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Western Abnaki/Eastern Abnaki/Passamaquoddy

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
12 Boxes
Culture:
Penobscot -- language  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Place:
New England
Maine
Date:
1949-circa 1952
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Northeast/Southeast series contains Harrington's Western Abenaki, Eastern Abenaki, and Passamaquoddy research. The bulk of the notes consists of Maine placenames culled from numerous secondary sources ranging from seventeenth-century documents to publications of the 1940s, and also including little known local histories, old maps and atlases, highway and forestry maps, and unidentified newspaper clippings. Located here also are lesser numbers of placenames of other states in the Northeast and the provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick. Most of the material was reheard by St. Francis, Penobscot, and Passamaquoddy speakers, with an occasional Malecite, Micmac, and Menomini comparison.

The Western Abenaki (St. Francis) section contains vocabulary entries semantically arranged in about a dozen categories. The most extensive section (former B.A.E. MS 6029pt.) is that of Maine placenames copied from secondary sources. The most frequently cited sources were Joseph Laurent's New Familiar Abenakis and English Dialogues (1884), and Henry Lorne Masta's Abenaki Indian Legends, Grammar and Place Names (1932). This section also contains placenames of the New England States, New York, and the provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick, along with a few Penobscot and Passamaquoddy equivalences. The notes on tribenames include names found in the texts and maps of seventeenth-century voyages of discovery and in early histories of New England and Canada. Old and New World names and ethnic and race designations are also found in this category. The files also include a typed draft, with related notes (former B.A.E. ms. 6029pt.), dated 1950, titled "The Abnakis and Their Language." According to Harrington's introduction, the dialect is that of St. Francis and is based on terms from Laurent and Masta. There are notes covering phonetics and morphology, the latter arranged according to grammatical word form. Extensive hIstorIcal background material was sent to Harrington by T .R.L. MacInnes, secretary of the Indian Affairs Branch of the Department of MInes and Resources in Ottawa. A Mr. A. E. St. Louis did the actual research of the department's records and included some Huron data.

The Eastern Abenaki (Penobscot) vocabulary is semantically arranged in about ten categories, with occasional Passamaquoddy comparisons and a few Malecite terms. Ethnographic data sometimes accompany the linguistics. Harrington also etymologized certain phenomenal and geographic terms from the placename appendix of Joseph Nicolar published by Fannie Hardy Eckstorm (cited in the notes as "Eckst.") in Indian Place-names of the Penobscot Valley and the Maine Coast (1941). Some of the tribenames were formerly part of B.A.E. manuscript 4463. He also consulted other published sources.

Eastern Abenaki grammatical notes include phonetics and morphology, with great emphasis on the former. Some St. Francis and Passamaquoddy comparisons culled from Harrington's notes are interfiled. There is also a small assortment of random historical and ethnographical reading notes culled from various secondary sources, most of which are identified in a related bibliographical section. A few bits of historical information come from Dana and Watso. There are no linguistic elaborations.

Materials relating to Penobscot and Passamaquoddy placenames primarily center around a proposed paper titled "The Indian Placenames of Maine" (former B.A.E. mss. 4463pt. and 6029pt.). A short introductory draft is followed by a linguistic study of placenames of Maine organized according to its sixteen counties. One brief section organized by regions and trails probably represents a discarded plan of procedure, and there is one group of miscellaneous names. Many terms bear the identification "Pen." for Penobscot and "Pass." for Passamaquoddy. If not identified, they are usually in the Penobscot dialect and given by Dana. There are a few Malecite and Micmac equivalences and one or two Menomini names. Two segments on Maine sites contain no linguistic elaborations. One list, organized by county and generally entered one item to a page, parallels the section described above. It comes from the same secondary sources and evidently was accumulated as a guide to the later rehearings. The second group, collected from various sources, provides historical information only (former B.A.E. ms. 6029 pt.). Placenames from other states and provinces include rehearings on the placename Massachusetts, New Brunswick placenames, and a miscellaneous group of unsorted and discarded notes. There is also linguistic treatment of "Pomole" and "Glooscap" texts, with an emphasis on Maine placenames (former B.A.E. MS 4463 pt.), as well as a typescript titled "A Short History of the Passamaquoddy Indians" in English.

