The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, and photographs.
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, financial material, architectural drawings, and photographs.
Correspondence, circa 1860-1921, includes Freer's correspondence, 1876-1920, with artists, dealers, collectors, museums, and public figures; letterpress books contain copies of Freer's outgoing letters, 1892-1910; correspondence collected by Freer of James McNeill Whistler, and his wife Beatrix, 186?-1909, with Lady Colin Campbell, Thomas R. Way, Alexander Reid, Whistler's mother, Mrs. George W. Whistler, and others; correspondence of Whistler collector Richard A. Canfield, 1904-1913, regarding works in Canfield's collection; and correspondence of Freer's assistant, Katharine Nash Rhoades, 1920-1921, soliciting Freer's letters from his associates, and regarding the settlement of his estate.
Also included are twenty-nine pocket diaries, 1889-1890, 1892-1898, 1900-1919, recording daily activities, people and places visited, observations, and comments; a diary kept by Freer's caretaker, Joseph Stephens Warring, recording daily activities at Freer's Detroit home, 1907-1910. Inventories, n.d. and 1901-1921, of American, European, and Asian art in Freer's collection, often including provenance information; vouchers, 1884-1919, documenting his purchases; five volumes of scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeill Whistler, 1888-1931, labeled "Various," "Peacock Room," "Death, etc.," "Paris, etc.," and "Boston...London" ; three volumes of newsclippings, 1900-1930, concerning Freer and the opening of the Freer Gallery of Art.
Correspondence regarding Freer's gift and bequest to the Smithsonian Institution, 1902-1916; and photographs, ca. 1880-1930, of Freer, including portraits by Alvin Langdon Coburn and Edward Steichen, Freer with others, Freer in Cairo, China and Japan, Freer's death mask, and his memorial service, Kyoto, 1930; photographs of artists and others, including Thomas Dewing, Ernest Fenollosa, Katharine Rhoades taken by Alfred Stieglitz, Rosalind B. Philip, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Abbott H. Thayer, Dwight Tryon, and Whistler; and photographs relating to Whistler, including art works depicting him, grave and memorial monuments, works of art, the Peacock Room, and Whistler's memorial exhibition at the Copley Society.
Organization of the Papers:
This collection is organized into twelve series.
Series 1: Genealogical and Biographical Data
Series 2: Correspondence
Series 3: Diaries
Series 4: Freer Colleague Materials
Series 5: Art Inventories
Series 6: Financial Materials
Series 7: Exhibition Loan Files
Series 8: Biblical Manuscripts and Gold Treasure Files
Series 9: American School of Archaeology in China
Series 10: Printed Material
Series 11: Outsize Material
Series 12: Photographs
1854 February 25 -- Born in Kingston, New York
1873 -- Appointed accountant and paymaster of New York, Kingston and Syracuse Railroad by Frank J. Hecker (1846-1927)
1876 -- Moves to Indiana to work, with Hecker, for the Detroit and Eel River and Illinois Railroad
1880 -- Moves to Detroit, participates in organization of the Peninsular Car Works with Hecker
1883 -- Becomes vice president and secretary of Peninsular Car Company when it succeeds Peninsular Car Works
1883 -- Begins collecting European prints
1884 -- Peninsular Car Company constructs plant on Ferry Avenue
1887 -- Meets Howard Mansfield (1849-1938)
1887 -- Acquires proofs of 26 etchings, Venice, Second Series(1886), by James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903)
1887 -- Purchases a small Japanese fan attributed to Ogata Karin(1658-1715)
1887 -- Buys land on Ferry Avenue
1889 -- Meets Frederick Stuart Church (1826-1900) and Dwight William Tryon (1849-1925) in New York
1890 -- Commissions Wilson Eyre (1858-1944) to design house on Ferry Avenue, Detroit, Michigan
1890 -- On first trip to London, meets James McNeill Whistler(1834-1903)
1892 -- Moves to Ferry Avenue house
1892 -- Tryon and Thomas Wilmer Dewing (1851-1938) undertake decoration of reception rooms
1893 -- Lends American paintings to World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago
1893 -- Purchases first piece of Chinese art, a small painting of white herons by an anonymous Ming dynasty (1368-1644) artist
1894 -- Begins yearlong trip around the world, which includes visit to the Whistlers in Paris and first trip to Asia, stopping in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), India, China, and Japan
1896 -- Meets Matsuki Bunkyo (1867-1940) in Boston
1899 -- Takes part in consolidation of railroad-car building companies then retires from active business
1900 -- Attends Exposition International Universelle in Paris
1900 -- Buys villa in Capri with Thomas S. Jerome
1901 -- Meets Siegfried Bing (1838-1905) in Paris and Ernest Fenollosa(1853-1908), who visits Freer in Detroit
1902 -- Meets Dikran Kelekian (1868-1951)
1902 -- Spends summer in Britain building Whistler collection
1902 -- Views Whistler's, Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room
1904 -- Purchases Whistler's Peacock Room
1904 -- Offers his art collections and funds to build a museum in which to house them to the Smithsonian Institution
1905 -- Smithsonian committee visits Freer in Detroit
1906 -- United States government formally accepts Freer's gift on January 24
1906 -- Freer signs Deed of Gift to Smithsonian Institution on May 5
1907 -- On second tour of Asia, meets Hara Tomitaro 1868-1939) in Yokohama, Japan
1908 -- Takes third trip to Asia, specifically to West Asia to study Rakka ware
1909 -- Tours Europe to study art museums
1909 -- On fourth trip to Asia, attends memorial ceremony for Fenollosa (d.1908 September) at Miidera, Japan, and meets Duanfang (1861-1911) in China
1910 -- On last trip to Asia, visits Longmen Buddhist caves in China
1911 -- Suffers stroke
1912 -- Lends selection of objects for exhibition at Smithsonian Institution
1913 -- Meets Eugene (1875-1957) and Agnes E. (1887-1970) Meyer
1913 -- Commissions Charles Adams Platt (1861-1933) to design museum building in Washington
1914 -- Meets Katharine Nash Rhoades (1885-1965) in Detroit
1915 -- Settles in New York City
1915 -- Site of future Freer Gallery of Art is determined
1916 -- Platt's plans for Freer Gallery are approved by Smithsonian Regents and Commission of Fine Arts and ground is broken in September
1918 -- After falling ill in Detroit, Freer travels to New York for treatment
1918 -- Work on the museum building is delayed by the war
1919 -- Freer appends codicil to will permitting acquisitions of Asian, Egyptian, and Near Eastern (West Asian) art
1919 -- Dies in New York City on 25 September and is buried in Kingston, New York
1919 -- Construction of Freer Gallery completed
1920 -- John Ellerton Lodge (1876-1942) is appointed director of the Freer Gallery
1923 -- Freer Gallery opens to the public on May 9
1930 -- Memorial ceremony for Freer is held at Koetsuji, Kyoto
Charles Lang Freer was an American industrialist who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. He was a well-known collector of Asian art, and strongly supported the synthesis of Eastern art and Western art. One of his most famous acquisitions was James McNeill Whistler's Peacock Room.
