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Carlen Galleries, Inc., records

Creator:
Carlen Galleries  Search this
Names:
Peale family  Search this
Davies, Albert Webster, 1889-1967  Search this
Feuillate, Raymond, 1901-1971  Search this
Gainsborough, Lee  Search this
Hicks, Edward, 1780-1849  Search this
Kollwitz, Käthe, 1867-1945  Search this
Pippin, Horace, 1888-1946  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil, 1858-1924  Search this
Extent:
10.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1775-1997
bulk 1940-1986
Summary:
The Carlen Galleries, Inc., records measure 10.4 linear feet (gift portions) and date from 1775 to 1997 (bulk 1940-1986). Correspondence, business records, subject files, a scrapbook, printed matter, and photographs document the operation and activities of Carlen Galleries, Inc., and its founder Robert Carlen.
Scope and Content Note:
The Carlen Galleries, Inc., records measure 10.4 linear feet (gift portions, Parts 1 and 3) and date from 1775-1998 (bulk 1940-1986). Correspondence, business records, subject files, a scrapbook, printed matter, and photographs document the operation and activities of Carlen Galleries, Inc., and its founder Robert Carlen.

Part 1: Received in 1986 as a gift from Robert Carlen, these records document the activities of Carlen Galleries and its founder, 1937-1986. Correspondence mainly concerns the sale and purchase of works of art. Also included are artist files containing correspondence, receipts, and printed matter regarding Albert Davies, Edward Hicks, Käthe Kollwitz, Horace Pippin, and Maurice Prendergast. Subject files concern African American artists, Raphael Peale, Raymond Feuillate, and the French Moderns. Business records consist of loan forms, documentation of exhibitions at Carlen Galleries, inventories, a scrapbook and clippings concerning the gallery, conservation reports, appraisals (not microfilmed), and financial records.

Part 2: Additional records documenting the activities of Carlen Galleries and its founder, 1937-1986, were loaned by Robert Carlen for microfilming in 1988. Included are letters about Horace Pippin and rare letters from the artist. Other correspondence concerns Carlen's search for paintings by Edward Hicks, and there is also a small selection of letters regarding more routine gallery business. Among the business records are and account book and receipts. Printed matter consists of exhibition catalogs, announcements, and clippings; a scrapbook contains printed matter about Horace Pippin. Photographs are of Allan Freelon and works of art.

Part 3: Received in 2002 as a gift from Robert Carlen's daughter Nancy Carlen, this portion of the Carlen Galleries, Inc., Records consists of two letters, business records, photographs, and selections from the galleries' library. Letters are from Joan Baez, circa 1960 and Charles M. Mount, 1968. Previously sealed letters from Charles M. Mount, undated, and 1962-1975, relating to John Singer Sargent have been integrated into this portion.

Part 4: Additional records borrowed for microfilming from Nancy Carlen in 2002 include documents dated 1775-1997 (bulk 1940s-1990). Correspondence concerns gallery business, but a small amount of personal correspondence is also included. Business records consist of appraisal reports, receipts for sales and purchases, and the contract and program for the 1964 University [of Pennsylvania] Hospital Antiques Show in which Carlen Galleries exhibited. Subject files document Edward Hicks, Anatol Jal, the Captain James Lawrence Goblet, Horace Pippin, and Antoine Roux. Five notebooks, containing material similar to that in the subject files, are about Horace Pippin (vols. 1-3), Edward Hicks (vol. 4), and chronicle the career of Robert Carlen (vol. 5).

Printed matter consists of clippings and other items concerning art and antiques, Robert Carlen and Carlen Galleries, Inc., and the Diplomatic Reception Rooms of the State Department where two Hicks paintings owned by Carlen were on extended loan. Among the miscellaneous records are biographical documents, personal financial records, business and research notes (including original documents and photocopies of archival materials), and four prints. Photographs are mostly of antiques and art work; also included are a few pictures of people, places, and miscellaneous subjects.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four parts, representing gift and loan accessions received and microfilmed at various times. The two loans for microfilming (Parts 2 and 4) overlap and partially duplicate one another-particularly records relating to Horace Pippin and Edward Hicks-but are far from identical. Some of the Pippin and Hicks material was significantly rearranged in the interim between the first loan (1988) and the second (2002).

Missing Title

Part 1: Gift (1986), 1906-1986 (Boxes 1-7; 7.0 linear feet; Reels 4166-4175)

Part 2: Loan (1988), 1937-1986 (Reel 4175)

Part 3: Gift (2002), 1835-1992 (Boxes 8-12; 3.4 linear feet; Reel 5745)

Part 4: Loan (2002), 1775-1997 (Reels 5746-5748)
Historical Note:
Robert Carlen (1906-1990) worked as a secretary and attended evening classes at the Graphic Sketch Club in Philadelphia right after graduating from high school. He studied painting full-time at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts during the academic year 1928/29, and from 1929-1936 he continued to study painting in the evenings while employed at a brokerage firm.

Since he wanted to be associated with the art world and needed to earn a living, Carlen decided to establish an art gallery that would show the works of young artists. In 1937, he opened in Carlen Galleries in his home at 323 South 16th Street, Philadelphia; the galleries operated in the same location for the remainder of Carlen's life. In its earliest years, Carlen Galleries housed exhibitions of the Associated American Artists' Group and featured prints by Wanda Gag, Käthe Kollwitz, Louis Lozowick, Lynd Ward, and other print makers.

In 1941, paintings by Horace Pippin were exhibited at Carlen Galleries. Carlen soon befriended the artist and began providing him with art supplies. He remained Pippin's agent for many years following the artist's death in 1946, and was a sought-after authority on the artist's work and life.

By the mid-1940s, Carlen had discovered a painting by Edward Hicks in Bucks County, Pa. He began researching the then-obscure Quaker artist. Through contacting descendants of Hicks's patrons, Carlen was able to acquire many of Hicks's paintings and Carlen Galleries became known for handling important early American folk paintings and antiques. Among his clients were Edward W. and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch, Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Del., Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Williamsburg, Va., and the Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, Vt.

During the course of his long career, Robert Carlen served as an advisor to many Philadelphia collectors and developed an extensive knowledge of the genealogies and heirlooms of the city's prominent families. Because of his extensive experience and expertise, Carlen's opinion was widely valued and his services as an appraiser of art and antiques were in great demand.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels 4175 and 5746-5748) including material relating to Horace Pippin. Loaned material was returned to the lender and is described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The collection was acquired in various accessions of gifts and loans. Part 1: gift of Robert Carlen, 1986; Part 2: loaned by Robert Carlen for microfilming, 1988; Part 3: gift of Nancy Carlen, 2002 (previously sealed letters and appraisals received with Part 1 are housed with Part 3 and integrated for microfilming); Part 4: loaned by Nancy Carlen for microfilming, 2002.
Restrictions:
Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Decorative arts -- United States  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art -- Exhibitions  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Pennsylvania
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Carlen Galleries, Inc., records, 1775-1997, bulk 1940-1986. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carlgall
See more items in:
Carlen Galleries, Inc., records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9438ea128-b58f-400f-9bb2-cb74b6c20041
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carlgall
Online Media:

Newspaper Clippings: Interviews about Jim Thorpe with Gail and Grace

Collection Creator:
Thorpe, Grace F.  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1967-1968
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Grace F. Thorpe Collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Grace F. Thorpe Collection
Grace F. Thorpe Collection / Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv44a7ace0b-9416-471d-94b0-37825f39d93f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-085-ref138
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Benjamin Lay

Artist:
William Williams, Sr., 1727 - 27 Apr 1791  Search this
Sitter:
Benjamin Lay, c. 1681 - 3 Feb 1759  Search this
Medium:
Oil on mahogany panel
Dimensions:
Panel: 37.8 x 36.2 x 3.8cm (14 7/8 x 14 1/4 x 1 1/2")
Frame: 54.3 x 51.4 x 5.1cm (21 3/8 x 20 1/4 x 2")
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1750-58
Topic:
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Nature & Environment\Clouds  Search this
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Exterior\Landscape\Rural  Search this
Nature & Environment\Plant\Tree  Search this
Equipment\Walking stick\Cane  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard  Search this
Container\Basket  Search this
Nature & Environment\Fruit\Grapes  Search this
Nature & Environment\Fruit\Watermelon  Search this
Benjamin Lay: Male  Search this
Benjamin Lay: Society and Social Change\Reformer  Search this
Benjamin Lay: Society and Social Change\Philanthropist  Search this
Benjamin Lay: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Abolitionist  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; this acquisition was made possible by a generous contribution from the James Smithson Society
Object number:
NPG.79.171
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Exhibition:
2022 Rehang of Out of Many: Portraits from 1600 to 1900
On View:
NPG, East Gallery 144
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4895c6dcd-4f14-407d-b22d-1878942937ab
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.79.171

Edward H. Dwight Papers

Creator:
Dwight, Edward H., 1919-1981  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
Cincinnati Historical Society  Search this
Louisiana State Museum  Search this
Mohammed Center for Restricted Communications  Search this
National Audubon Society  Search this
R. Havell & Son  Search this
Peale family  Search this
Audubon, John James, 1785-1851  Search this
Audubon, Maria R. (Maria Rebecca), 1843-1925  Search this
Audubon, Victor Gifford, 1809-1860  Search this
Bachman, John  Search this
Bakewell, Benjamin  Search this
Bell, John G.  Search this
Coffin, Annie R.  Search this
Corwine, Aaron H.  Search this
Duncanson, Robert S., 1821-1872  Search this
Fries, Waldemar H., 1889-  Search this
Gifford, George Edmund  Search this
Held, John, 1947-  Search this
Laning, Paul F.  Search this
Lichtner, Ruth  Search this
Lichtner, Schomer, 1905-2006  Search this
Martin, Maria  Search this
McDermott, John Francis, 1902-  Search this
Peale, Charles Willson, 1741-1827  Search this
Peale, James, 1749-1831  Search this
Peale, James, 1789-1876  Search this
Peale, Raphaelle, 1774-1825  Search this
Peale, Rembrandt, 1778-1860  Search this
Tyler, Morris F.  Search this
Extent:
18.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Typescripts
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Date:
1821-2001
bulk 1950-1979
Summary:
The papers of Cincinnati art historian, museum director, and Audubon and Peale scholar, Edward H. Dwight (1919-1981), measure 18.6 linear feet and date from 1821-2001, with the bulk of the material dating from 1950-1979. Dwight's papers include biographical material, writings by Dwight, and research files on John James Audubon, Raphaelle Peale, and others, documenting Dwight's extensive contribution to the study of American painting, particularly naturalist, portrait, and still-life painting.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Cincinnati art historian, museum director, and Audubon and Peale scholar, Edward H. Dwight (1919-1981), measure 18.6 linear feet and date from 1821-2001, with the bulk of the material dating from 1950-1979. Dwight's papers include biographical material, writings by Dwight, and research files on John James Audubon, Raphaelle Peale, and others, documenting Dwight's extensive contribution to the study of American painting, particularly naturalist, portrait, and still life painting.

