealer. Records include biographical material, correspondence, notebooks, subject files, artist files, exhibition files, business records, printed material, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York gallery owner and art dealer David Herbert measure 5.8 linear feet and date from circa 1909-1996, with the bulk of the material dating from 1945-1995. Herbert's papers document his years working for Betty Parsons Gallery, Sidney Janis Gallery, Graham Gallery, and others; the operation of the David Herbert Gallery from 1959-1962; Herbert's partnerships and agreements with Richard Feigen and others; and his activities as an independent dealer. Records include biographical material, correspondence, notebooks, subject files, artist files, exhibition files, business records, printed material, and photographs.

Biographical material includes address books and calendars, educational records, records of Herbert's military service in the United States Naval Construction Battalion in Japan, and resume's charting his career.

Correspondence is with Herbert's parents, friends, business colleagues, and artists. It includes documentation of Herbert's partnership with Richard Feigen, and his cooperative work with Irving Blum and Walter Hopps of Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles, and Robert Fraser in London. Also documented are Herbert's relationship with Jaime Andrade and Andrade's family, and a lawsuit Herbert brought against Aaron Berman relating to the ownership of an Ellsworth Kelly drawing. There are scattered letters and postcards from artists and collectors, including Martin Blaszko, Lloyd Cotsen, Martin Hoffman, Ray Johnson, Josephine Merck, Alfonso Ossorio, Paul Sorel, and Clyfford Still.

Notebooks provide brief notes on Herbert's day-to-day business dealings. Subject files, consisting primarily of printed material, document Herbert's interests in several art world figures, subjects such as ancient art, and travel to locations such as Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Greece.

Exhibition files include installation shots and catalogs for many of the exhibitions held at the David Herbert Gallery between 1959 and 1962.

Artist files document Herbert's interest in individual artists, such as William Draper, Ellsworth Kelly, Franz Kline, Sven Lukin, Edgar Negret, Louise Nevelson, Anthony Padovano, Eduardo Ramirez, and Jeanne Reynal, through printed material, photographs of artwork, scattered artist letters, and sales documentation.

Business records document the financial details and overall goals of Herbert's various business ventures. There is a sales book for Betty Parsons Gallery and Sidney Janis Gallery; Herbert's appraisal, consignment, commission, sales, and loan records; Herbert's business plans and projections; financial statements from the David Herbert Gallery; sales records for Graham Gallery; and records of Herbert's partnership with Douglas McKelvy.

Printed material includes announcements and catalogs from galleries Herbert worked for or collaborated with, including Graham Gallery, Betty Parsons Gallery, Feigen/Herbert Gallery, Stewart Neill Gallery, and Robert Fraser Gallery. Also found are obituaries and other new clippings of interest to Herbert.

Photographs are of Herbert, family members, and friends and colleagues, including his companion, Jaime Andrade, Leona Carrington, William Draper, Jon Carsman, Hans Namuth, and Leon Polk Smith. Many are color snapshots collected in two photographs albums. Also found are photographs taken in Japan and Iwo Jima in 1945-1946 of street scenes, Naval Construction Battalion facilities, and Herbert's army colleagues and friends.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as nine series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1920-circa 1995 (0.7 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1942-1996 (1 linear foot; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Notebooks, circa 1950s-circa 1995 (0.3 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1950s-1992 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 2-3)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, 1959-1963 (0.25 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 6: Artist Files, 1950s-1993 (0.75 linear feet; Boxes 3-4)

Series 7: Business Records, 1950s-1992 (0.6 linear feet; Box 4)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1949-circa 1995 (1.4 linear feet; Boxes 5-7)

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1909-circa 1990 (0.4 linear feet; Box 7)
Biographical / Historical:
New York gallery owner and art dealer David Herbert (1920-1995, born David Herbert Schmerer), worked for a number of important galleries in New York, had his own eponymous gallery from 1959-1962, operated as a private dealer, and was in partnership with dealer Richard Feigen from 1962-1964.

Herbert served in the United States Naval Construction Battalion from 1943-1946 and was posted to Japan in 1945-1946. After receiving a BA in art history from Syracuse University in 1951, he worked for Betty Parsons Gallery (1951-1953) and Sidney Janis Gallery (1953-1959), selling the work of contemporary American painters and sculptors, handling publicity, and installing exhibitions.

Herbert forged strong connections with artists and collectors alike, and was instrumental in launching the careers of a number of important artists. One such artist was Ellsworth Kelly, whom he recommended to Parsons, triggering Kelly's New York career. He opened the David Herbert Gallery in 1959, with investment from Douglas McKelvy, promoting the works of artists including Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Jackson Pollock, and Louise Nevelson, to leading collectors and museums.

Herbert often worked in cooperation with colleagues Irving Blum and Walter Hobbs in Los Angeles, and Robert Fraser in London. After closing his gallery in 1962, Herbert entered a partnership with dealer Richand Feigen, operating the Feigen/Herbert Gallery from 1962-1964. From 1964-1969 he worked as a private dealer specializing in twentieth century works of art and serving as a consultant to collectors, museums, artists, and corporate interests. From 1969-1975 he was Director and Art Salesman of contemporary and 19th Century American Art at Graham Gallery. Herbert subsequently continued as a private dealer from 1975 until his death.

Herbert traveled extensively, visiting museums, collectors, and galleries in England, France, Italy, Greece, Spain, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Hawaii, and Japan. Through Edgar Negret, whom Herbert represented, he met Jaime Andrade, who became his assistant at the Feigen/Herbert Gallery in 1963. In turn Andrade shared with Herbert an interest in pre-Columbian art and contemporary Spanish and Latin America art, hosting multiple visits to his native Ecuador by Herbert and others, including artist William Draper.

