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Institute of Contemporary Arts records

Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Meridian House Foundation  Search this
People-to-People (Organization)  Search this
United States. Veterans Administration  Search this
Albers, Anni  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
Barr, Alfred H., Jr., 1902-1981  Search this
Copland, Aaron, 1900-1990  Search this
Cummings, E. E. (Edward Estlin), 1894-1962  Search this
Eliot, T. S. (Thomas Stearns), 1888-1965  Search this
Fangor, Wojciech, 1922-  Search this
Gabo, Naum, 1890-1977  Search this
Giampietro, Alexander  Search this
Gordimer, Nadine  Search this
Graves, Robert, 1895-1985  Search this
Gropius, Walter, 1883-1969  Search this
Hawkins, Erick  Search this
Huxley, Aldous, 1894-1963  Search this
Jahn, Janheinz  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Raine, Kathleen, 1908-2003  Search this
Read, Herbert Edward, Sir, 1893-1968  Search this
Richman, Robert  Search this
Richter, Hans, 1888-1976  Search this
Sage, Kay  Search this
Tanguy, Yves, 1900-1955  Search this
Williams, William Carlos, 1883-1963  Search this
Extent:
36 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
School records
Date:
1927-circa 1985
bulk 1947-1967
Summary:
The records of the Washington, D.C. arts and educational organization, Institute of Contemporary Arts, measure 36 linear feet and date from 1927-circa 1985, with the bulk of the material spanning the organization's active years, 1947-1967. The collection documents the arts and cultural programming organized by the ICA through correspondence, artists' files, program and exhibition files, administrative and financial records, printed materials and photographs. Also found are administrative, student, and teacher records of the ICA school; records of the Fine Arts Committee of the People-to-People Project; and some personal papers of the ICA's founder, Robert Richman.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Washington, D.C. arts and educational organization, Institute of Contemporary Arts, measure 36 linear feet and date from 1927-circa 1985, with the bulk of the material spanning the organization's active years, 1947-1967. The collection documents the arts and cultural programming organized by the ICA through correspondence, artists' files, program and exhibition files, administrative and financial records, printed materials and photographs. Also found are administrative, student, and teacher records of the ICA school; records of the Fine Arts Committee of the People-to-People Project; and some personal papers of the ICA's founder, Robert Richman.

Robert Richman's professional and personal relationships with numerous artists and writers which the ICA hosted in D.C. are documented in Correspondence and Artists' Files. Correspondence files include letters from Joseph and Anni Albers, Alfred Barr, e.e. cummings, Alexander Giampietro, Naum Gabo, Walter Gropius, Erick Hawkins, Duncan Phillips, Hans Richter, Kay Sage and Yves Tanguy, and William Carlos Williams. Also found is correspondence with benefactors, board members, and arts organizations regarding exhibitions and administrative details; and with teachers and the Veteran's Administration regarding school issues.

Artists' Files contains mostly incoming and outgoing correspondence, but also found are biographies, exhibition printed materials, handwritten notes, newspaper clippings and scattered portrait photographs. Of interest are files on Aaron Copland, e.e. cummings, T.S. Eliot, Wojciech Fangor, Nadine Gordimer, Robert Graves, Aldous Huxley, Janheinz Jahn, Kathleen Raine, and Sir Herbert Read.

In addition to Correspondence and Artists' Files, materials regarding ICA's programming, such as correspondence with artists and galleries, press releases, shipping records, financial records, printed materials, photographs, inventory and price lists, are found in ICA Program Files.

The ICA and Robert Richman collaborated with numerous arts and international exchange organizations to organize exhibitions, performances, symposium, and to host visiting artists. Materials regarding such collaborations are found in Organizations and includes correspondence, scattered financial records, notes, and printed materials such as bulletins, brochures, schedules, reports, and press releases. This series also includes substantial material related to the Fine Arts Committee of the People-to-People Program, an international exchange initiative of President Dwight D. Eisenhower begun in 1956.