Dwight's biographical material includes two address books, a calendar, a small amount of personal correspondence including letters and postcards from Schomer and Ruth Lichtner, and printed material documenting his work as a museum curator and director.

Writings and notes include correspondence about Dwight's writings, drafts and typescripts of articles on Audubon and other artists, and lecture notes.

The bulk of the collection comprises Dwight's research material on Audubon and includes correspondence related to his research with scholars, collectors, publications, museums, and libraries, including: the American Museum of Natural History, the Audubon Society, the Cincinnati Historical Society, the Louisiana State Museum, Annie R. coffin, Waldemar H. Fries, John Francis McDermott, and the collections of G. Edmund Gifford, Jr., Paul F. Laning, and Morris Tyler.

Copies of Audubon's correspondence, including letters from Audubon's father-in-law, Benjamin Bakewell, son Victor G. Audubon, and grandchildren, form a substantial portion of Dwight's research files. Notes and card files reflecting Dwight's research by categories such as life event, activity, geographical area, and subject of study, further illuminate his research and provide cross references to the Audubon letters and other material.

Data compiled and supplemented with reproductions of Audubon's artwork forms another substantial portion of Dwight's research, and provides detailed information about individual Audubon works and works attributed to him.

Dwight's subject files on Audubon house collated research on individuals, subjects, and events that intersected with Audubon's life and work, as well as Audubon research from other sources and scholars. They include copies of documents, such as the journal of Audubon collaborator John G Bell, and a scrapbook of granddaughter, Maria Audubon; documents relating to Audubon collaborators such as John Bachman and Maria Martin; material related to collections of Audubon's work; and information concerning editions of his prints, such as the Havell Edition, engraved and hand-colored by the firm of Robert Havell Sr. and Jr. in the 1830s.

Printed material used by Dwight in his research includes original American newspapers, from states including New England, New York, and Pennsylvania, dating from 1821 to the 1870s, which include articles on Audubon, as well as later magazines, journals, catalogs, and news clippings on Audubon. A small number of photographs, slide transparencies, and negatives of Audubon's artwork can be found at the end of the series.

Dwight's research material on Raphaelle Peale, Charles Willson Peale, Rembrandt Peale, James Peale, and other Peale family members, includes correspondence requesting and responding to requests for information; material collated by subject on Peale collectors, family history, miniatures, portraits, silhouettes, still lifes, and other subjects; and photographs of artwork.

Other research files document Dwight's interest in other artists such as Aaron H. Corwine, Robert S. Duncanson, and artists from the Cincinnati area in general. They include catalogs of data compiled on individual works of art, subject files, notes and index card files, printed material, and photographs of artwork. Of special note are eleven issues of John Held, Jr.'s, mail art correspondence sent to Dwight by the Mohammed Center for Restricted Communications.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as five series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1944-1980 (8 folders; Box 1, OV 20)

Series 2: Writings and Notes, 1954-circa 1979 (0.9 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Audubon Research Material, 1821-circa 1979 (13 linear feet; Boxes 1-14, OVs 20-23)

Series 4: Peale Research Material, circa 1930-2001 (1.9 linear feet; Boxes 14-16)

Series 5: Other Research, 1881-1980 (2.7 linear feet; Boxes 16-19)
Biographical / Historical:
Cincinnati art historian and museum director, Edward H. Dwight (1919-1981), conducted extensive research on American painting, in particular the works of John James Audubon, Charles Willson Peale, and Raphaelle Peale. He was also credited with rediscovering the Cincinnati artist, Aaron H. Corwine.

Dwight attended Yale and Cornell Universities, and studied art at the Cincinnati Art Academy and the School of Fine Arts of Washington University, St. Louis. From 1946 he held posts, including curator of American Art, at the Cincinnati Art Museum, until becoming director of the Milwaukee Art Center in 1955. In 1962 he left Milwaukee to direct the Munson-Williams-Proctor Art Institute Museum of Art, where he remained until the end of his career. He was the author of numerous articles for publications including Antiques, Audubon, Art in America, The Art Gallery, The Art Quarterly, and Canadian Art, and lectured widely on contemporary art, Spanish painting, and American painting.

In 1955 Dwight published the article "Aaron Houghton Corwine: Cincinnati Artist" in Antiques magazine. With this, and the exhibition, Rediscoveries in American Painting (1955), which he launched at the Cincinnati Art Museum, Dwight revived interest in this all but forgotten painter.

Dwight wrote many scholarly articles on Audubon's life and work throughout his career, in addition to writing catalogs for, and curating, exhibitions of Audubon's work. In 1960 he was awarded a $7,500 fellowship from the Ford foundation to pursue a reevaluation of Audubon, and to reexamine some long-held assumptions and exagerrations about Audubon's life and personality. He focused primarily on the artist-naturalist's original drawings and paintings, especially portraits and pictures of birds, animal life, and insects. Dwight was awarded an additional fellowship by the National Endowment for the Arts in 1973, to continue his research on Audubon.

Dwight's scholarly interest also extended to Raphaelle Peale and the Peale family of artists. In the 1960s and 1970s he wrote and published several articles about Raphaelle Peale, his father, Charles Willson Peale, and his brothers, Rembrandt and James. Dwight was working on a book about the family, and a catalog raisonné of Raphaelle Peale, when he died.

Dwight was an accomplished photographer and his work was included in at least eight exhibitions from 1951 to 1972, including two one-man exhibitions at Louisiana State University (1952), and Weyhe Gallery (1972).
Provenance:
The Audubon materials were donated to the Archives of American Art by Dwight's widow, Ruth R. White, in 1982-1983. The Peale material was donated in 2002 by the Barra Foundation, Inc., which had received them from Ruth R. Dwight as they relate to the Foundation's mission to support scholarship in cultural history in the Philadelphia area. In 1983, the Barra Foundation loaned the documents to Dr. William H. Gerdts, an art historian, who was to continue Dwight's work on a catalog raisonné of Raphaelle Peale. Dr. Gerdts made limited use of the materials and the Barra Foundation then transferred them to the Archives of American Art in 2002.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Museum curators -- Ohio -- Cincinnati  Search this
Artists -- Ohio -- Cincinnati  Search this
Art historians -- Ohio -- Cincinnati  Search this
Painters  Search this
Museum directors -- Ohio -- Cincinnati  Search this
Topic:
Still-life painting  Search this
Mail art  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Portrait painting  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records
Typescripts
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Citation:
Edward H. Dwight papers, 1821-2001, bulk 1950-1979. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.dwigedwa
See more items in:
Edward H. Dwight Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw98efa0eea-a8f2-4b13-a7cc-32c48cd081a9
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-dwigedwa
Online Media:

Carl Whiting Bishop Collection

Creator:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Names:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Tung, Kuang-zung.  Search this
Warner, Langdon (1881-1955)  Search this
Wenley, A. G. (Archibald Gibson), 1898-1962  Search this
Extent:
20 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographic prints
Manuscript
Place:
China
Date:
1923-1934
Summary:
An associate curator and associate in archaeology at the Freer Gallery of Art from 1922 to 1942, the collection of Carl Whiting Bishop (1881-1942) document his Gallery-sponsored travels to China from 1923 to 1934 and include an unpublished manuscript describing his archaeological research in China; line drawings; rubbings; maps; note cards; and nearly 4,000 glass and film negatives with corresponding original silver prints. These document his expeditions in northern and central China, illustrating archaeological sites in Henan, Shanxi, and Hebei provinces. Specific digs include the large neolithic site at Wanquan, Shanxi, and sixth century C.E. tombs near Fenyin. Additional images show Chinese cityscapes, daily life and customs, topography, temples, pagodas, caves, and sculpture.
Scope and Contents:
The professional papers and official records of Carl Whiting Bishop include his unpublished two-volume manuscript, [not before 1940]; and photographs, nearly 4,000 images, 1915-1934; and undated. These materials document over a twenty-five year period in the course of Bishop's research and archaeological activities. They were retained at the Freer Gallery of Art after Bishop's death in 1942, and were supplemented with an addition received in 1956 from his widow Daisy Furscott Bishop.