Andrade served as executor of Herbert's estate, following Herbert's death in 1995.
Provenance:
The David Herbert papers were given to the Archives of American Art by Jaime Andrade, Herbert's companion, in 1999.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D. C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Gallery owners -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
David Herbert papers, circa 1909-1996. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.herbdavi
See more items in:
David Herbert papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-herbdavi
Online Media:

John Wanamaker department store art gallery records

Creator:
John Wanamaker (Firm)  Search this
Names:
Bartlett, Paul Wayland, 1865-1925  Search this
Cooper, Colin Campbell, Jr  Search this
Munkácsy, Mihály, 1844-1900  Search this
Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922  Search this
Wanamaker, Rodman, 1863-1928  Search this
Extent:
2 Microfilm reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilm reels
Date:
[ca. 1908]-1941
Scope and Contents:
Records documenting John Wanamaker's import of French painting from Parisian salons and artists to sell in his store, to keep for his private collection and to keep for his store collection. Also included is a photograph album of Rodman Wanamaker's silver collection. Included are: correspondence; customs papers; purchase and sale records; preview invitiations; inventories of works purchased for the store's collection; inventories of Wanamaker's private collection; artist files containing lists of Colin Campbell Cooper's works, photographs and clippings relating to Paul W. Bartlett's paintings, autographed photographs of Frederick Frieseke's painting, and files on Mihaly Munkacsy and Pierre Fritel. Total: 1.5 linear feet.
Biographical / Historical:
Department store; Philadelphia, Pa. Founded 1861. Opened an art gallery in 1881. The art gallery is now defunct.
Provenance:
Microfilmed in 1986 as part of AAA's Philadelphia Arts Documentation Project. Subquently donated to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Art, Modern -- French -- 20th century -- History  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Pennsylvania
Department stores -- Pennsylvania
Identifier:
AAA.johnwana
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-johnwana

Smothers Brothers Collection

Creator:
Smothers Brothers  Search this
Names:
Paulsen, Pat  Search this
Seeger, Pete, 1919-2014  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (21 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Biography files
Clippings
Color slides
Contact sheets
Contracts
Itineraries
Legal records
Letters (correspondence)
Photograph albums
Photographs
Color prints (photographs)
Programs
Press releases
Scrapbooks
Scripts (documents)
Date:
1959-2008, undated
Summary:
The collection documents the lives and careers of the Smothers Brothers, with emphasis on their 1960s television variety show, The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour.
Scope and Contents:
Collection documents the private lives and professional careers of Tom and Dick Smothers, with emphasis on their television variety show, The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. The largest portion of the collection contains photographic materials. Publicity materials including press releases, programs, newspaper clippings, and magazine articles; correspondence containing fan mail (some from famous persons such as Lucille Ball, Jack Paar, and others), letters from viewers both complimentary and critical of shows, and letters from members of Congress; business records including contracts, tour itineraries, talent agency materials, scripts, and scrapbooks; and legal documents relating to the lawsuit against Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) are also found in the collection. Collection is arranged into three series: Series 1, Photographs, 1961-2007, undated; Series 2, Business Records, 1959-2002, undated; and Series 3, Personal Papers, 1966-2008, undated.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into three series:

Series 1: Photographic Materials, 1961-2007, undated

Subseries 1.1: Television Shows, 1966-1989, undated

Subseries 1.2: Specials, Tours, and Public Appearances, 1964-1988, undated

Subseries 1.3: Motion Picture Films and Theatre, 1969-1982

Subseries 1.4: General, 1961-2007, undated

Subseries 1.5: Promotional, 1961-2003, undated

Series 2: Business Records, 1959-2002, undated

Subseries 2.1: Press, 1960-2002, undated

Subseries 2.2: Employee Files, 1959-1999, undated

Subseries 2.3: Smothers Brothers v. Columbia Broadcasting System, Incorporated (CBS), 1966-1972, undated

Subseries 2.4: Correspondence, 1960-1996

Subseries 2.5: Performance Materials, 1962-1993, undated

Subseries 2.6: Fan Club, 1990-1992, undated

Series 3: Personal Papers, 1966-2008, undated
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Duncan Family Yo-Yo Collection NMAH.AC.0807

Colonna, Farrell Wine Label Collection NMAH.AC.0626

Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 16: Country, Western and Folk Music NMAH.AC.0300

Bob Rule Papers, NMAH.AC.0855
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Comedy  Search this
Folk singers  Search this
Television personalities  Search this
Television  Search this
Variety shows (Television programs) -- Production and direction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Biography files
Clippings -- 20th century
Color slides -- 20th century
Contact sheets
Contracts
Itineraries
Legal records
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 20th century
Color prints (photographs) -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Programs
Press releases
Scrapbooks
Scripts (documents)
Photographs -- 20th century -- Color prints
Citation:
Smothers Brothers Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1437
See more items in:
Smothers Brothers Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1437
Online Media:

Walter and Ise Gropius papers

Creator:
Gropius, Walter, 1883-1969  Search this
Gropius, Ise  Search this
Names:
Architects Collaborative, Inc.  Search this
Bauhaus  Search this
Walter Gropius Foundation  Search this
Aalto, Alvar, 1898-1976  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
Bayer, Herbert, 1900-1985  Search this
Beckmann, Hannes, 1909-1977  Search this
Breuer, Marcel, 1902-  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Cascieri, Arcangelo, 1902-1997  Search this
Chermayeff, Ivan  Search this
Chermayeff, Serge, 1900-  Search this
Davis, Charles H. (Charles Harold), 1856-1933  Search this
Feininger, Lyonel, 1871-1956  Search this
Gabo, Naum, 1890-1977  Search this
Gropius, Walter, 1883-1969  Search this
Huxley, Julian, 1887-1975  Search this
Kandinsky, Wassily, 1866-1944  Search this
Kepes, Gyorgy, 1906-2001  Search this
Klarmann, Adolf D., 1904-  Search this
Klee, Paul, 1879-1940  Search this
Klemperer, Otto, 1885-1973  Search this
Koch, Helmut  Search this
Le Corbusier, 1887-1965  Search this
Mahler, Alma, 1879-1964  Search this
Marcks, Gerhard  Search this
Miró, Joan, 1893-  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, László, 1895-1946  Search this
Muche, Georg, 1895-  Search this
Pei, I. M., 1917-  Search this
Petit, Claude  Search this
Pritchard, Jack, 1899-  Search this
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Scharoun, Hans, 1893-1972  Search this
Schmidt, Joost, 1893-1948  Search this
Schwitters, Kurt, 1887-1948  Search this
Sert, José Luis, 1902-  Search this
Stravinsky, Igor, 1882-1971  Search this
Tange, Kenzō, 1913-  Search this
Wachsmann, Konrad, 1901-1980  Search this
Werfel, Franz, 1890-1945  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
artók, Béla, 1881-1945  Search this
Extent:
0.4 Linear feet ((24 microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1883-1981
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material, correspondence with architects and artists (1903-1978), writings (1923-1969), a diary, an autograph book, subject files, printed material, photographs (1883-1979) and 5 photograph albums reflect the career of Walter Gropius, the activities of his wife Ise, and her recollections of the Bauhaus. Also included are 5 cassette tapes, untranscribed and unmicrofilmed.
REELS 2270-2283: Walter Gropius' correspondence concerns family matters (1903-1933), locating his sister in Berlin after World War II (1945-1946), and the Bauhaus Archiv (1957-1968). Ise Gropius' correspondents (1969-1978) include Alvar Aalto, Herbert Bayer, Hannes Beckmann, Arcangelo Cascieri, Ivan and Serge Chermayeff, Adolf Klarmann, Helmut Koch, Gerhard Marcks, Jack Pritchard, Hans Scharoun, and Konrad Wachsmann. Other correspondence concerns exhibitions about Gropius (1969-1976). Writings by Walter Gropius include lecture notes and short essays on architecture and design. A subject file (1945-1954) concerns visits to Japan. Printed material (1910-1978) includes galley proof sheets and clippings (1913-1957).
REELS 2284-2286: Photographs (1896-1937) show family members including Gropius' first wife Alma Schindler and their daughter Manon; Gropius' architectural projects including finished buildings, models, blueprints, and drawings (1906-1952); and an exhibition in London on Gropius.
REEL 2287: Biographical material (1883-1979) consists of Gropius' birth, marriage and death certificates, his military record (1914-1917), contracts, U.S. naturalization papers (1941-1944), financial documents (1945), Ise Gropius' will (1979), a list of works, a history of the Gropius family, real estate records, and membership cards. Excerpts from letters written by Marcel Breuer describe his European travels (1931-1937). A file on the Walter Gropius Foundation contains letters and notes (1969). An autograph book kept by Ise Gropius (1924-1981) contains illustrations by Herbert Bayer, Gyorgy and Juliet Kepes, Joan Miro, Kurt Schwitters, and Phyllis Terry, as well as autographs, notes and photographs. Writings by Ise Gropius include lecture notes and printed essays (1935-1943).
REEL 2287a: Twenty-six letters (1932-1952) from Herbert Bayer, written in German and English, to Gropius. Thirteen excerpts from Bayer's letters (1932-1949) are translated into English.
REELS 2330-2331: Photographs (1883-1979) show Walter Gropius, family members, and colleagues including Alvar Aalto, Bela Bartok, Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, Alexander Calder, Arcangelo Cascieri, Naum Gabo, Julian Huxley, Gyorgy Kepes, Paul Klee, Le Corbusier, I. M. Pei, Diego Rivera, Jose Luis Sert, Kenzo Tange, Frank Lloyd Wright, and members of Gropius' firm, The Architects Collaborative. Other photographs show a skit by students of the Harvard Graduate School of Design and a celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Bauhaus (1979).
REEL 2393: English translations of correspondence between Ise and Walter Gropius (1931-1969) and Ise's 1928 letter to a journalist commenting on Walter Gropius' resignation from the Bauhaus. A handwritten German copy (with a typewritten English translation) of a section of Ise Gropius' unpublished memoir describes her first meeting with Gropius and their courtship and marriage (1923-1929). A German transcript was not filmed. A typewritten English translation of Ise Gropius' diary (1924-1928) describes activities at the Bauhaus and mentions Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Otto Klemperer, Alma Mahler, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Georg Muche, Kurt Schwitters, Igor Stravinsky, and Franz Werfel. A handwritten translation is filmed on reel 4130.
REEL 2764: One photograph album (1925-1930) contains photographs of Walter and Ise Gropius and colleagues including Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, Lyonel Feininger, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Georg Muche, Claude Petit, and Joost Schmidt; construction of the Bauhaus (1925-1926); and sights in Germany and Italy. Four albums on the United States contain Gropius' photographs of New York City architecture, the Brooklyn Bridge, Chicago, California housing and industry, the Grand Canyon, and American Indians.
UNMICROFILMED: 5 cassette tapes, untranscribed, including a lecture delivered by Walter Gropius as part of "The Heritage of Man" lecture series, Cleveland, Ohio, February 13, 1952; an interview of Ise conducted by the Canadian Broadcasting Company, October 28, 1977; and 3 of a monologue delivered by Ise, 1978, in which she speaks of her early childhood.
Biographical / Historical:
Architect, educator and founder of the Bauhaus school. Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius studied at the University of Charlottenburg-Berlin and Munich. Following European travel and apprenticeship with Peter Behrens in Berlin, he established his own practice in 1910. After military service in WWI, he became director of the School of Applied Arts and the Academy of Arts, united the two and named the new institute Bauhaus Dessau in 1925. Between 1934 and 1937, he had a private practice in London. From 1938 to 1952, Gropius was chairman of Harvard's Graduate School of Design and maintained a private practice with Marcel Breuer from 1938 to 1941. Gropius married Alma Schindler, Gustav Mahler's widow, in 1915. In 1923, he married Ise (or Ilse) Franck (1897-1983).
Related Materials:
Additional photographs of Alma (Schindler) Mahler Werfel located at Bauhaus Archiv, Berlin, Germany.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming by Ise Gropius and her daughter, Beate Gropius Forberg Johansen, 1982-1983, except for selected items on reel 2393, the handwritten translation of Ise's diary on reel 4130 and cassette tapes, which were donated in 1981, 1983 and 1987, respectively. Some photographs from albums on reel 2764 which would not reproduce were not microfilmed.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Architects  Search this
Educators  Search this
Painters  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Topic:
Architecture, Modern -- 20th century -- Germany  Search this
Architecture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Design, Industrial -- Germany  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.gropwalt
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gropwalt