Index to cross-referenced correspondents in the series Charles Lang Freer correspondence
Beal, Junius E. -- See: -- Warring, Joseph Stephens
Black, George M. -- See: -- Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Board of Education (Kingston, New York) See: Michael, M. J.
Bonner, Campbell See: University of Michigan
Boughton, George H. See: Yardley, F. C.
British Museum See: Binyon, Laurence; Hobson, R. L.
Brown, Harold H. See: Art Association of Indianapolis
Buchner, Evelyn B. See: Knoedler, M., and Company
Buckholder, C. H. See: Art Institute of Chicago
Butler, S. B. See: Unidentified correspondents
Carnegie Institute See: Balken, Edward Duff; Harshe, Robert B.
Carpenter, Newton H. See: Art Institute of Chicago
Caulkins, Horace James See: Pewabic Pottery
Chao, Shih-chin See: Gunn, Chu Su
Chicago & North Western Railway Co. See: Hughett, Marvin
Clark, Charles Upson See: Clark, Arthur B.
Cleveland Museum of Art See: Whiting, Frederic Allen
Columbia University See: Braun, W. A.; Gottheil, Richard; Hirth, Friederich
Commission of Fine Arts See: Moore, Charles
Corcoran Gallery of Art See: Minnigerode, C. Powell
Crocker, Anna B. See: Portland Art Association
Dannenberg, D. E. See: Karlbeck, Orvar
De Menoncal, Beatrice See: Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection
De Ricci, Seymour See: Ricci, Seymour de
Defnet, William A., Mrs., See: Franke, Ida M.
DeMotte See: Vigouroux, J.
Detroit Institute of Arts See: Detroit Museum of Art
Detroit Publishing Company See: Livingstone, W. A.
Detroit School of Design See: George Hamilton; Stevens, Henry
DeVinne Press See: Peters, Samuel T.; Witherspoon, A. S.
Dyrenforth, P. C. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Eddy, Arthur J. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Eggers, George Williams See: Art Institute of Chicago
Farr, Daniel H. See: Robinson and Farr
Farrand School (Detroit) See: Yendall, Edith
Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago) See: Laufer, Berthold
Flagg, Frederick J. See: Allen, Horace N.
Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University See: Forbes, Edward; Pope, Arthur Upham; Sachs, Paul J.
French, M. R. See: Art Institute of Chicago
Fu, Lan-ya See: Pang, Lai-ch'en
Fujii, Yoshio See: Yoshio, Fujii
Gerrity, Thomas See: Knoedler, M., and Company
Goupil Gallery See: Marchant, William
Gray, William J. See: Barr, Eva
Great Lakes Engineering Works See: Hoyt, H. W.
Grolier Club See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Heinemann, W. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Holden, Edward S. See: West Point, U. S. Military Academy
Hudson, J. L. See: Weber, William C.
Hutchins, Harry B. See: University of Michigan
Hutchins, Charles L. See: Art Institute of Chicago
Kelekian, H. G. See: Kelekian, Dikran G.
Kent, H. W. See: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Lee, Kee Son See: Li, Chi-ch'un
Levy, John See: Schneider, A. K.
Library of Congress See: Rice, Richard A.; Wright, Helen
Louvre (Paris, France) See: Midgeon, Gaston
Matsuki, Z. See: Matsuki, Kihachiro
McKim, Mead and White See: White, Stanford
Mills, A. L., Colonel See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Miner, Luella See: Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection
Minneapolis Institute of Arts See: Breck, Joseph; Van Derlip, John R.
Monif, R. Khan See: Rathbun, Richard
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston See: Lodge, John Ellerton
Naser, Katen & Nahass See: Katen, K.
Nordlinger, Marie, Miss See: Meyer-Riefstahl, Marie
Panama Pacific International Exposition See: Moore, Charles C.; Trask, John E. D.
Peabody Museum See: Morse, Edward Sylvester
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts See: Trask, John E. D.
Saint-Gaudens, Augusta H. See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Saint-Gaudens, Homer See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus
Samurai Shokai See: Nomura, Yozo
San Francisco Art Association See: Laurvik, J. Nilsen
Scribner's, Charles, Sons See: Van Dyke, John C.
Shaw, Wilfred B. See: University of Michigan
Shirae, S. Z. See: Yamanaka and Company
Smith College See: Clark, Arthur B.