The manuscript was prepared in a typescript format, over 421 pages of text, with photographic illustrations, and completed by Bishop sometime after 1939. Properly titled Archaeological Research in China 1923-1934, this unpublished manuscript constituted a field report that chronicled Bishop's Gallery-sponsored expeditions in northern and central China during the period 1923 to 1934. The reader is provided with a record of the day-to-day operations completed, of obstacles and opposition encountered, and the results obtained from their work. Key diplomatic and scientific representatives from the West and China are recorded who aided and contributed to the investigations. Moreover, there are descriptions of the academic, social and political climate in China during a period of civil war and economic strife. Against this background, Bishop also discussed their efforts in view of the history of China, with commentary on the country's geography, topography, climate, flora and fauna, mineral products, and ancient customs and legends.

The earliest still photographic prints in the Bishop Papers date from his employ at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, where he conducted archaeological reconnaissance from 1915 to 1918 in China, Korea, and Japan. All subsequent images were created or collected by Bishop and his assistant Kuang-zung Tung during the Freer Gallery-sponsored expeditions of 1923-1934. Further descriptions of these materials may be found under Series 2 and Series 3 in this finding aid.

In the transliteration into English of the names of Chinese characters, Bishop followed the Wade-Giles system, with a few exceptions to those rules for certain well known and commonly used place-names, especially those of cities, towns, territorial divisions, and bodies of water. We have retained Bishop's romanization except in certain areas where clarification was needed. The Chinese personal and place-names have been kept as they appeared in his captions.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Manuscript/Writings 1915-1934 and undated

Series 2: Photography Prints

Series 3: Negatives

Series 4: Drawings, Rubbings, and Maps
Biographical / Historical:
Carl Whiting Bishop (1881-1942) was an archaeologist, anthropologist, and specialist in the field of East Asian studies. Born in Tokyo, Japan, on July 12, 1881, he was the son of a Methodist missionary, the Reverend Charles Bishop. Except for a twelve-month residence in the United States during 1889-90, Bishop spent the first sixteen years of his life in Japan, before returning to this country in 1898 for college preparatory work at Northwestern Academy, Evanston, Illinois. He studied at Hampden-Sydney College and in 1912 received an A.B. degree from DePauw University. In 1913 he was awarded the degree of Master of Arts by the Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, where he studied with the noted German anthropologist, Franz Boas (1858-1942). That same year he received his first scientific appointment as a member of the Peabody Museum Expedition to Central America.

From 1914-18 Bishop served as Assistant Curator in Oriental Art at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, where on an expedition for that museum he made his first trip to China. Under the auspices of the university, he conducted archaeological reconnaissance during 1915 and 1916 in China, Korea, and Japan, and again conducted archaeological surveys in 1917 and 1918, although no systematic excavations were carried out at that time. When the United States entered World War I on the side of the Allied Powers, Bishop enlisted in the United States Navy and was made assistant naval attaché, serving in China in the years 1918-20, with the rank of lieutenant, junior grade. He returned to Columbia University in 1921 to assume the position of Assistant in Anthropology, a post he held until the end of the academic season in 1922.

Effective 10 April 1922, Bishop was appointed as Associate Curator of the Freer Gallery of Art by then director John Ellerton Lodge (1878-1942). Asked to undertake important archaeological work, Bishop headed the gallery's first expedition to China, sponsored jointly by the FGA and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, lasting from 20 February 1923 to 6 August 1927. From 16 November 1929 to 11 April 1934, he headed another expedition, sent out this time by the Freer Gallery alone. When conditions in China made further efforts impractical, Bishop returned to Washington in 1934, where he remained at the gallery as Associate in Archaeology until the time of his death on 16 June 1942.

Carl Whiting Bishop was a member of a number of learned societies: the American Oriental Society, the American Archaeological Society, the Anthropological Society, the American Society for the Advancement of Science, the American Geographical Society, and he served on the advisory board of the American Council of Learned Societies until his death.

1881, July 12 -- Born in Tokyo, Japan

1898 -- Attends Northwestern Academy in Evanston, Illinois for college preparatory work Attends Hampden-Sydney College

1912 -- Receives A.B. degree from DePauw University

1913 -- Receives Master of Arts from Department of Anthropology from Columbia University, where he studied with Franz Boas

1914 -- Begins serving as Assistant Curator in Oriental Art at the University of Pennsylvania Museum

1915-1918 -- Makes several archaeological survey trips to China, Korea and Japan

1918-1920 -- Enlists in the U.S. Navy, serving as assistant naval attaché in China

1921 -- Serves as Assistant Professor in Anthropology at Columbia University

1922, April 10 -- Becomes Associate Curator of the Freer Gallery of Art

1923-1927 -- Heads the Freer Gallery's first expedition to China, co-sponsored by the Boston Museum of Fine Arts

1929-1934 -- Heads the second Freer-sponsored expedition to China

1934 -- Returns to US and serves as Associate in Archaeology at the Freer Gallery of Art

1942, June 16 -- Dies.
Related Materials:
Additional Bishop material may be found in the following collections also found in the the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery:

Li Chi Reports, 1926-1929, regarding Li's reconnaissance work at Shi-yin Ts'un, Shansi Province, and the excavation at Anyang.

Archibald Gibson Wenley Papers, 1924-1926, including field diaries, notes, and photographs documenting his participation in the FGA expedition work in China.

Charles Lang Freer Papers, including 1915 correspondence between Freer and Bishop; newspaper clippings related to Bishop, and documents dated 1912-1913, relating to Freer's support for a proposed American School of Archeology in China.

A number of objects from the FGA expeditions, including bronzes, ceramics, and stone sculpture, have been accessioned into the permanent art collection of the Freer Gallery of Art. Additionally, remnants of antiquities, potteries, and metalwork accumulated during the field work, have been placed in the Freer Gallery Study Collection. Records for these items are retained with the Galleries' Registrar's Office.

Additional Bishop material may be found in the Smithsonian Institutional Archives:

Expedition Records, including correspondence of Carl Whiting Bishop, 1914; 1923-1942, nearly 3,000 letters arranged alphabetically by correspondent name; a manuscript catalogue of expedition acquisitions, Peking, 1923-1925; financial records, 1923-1934, including expedition fund ledgers, account statements, and receipts; and newspaper clippings, 1924-1932, documenting the gallery's field work and general archaeological work being conducted around the world at that time.

Smithsonian Institutional Archives, Central Files, Bishop folders, 1923-1942, including expedition letters, field reports, and photographs sent to John E. Lodge.

Personnel and Special Events Photograph Collection, containing portrait photographs of Bishop.

Additional Bishop matieral may be found in the University of Pennsylvania Museum Archives, Philadelphia:

Documentation of University of Pennsylvania Museum-sponsored field work in East Asia may be found there that includes records of C.W. Bishop, dated 1914-1927 (measuring about .5 linear foot), much of it created during his tenure as the Museum's Assistant Curator of Oriental Art from 1914-1918. Included are Bishop's journals consisting of daily entries for two trips to China for the University of Pennsylvania Museum; letters to and from G.B. Gordon, C.W. Harrison, and Jane McHugh, written during Bishop's travel in China and subsequent to his return; and detailed financial accounts of expenditures during the China travels. Additionally, the repository houses a group of Bishop's negatives taken in China to visually record the expedition work.
Provenance:
Gift of Carl Whiting Bishop.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Archaeology -- China  Search this
Photography -- China  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Manuscript
Citation:
The Carl Whiting Bishop Collection. FSA.A.02. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives.
Identifier:
FSA.A.02
See more items in:
Carl Whiting Bishop Collection
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc31125ea37-fbdf-4cd0-b413-1b022a34356b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a-02
Online Media:

Journals: Leaves of Wesley Heights

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 3: General materials of Hattie Meyers Junkin
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg286c383c8-f28a-4af6-b59e-5e952f5fae8b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref139
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Newspaper and Journal Articles: General

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 3: General materials of Hattie Meyers Junkin
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2f9c2563e-5c4a-47d6-abbb-276111be86a4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref141
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Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
112.75 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1897-1965
Scope and Contents:
This series constitutes the administrative correspondence of the BAE, and is the largest series in the collection. It is divided into twenty subseries. The first subseries, Indices and Registers of Letters Sent and Received, is arranged chronologically and then, therein, alphabetically by correspondent. These records provide the date of receipt, name of sender and a brief description of subject discussed. There is a substantial gap in these records from 1902 to 1949.

Bound copies of outgoing letters comprise the second subseries, Letterbooks. Letterbooks are arranged categorically by kind and then, therein, chronologically. Letterbooks in the "general series" include outgoing letters sent chiefly by John Wesley Powell, James C. Pilling, Garrick Mallery, H.C. Rizer, WJ McGee, Frederick W. Hodge and William Henry Holmes. Matters discussed in these letters relate to the preparation and distribution of publications issued by the BAE; formal instructions relating to staff research projects; the maintenance and reproduction of manuscripts and photographs within the BAE collection; the collection and distribution of material objects obtained on BAE field expeditions; the appointment of BAE staff and arrangements made with outside collaborators; requests for appropriations; plans of operation; summaries of expenditures; Indian legislation; laws for the preservation of antiquities; execution of the Antiquities Act; and cooperation with other government agencies. Also discussed are routine housekeeping matters such as the acquisition and return of materials borrowed from the Library of Congress and other institutions or the purchase of supplies and equipment. Lettersbooks comprising letters of "transmittal" discuss the distribution of publications, manuscripts or anthropological information. Letterbooks regarding "requisitions for printing and binding" include letters sent to the Public Printing Office. Letterbooks pertaining to "annual reports" include complete or partial reports addressed to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. They differ slightly in content from those published in the BAE Annual Report series. Letters filed and bound under "library" mostly concern the borrowing or lending of library material, and the purchase of library supplies. "Editorial" letterbooks includes letters to authors, editors and printers, expressing editorial or printing concerns. Letterbooks relating to "accounts" pertain generally to BAE accounts and the conveyance of vouchers.