Among Harrington's files are also notes for three proposed papers. One paper is on the name "Tarentine" as applied to native Americans of the East Coast. Harrington found evidence of its use among the records and histories of early voyagers to America. The second paper was to be a commentary on the Abenaki vocabulary compiled in 1605 by James Rosier, a member of the expedition under Captain George Waymouth (Weymouth). Harrington made a copy of the Waymouth terms while in New York City in November 1949. Both sets of notes contain occasional references to Laurent and Masta, but no linguistic data. A third paper was called "Bashaba and Bessabes Are Two Different Words." From numerous accounts of the earliest recorded voyages to the New World, Harrington accumulated reading notes to prove that Bashaba was a general name for a chief and that Bessabes was the personal name of a particular chief. Again there are no linguistic etymologies.
Biographical / Historical:
John P. Harrington accumulated information on these languages between April 24 and October 24, 1949. Most of his time was spent in Old Town, Maine, although he worked also in Bangor, at the State House Library in Augusta, at the Maine Historical Society in Portland, and in Eastport, Maine. He secured linguistic information from St. Francis speakers of Odanak near Pierreville, Quebec, and from a colony of Abenakis in Albany, New York. In November and December of 1949 while on trips between New York City and Washington for other reasons, he carried the notes with him for further sorting and rearranging. Reports indicate that in 1952 he was in the process of assembling an extensive study on the Abenaki, possibly incorporating data on the vocabulary, grammar, history, and ethnography of both Abenaki languages.

The principal St. Francis speakers that he worked with were Oliver Obomsawin (Ol.) and Alfred Miller (Am., AI.) of Odanak, and George Dennis (Geo., Den.) and John Watso of Albany. Watso introduced Harrington to Edwin E. Nagazoa (Ed., Nag., N.) and Maude Benedict Nagazoa, the former described as a perfect Abenaki speaker. Others that he worked with include Thomas Sadoquin, Mrs. Daylight (Mrs. D., D.), Antoine Medzalabolet, Chief Charles Nolet, and Dominico Berni. Berni's role is somewhat uncertain. He may have translated a letter of inquiry to the Bureau of American Ethnology which Harrington was assigned to handle, and which may have had nothing to do with Abenaki. Andrew E. Dana (And.), Frank and Mary Mitchell, and Charles John Saulis provided Penobscot and Passamaquoddy material, yielding extensive placename etymologies. Penobscot and a few Malecite (spelled "Malacite" throughout Harrington's notes) terms came from Harry Francis whose mother, Mary Jean Francis, was a Malecite Indian. Others that he worked with were Lena Mitchell, Laura, and Mr. and Mrs. William Neptune of Pleasant Point, near Eastport, Maine. William Neptune was a Passamaquoddy but Harrington credited him with Wawenock data.

Field notes and correspondence indicate that Harrington consulted with Dr. Frank T. Siebert,Jr., in person and by mail.

Arthur E. Edgerley at the State Highway Commission office in Augusta provided bits of history surrounding the sites as well as names of some of the people who formerly inhabited them.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Abenaki language  Search this
Passamaquoddy language  Search this
Micmac language  Search this
Menominee language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Toponymy  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 6.3
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 6: Native American History, Language, and Culture of the Northeast & Southeast
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30137b10b-c325-48ed-8711-7db14aacd449
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14822
Online Media:

Supplemental Material on the Northeast/Southeast

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (box)
Culture:
Penobscot -- language  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Fox  Search this
Cree  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Massachusett  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Conoy Indians  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Narragansett  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Alabama Indians  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Wyandot  Search this
Powhatan  Search this
Algonquin (Algonkin)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Vocabulary
Date:
circa 1907-circa 1957
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Notes and writings on special linguistic studies series contains material that supplement Harrington's Northeast/Southeast field notes.