Smithsonian Institution See: Holmes, William Henry; Rathbun, Richard; Ravenel, Walcott, Charles D.
Society of Arts and Crafts (Detroit) See: Plumb, Helen
Societe des Beaux-Arts See: Reid, Alexander
Stevens, George W. See: Toledo Museum of Art
Stratton, Mary Chase Perry See: Pewabic Pottery
Tanaka, Kichijiro See: Yamanaka and Company
Tuttle, William F. See: Art Institute of Chicago
Union Trust Company (Detroit) See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
United States Military Academy See: West Point, U. S. Military Academy
University of Chicago See: Zug, George Breed
University of Pennsylvania, Univ. Mus. See: Gordon, George Bryon
Ushikubo, D. J. R. See: Yamanaka and Company
Wallis & Son See: Barr, Eva; Thompson, C. Croal Ward, Clarence See: Oberlin College
Warren, Edward K. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Warring, Stephen See: Warring, Joseph Stephens
Watkin, Williams R. T. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie
Watson, Margaret, Miss See: Parker, Margaret Watson
Whistler, Anna See: Stanton, Anna Whistler
Whiting, Almon C. See: Toledo Museum of Art
Williams College See: Rice, Richard A
Wright, F. G. See: Orbach and Company
Yatsuhashi, H. See: Yamanaka and Company
Index to cross-referenced correspondence in the series Whistler correspondence
Bell, William See: Unidentified correspondents
Brown, Ernest See: Painter Etchers' Society, Committee
Cowen, John T. See subseries: Charles Lang Freer Correspondence
Ford, Sheridan See: Reid, Alexander
Haden, Francis Seymour See: Painter Etchers' Society, Committee
Haden, Francis Seymour, Lady See: Haden, Deborah Whistler
Leighton, Frederick, Baron See: Campbell, Lady Colin
Moore, Albert See: Reid, Alexander
Morley, Charles See: Pall Mall Gazette
Morris, Harrison S. See: Reid, Alexander
Pennell, Joseph See: Miscellaneous typescripts
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts See: Reid, Alexander
Prange, F. G. See: Reid, Alexander
Societe des Beaux-Arts See: Reid, Alexander
Society of Portrait Painters See: Reid, Alexander
Stevens Fine Art See: Reid, Alexander
Studd, Arthur See: Miscellaneous typescripts
[Vanderbilt?], George, Mrs. See: George, Mrs.
Whistler, William McNeill, Mrs. See: Whistler, Nellie
Whistler Memorial Committee See: Miscellaneous typescripts
The Archives of American Art microfilmed portions of the Freer papers in 1992. The microfilm is available at the Archives of American Art's Washington D.C. office, the Freer Gallery of Art Library, and through interlibrary loan.
Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Collection is open for research.
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Comprehensive index of Charles Lang Freer's library, mostly relating to art and Asian culture. Headings include authors, countries, and topical subjects. Sections include locations in Freer's original Detroit home; an index of all books transferred to the Smithsonian; a list of collections and collectors catalogues of American and Near and Far Eastern art; sales catalogues, and books in Chinese language.
Organized in the original manner by the creator.
FSA A.01 05.22
Collection is open for research.
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Photographs of bridge construction projects collected by Victor Darnell was an early student of civil engineering and a pioneering civil engineer.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is comprised of ninety black and white photographs documenting various bridge construction projects, including projects in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Warren and Springfield, Massachusetts. One photograph is clearly marked as the Copper Creek Bridge (1908) and another as the Washington Street Bridge (1911). Other photographs are listed by job number or location. The collection includes images of bridges in various phases of construction. There are also images of construction and ironworker crews and machinery used in the building process. Many photographs in the collection are unidentified and are undated. Photographs that are dated are arranged in chronological order followed by undated materials.
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Victor C. Darnell, 1921-1999, was a pioneering civil engineer. He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1943 and spent thirty-one years, most of that time as chief engineer, working for the Berlin Steel Construction Company.
Throughout his life, Darnell assembled a large collection documenting the history of structural and civil engineering in America. He researched and wrote extensively on the subject, including A Directory of American Bridge-Building Companies 1840-1900 which was published by the Society for Industrial Archaeology in 1984.
The Archives Center also holds materials relating to the Berlin Construction Company, 1904-1957, AC1032. Victor C. Darnell's large collection of photographs, ephemera, design books, catalogs, advertising magazines and working blueprints are located at the Huntington Library in California.
This collection was donated by Victor C. Darnell, October, 1987.
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
The papers in the Abbott collection appear to have been brought together in the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology in order to process ethnological specimens from Malaya and Indonesia and to prepare an exhibit and publications. Included are some of Abbott's original letters, notes, maps, and a considerable number of photographs. Most of these materials concern the Enggano, Jakun, and Dyak. Many other documents in the collection consist of copies of or extracts from Abbott's letters, the originals of which are now in the Smithsonian Institution Archives. There are also letters and other materials of Otis Tufton Mason and Walter Hough accumulated as they worked on the collection, many simple lists of accessions compiled in the Department of Anthropology, and a few manuscripts. In addition, there are printed materials that were apparently used by the department's staff for reference purposes. Some of the photographs made in Borneo in 1914 are by Henry Cushier Raven, a field assistant of Abbott and, later, a collector financed by Abbott.
Additional materials of Abbott and Raven are in the Smithsonian Institution Archives, and their material (often duplicate photographs) are included in several collections in the National Anthropological Archives.