The school's records include correspondence, notebooks (attendance books), teacher files documenting classes and grades, extensive student files and student enrollment cards, mailing lists, class cards, and notes for classes taught by Robert Richman.

Administrative and Financial Files include accounting and banking records, budgets, founding documents, fundraising records, grants records, mailing lists, membership lists, and Meridian House Foundation records.

ICA's programs are also documented by comprehensive printed materials arranged by ICA seasons, 1947-1967. Printed materials include program calendars, exhibition announcements, invitations, membership forms, and press releases. Also found are newspaper clippings and three oversized clippings scrapbooks.

Photographs include black and white photographs and negatives of people, most of whom are unidentified. Robert Richman's personal papers includes personal correspondence, correspondence related to "New Republic," handwritten and typed writings, some bills, and his curriculum vitae.

Unrepresented in this collection are records of ICA's ICONART Collection (Contemporary Arts Archives), an archive of films and tapes of artists' performances, lectures and events held by ICA.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 9 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Correspondence, 1937, 1944-1980 (2.7 linear feet; Boxes 1-3)

Series 2: Artists' Files, 1943-1967, 1970-1979 (4.9 linear feet; Boxes 3-8)

Series 3: ICA Program Files, circa 1947-1968 (5.2 linear feet; Boxes 8-13, 27)

Series 4: Organizations, 1927, 1940s-1967 (7.3 linear feet; Boxes 13-20, OV 39)

Series 5: ICA School Files, 1945-1953 (7.0 linear feet; Boxes 21-27)

Series 6: Administrative and Financial Files, 1945-1979, 1983 (5.2 linear feet; Boxes 28-33, 38)

Series 7: Printed Materials, 1945-1970 (2.9 linear feet; Boxes 33-35, 38)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1930s-1960s, circa 1985 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 35-36)

Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman, 1940s-1980 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 36-37)
Biographical / Historical:
The Washington, D.C. arts and educational organization, Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA), was founded by poet Robert Richman in 1947 to bring arts and culture to the nation's capital. The school, originally named the King-Smith School of Creative Arts, was redesigned and renamed Institute of Contemporary Arts by Richman in 1948. The school's philosophy was based on Sir Herbert Read's Education Through Art, and provided professional training in painting, sculpture, literature, music, and theater. In addition, the ICA operated an evening school and brought prominent artists and literary figures to the nation's capital for exhibitions, concerts, workshops, lectures, readings, and performances. Teachers at the school included potter Alexander Giampietro, sculptor David Aaron, designers Beatrice Takeuchi and Hubert Leckie, and painter Kenneth Noland.

The school closed in August 1951, but the ICA continued to provide an impressive roster of programs and performances held at the Corcoran Gallery of Art and other D.C. institutions, such as exhibitions by Naum Gabo, Bernard Leach, Isamu Noguchi, and Hans Richter; readings by W.H. Auden, T.S. Eliot, Katherine Anne Porter, and Dylan Thomas; lectures by Charles Eames, Aldous Huxley, Octavio Paz, and Frank Lloyd Wright; and performances by Aaron Copland, Paul Hindemith, José Limón Dance Company, and Ravi Shankar. The organization also sponsored visiting professorships for international artists and writers, such as Nadine Gordimer, and hosted an annual Congress of Artists and Writers from 1959-1964.

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the ICA was successful in securing some large grants to continue and expand its programming and to secure permanent space at the Meridian House Foundation. However, by the late 1960s the organization's programming declined.