Eastern Air Lines Collection [Foster]

Creator:
Eastern Airlines, Inc.  Search this
Foster, David L., Jr.  Search this
Extent:
3.6 Cubic feet (2 flat boxes, 7 document cases, 1 slim document case, and 4 large map folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical manuals
Photograph albums
Newsletters
Date:
1960s - 1990s
Summary:
This collection consists of material mostly relating to David Foster's career with Eastern Air Lines and the maintenance of their aircraft, 1960s to 1980s.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 3.6 cubic feet of material mostly relating to David Foster's career with Eastern Air Lines and the maintenance of their aircraft, 1960s to 1980s. The following types of material are included: photo albums, aircraft drawings, newsletters, photographs, newspaper articles, posters, and technical manuals.
Arrangement:
Arranged by type of material.
Biographical / Historical:
Eastern Air Lines was originally formed as Pitcairn Aviation, Inc. in 1927. In July 1929 it was acquired by North American Aviation as the Eastern Air Lines Division and, in January 1930, was renamed Eastern Air Transport. By February 1933, Eastern had acquired Ludington Airlines, giving Eastern routes to most major eastern cities, including New York, Atlanta, Miami, Atlantic City, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC. In 1934 the airline was renamed Eastern Air Lines and introduced Douglas DC-2s on its longer routes. In 1937 Eastern began DC-3 service and acquired Wedell-Williams Air Service Corp, thereby extending its routes westward to Houston. North American sold its holdings in Eastern to a group headed by Captain Eddie Rickenbacker. By 1960 Eastern had extended its coverage to Puerto Rico, Canada, and Mexico, as well as westward to Detroit and St. Louis. In January 1960 Eastern introduced jet service with DC-8s and, in April 1961, inaugurated "Air Shuttle" service between Boston, New York, and Washington, DC with its propeller-driven aircraft. By 1975 Eastern's network covered 100 cities in 30 states, as well as Mexico, Canada, and the Caribbean. In 1986 Eastern was bought by Texas Air, making Texas Air the largest airline in the United States. Following labor problems, including a strike by Eastern's machinists which was supported by the pilots and flight attendants, Eastern declared Chapter 11 Bankruptcy in 1989.

David L. Foster, Jr., (d. 2010) had a four year apprenticeship with Eastern Air Lines before becoming a 37 year employee and a manager in the Aircraft Service Center. After his retirement from Eastern, Foster worked for 9 years with the Dee Howard Company.
Provenance:
Lois T Foster, Gift, 2019, NASM.2020.0009
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aircraft  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Photograph albums
Newsletters -- 20th century
Citation:
Eastern Airlines Collection [Foster], NASM.2020.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2020.0009
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2020-0009

Charles Lindbergh Memorabilia [Stanley King] Collection

Creator:
King, Stanley.  Search this
Names:
Ryan NYP "Spirit of St. Louis"  Search this
Lindbergh, Anne Morrow, 1906-2001  Search this
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Extent:
6.05 Cubic feet (16 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Ephemera
Photograph albums
Sheet music
Date:
1927-1939
Summary:
This collection consists of approximately 6.05 cubic feet of material relating to Charles Lindbergh including photograph albums; scrapbooks; postcards; photographs; philately; sheet music; records; film; CDs (data and audio); videotapes; flyers; articles; advertisements; reception ephemera; magazines; and labels.
Scope and Contents:
The Stanley King collection was donated to the Museum in 2002, and the archival material was later transferred to the Archives. The archival material includes photograph albums; scrapbooks; postcards; photographs; philately; sheet music; records; film; CDs (data and audio); videotapes; flyers; articles; advertisements; reception ephemera; magazines; and labels. The thirteen photo albums, arranged chronologically from 1927-1938, include some lovely photographs of Anne Lindbergh and their flights in the Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq;" Lindbergh's tour through Mexico and South America; and the kidnapping of Charles Lindbergh, Jr. and the subsequent trial. The four scrapbooks consists of newspaper clippings (with a few pieces of sheet music) relating mostly to the 1927 flight.
Biographical / Historical:
On May 20-21, 1927, Charles Lindbergh literally flew into history when he crossed the Atlantic Ocean in his Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis, thus becoming the first pilot to fly solo and nonstop from New York to Paris. This flight made Lindbergh a household name and catapulted him into fame and celebrity. Composed of more than 400 artifacts and archival items, this collection illustrates the popular culture phenomenon that turned the reserved young pilot from Minnesota into the first media superstar of the 20th century. The colorful assortment of commemorative toys, pins, games, bottles, jewelry, hats and pennants was collected by Lindbergh enthusiast Stanley King over several decades and donated to the museum in 2002. Most of the items were mass-merchandised to the public as Lindbergh toured the United States and Latin America in the years immediately following the New York-to-Paris flight. The artifacts and archival material reflect the public adulation for Lindbergh and the powerful commercial response to his celebrity. More than 75 years after the Spirit's historic flight, Lindbergh's name still has the power help sell manufactured goods
Provenance:
Stanley King, Gift, 2002, NASM.2010.0022
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Transatlantic flights  Search this
Collectors and collecting  Search this
Lockheed Model 8 Sirius "Tingmissartoq"  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Ephemera
Photograph albums
Sheet music
Citation:
Charles Lindbergh Memorabilia [Stanley King] Collection, NASM.2010.0022, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2010.0022
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2010-0022

