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Rice Knife

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Object Type:
Knife
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
4 Dec 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
045257
USNM Number:
E238124-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/38e8e4b95-a594-4b5c-a23c-d7b7418eff3c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8370865
Online Media:

Rice Knife

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Object Type:
Knife
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
4 Dec 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
045257
USNM Number:
E238126-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3bd7e5074-6bc3-49b6-9697-fc1048c03a04
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8370868
Online Media:

Rice Knife

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Object Type:
Knife
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
4 Dec 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
045257
USNM Number:
E238128-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/322f9ff26-b9f3-46ad-8758-cb12f7d7816c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8370870
Online Media:

Rice Knife

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Object Type:
Knife
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
4 Dec 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
045257
USNM Number:
E238129-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/305f773b3-222a-48d8-8e0c-2a82d2aa4d9d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8370871
Online Media:

Rice Knife

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Object Type:
Knife
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
4 Dec 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
045257
USNM Number:
E238130-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a27dc87b-be59-44ea-9092-81dacbb06d43
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8370872
Online Media:

Frederick Starr negatives and lantern slides

Creator:
Starr, Frederick, 1859-1933  Search this
Photographer:
Lang, Charles B.  Search this
Grabic, Louis  Search this
Extent:
152 Lantern slides
3344 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Zoque  Search this
San Felipe Pueblo  Search this
Mazatec [Huautla]  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Maya  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Mazahua  Search this
Ute  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Tzotzil Maya  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tzeltal Maya  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Triqui (Trique) [San Joan Copala]  Search this
Shuar  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Chol Maya  Search this
Totonac  Search this
Osage  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Mixe  Search this
Chinantec  Search this
Mixtec  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Chibcha  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Mehináku (Mehinacu)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Haida  Search this
Karajá (Caraja)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Teotihuacán (archaeological culture)  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Macushi (Macusi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives (photographic)
Negatives
Place:
Colombia
Washington
West Virginia
Kansas
Kentucky
New Mexico
Brazil
Ecuador
Missouri
Wisconsin
Oklahoma
Ohio
New York
Georgia
Mexico
Iowa
Arkansas
Illinois
Pennsylvania
Alaska
Date:
1894-1910
Summary:
The collection includes materials from cultures in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, and Guiana: Acoma Pueblo, Apache, Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboine, Caddo, Cahuilla, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chinantec, Chippewa (Ojibwa), Choco, Chol, Chontal, Cochiti Pueblo, Crow, Cuicatec, Eskimo, Flathead, Haida, Hopi, Huastec, Huave, Iowa, Iroquois, Isleta, Karaja, Kwakiutl, Laguna Pueblo, Macusi, Mandan, Maya, Mazahua, Mazatec, Mehinaku, Menomini, Mixe, Mixtec, Navajo, Nez Perce, Osage, Otomi, Ottawa, Pawnee, Pima, Ponca, Potawatomi, Salish, San Blas, San Felipe Pueblo, Sauk & Fox, Shuar, Sioux, Taos Pueblo, Tarasco, Teotihuacan, Tepehua, Tlaxcala, Tlingit, Tonkawa, Totonac, Triqui, Tzental, Tzotzil, Ute, Wampanoag, Zapotec, Zoque, Zuni.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Frederick Starr was born in Auburn, New York, on September 2, 1858. He received a Ph.D. in biology in 1884 at Coe College, where he was later appointed professor of biology. Starr did postgraduate work in anthropology at Yale. In 1889 he was appointed head of Ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History, and in 1892 he was chosen by William Harper to organize the Anthropology Department at the new University of Chicago. Starr remained at the University until his retirement in 1923. Besides his field studies with various Indian tribes in the United States, Starr traveled to Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Ecuador, Guiana, Japan, the Philippines, and Africa. He died in Tokyo, Japan, on August 14, 1933. Starr was the author of several books and scholarly articles.
General note:
Starr hired professional photographers Charles B. Lang and Louis Grabic to accompany him on his field trips. One lantern slide of Moses Ladd (Menomini) was taken by William H. Jackson.
Provenance:
Dr. Frederick Starr, Purchased, circa 1929
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Topic:
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest  Search this
Indians of South America -- Colombia  Search this
Indians of North America -- Alaska  Search this
Indians of North America -- Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of Central America -- Guatemala  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of South America -- Ecuador  Search this
Indians of South America -- Guiana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Lantern slides
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.052
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv40602e9f6-8984-4da6-a139-bd97c27fa824
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-052

Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
245 Linear feet ((375 boxes and 10 map drawers))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1878-1965
Summary:
The records in this collection embody the administrative functions of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1879 to 1965. The collection consists of correspondence, card files, registers, official notices, annual and monthly work reports, research statements, research proposals, grant applications, personnel action requests, notices of personnel action, meeting minutes, purchase orders and requisitions, property records, biographical sketches, resolutions, newspaper clippings, reviews of publications, drafts of publications, circulars, programs, pamphlets, announcements, illustrations, cartographic materials, photographic prints, photographic negatives, bibliographies, and reprinted publications.
Scope and Contents:
The records in this collection embody the administrative functions of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1879 to 1965. The collection consists of correspondence, card files, registers, official notices, annual and monthly work reports, research statements, research proposals, grant applications, personnel action requests, notices of personnel action, meeting minutes, purchase orders and requisitions, property records, biographical sketches, resolutions, newspaper clippings, reviews of publications, drafts of publications, circulars, programs, pamphlets, announcements, illustrations, cartographic materials, photographic prints, photographic negatives, bibliographies, and reprinted publications.

Correspondence comprises the bulk of this collection. A significant portion of this correspondence originates from the Bureau's duty to field inquiries regarding North American aboriginal cultures and respond to requests relating to the duplication of BAE library and archival materials. Inquiries and requests, received from all parts of the world, were submitted by colleagues, museum curators and directors, students, professors, amateur archaeologists, government agents, military officials, Smithsonian Institution officials, artists, and members of the general public. Other correspondence reflects the Bureau's day-to-day operations and internal affairs. Subjects discussed in this correspondence include research projects, field expeditions, annual budgets, personnel matters, the acquisition of manuscripts, the disbursement of specimens, and production of BAE publications. Correspondence is occasionally accompanied by announcements, circulars, programs, pamphlets, photographs, drawings, diagrams, bibliographies, lists, newspaper clippings, and maps. Also among these records are the card files and registers of incoming and outgoing correspondence maintained by early BAE administrative staff. For a list of correspondents, see the appendix to this finding aid, available in the NAA reading room.

The majority of illustrations, artwork, and photographs that appear in this collection are associated with BAE publications, including BAE Annual Reports, BAE Bulletins, Contributions to North American Ethnology and Smithsonian Institution, Miscellaneous Collection. Maps located among the collection originate, by and large, from BAE field expeditions and research projects. BAE staff also amassed great quantities of newspaper clippings that concerned BAE research or points of interest. Of particular note are three scrapbooks comprised of clippings that relate to "mound builders" and the work of the BAE's Division of Mound Explorations.

Also worthy of note are the various records relating to the 1903 investigation of the BAE. Records related to the investigation highlight the Smithsonian Institution's longstanding dissatisfaction with the internal management of the BAE, its concerns over the BAE's loose relationship with the parent organization, and displeasure with the manner in which BAE scientific research was developing. Other materials of special interest are the various administrative records covering the period 1929 to 1946 and 1949 to 1965. The majority cover personnel matters; however, others justify the work of the BAE and bear witness to growing concerns that the BAE would eventually be absorbed by the Department of Anthropology within the United States National Museum.
Arrangement:
The collection has been arranged into the following 12 series: (1) Correspondence, 1897-1965; (2) Cooperative Ethnological Investigations, 1928-1935; (3) Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1929-1946; (4) Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1949-1965; (5) Records Concerning the Photographic Print Collection, 1899-1919; (6) Records Concerning Employees; (7) Fiscal Records, 1901-1902 and 1945-1968; (8) Records Relating to the 1903 Investigation of the BAE; (9) Property Records and Requisitions; (10) Clippings; (11) Publications; (12) BAE Library Materials, Pamphlets and Reprints
Administrative History:
The Bureau of Ethnology was established by an act of the United States Congress on March 3, 1879, but it was largely the personal creation of the geologist and explorer Major John Wesley Powell. His earlier explorations of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon formed the basis of the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region. While exploring the area, Powell became alarmed at what he perceived to be the decline of the aboriginal way of life due to rapid depopulation. In a letter to the Secretary of the Interior, he warned that "in a few years, it will be impossible to study…Indians in their primitive condition, except from recorded history" (Hinsley). He urged swift government action; the result of which was the appropriation of $20,000 (20 Stat. 397) to transfer all documents relating to North American Indians from the Department of Interior to the Smithsonian Institution and its Secretary's appointment of Powell as director of the newly established Bureau of Ethnology, a position he held until his death in 1902. In 1897, its name was changed to the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) to underscore the limits of its geographical reaches.