ICA founder Robert Richman was a poet and literary editor at New Republic magazine in the early 1950s. He was active in the arts community in D.C. and in international exchange organizations, including the Fine Arts Committee of the People-to-People Project, an initiative started by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in the late 1950s. Robert Richman passed away in 1987.
Provenance:
The Institute of Contemporary Arts records were donated by Maida Richman, the wife of the ICA's founder, Robert Richman, in 1986.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Function:
Arts organizations -- Washington (D.C.)
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
School records
Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.instcona
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9368d211f-9a2e-4036-9496-d8169fec534e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-instcona
Online Media:

Personal Papers of Robert Richman

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Extent:
0.4 Linear feet (Boxes 36-37)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1940s-1980
Scope and Contents:
Robert Richman's personal papers includes personal correspondence, correspondence related to "New Republic," handwritten and typed writings, some bills, and his curriculum vitae.
Arrangement:
Folders are arranged alphabetically by folder title.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.instcona, Series 9
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9b4da17df-5031-449c-a4b8-74534f2ff0d0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref769

"The Arts at Mid-Century"

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 36, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1953-1955
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9dabb9c6a-7b0e-425f-b728-4341b46c0b08
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref770

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 36, Folder 5-6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1946-1959
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9bca79a5c-a2b4-4326-bb6d-ee15aca61314
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref771

Correspondence and Notes

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 36, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1953-1977
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw98d8a808c-d76e-4c2e-a968-a5553dccef79
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref772

Cranberry Island, Maine

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 36, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970s-1980
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw98b5de3d7-2dd4-4adc-bc2e-a34249f5343b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref773

Curriculum Vitae

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 36, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1964-1970
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9f293dd35-a94a-4c76-ac95-bce754746a67
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref774

The Japan-America Society, Hamada

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 36, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1979
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw93af453e5-f364-480c-94bb-666268a97954
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref775

"New Republic"

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 36, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1950-1954
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw926c84f4f-b885-479c-a251-da741fac668e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref776

Notes, Robert Richman

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 36, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1946-circa 1960s
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9e9fb79b1-1760-4f86-9e6a-734306a307e0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref777

Paid Bills, Personal

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 36, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1967-1968
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw99b695554-da95-4e84-9efe-8cc82f9fd064
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref778

Writings, Others

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 36, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1950
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw96c153274-d3bd-42d5-9c06-024c885f3652
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref779

Writings, Poetry

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 37, Folder 1-2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1940s-1950
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw982018307-9927-4893-96bc-390e05bb6f1a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref780

Writings, Sir Herbert Read, "The Limits of Painting"

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 37, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1962
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9b228055c-e7dd-41a9-8ed8-cf9f91879e85
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref781

Writings, Robert Richman [and Donohue?]

Collection Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Container:
Box 37, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1940s-1950s
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records, 1927-circa 1985, bulk 1947-1967. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Institute of Contemporary Arts records
Institute of Contemporary Arts records / Series 9: Personal Papers of Robert Richman
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9d93d5a60-2807-4aa1-bc27-8693829a1ab3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-instcona-ref782

Louise Nevelson papers

Creator:
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Extent:
30.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Interviews
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Date:
circa 1903-1982
Summary:
The papers of Louise Nevelson measure 30.5 linear feet and date from circa 1903 to 1988. The collection documents aspects of the life and work of the sculptor, focusing especially on her later career. Papers include correspondence, personal business records, writings, scrapbooks, early art work, photographs, interviews, awards and honorary degrees, books, and an extensive amount of printed material.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Louise Nevelson measure 30.5 linear feet and date from circa 1903 to 1988. The collection documents aspects of the life and work of the sculptor, focusing especially on her later career. Papers include correspondence, personal business records, writings, scrapbooks, some of Nevelson's early art work, photographs, interviews, awards and honorary degrees, books, and an extensive amount of printed material.