Scope and Contents:
William Louis Abbott, although formally trained in medicine, chose instead to
devote his time and inherited wealth to worldwide exploration and the collection of
natural history specimens and ethnological artifacts. The Abbott papers in the National
Anthropological Archives reflect his collecting activities in the East Indies, and the work
on his collections from that region by United States National Museum personnel,
especially Otis Tufton Mason, curator of ethnology. The collection includes
correspondence, maps, illustrations of artifacts, manuscripts, lists of objects in the Abbott
collection in the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology, and photographic prints and
negatives. In addition, there is a subject file which contains information on a variety of
topics relating to Indonesia and Malaysia. The materials date from the 1890s to the early
decades of this century.
This archival collection forms a valuable complement to the collection of artifacts
housed in the National Museum of Natural History. (Abbott's collections from Indonesia
are described by Dr. Paul M. Taylor, curator of Asian ethnology, in the Museum
Anthropology Newsletter, April, 1985.) The subject file and lists of objects provide data
on certain specific artifacts and their uses and Abbott's correspondence contains his
observations of the daily life of the various peoples from whom the objects were
collected. These documents are supplemented by a generous photographic record and
sketch maps which outline the routes he followed. The papers focus on the Malay
Peninsula and Archipelago, the region closest to Abbott's heart and to which he dedicated
over a decade before eye disease forced him to leave the tropics.
In addition to Abbott's own materials, there are notes by museum staff, including
descriptions of artifacts, and manuscripts of articles mostly by Mason who was
particularly interested in basketry. The bulk of the correspondence is between Abbott,
Otis Mason, Walter Hough, and Cecil Boden Kloss who accompanied Abbott on several
expeditions. Other correspondents include Cyrus Adler, Jesse Walter Fewkes, William
H. Furness, Alfred Cort Haddon, Ales Hrdlicka, Mary Lois Kissell, Elmer D. Merrill,
William Palmer, Richard Rathbun, and Charles Clark Willoughby. Most of the letters are
brief and discuss proposed work on the Abbott collections, bibliographic sources, and
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to William
Louis Abbott is contained in the papers of Ales Hrdlička and of Herbert W. Krieger, the
Manuscript and Pamphlet File of the United States National Museum Department of
Anthropology, and the photographic collection of the United States National Museum
Division of Ethnology. Because Abbott donated material to a variety of departments in
the Smithsonian, his original written material is located in several other Smithsonian
departments as well. There are personal letters to his mother and sister as well as
Smithsonian personnel in the Smithsonian Institution Archives. Field notebooks
including detailed sketch maps of collecting stations are in the libraries of the
departments of Mammals and of Birds.
The spelling of place names used here are those of Abbott who frequently wrote
them as they sounded to him.
Collection arranged into 9 series: (1) Correspondence, 1896-1919; (2) Subject file; (3) Register of accessions,1890-1906; (4) Lists of objects by accession number and location;(5) Lists of objects by type or geographic location; (6) Drafts of unpublished articles with working materials; (7) Printed material; (8) Photographic prints; (9) Photographic negatives.
William L. Abbott studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and, after receiving an M.D., continued his training in London. Although a highly successful student, he seems never to have been fully committed to medicine. Instead, around 1880, using his own resources, he turned to a life of exploration and the study of natural history.
Abbott's early expeditions were in the United States, but, in time, he went abroad, at ever increasing distances, to the Greater Antilles, East Africa, Kashmir, and Turkestan. In 1896, he began work in Malaya and Indonesia that would largely occupy him until 1915. Using Singapore as a base, he sailed his ship, the Terrapin, to points on both coasts of the Malayan Peninsula, Trang in Thailand, the Anambas Islands, the Mergui Archipelago, the Nicobars and Andamans, both costs of Sumatra and the nearby islands (notably Nias, the Mentawai Islands, and Enggano), the Rhio Archipelago, and Borneo. On many of thes voyages, he collected both biologcial and ethnological specimens and photographs. At times, however, he was accompanied by an Englishman, Cecil Boden Kloss, who handled the ethnological work. Kloss retain his own notes and many of his photographs.
Abbott's later work, between 1916 and 1923, was carried out in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. After this, he retired to a farm on the Elk River in Maryland.
Abbott has been described as one of the great field natturalists of all time simply for the quantity of material he collected. Virtually the only body of work he left, in fact, is his large collection of specimens and notes, letters, and photographs that relate to them. Although he contributed to the collections of several museums, the chief benefactor of his work was the United States National Museum. Its staff and associated produced around forty publications based on his material. Abbott himself published very little.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE OF WILLIAM LOUIS ABBOTT
1860 February 23 -- Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1880 -- Collected birds in Iowa and North Dakota
1881 -- Bachelor of Arts, University of Pennsylvania
1883 -- Collected birds in Cuba and Santo Domingo
1884 -- Doctor of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
1884-1886 -- Postgraduate work in England Licentiate of Royal College of Surgeons and Royal College of Physicians
1886 -- Received inheritance and discontinued formal practice of medicine