The letterbooks of William Henry Holmes include letters concerning his charge as Chief Officer of the BAE. Many discuss BAE accounts, plans of operation, staff changes, staff instructions and proposed federal laws for the preservation of antiquities. Others discuss the archaeological work of the BAE, especially the mound surveys carried out by the Division of Mound Explorations. They include replies to requests for information pertaining to Indian mines, quarries and caves, as well as the methods used in excavating these sites. Also included are acknowledgements for the receipt of specimens, photographs and manuscripts. The letterbook of Frank M. Barnett includes letters relating primarily to BAE accounts. Letters in Frank Hamilton Cushing's letterbooks concern, by and large, the collection of specimens in Florida for the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Pennsylvania.

The letterbooks of WJ McGee include letters relating to BAE scholarly work and the Bureau's dealings with the American Geological Society, the Columbia Historical Society, the Joint Commission of the Scientific Societies of Washington (later the Washington Academy of Science), the National Geographic Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Anthropological Association, the Washington Chapter of the Archaeological Institute of America and the International Archaeological Commission. Other letters document McGee's professional relationship with fellow ethnologists and geologists, his personal relationship with William Henry Holmes, and his role as the executor of the estate of Alexander H. and Maria Matilda Evans (parents of Matilda Coxe Stevenson). Others document his position as vice president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and his role as the American representative to the preliminary conferences responsible for forming the International Archaeological Commission. Discussed elsewhere is the preparation and distribution of McGee's own publications, his involvement in a series of public lectures hosted by the Smithsonian Institution, and his observances on the death of John Wesley Powell. Of particular interest is a letter dated July 10, 1896 concerning charges of fraud brought against Frank Hamilton Cushing and another dated November 18, 1902 describing John Wesley Powell's last years as a scholar and administrator of the BAE. McGee's letterbooks also include typescript articles, lectures and similar works. Worthy of note is an article by Matilda Coxe Stevenson relating to a Zuni Scalp ceremony (November 27, 1894). Other articles include, "Primitive Trephining Illustrated by the Munis Peruvian Collection" (January 26, 1894), "The Antiquity of Man in America" (April 13, 1894), "The Expedition to Seriland" (February 14, 1896), "The Papago Time Concept" (July 22, 1896), "A Proposed American Anthropologic Association" (June 21, 1902), "Powell as Anthropologist" (April 11, 1902) and "Progress toward an International Archaeolgic and Ethnologic Commission".

The third subseries, Letters Received 1878, relates exclusively to the work of the US Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region. The series is arranged in no particular order. The fourth subseries, Letters Received 1879-1887, is arranged alphabetically by correspondent or institution. Attached to many of these letters are official copies of BAE outgoing replies. Letters deserving special attention include Alexander Graham Bell's letter and chart pertaining to Powell's phonetic alphabet; Franz Boas' rationale and plan for publishing material relating to Northwest Coast Indians; Cushing's sketch map of ruins and caves in the vicinities of San Juan and Wingate, Arizona; Dorsey's wordlist of "Shasti or Klamath"; Gatschet's 1884 "Map of Creek Country in the Eighteenth Century: Names and Sites Restored from the Contemporaneous Documents"; Gatschet's "Affinities between Tehwa and Shoshonian Dialects"; and Cyrus Thomas' report regarding the Traona manuscript.

The fifth subseries, Letters Received 1888-1906, is arranged alphabetically by correspondent or institution. Attached to many of these letters are official copies of BAE outgoing replies. Letters deserving special mention include Dinwiddie's explanation of the fraud charges brought against Frank Hamilton Cushing; Washington Matthews' discussion of the pueblo names in Chaco Canyon; Shelley's transcription of Quanah Parker's statements regarding James Mooney; Mooney's letters concerning his Arapaho photographs; Franz Boas' list of Chinook place names; Abbe's letter concerning the origin of the term "Chinook winds"; and Ashenhurst's letter including a copy of "The Lord's Prayer in Millipama (Mith-hhlama, Tenino).

The sixth and seventh subseries, Letters Received 1907 and Letters Received 1908, are arranged alphabetically by correspondent or institution. Attached to many of these letters are official copies of BAE outgoing replies. Material largely concerns special projects being conducted by the BAE at the time, including the study of various aboriginal languages spoken throughout Indiana, Fewkes' work at Casa Grande, and Frachtenberg's work among the Tutelo. Letters regarding the preparation of various BAE publications, such as the second volume of Hodge's Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, are also included in these subseries.

The eighth and ninth subseries, Letters Received 1909-1949 and Letters Received 1950-1965, are arranged alphabetically by correspondent or institution with the exception of those letters filed by subject or project. Letters received include requests for information regarding Native American languages, customs, relics or lands surveyed by the BAE. Inquiries were received from museum curators, geologists, military officials, professional anthropologists, students and members of the general public. The majority of outgoing letters were composed by BAE administrative staff fielding these queries; however, some were composed by members of the BAE research staff themselves. Other incoming letters concern personnel matters; research proposals; the BAE budget; the acquisition or distribution of specimens, manuscripts and photographs; legislation affecting BAE activities; and BAE publications. Also found among these letters are official reports concerning the progress of field work being carried out by BAE staff and collaborators. Noteworthy material found among Letters Received 1909-1949, include Boas' "Memorandum on the Changes of the Human Body under the Influences of American Life"; Densmore's "Native Songs of Two Hybrid Ceremonies among the American Indians"; Fenton's photographs taken while on the Tonawanda Reservation; John Peabody Harrington's photographs of his informants; Thomas M. Galey's print of the Osage Indian Non-pe-wa-the; and Kelsey's photograph of Kuanui of the Palolo Valley, Oahu, Hawaii; and the Latin American Expedition's photographs of the Tule. Material deserving special mention in Letters Received 1950-1965 is William S. Laughlin's preliminary report of the archaeological work being conducted on the Aleutian Islands during the summer of 1952; William Reeder's report on the biological investigations carried out on the Kodiak Islands; and Alice Larde de Venturino's "Astonishing Stone Inscriptions of North Chile".

The tenth and eleventh subseries, Letters Sent, Photocopies and Transcripts 1879-1902 and Letters Received, Photocopies and Transcripts 1879-1906, are arranged in no particular order. Reasons behind the duplication or transcription of these letters are unknown. The twelfth subseries, Letters Received, Temporary Correspondence 1949 to 1965, follows two ordering schemes: material dating from 1949 to 1952 is arranged alphabetically by correspondent or institution and material dating from 1953 to 1965 is arranged chronologically. Letters in this subseries appear to have been culled from two separate accumulations of correspondence (one maintained between 1949 and 1952; the other between 1953 and 1965), and unified as a sampling of the various types of requests that were received by the Bureau during this period.

The remaining eight subseries comprise the correspondence of specific individuals, institutions or organizations that worked directly or indirectly with the BAE. They are arranged chronologically and then, therein, alphabetically. The decision to isolate this correspondence from the larger, chronologically ordered unit of BAE correspondence (described above) is unknown. Also unknown is when the separation occurred; it may have occurred at the archival processing level or earlier at the BAE administrative level. It should be noted that the separation process was not comprehensive and, thus, BAE correspondence with these individuals, institutions and organizations may also be found elsewhere in the series.
Arrangement:
Subseries: Indices and Registers of Letters Sent and Received. Subseries: Letterbooks Subseries: Letters Received 1878 Subseries: Letters Received 1879-1887 Subseries: Letters Received 1888-1906 Subseries: Letters Received 1907 Subseries: Letters Received 1908 Subseries: Letters Received 1909-1949 Subseries: Letters Received 1950-1965 Subseries: Letters Sent, Photocopies and Transcripts 1879-1902 Subseries: Letters Received, Photocopies and Transcripts 1879-1906 Subseries: Letters Received, Temporary Correspondence 1949 to 1965 Subseries: Letters Received, S. F. Baird, 1879-1887 Subseries: Letters Received, Franz Boas, 1889-1947 Subseries: Letters Received, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, 1890-1918 Subseries: Letters Received, Smithsonian Institution, 1889-1907 Subseries: Letters Received, Matthew Stirling 1925-1950 Subseries: Letters Received, US Government Agencies 1888-1908 Subseries: Letters Received, US Government Agencies 1909-1950 Subseries: Letters Received, US National Museum Smithsonian Institution 1889-1909 Subseries: Letters Received, Charles D. Walcott 1907-1909
Collection Restrictions:
The Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology are open for research.