Interviews, awards, and honorary degrees comprise a series of biographical material, along with scattered personal papers such as a graduation program, wedding announcement, teaching certificate, invitations, miscellaneous notes, and material relating to Nevelson's family. Correspondence consists of letters and enclosures from a wide range of professional contacts, including museums and art centers, universities, art associations, women's and charitable organizations, artists, and philanthropists, among others, concerning the exhibition, sale, and donation of Nevelson's art work, and her various arts-related activities, as well as some letters from friends and family. Correspondence can also be found amongst the subject files, which also include clippings, notes, printed and other material organized according to subject and relating to certain exhibitions, and various artistic and professional activities. Whether this organization originates with Nevelson, one of her assistants, or Archives staff is unknown.

Found amongst Nevelson's business records are consignment receipts, statements, correspondence, inventories, disposition cards, notebooks, and lists, stemming from her business dealings with the Martha Jackson Gallery and related matters, usually carried out by her assistant at the time. Business records relate in particular to the large and complex project of inventorying Nevelson's art work undertaken sometime in the early-1960s. Nevelson's writings consist of poems and poem fragments, a short-lived dream journal, scattered writings on art, and drafts from Dawns and Dusks: Taped Conversations with Diana MacKown by Louise Nevelson and Diana MacKown. Also found are a large number of scrapbooks and an extensive amount of printed material, which likely stem in large part from Nevelson's concern to document and keep a record of her accomplishments. Scrapbooks contain clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, and other material documenting Nevelson's early career from roughly the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s. Also included are loose items comprising a scrapbook of sorts on son Mike Nevelson and various scrapbooks compiled by others as mementos of particular events. Printed material includes an extensive amount of clippings and publications, exhibition catalogs and announcements, and a variety of other printed material relating or referring to Nevelson or merely featuring her name in print. Also included are several books, some of which are about or feature segments on Nevelson. This material documents both her critical and commercial success, and her role as personality and minor celebrity in the mass media later in her career, especially during the 1960s and 1970s.

Art work consists of early drawings and watercolors made by Nevelson as a child and adolescent and while studying art in high school and New York, which document her artistic tendencies as youth and her early development as an artist and which provide an interesting contrast to her later work in sculpture. Photographs include ones of the Berliawsky family and Nevelson as a child, adolescent, and young woman in the 1920s and 1930s before she became known as an artist; ones of Nevelson from the mid-1950s to the 1980s, once she had become known, and began to be honored, as an artist; and ones of Nevelson's art work, as well as of various exibitions and installations of her work. Also included are a number of slides of the artist and her art work, including photographs taken by Dorothy Dehner in the mid-1950s at Louise Nevelson's house on Thirtieth Street.
Arrangement:
The Louise Nevelson papers are arranged into nine series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1918-1985 (Boxes 1, 17, OV 21, 30, 31, Sol 42; 2.3 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1931-1984 (Boxes 1-2, 31-35, Sol 42; 6 linear feet)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1955-1988 (Box 3, 35-36; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 4: Business Records, 1946-1981 (Boxes 3-5, 36-38, Sol 42; 3.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Writings, 1936-1980 (Box 5, 38, Sol 42; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, 1935-1983 (Boxes 5, 18-19, OV 22-27, 38, Sol 42; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 7:Books and Printed Material, 1904-1985 (Boxes 6-13, 19, OV 28, 38-40, Sol 43; 9.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Art Work, 1905-1982 (Boxes 13, 20, 40, Sol 43; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1903-1980s (Boxes 14-15, 20, OV 29, 40-41, Sol 43; 3.5 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Louise Nevelson was born in 1899 in Kiev, Russia. Her parents, Isaac and Minna Berliawsky, and their children emigrated to America in 1905 and settled in Rockland, Maine, where the young Louise grew up as a bit of an outsider in local society. She decided upon a career in art at an early age and took some drawing classes in high school, before graduating in 1918. Two years later, she married Charles Nevelson, a wealthy businessman, and moved to New York. She proceeded to study painting, drawing, singing, acting, and eventually dancing. In 1922, Nevelson gave birth to a son, Myron (later called Mike). She eventually separated from her husband in the winter of 1932-1933; and they divorced officially in 1941.