1887-1889 -- Exploration of Taveta region near Mt. Kilimanjaro with William Astor Chandler. Collection donated to United States NationalMuseum
1890 -- Exploration and collection in Zanzibar, Seychelles Islands, and Madagascar
1891 -- Ethnological collections in the U.S. National Museum from Kilima-Njaro, East Africa,Annual Report of the U.S. National Museum for 1891, pages 381-398Exploration and collection in India, including Baltistan, Karachi, Kashmir, and Srinagar
1892 -- Exploration and collection in Vale of Kashmir, Baltistan, Aden, Seychelles Islands, and Aldabra Island
1893 -- Exploration and collection in Seychelles Islands; India, including Kashmir and Srinagar; Leh Ladakh; Sinkiang, China; and Eastern Turkistan
1894 -- Continued exploration and collection in region of Eastern Turkistan, Pakistan, India, and Ceylon
1895 -- Exploration and collection in Madagascar and Kashmir
1896 -- Exploration and collection in Malay Peninsula, including:Jan-Feb – PerakFeb-Mar – CantonApr-Nov – Trang Province, Siam, including Pramon, Tyching, and Penang
1897 -- Exploration and collection:Jan -- TrangApr-May -- PenangMay-Dec -- India
1898 -- Volunteered in Spanish-American War with William A. Chambers as Irregular Horse in Florida, and served in CubaTravel in Singapore and China
1899 -- Construction of schooner TerrapinExploration and collection accompanied by Cecil Boden Kloss:Jan-Mar -- TrangMarch -- SingaporeMar-Apr -- JavaJul-Sept -- Lingga and Anamba islandsOct-Nov - Singapore, PenangDec - Junkseylon
1900 -- Exploration and collection accompanied by Kloss:Jan-Mar -- Burma, Mergui ArchipelagoJun-Aug -- Natuna ArchipelagoNov-Dec -- Penang, Burma, Mergui Archipelago
1902 -- Exploration and collection accompanied by Kloss:Jan-Feb -- Banjak Islands, Lasia, BabiFeb-Mar -- Western SumatraMar -- NiasApr-May -- Pahang, Malaya; Singapore and Straits IslandsAug-Sep -- Bintang, Rhio ArchipelagoOct-Nov -- SimalurNov-Jan 03 -- Pagi Islands
1903 -- Exploration and collection:Jan -- Western SumatraFeb -- Pulo TelloApr -- Penang, SingaporeMay-June -- Karimun IslandsJuly-Aug -- Rhio-Lingga ArchipelagoAug-Sep -- Eastern SumatraOct -- PenangNov-Mar 04 -- Burmese coast, including Victoria Point, Mergui Archipelago, and Tenasserim
1904 -- Exploration and collection:Apr -- Penang and Straits of MalaccaMay-Jun -- Banka IslandJul-Aug -- Billiton IslandAug-Sep -- Karimata IslandOct -- Benkulen, SumatraNov-Dec -- Engano
1905 -- Exploration and collection:Dec 04-Feb- Western SumatraFeb-Mar -- NiasJun-Sep -- Western Borneo, including Pontianak and Kapuas riversNov-Jan 06 -- Eastern Sumatra Designated Honorary Associate in Zoology by the U.S. National Museum
1906 -- Visited Hong Kong and Japan (April-May)Exploration and collection accompanied by Kloss:Oct-Feb 07 -- Easter Sumatra, including Bengkalis and Rupat islands and Siak River
1907 -- Exploration and collectionMar -- Rhio ArchipelagoMay -- Islands of South China Sea, including Direction Island, Datu, Temayer, Lamukutan, Panebangan, and PelapisMay-Sep -- Western Borneo, including Kapuas and Simpang riversNov-Dec -- Java Sea, including Bawean Island
1908 -- Exploration and collection:Dec 07-Mar- Southeastern Borneo, including Pulo Laut and Pulo SebukuJun -- Southwestern BorenoNov -- Java Sea
1909 -- Exploration and collection:Dec 08-Apr -- Pulo Laut and eastern Borneo, including Pasir RiverOnset of partial blindness caused by spirochetosis, and treatment in Aachen, Germany. Illness forced Abbott to suspend collecting activities in tropics.
1910-1915 -- Exploration and collection in Kashmir
1912-1915 -- Donated funds to United States National Museum for expedition to Borneo by Henry Cushier Raven
1914 -- Brief visit and collection in Molucca Islands and Celebes, accompanied by his sister
1915-1916 -- Donated funds for expedition by Raven to Dutch East Indies, especially Celebes
1916 -- Exploration and collection in Dominican Republic
1917-1918 -- Exploration and collection in Haiti
1918 -- Interruption of field work by Abbott because of servere illness (dysentary) and by Raven because of the war
1919-1923 -- Exploration and collection in Hispaniola
1920 -- Donated funds to United States National Museum for botanical collection in Haiti by Emery C. Leonard, aid in Division of Plants
1920-1922 -- Donated funds to United States National Museum for expedition to Australia by naturalist Charles M. Hoy
1923-1924 -- Donated funds to United States National Museum for expedition to China by Charles M. Hoy until Hoy's death in the field; workconcluded by Reverend David Crockett Graham
1925-1927 -- Donated funds to United States National Museum for expeditions to Hispaniola
1928 -- Donated funds to United States National Museum for expedition to China
1928 -- Donated funds to United States National Museum for expedition to Hispaniola by Arthur J. Poole, Division of Mammals
1928-1931 -- Donated funds to United States National Museum for archeological expedition to Hispaniola by Herbert William Krieger, curator, Division of Ethnology
1932 -- Donated funds to United States National Museum for archeological expedition to Cuba
1934 -- Purchase and donation of birds of the Himalayas for the United States National Museum
April 2, 1936 -- Death of William Louis Abbott at his farm near North East, Maryland of heart disease after a long illnessBequest to Smithsonian Institution any of books and papers desired (278 volumes accepted) and approximately $100,000 (1/5 of estate) to promote zoological researchers
William Louis Abbott was a self-trained and self-sustaining collector who
donated large numbers of ethnological artifacts, zoological specimens, and funds to the
United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution around the turn of the
twentieth century. The Abbott Papers in the National Anthropological Archives were
apparently compiled by the staff of the Department of Anthropology, especially Otis
Tufton Mason, curator of ethnology, in order to process incoming collections. The
correspondence and printed materials relate primarily to Abbott's collecting activities and
to Mason's research on Abbott's collections.
The William Louis Abbott collection is open for research. Access to the William Louis Abbott collection requires an appointment.