Ellen Lanyon papers

Creator:
Lanyon, Ellen  Search this
Names:
Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art -- Faculty  Search this
Landfall Press  Search this
Ox-Bow Summer School of Painting  Search this
Chicago, Judy, 1939-  Search this
Golub, Leon, 1922-2004  Search this
Grooms, Red  Search this
Hunt, Richard, 1935-  Search this
Kozloff, Joyce  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Nilsson, Gladys, 1940-  Search this
Petlin, Irving, 1934-  Search this
Plunkett, Edward M. (1922-2011)  Search this
Rockburne, Dorothea  Search this
Schapiro, Miriam, 1923-2015  Search this
Spector, Buzz  Search this
Stevens, May  Search this
Stuart, Michelle, 1933-  Search this
Extent:
62.6 Linear feet
84.47 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Electronic records (digital records)
Sketches
Interviews
Collages
Paintings
Sound recordings
Prints
Video recordings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Transcriptions
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
circa 1880-2015
bulk 1926-2013
Summary:
The papers of artist Ellen Lanyon measure 62.6 linear feet and 84.47 GB and date from circa 1880-2015, bulk 1926-2013. Biographical material; correspondence; interviews; writings; journals; project files; teaching files; exhibition files; personal business records; printed and broadcast material; scrapbooks; photographic material; artwork; sketchbooks; as well as sound and video recordings and digital material, provide a comprehensive view of Lanyon's career and of art circles in Chicago and New York. Correspondence with artists and friends make up a significant portion of the collection. Project and exhibition files reflect her professional and artistic career. Thousands of slides and photographs document her life and artwork over seven decades, and over seventy sketchbooks are filled with student sketches, portraits of friends and family, and preliminary drawings.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of artist Ellen Lanyon measure 62.6 linear feet and 84.47 GB and date from circa 1880-2015, bulk 1926-2013. Biographical material; correspondence; interviews; writings; journals; project files; teaching files; exhibition files; personal business records; printed and broadcast material; scrapbooks; photographic material; artwork; sketchbooks; as well as sound and video recordings and digital material, provide a comprehensive view of Lanyon's career and of art circles in Chicago and New York.

Biographical material documents Lanyon's major life events and includes calendars; addresses and contacts; life documents; awards; diplomas and school records; resumes; horoscope readings and natal chart; residence documents; personal memorabilia; family papers and memorabilia; digital material; and items relating to Lanyon's memorial.

Correspondence, both personal and professional, consists of letters, postcards, holiday and greeting cards exchanged with family, friends, artists, collectors, publishers, print shops, museums, galleries, and cultural and educational institutions. Some material is in digital format. Notable correspondents include Judy Chicago, Leon Golub, Red Grooms, Richard Hunt, Joyce Kozloff, Lucy Lippard, Gladys Nilsson, Irving Petlin, Edward Plunkett, Dorothea Rockburne, Miriam Schapiro, Buzz Spector, May Stevens, and Michelle Stuart.

Fourteen interviews are with Ellen Lanyon conducted by various interviewers on behalf of a number of organizations and consist of transcripts, sound recordings, and video recordings, some in digital format.

Writings include general writings, lectures, presentations, and thirty-seven notebooks by Lanyon. A few writings by others about Lanyon and several sound recordings of lectures by other artists are also found here.

Twenty-five journals intermittently record Lanyon's reflections on her day-to-day life including her work, obligations, and relationships.

Project files include professional activities and files documenting projects and commissions. Files may contain project proposals, correspondence, printed and digital material, applications, contracts, research notes, invoices, receipts, notebooks, sketches, plans, organizational records, and photographic material. Three multi-year projects are extensively documented, including theMiami Metamorphosis mural, Riverwalk Gateway mural, and Hiawatha Rail Line mural.

Teaching files consist of correspondence, memoranda, course descriptions and proposals, rosters, administrative documents, and printed material from a number of institutions, including Cooper Union, where Lanyon taught from the 1970s to her retirement in 1993.

Exhibition files include files for individual exhibitions, exhibitions by women artists, and chronological files. Files may contain correspondence, inventories, consignment records, layout plans, printed and digital material, and photographic material.

Personal business, inventory, and estate records document the financial and administrative history of Lanyon's career and artworks.

Printed material, broadcast material, and published video recordings document Lanyon's career, art movements in Chicago and New York, and the women's movement in art. Files may contain books, booklets, broadsides, radio and television broadcasts, brochures, exhibition announcements and catalogs, lecture announcements, news and magazine clippings, newspapers and newsletters, periodicals, press releases, programs, video recordings, digital material, source material, and posters.

Eight scrapbooks contain predominantly clippings and exhibition material documenting Lanyon's career.

Photographic material consists of thousands of prints, slides, transparencies, digital photographs, and negatives of Lanyon, family, friends, artists, places, and artwork.

A small number of artworks include a self-portrait Lanyon carved in wood, a childhood painting, a photo collage, sketches, and one folder of assignments for an art course. Artworks by others are a hand colored photograph album by Marcia Palazzolo and prints distributed by Landfall Press.