Beginning in 1929, Nevelson began to study art full-time at the Art Students League, where she took classes with Kenneth Hayes Miller and Kimon Nicolaides. In 1931, she went to Europe and studied with Hans Hofmann in Munich before traveling to Italy and France. She returned to New York in 1932 and again studied for a time with Hofmann, who was by now a guest instructor at the Art Students League. In 1933, she met Diego Rivera while he was in New York working on his mural for Rockefeller Center and casually worked as his assistant for a short period. Shortly thereafter, she began to work in sculpture and joined a sculpture class taught by Chaim Gross at the Educational Alliance. She continued to draw and paint, and even took up etching, lithography, and other techniques at different points in her career, but from this time on, she concentrated on sculpture. Her early sculptures were primarily in plaster, clay, and tattistone.

During the thirties, Nevelson exhibited in a number of group shows (both non-juried and competitive ones), garnering some recognition for her work. In 1935, she taught mural painting at the Flatbush Boys Club in Brooklyn, as part of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), then went on to work in the fine-arts division as an easel painter and sculptor until 1939. In 1941, Nevelson had her first solo exhibition at the Nierendorf Gallery, run by Karl Nierendorf who represented her until his death in 1947. Both this and a one-woman show the following year received favorable reviews. It was around this time that she discovered the decorated shoeshine box of Joe Milone, a local tradesman, and arranged to have it exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art, an occasion which received much notice in the press.

In the 1940s, Nevelson produced a great many works in stone, bronze, terra cotta, and wood, most of them being cubist studies of the figure. In 1943, she had a show titled "The Clown as the Center of his World" at the Norlyst Gallery, which featured works on a circus theme constructed from discarded pieces of wood and other material. This new work was not very well received at the time, and it wasn't until the mid-1950s that she began to work with discarded and found objects on a regular basis.

During the early-1950s, Nevelson attempted to exhibit her work as often as possible, eventually receiving various prizes and notices for her work in the press. She continued to struggle financially though and began to teach sculpture classes in the adult education program of the Great Neck, Long Island public schools in order to make ends meet. In 1955, she joined he Grand Central Moderns Gallery, which was run by Colette Roberts, and had several one-woman shows there. These included: "Ancient Games and Ancient Places" in 1955, featuring Bride of the Black Moon, "The Forest" in 1957, featuring First Personage, and "Moon Garden + One" in 1958, featuring her first wall, Sky Cathedral. During this period, she was painting her wood black and putting together entirely black exhibits; she went on to create works in white and gold in the early-1960s. Around this time, she also began to enclose her small sculptures within wooden boxes.

Nevelson joined the Martha Jackson Gallery in 1958, where she received a guaranteed income and finally achieved a certain degree of financial security. Her first show at the gallery, "Sky Columns Presence," took place in the fall of 1959. In 1960, she had her first one-woman exhibition in Europe at the Galerie Daniel Cordier in Paris. Later that year, her work, grouped together as "Dawn's Wedding Feast," was included in the group show, "Sixteen Americans," at the Museum of Modern Art, alongside the work of Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenburg, and other younger artists. She made her first museum sale in 1962 when the Whitney Museum of American Art purchased the black wall, Young Shadows. That same year, Nevelson's work was selected for the thirty-first Biennale in Venice.

Over the years, Nevelson took on several assistants, including Teddy Haseltine, Tom Kendall, and Diana Mackown, to help in the studio and with daily affairs. She also participated in various artists' groups, and served as President of the New York Chapter of Artists' Equity from 1957 to 1958, and as President of the national organization from 1962 to 1964. She left the Martha Jackson Gallery in 1962, and after a brief, unhappy stint with the Sidney Janis Gallery, she joined the Pace Gallery, which was run by Arnold Glimcher, in the fall of 1963. She proceeded to have shows of new work there about every two years for the remainder of her career. She had her first museum retrospective at the Whitney Museum in 1967, which featured over a hundred of her works from her drawings from the 1930s to her latest constructions. And in 1968, she was elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters. By this time, Nevelson had achieved both critical and commercial success as an artist.