William Louis Abbott Collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Thomas Dale Stewart was a physical and forensic anthropologist and worked at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History from 1931 until his death in 1997. He worked under Ales Hrdlicka until 1943, became the head curator in 1960, director of the museum in 1962, and retired in 1971. Stewart's research interests included physical and forensic anthropology and archaeology, mostly in North and South America. He also worked with the F.B.I. frequently to aid in homicide investigations, and worked extensively with the U.S. Army to identify skeletal remains from the Korean War in Operation Glory. The Thomas Dale Stewart Papers primarily deal with his life and career at the Smithsonian, particularly his research projects and publications between 1931 and 1991. Materials consist mainly of correspondence, photographic material, dossiers based on writings and research projects, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Thomas Dale Stewart Papers document his research and professional activities from 1931 to 1991 and primarily deal with his anthropological and archaeological research in North and South America. There is also significant material related to ancient human skeletal remains found in Egypt and the Middle East, Stewart's work identifying skeletal remains for the U.S. Army (Operation Glory), and the history of physical and forensic anthropology. Material documenting Stewart's work with Ales Hrdlicka and other colleagues are also represented in this collection. The collection consists of correspondence, writings and research files, project data, skeletal data punch cards, photographic and illustration materials, and administrative and financial papers.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
This collection is arranged in 9 series: Series 1. Biographical and Background, 1937-1983; Series 2. Correspondence, 1931-1990; Series 3. Writings and Research, 1875, 1902-1990; Series 4. Operation Glory, 1954-1957; Series 5. Professional Organizations, 1930-1990; Series 6. Trip Files, 1945-1985; Series 7. Teaching and Lectures, 1950-1970; Series 8. Exhibit Material, 1961-1969; Series 9. Photographs, 1928-1979.
Thomas Dale Stewart was a curator of physical anthropology at the Smithsonian specializing in anthropometry, early man, and forensic anthropology. He worked in the Department of Anthropology for over seventy years. Born in Delta, Pennsylvania in 1901, Stewart moved to Washington, D.C. to pursue a degree at George Washington University. While attending school, he also began working at the Smithsonian in 1924 as a temporary substitute for John Baer, a family friend from Delta. After Baer died during conducting research in Panama, Stewart was invited to stay on as assistant to Ales Hrdlicka, curator of physical anthropology. Hrdlicka was impressed by Stewart's abilities and quickly took him on as a student. Promised that he would succeed Hrdlicka one day if he obtained an M.D., Stewart enrolled at The Johns Hopkins University and graduated in 1931. After graduating, Stewart was rehired by the Smithsonian as an assistant curator.
Stewart rose through the ranks of the Department of Anthropology quickly, being promoted to associate curator in 1939 and curator in 1943 after the death of his mentor Hrdlicka. Stewart was appointed head curator of the department in 1960 and director of the Natural History Museum in 1962. He continued to work at the Smithsonian well after he retired in 1971, conducting research and producing a stream of publications well into his 90s. He died in 1997 at the age of 96.
Many of Stewart's early research interests matched those of his mentor: a focus on dental caries, separate neural arch and spondylolisthesis, ossuary excavation, cranial deformations, and other examinations of archaeological remains throughout North America. While Hrdlicka was alive, Stewart provided support for many of his research projects and publications. After Hrdlicka died, Stewart expanded his interests to include forensic topics and analysis of other archaeological remains.
Anthropometry was prominent in a great deal of his work. He was the first to describe Tepexpan Man from Mexico and Midland Man from Texas. He also studied the remains of Neanderthal specimens that Ralph S. Solecki, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, had uncovered at Shanidar Cave in Iraq. In forensic work, as Hrdlicka's heir, Stewart assumed work for the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement officials. Moreover, Stewart devised new methods and published books and articles concerning forensic analysis, including his Essentials of Forensic Anthropology. In closely related work during 1954-1955, the United States Army engaged Stewart to go to Japan to examine skeletal remains repatriated after the Korean War in a project called "Operation Glory."
In terms of his areal specialization, Stewart was essentially an Americanist. In North America, he worked in Alaska with Henry B. Collins in 1927, and in subsequent years he excavated several ossuaries and other sites in the Washington, D.C., vicinity. These included a site on Potomac Creek in Virginia, Piscataway sites in Maryland, and the Townsend site in Delaware. He also carried out laboratory studies and prepared reports on skeletal remains uncovered by Smithsonian colleagues. In the 1940s and 1950s, Stewart conducted field work at archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, and Peru.
He was awarded the Viking Medal in Physical Anthropology in 1953, the Joseph Henry Medal of the Smithsonian Institution in 1967, and an award from the physical anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1981.
Ubelaker, Douglas H. "Thomas Dale Stewart, A Biographer Memoir," National Academy of Sciences, 2006.
Pace, Eric. "T. Dale Stewart Dies at 96; Anthropologist at Smithsonian," The New York Times, 1997.
1901 -- Born in Delta, Pennsylvania.
1922-1927 -- Moved to Washington, D.C. and attended George Washington University.
1924 -- Began working at the Smithsonian Institution.
1927 -- Sent by Ales Hrdlicka to Alaska to collect skeletal remains with Henry Collins.
1931 -- Graduated from The Johns Hopkins University with an M.D.
1931 -- Appointed assistant curator at the Smithsonian under Hrdlicka.
1939 -- Promoted to associate curator.
1939 -- Field work in Mexico.
1941 -- Field work in Peru.
1943 -- Taught at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.
1943 -- Promoted to curator after Hrdlicka dies.
1943 -- Began working on forensic cases for the F.B.I.
1945 -- Field work in Mexico.
1949 -- Field work in Peru.
1947, 1949 -- Field work in Guatemala.
1954-1955 -- Traveled to Japan to assist in the identification of skeletal remains from the Korean War (Operation Glory).
1957-1967 -- Taught at the George Washington University School of Medicine.