Under Powell, the BAE organized the nation's earliest anthropological field expeditions, in which the characteristics and customs of native North Americans were observed firsthand and documented in official reports. Images of Indian life were captured on photographic glass plate negatives, and their songs on wax cylinder recordings. Histories, vocabularies and myths were gathered, along with material objects excavated from archaeological sites, and brought back to Washington for inclusion in the BAE manuscript library or the United States National Museum.

The fruits of these investigations were disseminated via a series of highly regarded and widely distributed publications, most notably BAE Annual Reports, BAE Bulletins, and Contributions to North American Ethnology. BAE research staff also responded routinely to inquiries posed by colleagues, government agencies, and the general public on matters ranging from artwork to warfare. Moreover, the BAE prepared exhibits on the various cultural groups it studied not only for the Smithsonian Institution, but also for large expositions held nationwide.

In 1882 Powell, under instruction of Congress, established the Division of Mound Explorations for the purpose of discovering the true origin of earthen mounds found predominately throughout the eastern United States. It was the first of three temporary, yet significant, subunits supported by the Bureau. Cyrus Thomas, head of the Division, published his conclusions in the Bureau's Annual Report of 1894, which is considered to be the last word in the controversy over the mounds' origins. With the publication of Thomas' findings, the Division's work came to a close.

The course of BAE operations remained largely the same under Powell's successors: W.J. McGee (acting director) 1902; William Henry Holmes, 1902-1910; Frederick W. Hodge, 1910-1918; J. Walter Fewkes, 1918-1928; Matthew W. Stirling, 1928-1957; Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., 1957-1964; and Henry B. Collins (acting director), 1964-1965. However, following a 1903 internal investigation of the Bureau's administrative activities, Smithsonian officials called for a broader scope of ethnological inquiry and greater application of anthropological research methodologies. The BAE responded in 1904 by expanding agency activities to include investigations in Hawaii, the Philippines, and the Caribbean.

The BAE extended its geographical reaches once again, in the 1940s, to include Central and South America. In 1943, the Institute of Social Anthropology (ISA) was established as an independent subunit of the Bureau for the purpose of developing and promoting ethnological research throughout the American Republics. The findings of ISA-sponsored investigations were published in the six volume series, Handbook of South American Indians (BAE Bulletin 143). Julian H. Steward, editor of the Handbook, was appointed director of ISA operations and held the position until 1946 when George M. Foster assumed responsibility. The ISA was absorbed by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs in 1952, thus terminating its relationship with the BAE.

In 1946 the BAE assumed partial administrative control of the recently established River Basin Surveys (RBS), its third and final autonomous subunit. The purpose of the RBS was to salvage and preserve archaeological evidence threatened by post-World War II public works programs, more specifically the rapid construction of dams and reservoirs occurring throughout the country. Excavations conducted under the RBS yielded considerable data on early North American Indian settlements, and subsequent deliberations on this data were published as reports in various BAE Bulletins.

In 1965, the BAE merged administratively with the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Anthropology to form the Office of Anthropology within the United States National Museum (now the Department of Anthropology within the National Museum of Natural History). The BAE manuscript library, also absorbed by the Department of Anthropology, became the foundation of what is today the National Anthropological Archives (NAA).

In its 86 year existence, the BAE played a significant role in the advancement of American anthropology. Its staff included some of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries' most distinguished anthropologists, including Jeremiah Curtain, Frank Hamilton Cushing, J.O. Dorsey, Jesse Walter Fewkes, Alice Cunningham Fletcher, Albert H. Gatschet, John Peabody Harrington, John N.B. Hewitt, William Henry Holmes, Ales Hrdlicka, Neil Judd, Francis LaFlesche, Victor and Cosmo Mindeleff, James Mooney, James Pilling, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, Matthew Williams Stirling, William Duncan Strong, and William Sturtevant. The BAE also collaborated with and supported the work of many non-Smithsonian researchers, most notably Franz Boas, Frances Densmore, Gerard Fowke, Garrick Mallery, Washington Matthews, Paul Radin, John Swanton, Cyrus Thomas, and T.T. Waterman, as well as America's earliest field photographers such as Charles Bell, John K. Hillers, Timothy O'Sullivan, and William Dinwiddie. Several of its staff founded the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1880, which later became the American Anthropological Association in 1899. What is more, its seminal research continues to be drawn upon by contemporary anthropologists and government agents through the use of BAE manuscripts now housed in the NAA.