Nevelson always experimented with new materials; she continued to construct her black wood walls, but also went on make constructions from aluminium, plastic, and metal. In the fall of 1969, she was commissioned by Princeton University to do a monumental outdoor sculpture in Cor-ten steel (her first), and went on to do commissioned works for the Philadelphia Federal Courthouse, and Chase Manhattan Bank in New York, among others. In 1973, the Walker Art Center organized a major exhibition of Nevelson work which traveled around the country over the next two years. In 1975, she designed the chapel for St. Peter's Lutheran Church in midtown Manhattan.

Nevelson was widely honored for her work during her lifetime. Over the years, she received honorary degrees from Rutgers University and Harvard University, among other schools, as well as numerous awards, including the Brandeis University Creative Arts Award in Sculpture and the Skowhegan Medal for Sculpture in 1971, the gold medal for sculpture from the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1983, and the National Medal of the Arts in 1985. By the time of her death on April 17, 1988, Nevelson was considered by and large one of the most important American sculptors of the twentieth century.

Sources consulted for this biographical note include Louise Nevelson: A Passionate Life by Laurie Lisle and Louise Nevelson by Arnold Glimcher.
Related Material:
Other resources relating to Louise Nevelson in the Archives include oral history interviews with Nevelson conducted by Dorothy Seckler, June 1964-January 14, 1964, and Arnold Glimcher, January 30, 1972. Also related are a 4 part untranscribed audio recording of an interview with Nevelson by Barbaralee Diamonstein, an audio recording of an interview with Nevelson conducted by Barbara Braun in 1983, and a video recording of Nevelson's 1958 exhibition installation at Grand Central Moderns gallery.
Provenance:
Donated 1966-1979 by Louise Nevelson and in 2018 by the Farnsworth Art Museum in Rockland, Maine via Michael Komanecky, Chief Curator. The Farnsworth Art Museum received the materials from Louise Nevelson, her son Mike Nevelson, brother Nathan Berliawksy, and others that were close to the artist.
Restrictions:
The bulk of this collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website, with the exception of the 2017 addition. Use of material not digitized requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Sculpture -- Exhibitions  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Interviews
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Louise Nevelson papers, circa 1903-1982. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.neveloui
See more items in:
Louise Nevelson papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw99c8dde75-538a-43a6-a68e-fa1db8e7d535
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-neveloui
Online Media:

Miscellaneous Personal Papers

Collection Creator:
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Container:
Box 30, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1970s-1980s
Collection Restrictions:
The bulk of this collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website, with the exception of the 2017 addition. Use of material not digitized requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Louise Nevelson papers, circa 1903-1982. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Louise Nevelson papers
Louise Nevelson papers / Series 1: Biographical Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9aa2ebb97-1136-4611-83d6-05f0a453ad6d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-neveloui-ref1160

Frank Espada Photographs

Creator:
Espada, Jason  Search this
Photographer:
Espada, Frank, 1930-  Search this
Extent:
22 Cubic feet (59 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Newsletters
Awards
Catalogs
Digital images
Contact sheets
Interviews
Notebooks
Negatives
Photographs
Audio cassettes
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1962-2008, undated
Summary:
Collection consists of photographic materials taken by Frank Espada, mostly images from the Puerto Rican Diaspora Documentary Project, which documents these communities across the Unites States. In addition, there are materials relating to his earlier work documenting civil rights activities and HIV/AIDS awareness, also in the United States during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s.
Scope and Contents:
Photographs and negatives taken by Frank Espada, mostly images from his most well-known body of work, The Puerto Rican Diaspora Documentary Project, which consists of several hundred prints and thousands of negatives of Puerto Rican communities across the Unites States. The purpose the project was to establish the national presence of Puerto Ricans in the United States, to celebrate Puerto Rican culture and Latinidad, and to make a political statement.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Puerto Rican Diaspora Documentary Project, 1962-2008, undated