1960-1962 -- Served as head curator of the Department of Anthropology.
1962-1965 -- Served as the director of the National Museum of Natural History.
1964 -- Assisted in the production of Smithsonian exhibits on physical anthropology.
1966 -- Retired from administrative duties and appointed senior scientist.
1971 -- Retired from the Smithsonian.
1997 -- Died in Bethesda, Maryland.
The following manuscripts related to Stewart and his work can be found at the NAA:
NAA MS 1615- Excavations in Mancos Canyon, Colorado September 1943.
NAA MS 4669- The Townsend Site Near Lewes, Delaware 1962 by Henri Omwake.
NAA MS 4843- Report by T. Dale Stewart on Human Skeletal Material Excavated by W.M. Walker at Cedar Grove Cave, Arkansas and Natchitoches, Louisiana.
NAA MS 7025- A Tentative Closing Report on the Willin Site, Eldorado, Maryland September 1, 1952.
NAA MS 7121- "Memories from Half a Century at the Smithsonian January 11, 1978" recording.
NAA MS 7223- The Townsend Site January 1950.
NAA MS 7264- Documents Concerning Preserved Paleolithic Human Remains Found in the Vicinity of Cueva, Spain 1969-1972.
NAA MS 7357- Material Relating to Dermatoglyphics of Mayan Groups ca. 1947-1949.
NAA MS 7358- Personal Identification in Mass Disasters December 9-11 1968.
NAA MS 7359- T. Dale Stewart on the Identification of Human Remains April 6, 1970.
NAA MS 7474- Sketches of Burials at Ossuary 2, Juhle Site ca. 1971-1972.
Additional material T. Dale Stewart created while assisting Ales Hrdlicka is located at the National Anthropological Archives, The Papers of Ales Hrdlicka, ca. 1887-1943.
Many objects and artifact materials collected by T. Dale Stewart throughout his career are also held by the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology. These include skeletal remains and other materials from the Shanidar Cave in Iraq, forensic anthropological material including bone casts from Operation Glory, archaelogical materials from excavations in Maryland and Virginia including the Nanjemoy and Potomac Creek sites, and skeletal remains and other related materials from Stewart's 1927 expedition to Alaska with Henry Collins. Contact Anthropological Collections for more information.
Materials were transferred from T. Dale Stewart to the National Anthropological Archives in multiple accretions between 1975 and 2000 under accessions 1981-52, 1981-59, 1986-04, 1988-15, 1988-33, 1995-04, 1998-61, and 2000-46.The bulk of materials in this collection were transferred to the NAA from the Department of Anthropology in 1994 (1995-04).
The Thomas Dale Stewart papers are open for research.
Collection of two postcards, including a hand-tinted image of two Japanese women bowing to one another and an image of the "Hakurin-tei" pavillion, an example of Korean Buddhist-style architecture, at Fujiyama Garden, Shirongane, Shiba district, Tokyo. The postcards were sent to Betty Meggers in Washington, DC, circa 1933.
Betty Jane Meggers (1921-2012) was an archeologist of South America and the Caribbean. At the age of sixteen, she started working at the Smithsonian Institution, assisting in the restoration of pottery from New Mexico. She graduated from the Universities of Pennsylvania and Michigan and received her PhD from Columbia University in 1952. She conducted fieldwork and published findings both individually and with her husband, Clifford Evans. Meggers had met Evans while he was a fellow archeology graduate student at Columbia and she later assisted him after his appointment as a curator in the National Museum of Natural History's Department of Anthropology.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 82-73A
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Japanese postcards can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 97, Photo Lot 86-37, and Photo Lot 89-16.
The National Museum of American History Archives Center and Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives also hold Japanese postcards.
Photographs of Betty Meggers can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 80-17, Photo Lot 83-15, and the BAE historical negatives.
Correspondence from Meggers can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7525 and the papers of Clifford Evans, John Joseph Honigmann, William Duncan Strong, John Victor Murra, Albert Clanton Spaulding, Frank Maryl Setzler, and John Lawrence Angel.
600 Prints (circa, silver gelatin and contact prints (including stereographic images))
325 Negatives (circa)
Horry County (S.C.) -- Antiquities
Virginia -- Antiquities
Maryland -- Antiquities
Glynn County (Ga.) -- Antiquities
Florida -- Antiquities
Washington (D.C.) -- Antiquities
Sussex County (Del.) -- Antiquities
Scope and Contents note:
The collection includes photographs of excavations and artifacts relating to Stearns' archeological work in Delaware, the District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Virginia. There are also some sketches of artifacts and excavation sites, as well as notes on pictured artifacts. One photo album relates to Stearns' work in Florida, while the other contains photographs of various sites in Maryland, including Conowingo.
The collection relates to work in Sussex County in Delaware; the District of Columbia; Bay, Collier, Flagler, Franklin, St. Johnʹs, St. Lucie, and Volusia counties in Florida, Glynn County in Georgia; Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Cecil, Charles, Frederick, Harford, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, Prince Georges, Queen Anneʹs, and St. Maryʹs counties in Maryland; Horry County in South Carolina; and Loudon and Page counties in Virginia.
Richard E. Stearns (1902-1969) was a commercial photographer and amateur archeologist of Maryland's prehistory. He was known for his photographic documentation, particularly of sites and specimens, most notably at Conowingo, a large village site on the Susquehanna River. In the 1930s, he became a curator for the Department of Archeology of the Natural History Society of Maryland, a position he held for over thirty years. In the 1940s, Stearns published Nicholas Yinger's investigations of the Hughes site, as well as his own investigations of sites in Maryland.
The National Museum of Natural History's Department of Anthropology holds artifacts donated by Stearns, in accessions 163264, 176236, 182055, 183968, 186144, 188274, 200211, 202602, 247561, and 308221.