Seventy-one sketchbooks are filled with student sketches, portraits of friends and family, and preliminary drawings done in pencil, watercolor, and colored pencil.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as fifteen series

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1880-2014, bulk 1926-2015 (5.3 linear feet; Box 1-6, 62, 3.94 GB; ER01-ER04)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1936-2013 (14.3 linear feet; Box 6-20, 1.51 GB; ER05-ER11)

Series 3: Interviews, circa 1975-2012 (0.7 linear feet; Box 20-21, 7.07 GB; ER12-ER19)

Series 4: Writings, Lectures, and Notebooks, circa 1947-2015 (3.2 linear feet; Box 21-24, 0.712 GB; ER20-ER24)

Series 5: Journals, 1967-2013 (1 linear foot; Box 24-25)

Series 6: Project Files, 1952-2014 (5.8 linear feet; Box 25-31, 62, OV 66, 13.42 GB; ER25-ER32)

Series 7: Teaching Files, 1953-2010 (0.9 linear feet; Box 31)

Series 8: Exhibition Files, circa 1944-2013 (2.7 linear feet; Box 32-34, 63, 3.87 GB; ER33-ER37)

Series 9: Personal Business, Inventory, and Estate Records, circa 1950-2015 (3 linear feet; Box 34-37, 9.10 GB; ER38-ER46)

Series 10: Printed and Broadcast Material, and Published Video Recordings, 1937-2013 (13.3 linear feet; Box 37-49, 63, OV 67-77, 2.18 GB; ER47-ER49)

Series 11: Scrapbooks, 1946-2013 (0.6 linear feet; Box 49-50)

Series 12: Photographic Material, circa 1920-2015 (7.7 linear feet; Box 50-57, 63, 42.44 GB; ER50-ER71)

Series 13: Artwork, circa 1938-1979 (0.2 linear feet; Box 58, 63)

Series 14: Sketchbooks, circa 1940-2010 (3.4 linear feet; Box 58-60, 64, 65)

Series 15: Unidentified Sound and Video Recordings, and Electronic Records, circa 1974-2013 (0.5 linear feet; Box 60-61)
Biographical / Historical:
Ellen Lanyon (1926-2013) was an American painter and printmaker working in Chicago and New York. She was born in Chicago, Illinois to Howard and Ellen (Nellie) Lanyon. Lanyon received her BFA from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1948 and married classmate and artist Roland Ginzel that same year. In 1950, she received her MFA from the University of Iowa. As part of her post graduate work, Lanyon studied at the Courtauld Institute, University of London on a Fulbright Fellowship.

In the late 1940s, Lanyon began exhibiting her work and was featured in several Chicago and Vicinity Annual shows as well as the Momentum exhibitions. Influenced by surrealism, magic realism, and the work of the Chicago Imagists and the Hairy Who, Lanyon's subjects range from portraits of friends and family, to objects from her collection of curios, to flora and fauna. She produced paintings, drawings, print editions, artist's books, and some ceramics. In addition to her own artwork, Lanyon took on numerous commissions including the Riverwalk Gateway murals in Chicago, the Hiawatha Transit murals in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and a variety of illustration work.

Lanyon was active in many professional organizations and women's organizations including the College Art Association (CAA) and the Women's Caucus for Art. She organized panels at CAA, contributed writings and editing to journals, including Heresies, and served on a variety of panels and juries. Lanyon was also on the Board of the Ox-Bow Summer School of Painting, which she attended in her youth. Over the course of her career, she taught at many colleges and universities, including Cooper Union, where she was Associate Professor.

Throughout her career, Lanyon participated in exhibitions around the country, including a retrospective of her work at the National Museum for Women in the Arts in 1999. She was also the recipient of many awards and grants including the Logan Price and a National Endowment for the Arts grant.

Lanyon and Ginzel had two children, Andrew and Lisa Ginzel.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Ellen Lanyon conducted by James Crawford in 1975.
Provenance:
A majority of the collection was donated in 2015 by Andrew Ginszel, Ellen Lanyon's son and executor. Lanyon also donated material in 1990. Portions of the collection were lent for microfilming from 1977-1981 by Lanyon and subsequently donated.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Printmakers -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Feminism and art  Search this
Art -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Art -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Muralists -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Genre/Form:
Electronic records (digital records)
Sketches
Interviews
Collages
Paintings
Sound recordings
Prints
Video recordings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Transcriptions
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Ellen Lanyon papers, circa 1880-2015, bulk 1926-2013. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lanyelle
See more items in:
Ellen Lanyon papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lanyelle
Online Media:

3EP Ltd. records, 1970-1984, bulk 1979-1984

Creator:
3EP Ltd.  Search this
3EP Ltd.  Search this
Subject:
Gilhooly, David  Search this
Francis, Sam  Search this
Fay, Joe  Search this
Falkenstein, Claire  Search this
Lobdell, Frank  Search this
Jefferson, Jack  Search this
Goldyne, Joseph R.  Search this
Phillips, Jay  Search this
Phillips, Matt  Search this
Sugarman, George  Search this
Zirker, Joseph  Search this
Cook, Gordon  Search this
Bengston, Billy Al  Search this
Arnoldi, Charles  Search this
Olivera, Nathan  Search this
Moses, Ed  Search this
Kirkeby, Paula  Search this
Anderson, Mary Margaret  Search this
Type:
Prints
Photograph albums
Photographs
Topic:
Art publishing -- California -- Palo Alto  Search this
Intaglio printing  Search this
Graphic arts  Search this
Prints -- 20th century  Search this
Printmakers -- California  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5717
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208555
AAA_collcode_3epltd
Theme:
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208555
Online Media:

Maid of Cotton Records

Creator:
Cotton Museum (Memphis, Tennessee)  Search this
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
38 Cubic feet (91 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videocassettes
Slides (photographs)
Scrapbooks
Reports
Programs
Photographs
Photograph albums
Audiotapes
Place:
Memphis (Tenn.)
Date:
1939-1994, undated
Summary:
The Maid of Cotton (MOC) beauty pageant was sponsored by the National Cotton Council, Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans from 1939-1993. The contest was held annually in Memphis, Tennessee until the National Cotton Council and Cotton Council International moved to Dallas, Texas. Beginning with the 1985 pageant (held December 1984) the competition was held in Dallas. The pageant was discontinued in 1993 due to lack of funds, a sponsor, and changes in marketing strategies. The records include files on contestants, photographs, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains the records for the Maid of Cotton pageant (1939-1993) sponsored by the National Cotton Council (NCC), Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans. The collection consists of approximately 38 cubic feet of records created by the NCC in the course of operating the Maid of Cotton contest from 1939 to 1993. The records form the complete archive of this fifty-four year program. The records include administrative files, scrapbooks, photographs, slides, and videotapes.

"One of the main values of the Maid of Cotton collection is its completeness. These are all of the official records of the program, documenting all of its activities throughout its entire existence from 1939 to 1993. As such, it represents a truly unique documentary record and opportunity for research.

Beauty contests have been the subject of serious scholarly study for many years. A search of WorldCat reveals over fifty books on the topic. Scholars have found the subject to be a fruitful springboard from which to study a wide variety of topics, primarily centered around issues of beauty, femininity, culture values, national identity, racism, and feminism.

Beauty pageants serve as symbols that reflect the values of American culture. For example, pageant winners have symbolized the advances made by formerly disenfranchised groups. Vanessa Williams, the first African American to win the Miss America crown (1983), rewrote the definition of beauty in America, and Heather Whitestone, the first deaf Miss America (1995), proved that physical handicaps need not hold anyone back from their dreams. Pageants can provide a focus for the re-examination of our society and culture. The tragic murder of six-year-old Jonbenet Ramsey in 1996 provided a window into what author Susan Anderson calls "the extravagant world of child beauty pageants," that led to public debate about issues of motherhood and adolescence.

In addition, beauty pageants can be viewed in advertising terms: they are the ultimate expression of the tried and true adage that sex sells. All pageants have sponsors and all sponsors want their products to be seen in a positive light. Some sponsors are content to contribute goods and services to the contestants --a new car, a trip to the Caribbean, a fur coat, etc. --so that their generosity can be noted in the publicity surrounding the contest. Others prefer to sponsor the entire program. The Miss Universe contest, for example, was created in 1952 by the Jantzen Company specifically to enable the company to showcase pretty girls wearing its swimsuits. Jantzen abruptly withdrew its previous support of the Miss America pageant when Yolande Betbeze refused to wear a bathing suit during her reign as Miss America 1951. The Maid of Cotton pageant is a highly organized, year-long, very visible public relations program that allows the National Cotton Council to showcase the wonders of cotton through the wonders of young beauty queens. Attractive young women are the perfect vehicle for promoting fashionable fabrics made from cotton.

Cotton --the product at the heart of the Maid of Cotton program --has been central to American economic and political history. NMAH's collecting and research interests reflect this. The Division of Work & Industry contains numerous cotton-related objects and much documentation on the subject. The Archives Center holds several cotton-related collections, including the Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1897-1935, documenting Haring's development of cotton picking machinery; the Lockwood Greene collection of thousands of engineering drawings, many of which were for textile mills; the Robert L. Shurr Script and Scrapbook for a 1939 biographical motion picture on Dr. George Washington Carver; and the Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, which documents modern cotton farming through photography and oral history interviews. In addition, all aspects of cotton production, from farm to factory to finished goods, are documented in several hundred photos in the Underwood & Underwood Agricultural Photonegative Collection, the Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, the Division of Work & Industry Lantern Slide Collection, and the Donald Sultner-Welles Photograph Collection. Cultural aspects of cotton can be discovered in both the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana and in the DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music." (Orr, Craig. "NMAH Collections Committee", memorandum, 2009)

Series 1, Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993, undated., is arranged chronologically by year. Files may contain correspondence, photographs, news clippings, radio commercial scripts, tear sheets, itineraries, trip reports, sheet music, legal documents, waivers, and permissions, and other material related to the Maid of Cotton pageant for that year. Files may also contain subsequent personal information on the Maid of Cotton for that year, for example change of address, news clippings, and the like. This series contains finalist files, trip files and tour report files.

Series 2, Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994, undated., is arranged chronologically by year. This series contains photographs, slides, and transparencies related to the Maid of Cotton and her travels throughout the United States and overseas. It also contains photographs of the fashions worn by each Maid.

Series 3, Scrapbooks, 1951-1988, contains the scrapbooks created by the National Cotton Council office as well as scrapbooks created by the Maids themselves or others for her. Scrapbooks most often contain news clippings, ephemera, and sometimes correspondence.

Series 4, Audio-Visual, 1991-1993. This series contains video and audio related to the Maid of Cotton. It is currently unprocessed.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 1.1: Maid of Cotton files, 1939-1993

Subseries 1.2: Little Miss Cotton, 1956-1963, undated

Series 2: Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photographic Negatives and Transparencies, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 2.2: Slides, 1939-1993, undated

Series 3: Scrapbooks, 1951-1988

Series 4: Audio-Visual, 1991-1993, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Maid of Cotton pageant began in 1939. The annual pageant was sponsored by the National Cotton Council (NCC), Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans. The pageant was held in Memphis, Tennessee, in conjunction with the Carnival until the 1980s.