Sub-Series 1.1: Photographic and Digital Prints, 1962-1986, undated

Sub-Series 1.2: Proofs, 1979-1986, undated

Sub-Series 1.3: Contact Sheets and Negatives, 1964-1987, undated

Sub-Series 1.4: Interviews, 1980-1982, undated

Sub-Series 1.5: Site Notebooks, 1981-1985, undated

Sub-Series 1.6: Exhibition Materials, 1967-2008, undated

Sub-Series 1.7: Newspaper Clippings, 1983-2007

Series 2: Civil Rights Era Materials, 1963-1974, undated

Sub-Series 2.1: Black and White Prints, 1963-1974, undated

Sub-Series 2.2: Proofs, Negatives, and Contact Sheets, 1963-1968

Sub-Series 2.3: Slides, 1969

Series 3: Personal Papers, 1966-2007, undated

Series 4: Out of School Youth (OSY) Project, 1989

Series 5: Youth Environment Study (YES) Project, 1989-1991
Biographical / Historical:
Francisco Luis Espada Roig, later known as Frank Espada, was born in Utuado, Puerto Rico in December 1930. He and his family migrated to New York City in 1939. He attended public school and after high school, briefly attended City College of New York. In 1949, he joined the Air Force.

In 1952 he married his wife, Marilyn. They had three children, Lisa, Jason, and Martin. Espada began working for an electrical contractor to provide for his family, a job he would hold for ten years.

There followed a second stint in the Air Force, during the Korean War, and then, in 1954, Espada began attending the New York Institute of Photography on the GI Bill. In the late 50s and early 1960s, influenced by mentors such as important New York-based photographers Dave Heath and the legendary W. Eugene Smith, Espada became intent on pursuing what he called his "first love," documentary photography, but this dream had to be delayed.

From the early 60s on, he became heavily involved in the New York community and the Civil Rights Movement, organizing voter registration drives, rent strikes, and marches for civil rights. He photographed many subjects in New York throughout the 1950s and 1960s, including the civil rights era. Because he was close to Puerto Rican activists and communities, he photographed these as well.

In the 1970s, he was a Ford Foundation Fellow working with the Drug Abuse Council. In 1979, with a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, he was finally able to receive income from photography. This fellowship allowed him to pursue his "life-long dream of shooting a major documentary" on the Puerto Rican diaspora. He documented Puerto Rican communities and the Puerto Rican experience around the United States, including Hawaii and Guam.

In 1985, Espada moved to San Francisco and was given the opportunity to teach at the UC Berkeley Extension Program. He discovered that he loved to teach, which resulted in what he referred to as "eighteen of the best years of my life," and he was revered by his students.

In 1989 he joined forces with the Youth Environment Studies (YES), documenting the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2005 he retired from teaching and continued working on his book, encompassing his documentation of Puerto Rican communities. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Themes in the Survival of a People, reproducing many of his photographs with his incisive, poignant text was published in 2007, twenty-eight years after the Diaspora project had begun.

Frank Espada was an activist for justice and an important documentary photographer in the "socially conscious" tradition, who wrote: 'The purpose of showing my work is to get young people thinking, to stimulate their minds and hearts, to make conditions known, and to attack injustices wherever they exist." In his later years, he turned to color photography and landscapes for personal artistic expression. He passed away in February of 2014 from a heart problem.
Materials at Other Organizations:
Duke University Libraries

Frank Espada papers and photographs, 1946-2010 and undated, bulk 1975-2010

The Frank Espada Papers and Photographs collection consists largely of photographic prints, contact sheets, proofs, and negatives, chiefly dating from the mid-1970s through 2010, relating to Espada's Puerto Rican Diaspora Documentary Project, his project work on indigenous Chamorro communities in Micronesia, primarily in Guam, Tinian, and Saipan, and his work documenting HIV/AIDS outreach and education in San Francisco. The largest body of materials, which includes photographs as well as manuscripts and recorded interviews, derives from Espada's work with the Puerto Rican communities which spanned several decades. A smaller group of materials, nineteen prints, associated contacts and negatives and several folders of documents, were created through Espada's activism in the Civil Rights Movement for voter registration and school desegregation in New York City from 1962-1970.