Additional photos by Stearns can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4524.
Photographs relating to archeology, most of which were made by Bureau of American Ethnology photographers and ethnologists. Much of the collection consists of photographs by Cosmos and Victor Mindeleff of Southwest pueblos. Images depict mounds and excavations (including Grant Mound in Pennsylvania and additional mounds in West Virginia, Alabama, Louisiana, and elsewhere); Hopi Sipaulovi village; petroglyphs in Wind River, Wyoming; ancient artifacts; Standing Rock; Tohono O'odham Indians; Canyon de Chelly; and Clear Creek. Photographers represented include John K. Hillers; C. H. Bryan of Mt. Sterling, Kentucky; the Mindeleff brothers; Henry Bascom Collins; L. C. Rennick; J. W. Milner; Hattons Studio in Lansing, Michigan; and a drawing by W. A. Rogers.
Collection may contain images of human remains.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 28
Location of Other Archival Materials:
William Dinwiddie photographs documenting Papago Indians, previously filed in Photo Lot 28, have been relocated to National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 89.
Additional Mindeleff photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 4362, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 78, and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Hillers photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 143, Photo Lot 83-18, Photo Lot 87-2N, Photo Lot 90-1, Photo Lot 92-46, and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Collins photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 82-23, Photo Lot 86-42, Photo Lot 86-43, and Photo Lot 86-59.
See others in:
Photograph collection relating to archeology, burial mounds, and the Southwest, 1880s-1920s
300 Prints (circa, albumen and silver gelatin (some copy prints))
Marco Island (Fla. : Island)
Tarpon Springs (Fla.)
Florida -- Antiquities
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of photographs collected by Frank Hamilton Cushing that document archeological sites at Key Marco and Tarpon Springs, Florida. Photographs include views of scenery, sites, excavations, a few objects in situ, and other objects after excavation and cleaning. The photographs may have been made by Wells Moses Sawyer, photographer and artist for Cushing's expeditions in Florida.
Frank Hamilton Cushing (1857-1900) was curator of the ethnological department of the United States National Museum and an ethnologist for the Bureau of American Ethnology (1876-circa 1886), best known for his work with at Zuni. In 1895 and 1896, he went to Florida due to ailing health and undertook archeological work on Florida's western coast with the joint sponsorship of the Bureau of American Ethnology and Dr. William Pepper of the University of Pennsylvania. He embarked on reconnaissance in May-June 1895 and conducted large-scale explorations in December 1895-April 1896.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The original negatives for the prints and some additional negatives not printed are in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 14 subject and geographic file of negatives.
The artifacts depicted in these photographs were probably divided between the Department of Anthropology collections at the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Pennsylvania's museum.
The National Anthropological Archives also holds Cushing's papers (MS 2009-06, MS 4780, and MS 1847), photographs (MS 1839), and manuscripts relating to Cushing's work in Florida (MS 2527, MS 2526, MS 1849-b, MS 1849-a, MS 1848, MS 1846, MS 1844-b, MS 1844-a, MS 1842, MS 1841, and MS 1840)
The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University also holds some of the Frank Hamilton Cushing papers, 1876-1892.
The collection comprises photographs documenting peoples of the Philippines, including Benguet, Bogobo, Igorot, Ifugao, Moro, and Negrito people and their environment. ALso included are photographs of the military presence in the Philippines. The photographs, including prints and postcards, were made or collected by Elizabeth H. and Sarah S. Metcalf during their time on the Philippine Islands and at the Louisiana Purchase (1904) and Lewis and Clark Expositions (1905). Images of Philippine peoples depict ceremonies and daily activities, including agriculture, hunting, construction of dwellings, and markets. Additional postcards and photographs in the collection were both made and collected during the Metcalf sisters' travels in Switzerland, Yemen, Algeria, Egypt, Malaysia, Japan, and Hawaii. Many of the postcards and some photographs were commercially made, but most of the photographs appear to have been made by the Metcalfs, including some photographs printed on postcard stock. The collection also includes correspondence, financial documents, artifact descriptions, lecture notes, and many newspaper clippings.
Sisters Elizabeth Henshaw and Sarah Sprague Metcalf became interested in the Philippines and Bagobo peoples after attending the Philippine Reservation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in Saint Louis in 1904. They were particularly impressed by the Bagobo gong music, and developed acquaintances with several of the participants. The following year, the Metcalfs attended the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland, Oregon, and again interacted with the Philippine peoples there, who were mostly Igorot. Middle-aged and unmarried, the sisters set off for Mindanao the following year. They spent several months in Zamboanga before moving to Santa Cruz where they were closer to the Bagobo people. During their stay in the Philippines (1906-1910), the Metcalfs photographed and advocated for their Bagobo friends and amassed an extensive collection of indigenous material culture. Uncertainties relating to the First World War brought the sisters back to the United States in 1910 and Elizabeth presented their ethnological research to the American Anthropological Association the following year. Around 1915, they returned to the Philippines, where they settled in Manila and sold indigenous handicrafts in their "Little Home Shop." Elizabeth and Sarah remained in Manila until their deaths in 1925 and 1939, respectively.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 107
Biographical information mostly taken from Cherubim A. Quizon, "Two Yankee Women at the St. Louis Fair: The Metcalf Sisters and their Bagobo Sojourn in Mindanao," Philippine Studies 52, no. 4 (2004): 527-555.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs and material relating to the Metcalf sisters are held in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 97 and the Department of Anthropology records (Manuscript and Pamphlet file).
Artifacts collected by the Metcalf sisters are held in the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and in the National Museum of Natural History Department of Anthropology collections in accessions 114868, 124603, 123977, and 57787.
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.