Sources Consulted:

Hinsley, Curtis. Savages and Scientists: The Smithsonian Institution and the Development of American Anthropology, 1846-1910. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.

McGee, WJ. "Bureau of American Ethnology." The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of its First Half-Century, pp. 367-396. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1897.

Sturtevant, William. "Why a Bureau of American Ethnology?" Box 286, Functions of the BAE, Series IV: Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1948-1965, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives.
Related Materials:
Additional material relating to BAE administrative affairs and research projects can be found among the National Anthropological Archives' vast collection of numbered manuscripts. Too numerous to list in this space, these include official correspondence, monthly and annual work reports, fiscal records, field notes, personal diaries, expedition logs, catalogues of specimens, vocabularies, historical sketches, maps, diagrams, drawings, bibliographies, working papers and published writings, among various other material. Most of these documents are dispersed throughout the numbered manuscript collection as single items; however, some have been culled and unified into larger units (e.g., MS 2400 is comprised of documents relating to the Division of Mound Explorations). Artwork and illustrations produced for BAE publications are also located among the NAA's numbered manuscript collection as well as its photograph collection (e.g., Photo Lot 78-51 and Photo Lot 80-6).

Photographs concerning BAE research interests can be found among the following NAA photographic lots: Photo Lot 14, Bureau of American Ethnology Subject and Geographic File ca. 1870s-1930s; Photo Lot 24, BAE Photographs of American Indians 1840s to 1960s (also known as the Source Print Collection); Photo Lot 60, BAE Reference Albums 1858-1905; and Photo Lot 85, BAE Miscellaneous Photographs 1895 to 1930. Other photographic lots include portraits of BAE staff and collaborators, namely Photo Lot 33, Portraits of Anthropologists and others 1860s-1960s; Photo Lot 68, Portraits of John Wesley Powell ca. 1890 and 1898; and Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology Portrait File ca. 1864-1921.

Additional materials in the NAA relating to the work of the BAE can be found among the professional papers of its staff, collaborators and USNM anthropologists. These include the papers of Ales Hrdlicka, John Peabody Harrington, Otis Mason, J.C. Pilling, Matthew Williams Stirling, and William Duncan Strong. Documents relating to the work of the BAE can be found among the records of the River Basin Surveys (1928-1969) and the Institute of Social Anthropology (1941-1952).

Records related to this collection can also be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA). SIA accession 05-124 includes information regarding the 1942 transfer of six audio recordings related to the Chumash Indian language from the Bureau of American Ethnology to the National Archives, nine pages of Chumash translations, and "The Story of Candalaria, the Old Indian Basket-Maker." The Fiscal and Payroll Records of the Office of the Secretary, 1847 to 1942 (Record Unit 93), includes voucher logs, disbursement journals and daybooks of money paid out to the BAE from 1890 to 1910. BAE correspondence can also be found among the Records of the Office of the Secretary (Record Unit 776, accession 05-162). The Papers of William Henry Holmes, second director of the BAE, are also located among the SIA (Record Unit 7084).

Accession records concerning artifacts and specimens collected by the BAE are located in the registrar's office of the National Museum of Natural History.

Related collections can also be found at the National Archives and Records Administration. RG 57.3.1, the Administrative Records of the United States Geological Survey, includes register of applications for BAE ethnological expositions conducted between 1879-1882. RG 75.29, Still Pictures among the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, includes 22 photographs of Arapaho, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche, Navajo, and Apache Indians taken by William S. Soule for the BAE during 1868-1875. RG 106, Records of the Smithsonian Institution, includes cartographic records (106.2) relating to Indian land cessions in Indiana created for the First Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1881 (1 item); a distribution of American Indian linguistic stock in North America and Greenland, by John Wesley Powell, for the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, ca. 1887 (1 item); a distribution of Indian tribal and linguistic groups in South America, 1950 (1 item); the Indian tribes in North America, for Bulletin 145, Bureau of American Ethnology, 1952 (4 items). Sound Recordings (106.4) include songs and linguistic material relating to the Aleut, Mission, Chumash, and Creek, gather by the BAE in 1912, 1914, 1930-41. Some include translations (122 items).
Provenance:
The Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology were transferred to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
The Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology are open for research.