The file on Algonquian includes three slips of Fox, Cree, Ojibwa, and Massachusett (labeled "Natick") vocabulary in the hand of Truman Michelson; typed copies of the above; notes on Cree and Ojibwa from secondary sources; information on the growing of wild rice by the Menominee; and miscellaneous notes on placenames and tribenames regarding the Cree, Ojibwa, Conoy, Nanticoke, and Narraganset.

The Shawnee/Peoria section consists of six pages of notes on Shawnee tribal divisions.

Among the miscellaneous material on the Abnaki languages is a page of Penobscot vocabulary obtained from Frank Siebert in April 1940. The remaining material was compiled during fieldwork on Western Abnaki at St. Francis in 1949. There are four pages on possible informants from Charles Nolet and a page of vocabulary from "Am"; bibliographic references; and lexical and grammatical notes excerpted from the works of Joseph Laurent and Masta.

For Massachusett there are three pages of miscellaneous notes with references to Trumbull's Natick Dictionary.

The bulk of the file on Iroquoian consists of a typed copy of an unidentified historical text from the 1880s. It discusses the relations of the Iroquois with the Spanish, French, and English settlers in the New World. Special mention is made of Gy-ant-va-chia (Cornplanter), chief of the Seneca. The spacing of the lines of text suggests that Harrington was planning to add a translation or annotations of some kind. There are also three pages of miscellaneous notes in his hand.

Most of the file on Delaware consists of information on placenames and tribenames obtained from Frank Siebert, Carl F. Voegelin, and a number of Oklahoma residents in 1940. Siebert gave both Delaware and Penobscot terms, and Unami words were given by Roy Longbone, Salley Fallleaf, and Jake Parks. Munsee forms were obtained from Josiah Montour and Jane Pattice of the Six-Nations Reserve in Ontario, Canada. Also included are a carbon copy of a typed list of possible informants and several pages of miscellaneous notes from the works of Brinton, Strachey, and Zeisberger.

The section on Creek/Seminole/Alabama/Koasati/Choctaw contains twenty-one pages of vocabulary (mostly on tribenames) which Harrington obtained in an interview with James Feagin Sylestine, a speaker of the Alabama language, on April 25, 1940. The informant's home was in Livingston, Texas, although he was at the Shawnee Sanatorium at the time Harrington worked with him. The remaining miscellaneous notes were excerpted from various published and manuscript sources. They include references to Creek, Cherokee, Seminole, Alabama, and Choctaw.

Miscellaneous material relating to the East consists of brief notes which Harrington copied from a number of secondary sources. There are mentions of the Huron, Wyandot, Powhatan, and Cherokee tribes, among others. Three of the pages consist of a partial typed list (alphabetically arranged K to M) of "Carolina and Virginia Algonquian" words. This list is based on that given in the commentary on the map of Raleigh's Virginia, pages 852 to 872 of The Roanoke Voyages, which was published by the Hakluyt Society in 1955.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Algonquian languages  Search this
Fox language  Search this
Cree language  Search this
Ojibwa language  Search this
Wampanoag language  Search this
Nanticoke language  Search this
Narragansett language  Search this
Abenaki language  Search this
Delaware language  Search this
Munsee language  Search this
Creek language  Search this
Cherokee language  Search this
Alabama language  Search this
Choctaw language  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Names, Geographical  Search this
Names, Ethnological  Search this
Creek (Muskogee)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 8.6
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington Papers
John Peabody Harrington Papers / Series 8: Notes and Writings on Special Linguistic Studies
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3cd9617a0-28a5-4c9d-a745-4da9c52b91fc
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15294