In mid-December every year the NCC released a list of contestants. Contestants were required to have been born in one of the cotton-producing states: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, North and South Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas or Virginia. They might have also been born in the cotton-producing counties of Alexander, Jefferson, Massac, Pulaski, Williamson or Madison, Illinois or in Clark or Nye counties of Nevada. There were usually twenty contestants each year.

Contestants were judged on personality, good manners, intelligence, and family background as well as beauty and an ability to model. A Top Ten were chosen and then a Top Five, and finally second and first runners up and a winner. Winners served as goodwill and fashion ambassadors of the cotton industry in a five-month, all-expense tour of American cities. In the mid-1950s the tour expanded globally. In the late 1950s a Little Miss Cotton pageant was begun but lasted only until 1963 before being discontinued. In the mid-1980s Dallas,Texas took over the pageant, in conjunction with the NCC and its overseas division, Cotton Council International. In 1986, to bolster interest and participation, the NCC eliminated the rule requiring contestants to be born in a cotton-producing state. The pageant was discontinued in 1993, one of the reasons being that Cotton Inc. stopped contributing scholarship money as well as waning public interest and changing marketing strategies. (pageantopolis.com website accessed April 2012.)

"The National Cotton Council is the official trade association of the cotton industry. The NCC was founded in 1939 to promote the interests of cotton farmers, ginners, brokers, and manufacturers from the Southern, cotton-growing states. Its mission evolved over the years as new uses for cotton and its byproducts have been found; as competition from synthetic fibers developed; as fashion tastes changed; as government regulation increased; and in response to foreign competition in both farming and manufacturing . The NCC website states that its modern-day mission is "to ensure the ability of all U.S. cotton industry segments to compete effectively and profitably in the raw cotton, oilseed and U.S.-manufactured product markets at home and abroad." Throughout its existence, the NCC has been the contact point for issues affecting its members, legislators in Congress, allied agribusiness, and consumers.

One of the first NCC programs undertaken by to promote the versatility and value of cotton to consumers was the Maid of Cotton program, begun in 1939. This consisted of a beauty pageant open to young women born in one of the seventeen southern cotton growing states. The contestants were evaluated on the basis of beauty, personality, poise, good manners, and intelligence; a family background in cotton production was especially helpful. The girls had to apply for selection to compete in the program. At first this was done directly to the Memphis-based program but eventually a system of state Maid of Cotton programs were established, whose winners went on to compete in the national Maid of Cotton contest. The Maid of Cotton received numerous prizes, whose value and variety tended to increase over the years. In the late 1940s, the program added a scholarship prize, probably in emulation of the Miss America contest. The Maid of Cotton pageant was held each December in Memphis as part of that city's Cotton Carnival festivities. The winner was featured prominently on her own float in the Cotton Carnival parade, was feted at prestigious Carnival events, and was treated as royalty wherever she went. Selection as the Maid of Cotton carried a high degree of status and mature ladies in the South to this day proudly identify themselves as such.

The Maid of Cotton's main function, once crowned, was to serve as a goodwill and fashion ambassador for cotton; any publicity she gained was automatically positive publicity for the cotton industry. Accompanied by an NCC-appointed manager, the Maids embarked on an all-expenses-paid tour. The Maids appeared in full regalia at public events such as county fairs, parades, and holiday events; starred in fashion shows featuring all-cotton outfits; gave speeches to local chambers of commerce and other groups; and in general were the attractive personification of the cotton industry wherever they went. At first, the tours concentrated on the cotton states but they were later extended to major cities outside the cotton belt and came to include visits to legislators on Capitol Hill. Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Maids began touring internationally and in the 1970s and 1980s they frequently headed up fashion shows in Asia.

Over time, however, the publicity value of an industry-anointed beauty queen lost its attraction both to the public and --more importantly --to the press. In addition, the role of cotton in the South, particularly in Memphis, declined. In 1986 the contest was moved from Memphis to Dallas. Eventually the cotton industry withdrew its support for the program's scholarships; the 1993 Maid of Cotton was the last to be crowned." (Orr, Craig. "NMAH Collections Committee", memorandum, 2009)
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

National Cotton Council Records, circa 1960s-1980s (AC1177)

Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1986-1991 (AC0773)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by the Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange on October 14, 2009.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Beauty contestants  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videocassettes
Slides (photographs)
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Reports
Programs -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Citation:
Maid of Cotton Records, 1939-1993, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1176
See more items in:
Maid of Cotton Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1176
Online Media:

John Wanamaker department store art gallery records, [ca. 1908]-1941

Creator:
John Wanamaker (Firm)  Search this
John Wanamaker (Firm)  Search this
Subject:
Cooper, Colin Campbell, Jr  Search this
Bartlett, Paul Wayland  Search this
Munkácsy, Mihály  Search this
Wanamaker, Rodman  Search this
Wanamaker, John  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Art, Modern -- French -- 20th century -- History  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10145
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213116
AAA_collcode_johnwana
Theme:
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213116

Photo album

Maker:
Lydia Bush-Brown, (American, 1887–1984)  Search this
Medium:
Photographs
Dimensions:
H x W (album): 29.5 x 23 cm (11 5/8 x 9 1/16 in.)
Type:
albums (bound) & books
Photo album
Made in:
USA
Date:
mid-20th century
Credit Line:
Gift of Lydia Bush Brown (Mrs. Francis Head)
Accession Number:
1974-97-1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Textiles Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq4fc5b47ce-59d9-4d74-b5ac-13f99ccd7f6f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1974-97-1

George Julian Zolnay papers, 1899-1992

Creator:
Zolnay, George Julian, 1862 or 3-1949  Search this
Zolnay, George Julian, 1862 or 3-1949  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Diaries  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13483
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209063
AAA_collcode_zolngeor
Theme:
Diaries
Lives of American Artists
Diaries
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209063

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