Access to the Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0155
See more items in:
Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw391046c25-21e2-4334-a01f-9a6f734ae9cd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0155
Online Media:

United States Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Collector:
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Hayden, F. V. (Ferdinand Vandeveer), 1829-1887  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Palmer, Edward, 1829-1911  Search this
Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915  Search this
Rolleston, George, 1829-1881  Search this
Schumacher, Paul J. F.  Search this
Depicted:
Guiteau, Charles J. (Charles Julius), 1841-1882  Search this
Extent:
100 Negatives (circa, glass)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Ute  Search this
Chinook  Search this
Choptank Indians  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Eskimos -- depicted  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Africans -- United States -- depicted  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Taiwan aborigines  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Taiwanese  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Nisqually  Search this
Hawaiians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographs
Date:
probably 1870s-1880s
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs of skulls in the United States Army Medical Museum collection, which appear to have been collected for physical anthropological purposes. Included are archeological remains and remains of Native American tribes and some other ethnic groups. Other than tribe or location, data for the specimens include Army Medical Museum specimen number, AMM negative number, and sex; for some, there is also collection data and information on physical or medical conditions. There are also notes identifying donors who included army officers, physicians, scientists, and explorers such as Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden, Edward Palmer, Frederic Ward Putnam, George Rolleston, Paul Schumacher, and many others. Some of the photographs may have been made as part of the Army Medical Museumʹs program of distributing images of its specimens.

Represented are Africans, Chinook, Choptank, Dakota, Eskimo of Greenland, Taiwanese peoples, Hawaiians, Hidatsa, Nisqually, Philippine peoples, Ponca, Potowatomi, Pueblo, Tonkawa, and Ute. Archeological specimens are from the Aleutian Islands, California, the Dakotas, England (Roman period), Florida, Illinois, Mississippi, New Mexico, Peru, Vancouver Island, and Vermont. For some, there is also information about the status or physical condition of the individual or observations of medical conditions shown in the specimens. Some additional photographs appear to show specimens at the American Museum of Natural History.
Biographical/Historical note:
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM, renamed the National Museum of Health and Medicine in 1989) was established by US Army Surgeon General William A. Hammond in 1862. Its initial focus was on collecting specimens of unusual pathology, mostly taken from victims of the American Civil War. By 1867, the museum had expanded to include medical, microsopical, anatomical, comparative anatomics, and other sections. The anatomical collection grew in part as a result of Circular No. 2 of 1867, which authorized military medical officers to collect cranial specimens from deceased Native Americans. Additionally, the AMM made an arrangement with the Smithsonian Institution, by which the Smithsonian transferred their collection of human remains in exchange for ethnological artifacts. AMM photographed and measured many of the specimens in its collection as part of the museum's anthropological research.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73-26C, NAA Photo Lot 73-26D
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs previously filed in Photo Lot 73-26D have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 73-26C. These are also Army Medical Museum negatives of skulls and form part of this collection.
Additional Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 6A, Photo Lot 6B, Photo Lot 78-42, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 97.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 73-26C, United States Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.73-26C
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw32d588f1e-7f5e-4990-ab61-24dd5fd8743b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-73-26c

Peace Corps Volunteers collection

Names:
Peace Corps (U.S.)  Search this
Ballendorf, Dirk  Search this
Riesenberg, Saul H.  Search this
Viola, Herman J. (1938-)  Search this
Extent:
25 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Manuscripts
Letters
Photographs
Printed material
Processed materials
Audiotapes
Administrative records
Place:
Costa Rica
Oman
Dahomey
Swaziland
Tanzania
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Togo
Upper Volta
El Salvador
Turkey
Ethiopia
Tunisia
Gabon
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Thailand
Honduras
Burkina Faso
Kenya
Jamaica
Iran
Indonesia
Korea
Malaysia
Malawi
Liberia
Marshall Islands
Ceylon
Ivory Coast
Morocco
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Nepal
Niger
Brazil
Botswana
Bolivia
Nigeria
Afghanistan
Micronesia
Antigua
Pakistan
Philippines
Peru
Panama
China
Somalia
Sierra Leone
Senegal
Colombia
India
Chad
Chile
Date:
1920-1984
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes contributions from 101 former volunteers or administrators who served in such countries and regions as Afghanistan, Antigua, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ceylon, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dahomey, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, Liberia, Malawi, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Morocco, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland,Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey and Upper Volta.