MS 2008-23 Journal kept by Lewis Ketchum, a Penobscot

Creator:
Ketchum, Lewis  Search this
Extent:
1 Book (3 1/4 x 5 inches)
Culture:
Penobscot -- language  Search this
Penobscot  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Books
Journals (accounts)
Date:
circa 1837-1879
Scope and Contents:
19th century manuscript book kept by Lewis Ketchum (Penobscot), mostly written in the Penobscot dialect of Eastern Abenaki with some notes in English. The manuscript descended through the Ketchum family and documents tribal matters from 1837 to 1879, including charity, marriages, births, and customs.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2008-23
Restrictions:
Due to preservation concerns, access is restricted to digital surrogates.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Journals (accounts)
Citation:
Manuscript 2008-23, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2008-23
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw36d180b16-945e-49a3-813c-dcd9538358ff
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2008-23
Online Media:

MS 2025 Truman Michelson's Penobscot linguistic and ethnological notes

Collector:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Extent:
57 Pages
Culture:
Penobscot -- language  Search this
Penobscot  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Field notes
Vocabulary
Date:
1923
Scope and Contents:
Penobscot vocabulary and ethnological notes, most likely from Truman Michelson's field work in Maine. One of the people he interviewed in the notes is Alexander Sapil (possibly Sapiel), identified by Michelson as Passamaquoddy.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2025
Topic:
Linguistics  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Citation:
Manuscript 2025, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2025
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3770d91a7-7162-4f4b-a467-cd34f1fc2b28
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2025
Online Media:

MS 2748 Truman Michelson's Penobscot linguistic notes

Collector:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Extent:
200 Items (cards )
Culture:
Penobscot -- language  Search this
Penobscot  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Vocabulary
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Card files containing Truman Michelson's notes on Penobscot grammar and vocabulary. His notes include grammatical tables and a reference to Frank Speck's Penobscot text, by page and line.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2748
Topic:
Linguistics  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Vocabulary
Citation:
Manuscript 2748, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2748
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw355dabbec-4a91-410e-8a7c-c498a027c9b6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2748
Online Media:

MS 4152 Letter to John R. Swanton

Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Addressee:
Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958  Search this
Culture:
Penobscot  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
September 3, 1933
Scope and Contents:
Concening bird names in Delaware and Penobscot languages.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4152
Topic:
Delaware Indians  Search this
Zoology -- Bird names  Search this
Lenape  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4152, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4152
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ae48cff0-99f8-4a6c-b570-5d9c0fa89d17
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4152

English definitions of Indian terms / from Paul Dudley's papers ; furnished by J. Wingate Thornton

Author:
Dudley, Paul 1675-1751  Search this
Thornton, John Wingate 1818-1878  Search this
Physical description:
p. [427]-429 ; 22 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Date:
1857
Topic:
Penobscot language  Search this
Language  Search this
Call number:
PM2147.Z5 .D8 1857
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_713429

Referential-access dependency in Penobscot / by Conor McDonough Quinn

Author:
Quinn, Conor McDonough  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 294 leaves ; cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2006
Topic:
Penobscot language--Pronoun  Search this
Penobscot language--Syntax  Search this
Penobscot language--Dependency grammar  Search this
Call number:
PM2147 .Q56 2006
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_822995

Frank T. Siebert, Jr. (1912-1998) : a special issue

Title:
special issue in honor of Dr. Frank T. Siebert, Jr
Author:
Maine Historical Society  Search this
Subject:
Siebert, Frank T (Frank Thomas) 1912-1998  Search this
Physical description:
p. [69]-160 : ill., ports. ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
Maine
Date:
1998
C1998
Topic:
Linguists  Search this
Penobscot language  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
P85.S54 F73 1998
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_828021

Katahdin : wigwam's tales of the Abnaki Tribe and a dictionary of Penobscot and Passamaquoddy words with French and English translations / by Molly Spotted Elk

Author:
Spotted Elk, Molly 1903-1977  Search this
Physical description:
xxii, 203 p. ; 23 cm
Type:
Folklore
Dictionaries
Place:
Maine
Katahdin, Mount
Katahdin, Mount (Me.)
Date:
2003
C2003
Topic:
Tales  Search this
Penobscot language--Polyglot  Search this
Passamaquoddy language--Polyglot  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_903697

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