Other materials include research files on documentary topics he was currently investigating; materials used in preparation for his many photography project exhibits, large and small; teaching syllabi and notes from his photography courses; awards and memorabilia; and other manuscript and printed materials from his career in photography.

Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs

The Puerto Rican diaspora, between 1979 and 1981

83 photographic prints

Detroit Institute of Arts Research Library and Archives

[Frank Espada: artist file]

1 folder. Folder may contain clippings, press releases, brochures, reviews, small exhibition catalogs, resumés, other ephemera.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Quince Años Documentation, NMAH.AC1163

López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection, NMAH.AC1413

Exiles in America: Cuban Pedro Pans and Balseros, NMAH.AC1377

Division of Science, Medicine, and Society HIV/AIDS Reference Collection, NMAH.AC1134

Manuel Quiles Films, NMAH.AC0765

Puerto Rico Division of Community Education Poster Collection, NMAH.AC0615

Spanish Language Broadcasting Collection, NMAH.AC1404

Goya Foods, Incorporated Collection, NMAH.AC.0694

John-Manuel Andriote Victory Deferred Collection, NMAH.AC1128
Provenance:
Collection was purchased from Frank Espada's son Jason Espada with funds from the Latino Initiatives Pool.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some ethnographic materials in this collection are restricted because participants did not sign release forms. Restricted materials are part of series 4 and housed in boxes 57 and 59. Material may not be accessed or used until 2064.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Photography of immigrants  Search this
Documentary photography  Search this
Immigrant communities  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Immigrants -- Puerto Rican -- 20th century  Search this
HIV/AIDS awareness  Search this
African American youth  Search this
Latinos in American society and culture  Search this
Hispanic American youth  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Awards
Catalogs -- 20th century
Digital images -- 20th century
Contact sheets -- 20th cenury
Interviews -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 20th century
Negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Audio cassettes -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Citation:
Frank Espada Photographs, circa 1962-2008, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1395
See more items in:
Frank Espada Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8316a9dc4-bc9e-4a46-8917-993791e347b4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1395
Online Media:

Awards

Collection Creator:
Espada, Jason  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Espada, Frank, 1930-  Search this
Container:
Box 32, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
2007
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some ethnographic materials in this collection are restricted because participants did not sign release forms. Restricted materials are part of series 4 and housed in boxes 57 and 59. Material may not be accessed or used until 2064.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank Espada Photographs, circa 1962-2008, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Frank Espada Photographs
Frank Espada Photographs / Series 3: Personal Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8099e6f77-1900-4f0c-9c50-9e30f844e40c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1395-ref234

Personal Papers

Collection Creator:
Espada, Jason  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Espada, Frank, 1930-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1966-2007, undated
Scope and Contents:
Consists of articles, newspaper clippings, and correspondence that provide context for Frank Espada's work between 1963 and 1974. This includes a biographical essay about Frank Espada's life by his son, Jason Espada, an article on A. Phillip Randolph and an article on the Black-Puerto Rican Coalition. The materials are arranged in chronological order.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some ethnographic materials in this collection are restricted because participants did not sign release forms. Restricted materials are part of series 4 and housed in boxes 57 and 59. Material may not be accessed or used until 2064.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank Espada Photographs, circa 1962-2008, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1395, Series 3
See more items in:
Frank Espada Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep827f0673c-4e7c-4e9a-8038-e6e5738ac24b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1395-ref307

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