Access to the Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0155, Series 1
See more items in:
Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3f9ffe440-6983-4444-b64f-177e18139cb9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0155-ref13

for colored girls who have considered suicide / when the rainbow is enuf

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Subject of:
Ntozake Shange, American, 1948 - 2018  Search this
Used by:
Booth Theatre, American, founded 1913  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper, metal
Dimensions:
9 x 5 5/8 x 1/8 in. (22.9 x 14.3 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
playbills
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
November 1977
Topic:
African American  Search this
Drama (Theatre)  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Gender  Search this
Identity  Search this
Sexuality  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Dow B. Ellis
Object number:
2012.152.1213
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Exhibition:
A Changing America: 1968 and Beyond
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Concourse 1, C1 053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd51ab3730e-e1bf-4147-a63e-74b05c4b3209
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.152.1213
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Online Media:

Zembo Shrine (Harrisburg, PA) Photographs

Creator:
Zembo Shrine (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania)  Search this
Names:
Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine for North America  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
1949, 1959
Scope and Contents:
An album of photographs documenting the activities of the members of the Zembo Shrine of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The album Includes images of members involved in charitable activities for children from Shriners' Hospitals; of members engaged in ritual activities or participating in public events such as parades; and of members in regalia.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
The Zembo Shrine of Harrisburg was constituted on October 12, 1904, 32 years after the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine was established. Their activities emphasized work with children's hospitals.
Provenance:
Purchased from Serendipity Antiques.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Charity  Search this
Regalia  Search this
Freemasonry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 1940-1950
Photographs -- 1940-1960
Citation:
Zembo Shrine (Harrisburg, PA) Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1399
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89cf88e5a-3c64-42e6-9721-a18e1969599f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1399

Historic Gardens Postcard collection

Names:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
United States Capitol (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Extent:
239 Postcards (black and white, color)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Postcards
Place:
White House (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
circa 1898-1978
Summary:
The Historic Gardens Postcard Collection includes nearly 250 postcards of historic views of various public gardens, parks, monuments, and buildings throughout the United States and some foreign countries including Canada, France and Cuba. Some private gardens and estates and several sites in Washington, D.C. are also represented. Roughly half of the postcards were mailed; the remaining postcards were not written on or posted. Areas represented include Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas and Virginia. About a dozen cards feature various views of Smithsonian Institution museums along the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged primarily according to geographic location, with a small number of postcards grouped by subject matter.
General:
Few of the postcards indicate the year they were published. Specific dates provided in this finding aid come primarily from postmarks for those postcards that were mailed. Circa dates are provided for postcards that lack postmarks.
Provenance:
Postcards were compiled by Smithsonian Horticulture Services Division staff as part of a general reference collection. Most were purchased at yard sales or antique stores in the 1980s. Fifty-eight postcards were donated to the Archives of American Gardens in 2014 and added to thise collection.
Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- Canada  Search this
Gardens -- Cuba  Search this
Historic sites  Search this
Parks  Search this
Monuments  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.) -- 1900-1910  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Historic gardens postcard collection.
Identifier:
AAG.PTC
See more items in:
Historic Gardens Postcard collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6742ce920-5ab3-4a5a-ba22-669ad3c136fd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-ptc
Online Media:

George H. Clark Radioana Collection

Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Names:
American Marconi Company.  Search this
Radio Corporation of America.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Electricity and Modern Physics  Search this
Extent:
220 Cubic feet (534 boxes, 25 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical manuals
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs
Sale catalogs
Technical drawings
Date:
circa 1880-1950
Summary:
The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935. The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.
Scope and Contents:
The materials accumulated in this collection represent the overriding collecting passion of one individual, George H. Clark. The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935.

The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.

In particular, the collection is rich in biographical information on the men who developed the technical aspects of radio and the industry; information on the inception, growth, and activities of radio companies, most notably the National Electric Signaling Company and RCA; and in photographs of all aspects of Radioana.

While most materials document technical aspects of radio, there is much information (e.g. Series 109, 134) on broadcasting and on the early history of television.

The collection, housed in over 700 boxes (about 276 linear feet), was organized into 259 numbered "classes" or series by Clark. Sixty series numbers were never used or were eliminated by Clark and combined with other series. The unused numbers are scattered throughout the filing system. The collection also includes material from series that were eliminated. These materials were never reclassified and are included as an unprocessed series at the end of the series descriptions. The collection also contains material that was never assigned a "class" designation by Clark (Lettered Series: D, E, F, G, H).

The arrangement of the collection is Clark's own; his adaptation of the Navy filing system he helped devise in 1915. Clark periodically revised the filing system and reclassified items within it.

Clark assigned class numbers to types of equipment (e.g. broadcast receivers), systems (impulse-excited transmitters and systems), scientific theories (circuit theory), and topics (company history, biography). Box 1 contains descriptions of the classification system.

When Clark classified an item and filed it he also assigned a serial number. This classification begins with 1 (or 1A) for the first item in the class and continues with successive numbers as items were added. As a consequence, the order of individual items within a series reflects the order in which Clark filed them, not any logical relationship between the items. Clark created cross references for items dealing with more than one subject by making notations on blank sheets of paper placed in related series.

Clark made cross references between series when there was no logical relationship between them; that is, when a person using the collection would not normally look in the series. For example no cross reference would be made of an engineer from series 87 (portraits) to series 4 (biography), but one would be made from series 87 to series 142 (history of television) if the item showed the engineer, say, working on a television installation.

Clark created the insignia "SRM" as the sign on the bottom of all sheets of paper numbered by him for binding. SRM stood for Smithsonian Radio Museum. This replaced the earlier though not greatly used sign "CGM." For a time about 1930, the class number on each sheet was preceded by these: "C.G.M.", for Clark, Martin, and Goldsmith, the earliest contributors to what would become the Clark Radioana Collection. After about 1933-34 Clark used C.W.C. for Clark Wireless Collection.

There are many photographs located in most series throughout the collection. But there are also three exclusive photographic series. Lettered series A, B, C. See index; and also series descriptions under lettered series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 223 series.

Numbered Series 1-233:

Series 1, Library Operating System, 1915-1950

Series 2, Apparatus Type Numbers, 1916-1931

Series 3, Photographic Lists, 1925-1928

Series 4, Biographies of Radio Personages, Technical Index to Correspondents in Series 4

Series 5, History of Radio Companies, 1895-1950

De Forest Radio Company, 1905-1930s

Jenkins Televsion Corporation, 1924-1931

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, 1908-1929

National Electric Signaling Company, 1896-1941

Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, 1906-1929

Radio Corporation of America, 1895-1950

Series 6, Shore Stations, 1900-1940

Series 7, Marine Stations, 1900-1930s

Series 8, Broadcasting Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 9, Amateur Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 10, Miscellaneous Information, 1911-1914

Series 11, Radio Antiques, 1921-1938

Series 13, Specifications of Radio Apparatus, 1910s-1930s

Series 14, General History, 1899-1950s

Series 15, Radio Companies Catalogues & Bound Advertisements, 1873-1941

Series 16, Log Books, 1902-1923

Series 17, Radio Companies' House Organs, 1896-1942

Series 18, Prime Movers, 1904-1911

Series 19, Batteries, 1898-1934

Series 20, Rectifiers, 1875-1935

Series 21, Motor Generators, 1898-1936

Series 22, Nameplates of Apparatus, 1928

Series 23, Switchboards and Switchboard Instruments, 1910-1935

Series 24, Radio Frequency Switches, 1905-1905-1933

Series 25, Transmitter Transformers, 1893-1949

Series 26, Operating Keys, 1843-1949

Series 27, Power Type Interrupters, 1902-1938

Series 28, Protective Devices, 1910-1925

Series 30, Message Blanks, 1908-1938

Series 31, Transmitter Condensers, 1849-1943

Series 32, Spark Gaps, 1905-1913

Series 33, Transmitter Inductances, 1907-1922

Series 34, Transmitter Wave Changers, 1907-1924

Series 37, ARC Transmitters, 1907-1940

Series 38, Vacuum Tube Type of Radio Transmitter, 1914-1947

Series 39, Radio Transmitter, Radio-Frequency, Alternator Type, 1894-1940

Series 41, Vacuum Tubes, Transmitting Type, 1905-1948

Series 43, Receiving Systems, 1904-1934

Series 45, Broadcast Receivers, 1907-1948

Series 46, Code Receivers, 1902-1948

Series 47, Receiving Inductances, 1898-1944

Series 48, Receiving Condensers, 1871-1946

Series 49, Audio Signal Devices, 1876-1947

Series 50, Detectors, 1878-1944

Series 51, Amplifiers, 1903-1949

Series 52, Receiving Vacuum Tubes, 1905-1949

Series 53, Television Receivers, 1928-1948

Series 54, Photo-Radio Apparatus, 1910-1947

Series 59, Radio Schools, 1902-1945

Series 60, Loudspeakers, 1896-1946

Series 61, Insulators, 1844-1943

Series 62, Wires, 1906-1945

Series 63, Microphones, 1911-1947

Series 64, Biography, 1925-1948

Series 66, Antennas, 1877-1949

Series 67, Telautomatics, 1912-1944

Series 69, Direction Finding Equipment, Radio Compasses, 1885-1948

Series 71, Aircraft Transmitters, 1908-1947

Series 72, Field or Portables Transmitters, 1901-1941

Series 73, Mobile Radio Systems, 1884-1946

Series 74, Radio Frequency Measuring Instruments, 1903-1946

Series 75, Laboratory Testing Methods and Systems, 1891-1945

Series 76, Aircraft Receivers, 1917-1941

Series 77, Field Portable Receivers, 1906-1922

Series 78, Spark Transmitter Assembly, 1909-1940

Series 79, Spark Transmitter System, 1900-1945

Series 82, Firsts in Radio, undated

Series 85: Distance Records and Tests, 1898-1940

Series 87, Photographs of Radio Executives, and Technical Types, 1857-1952

Series 90, Radio Terms, 1857-1939

Series 92, Static Patents and Static Reducing Systems, 1891-1946

Series 93, Low Frequency Indicating Devices, 1904-1946

Series 95, Articles on Radio Subjects, 1891-1945

Series 96, Radio in Education, 1922-1939

Series 98, Special Forms of Broadcasting, 1921-1943

Series 99, History of Lifesaving at Sea by Radio, 1902-1949

Series 100, History of Naval Radio, 1888-1948

Series 101, Military Radio, 1898-1946

Series 102, Transmitting & Receiving Systems, 1902-1935

Series 103, Receiving Methods, 1905-1935

Series 108, Codes and Ciphers, 1894-1947

Series 109, Schedules of Broadcasting & TV Stations, 1905-1940

Series 112, Radio Shows and Displays, 1922-1947

Series 114, Centralized Radio Systems, 1929-1935

Series 116, United States Government Activities in Radio, 1906-1949

Series 117, Technical Tables, 1903-1932

Series 120, Litigation on Radio Subjects, 1914-1947

Series 121, Legislation, 1914-1947

Series 122, History of Radio Clubs, 1907-1946

Series 123, Special Applications of Radio Frequency, 1924-1949

Series 124, Chronology, 1926-1937

Series 125, Radio Patents & Patent Practices, 1861-1949

Series 126, Phonographs, 1894-1949

Series 127, Piezo Electric Effect, 1914-1947

Series 128, ARC Transmitting & Reciving Systems, 1904-1922

Series 129, Spark Systems, 1898-1941

Series 130, Vacuum Tubes Systems, 1902-1939

Series 132, Radiophone Transmitting & Receiving System, 1906-1947

Series 133, Photo-Radio, 1899-1947

Series 134, History of Radio Broadcasting, 1908-

Series 135, History of Radiotelephony, Other Than Broadcasting

Series 136, History of Amateur Radio

Series 138, Transoceanic Communication

Series 139, Television Transmitting Stations

Series 140, Radio Theory

Series 142, History of Television

Series 143, Photographs

Series 144, Radio Publications

Series 145, Proceedings of Radio Societies

Series 146: Radio Museums

Series 147, Bibliography of Radio Subjects and Apparatus

Series 148, Aircraft Guidance Apparatus

Series 150, Audio Frequency Instruments

Series 151, History of Radio for Aircrafts

Series 152, Circuit Theory

Series 154, Static Elimination

Series 161, Radio in Medicine

Series 162, Lighting

Series 163, Police Radio

Series 169, Cartoons

Series 173, Communications, Exclusive of Radio (after 1895)