The volunteers were involved in diverse assignments such as education, community development, agriculture, health work, and service through such special skills as art, surveying, mechanics, and photography. Two additional collections are including materials of missionaries that were offered to the archives as the result of the program to collect Peace Corps materials. Included are diaries, correspondence, writings, printed and processed material, sound recordings, and administrative materials. There are also photographic materials that show such subjects as traditional and modern agriculture, architecture, body scarification, ceremonies, dance, dress, fishing, food preparation and other domestic activities, industry, medicine, and transportation.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged numerically, with indexes based upon creator names and subject of materials.
Historical note:
In 1975, Herman Joseph Viola, the director of the National Anthropological Archives; Saul Herbert Riesenberg, the curator for Oceania Ethnology in the Smithsonianʹs Department of Anthropology; and Dirk Ballendorf, assistant chief of programs and training for Peace Corps operations in North Africa, the Near East, Asia, and the Pacific, worked out a program whereby the archives would collect materials of former Peace Corps volunteers. In addition to photographic and other materials of potential use to many researchers, the collection was intended to document the impact of the volunteers on host countries and the experiences of the volunteers in working in foreign cultures.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use. In some cases, copyright or literary property rights have been retained by the donor.
Topic:
Cookery  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Dance  Search this
Fishing  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Industry  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Body scarification  Search this
Dress  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Manuscripts
Letters
Photographs
Printed material
Processed materials
Audiotapes
Administrative records
Citation:
Peace Corps Volunteers collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1975-43
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw36b879838-37b2-42bc-be41-d91ace56fcd9
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1975-43

Cap

Donor Name:
Col. Frank F. Hilder  Search this
Culture:
Moro  Search this
Object Type:
Hat
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
8 Jul 1902
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
039609
USNM Number:
E216958-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30540c4a0-49dc-44ac-a3e4-1f563994c8f6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8362381
Online Media:

Bamboo Jewsharp; "Culaing" Or "Culang"

Collector:
Col. Paul E. Beckwith  Search this
Donor Name:
Col. Paul E. Beckwith  Search this
Culture:
Moro  Search this
Object Type:
Mouth Harp
Place:
Mindanao, Philippines
Accession Date:
11 Jul 1904
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
042969
USNM Number:
E230143-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/305f783dd-5c61-47fd-aeb9-2ae26802094e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8366330
Online Media:

Basket Pouch

Donor Name:
Dr. Lt. Col. Edgar A. Mearns  Search this
Culture:
Moro  Search this
Object Type:
Bag
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
25 Nov 1904
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
043557
USNM Number:
E232765-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/352984e0d-1179-4075-919c-81b633a23035
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8367009
Online Media:

Bamboo Jewsharp; "Culang Or Culaing"

Donor Name:
Dr. Lt. Col. Edgar A. Mearns  Search this
Culture:
Moro  Search this
Object Type:
Mouth Harp
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
25 Nov 1904
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
043557
USNM Number:
E232847-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/33f5c202b-3206-4efe-ad02-f8451cfd2fb0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8367096
Online Media:

Basket Pouch

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Object Type:
Bag
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
7 Jun 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
044455
USNM Number:
E234954-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3aaa89a2d-6dda-448f-a609-6d52979de2b0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8368333
Online Media:

Basket Pouch

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Culture:
Ibilao  Search this
Object Type:
Bag
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
7 Jun 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
044455
USNM Number:
E234960-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/32b835431-cecf-4ab7-b138-b974c52b8479
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8368340
Online Media:

Mat-Pouch

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Culture:
Filipino  Search this
Object Type:
Bag
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
7 Jun 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
044455
USNM Number:
E235027-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30d3382b8-b1b9-4389-b153-fafb9c018b7d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8368414
Online Media:

Beaded Pouch

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Culture:
Bagobo  Search this
Object Type:
Bag
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
7 Jun 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
044455
USNM Number:
E235064-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3bc17f0e6-a3c8-412f-8577-cc10d1785dc0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8368455
Online Media:

Pouch

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Culture:
Negrito  Search this
Object Type:
Bag
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
7 Jun 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
044455
USNM Number:
E235082-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/300eb43b4-8cb7-46a8-bd06-7b4f787a3744
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8368475
Online Media:

Bead Pouch

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Culture:
Visayan  Search this
Object Type:
Bag
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
7 Jun 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
044455
USNM Number:
E235092-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30f27bc7d-8095-4b66-8da4-a42b2847e320
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8368486
Online Media:

Bead Pouch

Donor Name:
Philippine Commission, Louisiana Purchase Exposition  Search this
Culture:
Visayan  Search this
Object Type:
Bag
Place:
Philippines
Accession Date:
7 Jun 1905
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
044455
USNM Number:
E235093-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3ba8ebd29-57c9-4496-a384-ba981df2887f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8368487
Online Media:

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