Series 174, Television Methods and Systems

Series 182, Military Portable Sets

Series 189, Humor in Radio (see Series 169)

Series 209, Short Waves

Series 226, Radar

Series 233, Television Transmitter

Lettered Series

Series A, Thomas Coke Knight RCA Photographs, circa 1902-1950

Series B, George H. Clark Collection of Photographs by ClassSeries C, Clark Unorganized and/or Duplicate Photographs

Series D, Miscellaneous

Series E, News Clippings Series F: Radio Publications

Series G, Patent Files of Darby and Darby, Attorneys, circa 1914-1935

Series H, Blank Telegram Forms from many Companies and Countries Throughout the World

Series I (eye), Miscellaneous Series

Series J, Research and Laboratory Notebooks

Series K, Index to Photographs of Radio Executives and Technical Types

Series L, Index to Bound Volumes of Photos in Various Series

Series M, Index to David Sarnoff Photographs

Series N, Federal Government Personnel Files

Series O, Addenda Materials
Biographical / Historical:
George Howard Clark, born February 15, 1881, at Alberton, Prince Edward Island, Canada, emigrated to the United States at the age of fourteen. He worked as a railroad telegraph operator for the Boston and Maine Railroad during high school and college. In his unpublished autobiography he wrote:

In 1888, when I was a lad of seven, I suddenly blossomed out as a scrapbook addict, and for years I gave up boyhood games for the pleasure of sitting in a lonely attic and 'pasting up' my books ... By 1897, in high school, I graduated to beautiful pictures, and made many large size scrapbooks ... Around that time, too, I became infatuated with things electrical, and spent many evenings copying in pen and ink the various electrical text books in the Everett, Mass., Public Library. Clark began collecting material pertaining to wireless or radio in 1902. In 1903 he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. During his last year of college he specialized in radio work under the instruction of Professor John Stone Stone and after graduation went to work for Stone's radio company, the Stone Telegraph and Telephone Company, of Boston.

In 1908 Clark took a competitive examination open to all wireless engineers in the United States and entered the civilian service of the Navy. He was stationed at the Washington Navy Yard, with special additional duty at the Navy's Bureau of Steam Engineering and at the National Bureau of Standards.

In 1915 Clark helped devise a classification system for Navy equipment, assigning a code number to each item. This system of classification for blueprints, photographs, reports, and general data, was prepared by Arthur Trogner, Guy Hill, and Clark, all civilian radio experts with the US Navy Department in Washington. In 1918 Clark adopted the 1915 Navy classification system for organizing the radio data he was accumulating. Clark created the term "Radioana" at this time. He began spending his evenings and weekends pasting up his collection and numbering pages. At this time he bound the accumulated material. It totaled 100 volumes.

In July 1919, after resigning from the Navy, Clark joined the engineering staff of the Marconi Telegraph Company of America, which became part of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) later the same year. His first work was at Belmar and Lakewood, New Jersey, assisting the chief engineer, Roy A. Weagant, in his development of circuits to reduce the interference caused by static (static reduction). Clark and his wife were assigned to the unheated Engineer's Cottage. His wife decided not to stay and left for Florida. Clark moved his trunks of wireless material to the heated RCA hotel at Belmar and spent most of the winter "pasting." As Clark mentions, "From that time on I was wedded to scraps."

After a year of work in New Jersey, Clark was assigned to the sales department in New York, where he devised the "type number system" used by RCA. This type number system, for example, gave the designation UV 201 to the company's first amplifier tube.

From 1922 to 1934 Clark was in charge of RCA's newly created Show Division, which held exhibits of new and old radio apparatus at state fairs, department stores, and radio shows. About 1928 Clark started an antique radio apparatus museum for RCA. RCA's board of directors announced:

Recognizing the importance of providing a Museum for the Radio Art to house the rapidly disappearing relics of earlier days, and the desirability of collecting for it without further delay examples of apparatus in use since the inception of radio, the Board of Directors of RCA has made an initial appropriation of $100,000, as the nucleus of a fund for the establishment of a National Radio Museum. A plan for ultimately placing the museum under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution was coupled with the goal of the Institution's gathering the largest possible library of wireless data.

Around 1933 the RCA traveling exhibition program ended and Clark started classifying his collected "radioana" material. The objects of the museum were eventually turned over for exhibit purposes to the Rosenwald Museum in Chicago and the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, when space was not forthcoming at the Smithsonian. A list of objects sent to the two museums (with tag and case numbers) is in Series 1, Box A. The "radioana" collection remained under Clark's care during the 1930s, and became of increasing use to RCA. Clark continued to add to the material.

Between 1934 and 1942 Clark was in court many times regarding patent infringements. Clark's wireless data was useful and he testified frequently, for example, in RCA's suit against the United States in the Court of Claims over the Marconi tuning patents and in the Westinghouse Company's suit against the United States over the heterodyne. Patent specifications and material regarding these and other radio industry suits are found throughout this collection.

In 1946 RCA retired George Clark and denied him space to house his "radioana" collection. Clark wished to remain in New York and house the collection somewhere in the city where it would be open at all times to the public and where it would be maintained. He hoped to continue cataloguing the collection and writing books from its information. He wanted to keep the collection under his control for as long as he was capable of using it.

George H. Clark died in 1956 and his collection was subsequently given to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1959 the collection was given to the Smithsonian's new Museum of History and Technology, where space was available to house it. The collection remained in the Division of Electricity until the spring of 1983 when it was transferred to the Archives Center.
Brief Company Histories From The Radio Industry, 1900-1930s:
Introduction

At the end of the nineteenth century, when Guglielmo Marconi began his first wireless company, Western Union, Postal Telegraph, and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) were the major enterprises in electrical communications. General Electric, Western Electric, and Westinghouse were the major producers of electrical equipment. All these earlier developments set the stage for the expansion of the radio industry.

General Electric, which dominated the lighting industry, was formed in 1892 as a merger of the Edison and Thomson-Houston companies. It was active in building central power station equipment; controlled nearly all the important early patents in electric railways; took a leading part in the introduction of trolley systems; and was the principal supplier of electric motors. Westinghouse promoted the alternating current system and installed the first AC central station in Buffalo, NY, during the winter of 1866-1867. After years of patent litigation, in 1896 GE and Westinghouse agreed to share their patents on electrical apparatus.

American Bell Telephone Company purchased Western Electric in 1881. Western Electric had a strong patent position in telephone equipment and in industrial power apparatus, such as arc lamps, generators, motors, and switchboard equipment.

Until RCA was formed in 1919, these established electrical companies played no active part in the early development of the American radio industry. They were in difficult financial positions, reorganizing, or concentrating their efforts and resources on improving their existing products.

The revolution in "wireless" technology, which began in earnest after 1900, centered in New York City, home of the Lee de Forest and American Marconi companies, and in Boston, headquarters of John Stone Stone and Reginald Fessenden.

Information in this section was compiled from the Clark Collection; the Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry by W. Rupert Maclaurin, Macmillan Company, New York, 1949; and Radio Pioneers, Institute of Radio Engineers, Commemorating the Radio Pioneers Dinner, Hotel Commodore, New York, NY, November 8, 1945.

The De Forest Companies

Lee De Forest (1873-1961), inventor of the three-element vacuum tube or triode (1906) and the feedback circuit, was one of the first Americans to write a doctoral thesis on wireless telegraphy: "The Reflection of Short Hertzian Waves from the Ends of Parallel Wires," Yale University, 1899. The grid-controlled tube or audion of De Forest was first a radio detector, 1906-1907; in 1912 was adapted to an amplifier; and later to an oscillator. When it was perfected as a high vacuum tube, it became the great electronic instrument of electrical communications.

De Forest began work in the Dynamo Department at the Western Electric Company in 1899. Six months later he was promoted to the telephone laboratory. In 1900 De Forest went to work for the American Wireless Telegraph Company where he was able to carry out work on his "responder." However, after three months when De Forest refused to turn over the responder to the company, he was fired.

In the following year De Forest had a number of jobs, was active as an inventor, and created numerous firms to manufacture his inventions. In 1901 De Forest joined with Ed Smythe, a former Western Electric colleague and a collaborator in his research, to found the firm of De Forest, Smythe, and Freeman. Between 1902 and 1906 De Forest took out thirty-four patents on all phases of wireless telegraphy. The responder that he had been working on for so long never proved satisfactory.

The numerous De Forest companies, reflected his many interests and his inability to carry one project through to a conclusion. Unlike Marconi, but similar to Fessenden, De Forest had great inventive skill which resulted in a great number of companies; but none lasted long. The original partnership of 1901 led to the Wireless Telegraph Co. of America (1901), the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (Maine) (1902), and the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (1903), to name a few.

The American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company was incorporated after De Forest met a stock promoter, Abraham White. While many stations were built by this company, many never sent a message due to static interference. In 1907 two speculators from Denver with large holdings of company stock put the company out of business. The assets were sold to a new company that these speculators organized, the United Wireless Telephone Company. De Forest was forced to resign. He took the triode patents with him.

De Forest joined with one of White's stock salesmen, James Dunlop Smith, and together with De Forest's patent attorney, Samuel E. Darby, they formed a new corporation, the De Forest Radio Telephone Company in 1907. This company set out to develop wireless communication by means of the radio telephone.

In January 1910 De Forest staged the first opera broadcast, with Enrico Caruso singing. The Radio Telephone Company went bankrupt in 1911 following an aborted merger with North American Wireless Corporation. In 1913 he reorganized the company as the Radio Telephone and Telegraph Company and began producing the triode.

The Marconi Company brought a patent suit, claiming the triode infringed on the Fleming valve to which it had rights. In 1916 the court decided that Marconi had infringed the three element De Forest patent and that De Forest had infringed the two element Fleming valve. The result was that neither company could manufacture the triode.

In 1920 RCA acquired the De Forest triode rights through cross-licensing agreements with AT&T which had recently purchased the rights to it. De Forest's company was no match for GE, Westinghouse, and RCA. The De Forest Radio Company (1923) went bankrupt in 1928, was reorganized in 1930, and went into receivership in 1933. RCA eventually purchased its assets.

Marconi Companies

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) came from a wealthy and well connected Italian family. He was able to spend his time developing his inventions and following his own course of action. Marconi spent his entire life developing wireless communication into a "practical" reality. In 1905 Marconi invented a directional antenna. In 1909 he shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun the Nobel prize in physics. And in 1912 he invented the time spark system for the generation of continuous waves. The principal patents in his name were improved types of vertical antennas; improved coherer; magnetic detector for the detection of wireless signals; and improvements on methods of selective tuning. Two other inventions of great importance to the Marconi companies' patent structure were the Oliver Lodge tuning patent and the Ambrose Fleming valve.

In 1895 Marconi made the first successful transmission of long wave signals. The following year he met William Preece, engineer-in-chief of the British Post Office, who was interested in inductive wireless telegraphy. This meeting led to the formation in 1897 of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. In 1898 he transmitted signals across the English Channel. In 1899 an American subsidiary was formed. The various Marconi companies were the dominant enterprises in both British and American wireless until 1919 when RCA was formed.

From a business standpoint, wireless did not become profitable until long distance communications were accomplished. On December 12, 1901 in St. John's, Newfoundland, Marconi received a telegraph signal in the form of repetitions of the Morse telegraphic letter "S" transmitted from the Marconi station at Poldhu, Cornwall, England. This success, however, was met by opposition from vested interests, particularly the Anglo-American Telegraph Company whose cables terminated in Newfoundland.

So as not to restrict his company's future to one front alone, Marconi decided to exploit the field of communication with ships at sea. In order to control this field he decided in 1900 to lease his apparatus rather than sell it outright. This strategy did not work. Competition developed in Germany (Telefunken Corporation) and the United States (American De Forest and its successor, United Wireless) and Marconi was forced to sell rather than lease apparatus to the navies of various countries. He nevertheless retained numerous restrictions. This led to further friction. At the height of this debacle English stations worldwide refused to communicate with ships without Marconi equipment. This absurd and dangerous situation had to change and coastal stations opened up to all senders in 1908.

Marconi's system was based on spark technology. He saw no need for voice transmission. He felt the Morse code adequate for communication between ships and across oceans. He, along with most others, did not foresee the development of the radio and the broadcasting industry. He was a pragmatist and uninterested in scientific inquiry in a field where commercial viability was unknown.

For these reasons Marconi left the early experimentation with the radio telephone to others, particularly Lee De Forest and Reginald Fessenden.

National Electric Signaling Company

Canadian-born Reginald Fessenden (1866-1932), one of the principal early radio inventors and the first important inventor to experiment with wireless, left the University of Pittsburgh in 1900 to work for the U.S. Weather Bureau. There he invented the liquid barretter, an early radio receiver, and attempted to work out a means for wireless transmission of weather forecasts. After a squabble over patent rights, Fessenden resigned in 1902.

The National Electric Signaling Company (NESCO), primarily intended to support Fessenden's work on wireless, telegraphy, and telephony, was formed by Fessenden and two Pittsburgh capitalists, Hay Walker, Jr. and Thomas H. Given. It began as an inventor's laboratory and never proved successful as a business venture.

Fessenden recognized that a continuous wave transmission was required for speech and he continued the work of Nikola Tesla, John Stone Stone, and Elihu Thomson on this subject. Fessenden felt he could also transmit and receive Morse code better by the continuous wave method than with a spark-apparatus as Marconi was using.

In 1903 Fessenden's first high-frequency alternator needed for continuous wave transmission was built to his specifications by Charles Steinmetz of GE. In 1906 Fessenden obtained a second alternator of greater power from GE and on Christmas Eve broadcast a program of speech and music. The work on this alternator was given to Ernst F. W. Alexanderson. It took years for Alexanderson to develop an alternator capable of transmitting regular voice transmissions over the Atlantic. But by 1916 the Fessenden-Alexanderson alternator was more reliable for transatlantic communication than the spark apparatus.

Fessenden also worked on continuous-wave reception. This work arose out of his desire for a more effective type of receiver than the coherer, a delicate device that was limited by its sensitivity on a rolling ship at sea. In 1903 he developed a new receiving mechanism - the electrolytic detector.

As his work progressed Fessenden evolved the heterodyne system. However, due to faulty construction and the fact that it was ahead of its time, heterodyne reception was not fully appreciated until the oscillating triode was devised, thus allowing a practical means of generating the local frequency.

Between 1905 and 1913 Fessenden developed a completely self-sustaining wireless system. However, constant quarrels between Fessenden, Walker, and Given culminated in Fessenden's forming the Fessenden Wireless Company of Canada. He felt a Canadian company could better compete with British Marconi. As a result, his backers dismissed Fessenden from NESCO in January of 1911. Fessenden brought suit, won, and was awarded damages. To conserve assets pending appeal, NESCO went into receivership in 1912, and Samuel Kintner was appointed general manager of the company.

In 1917 Given and Walker formed International Signal Company (ISC) and transferred NESCO's patent assets to the new company. Westinghouse obtained majority control of ISC through the purchase of $2,500,000 worth of stock. The company was then reincorporated as The International Radio Telegraph Company. The Westinghouse-RCA agreements were signed in 1921 and International's assets were transferred to RCA.

RCA

The development of the radio industry accelerated after 1912. This was due to several factors, the most important of which was the passage of legislation by the US government requiring ships at sea to carry wireless. This created a market incentive and spurred the growth of the industry. Also, with the outbreak of World War I, the larger electrical companies turned their manufacturing output to radio apparatus, supporting the war effort. Three firms were prominent in this industrial endeavor: AT&T, GE, and Westinghouse.

AT&T's early contributions to this effort centered on their improvements of De Forest's triode, particularly in the evolution of circuits, the redesign of the mechanical structure, and an increase in the plate design. The importation of the Gaede molecular pump from Germany created a very high vacuum. The resulting high-vacuum tube brought the practical aspects of the wireless telephone closer to reality. By August 1915 speech had been sent by land wire to Arlington, Va., automatically picked up there via a newly developed vacuum-tube transmitter, and subsequently received at Darien, Canal Zone. By 1920 AT&T had purchased the rights to the De Forest triode and feedback circuit, and had placed itself in a strong position in the evolution of radio technology.

GE centered its efforts on the alternator, assigning Ernst F. W. Alexanderson to its design, and on further development of vacuum tube equipment for continuous wave telegraph transmission. By 1915 Alexanderson, Irving Langmuir, William D. Coolidge, and others had developed a complete system of continuous wave transmission and reception for GE.

As can be seen, both AT&T and GE were diverting major time and expenditures on vacuum tube research. This inevitably led to patent interferences and consequently, to cross-licensing arrangements.

Westinghouse was not in the strategic position of GE and AT&T. Nevertheless, during the war it did manufacture large quantities of radio apparatus, motors, generators, and rectifiers for the European and American governments. Postwar moves led Westinghouse into full partnership with the other two companies.

By the end of the war, all three companies had committed significant resources to wireless. They were hampered internationally, however, by the Marconi Company's dominant status, and in the United States they were blocked by opposing interests with control of key patents.

The US government also was concerned with this lack of solidarity in the wireless industry and over the British domination of the field worldwide. This impasse set a fascinating and complicated stage for the formation of the RCA.

Owen D. Young, legal counselor for GE, was instrumental in breaking the impasse. Through an innovative and far-reaching organizational consolidation, Young was able to persuade British Marconi that persistence in monopoly was a fruitless exercise, because of the strong US government feelings. Marconi, realizing the harm of a potential American boycott, finally agreed to terms. GE purchased the controlling interest in American Marconi, and RCA was formed. Young was made chairman of the board of RCA, while Edwin J. Nally and David Sarnoff of the old American Marconi were appointed president and commercial manager respectively.

On July 1, 1920, RCA signed a cross-licensing agreement with AT&T. The telephone company purchased one half million shares of RCA common and preferred stock for several considerations -- the most important being that all current and future radio patents of the two companies were available to each other royalty-free for ten years. Many provisions of these agreements were ambiguous and led to later squabbles between the RCA partners.

In May 1920 Westinghouse, which had an efficient radio manufacturing organization, formed an alliance with the International Radio and Telegraph Company (NESCO's successor). Westinghouse's part ownership gave them control of Fessenden's patents, particularly continuous-wave transmission and heterodyne transmission. Westinghouse also wisely purchased in October of 1920 Armstrong's patents on the regenerative and superheterodyne circuits -- which also included some of Columbia University professor Michael Pupin's patents. This placed Westinghouse in a strong bargaining position vis-à-vis RCA and in their new consolidated corporation. Westinghouse joined the growing group of radio companies on June 30, 1921. With these mergers, RCA agreed to purchase forty percent of its radio apparatus from Westinghouse and sixty percent from GE.

Through these and other legal arrangements, RCA obtained the rights to over 2,000 patents. These amounted to practically all the patents of importance in the radio science of that day. As a result, other firms in the radio industry, for example, the United Fruit Company and the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, entered into cross-licensing arrangements with RCA.

RCA also made arrangements internationally with the three dominant companies in radio communication in their respective countries. British Marconi, Compagnie Generale de Telegraphie sans fil, and Telefunken. Each corporation was given exclusive rights to use the other companies' patents within their own territories.

The rise of amateur radio in the 1920s and, to a greater extent, the demand for new products by the general public contributed to the rise of the broadcasting industry. This put a strain on the earlier agreements between the major radio corporations and between 1921 and 1928 there was a struggle over patents for control of the evolving medium.

An initial attempt by AT&T to control the broadcasting industry -- using its earlier cross-licensing agreements to manufacture radio telephone transmitting equipment -- began with AT&T's disposal of RCA stock holdings in 1922-1923. It ended in 1926 with a new cross-licensing agreement which gave AT&T exclusive patent rights in the field of public service telephony and gave GE, RCA, and Westinghouse exclusive patent rights in the areas covered by wireless telegraphy, entertainment broadcasting, and the manufacture of radio sets and receiving tubes for public sale.

In 1926 after the agreements were finalized, RCA, GE, and Westinghouse joined forces and established the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Fifty percent of the stock went to RCA, thirty percent to GE, and twenty percent to Westinghouse. The new company was divided into three divisions: the Red, Blue, and Pacific Networks. Independent, competing networks soon emerged. William S. Paley and his family formed the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) in 1927. The Mutual Broadcasting System was formed in 1934.

By 1928 RCA had strong patent positions in all major areas of the radio industry, including the research, development and manufacture of vacuum tubes and speakers. Most small companies entering the industry in the 1920s produced their products based on prior research by others and on expired patents. An RCA license, therefore, was essential for the manufacture of any modern radio set or vacuum tube.

In the late 1920s new developments in the reproduction of sound, produced significant changes in the phonograph industry. Among those new developments were the introduction of the electronic record, and the marketing of the Radiola 104 Loudspeaker in 1926. In 1929 RCA purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company. This changed not only the quality but the sales of the phonograph and the phonograph record. A new entertainment industry was born and an ever-expanding market for consumer products was created with cultural implications that continue today.

Telefunken

German industrialists were eager to break the Marconi Company's monopoly. Although Marconi had patents on his inventions in Germany, the Germans developed a rival system through the Telefunken Corporation, incorporated in 1903, based on the inventions of Professor Ferdinand Braun, Dr. Rudolf Slaby, and Count George von Arco.

Before 1903 the Braun-Siemens and Halske system had been developed by Gesellschaft fur Drahtlose Telegraphie (GFDT). The Slaby-Arco system had been developed by Allgemeine Electrizitats-Gesellschaft. After litigation over patents, the German court handed down a decision in favor of the GFDT. The Kaiser, with national interests in mind, ordered that the rivalry cease. The two systems were amalgamated under GFDT, and became known as the Telefunken.

Chronology of Some Significant Events In The History of The Radio Industry

1895 -- Marconi experiments with Hertz's oscillator and Branley's coherer.

1897 -- In March Marconi demonstrates his wireless system on Salisbury Plain, near London, and files a complete patent specification. In May trials of Marconi's system are made over water between Lavernock and Flatholm, a distance of three miles. On May 13, communication is established between Lavernock Point and Brean Down, a distance of eight miles. German scientist Professor Slaby is present. The first Marconi station is erected at the Needles, Isle of Wight. A distance of fourteen and one-half miles is bridged by wireless. In December the Marconi station at the Needles communicates with a ship eighteen miles at sea.

1898 -- In England Oliver Lodge files a complete specification covering inventions in wireless telegraphy.

1899 -- The New York Herald uses Marconi's wireless telegraphy to report the progress of the International Yacht races between the Columbia and the Shamrock off New York harbor in September. US. Navy vessels make trials of Marconi's wireless telegraph system. The cruiser New York and the battleship Massachusetts are equipped with apparatus. Fessenden develops improvements in methods of wireless telegraph signaling.

1900 -- The Marconi International Marine Communication Company is organized on April 25th in London. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden begins work at the United States Weather Bureau. Over the next two years he invents the liquid barretter, an improved radio receiver.

1901 -- In February on board the SS Philadelphia, Marconi receives wireless signals over a distance of 1,551 miles. In March Marconi wireless telegraph service begins between islands of the Hawaiian group. On December 12, Marconi receives transatlantic signal at St. John's, Newfoundland from Poldhu, Cornwall, England. The Canadian government orders two Marconi telegraph sets for use at coastal points along the Strait of Belle Isle.

1901 -- Fessenden procures US patent no. 706737 for a system of radio signaling employing long waves (low frequency). De Forest develops a system of wireless telegraphy in Chicago. 1903-06 10,000 to 50,000 cycle machines, 1 kW, are developed by Steinmetz and by Alexanderson of GE for Fessenden. 1905 Marconi procures patent number 14788 in England, covering the invention of the horizontal directional antenna.

1906 -- At Brant Rock, Massachusetts, Fessenden employs a generator of one-half kW capacity, operating at 75,000 cycles, for radio purposes. He succeeds in telephoning a distance of eleven miles by means of wireless telephone apparatus.

1907 -- De Forest procures a U. S. patent for an audion amplifier of pulsating or alternating current.

1908 -- Marconi stations in Canada and England are opened for radio telegraph service across the Atlantic. Fessenden constructs a 70,000-cycle alternator with an output of 2.5 kW. at 225 volts, for radio signaling purposes. He reports successful radio telephone tests between Brant Rock and Washington, DC, a distance of 600 miles.

1909 -- US House of Representatives passes the Burke Bill for the compulsory use of radio telegraphy on certain classes of vessels. The United Wireless Telegraph Company and the Radio Telephone Company of New York (De Forest and Stone systems) begin the erection of radio stations in the Central and Western states. Marconi shares with Ferdinand Braun of Germany the Nobel prize in recognition of contributions in wireless telegraphy.

1910 -- An act of the US government requires radio equipment and operators on certain types of passenger ships. The Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Marconi station is opened in September. This station communicates with Clifden, Ireland. The transatlantic tariff is seventeen cents a word.

1911 -- A radio section is organized by the US Department of Commerce to enforce the provisions of national radio legislation. Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company acquires the Lodge-Muirhead patents.

1912 -- Rotary gap is used with Fessenden 100 kW 500 cycle spark set at NAA, the Navy's first high-power station at Arlington, Virginia. Marconi Wireless of America acquires property of the United Wireless Telegraph Company. British Marconi secures the important radio patents of Bellini and Tosi, Italian inventors. Wreck of the SS Titanic on April 15th. The act of 1910 is extended on July 23 to cover cargo vessels. requires an auxiliary source of power on ships and two or more skilled radio apparatus operators on certain types of passenger ships. On August 13, an act provides for licensing radio operators and transmitting stations.

1912-1913 -- High vacuum amplifying tubes (an improvement on De Forest's), using the findings of pure science, are produced almost simultaneously in two great industrial laboratories, by Dr. H. D. Arnold of AT&T and Irving Langmuir of GE.

1915 -- De Forest Ultra-audion three-step (cascade) audio amplifier is announced and introduced into practice.

1916 -- GE and the Western Electric Company develop the first experimental vacuum tube radiotelephone systems for the Navy.

1917-1918 -- First production of vacuum tubes in quantity, both coated filament and tungsten filament types, by Western Electric Company and GE.

1918 -- Lloyd Espenschied procures US patent number 1,256,889 for the invention of a duplex radio telegraph system. (See Lloyd Espenschied Papers, Archives Center, NMAH, Collection #13.) The House of Representatives passes a resolution on July 5, authorizing the President to take over management of telegraph and telephone systems due to war conditions.

1919 -- Bills are introduced in Congress for permanent government control of radio stations. The widespread resentment of amateurs has more to do with the defeat of these bills than the objections of commercial companies. Roy Alexander Weagant, New York, reports having developed means of reducing disturbances to radio reception caused by atmospherics or static. This is the first successful static-reducing system. GE purchases the holdings of the British Marconi Company in the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, the name of the latter company being changed to Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in October. Edward J. Nally is elected president of the new company.

1920 -- E. F. W. Alexanderson is appointed Chief Engineer of RCA. RCA begins the installation of 200-kW Alexanderson alternators at Bolinas, California, and Marion, Massachusetts. The Tropical Radio Telegraph Company, a subsidiary of the United Fruit Company, New York, operates ten long-distance radio stations at points in Central and South Americirca RCA purchases 6,000 acres at Rocky Point, Long Island, New York, and begins erection of a Radio Central station, comprising a number of operating units for communication with European stations and stations in South Americirca On May 15, RCA inaugurates radio telegraph services between installations at Chatham and Marion, Massachusetts, and stations at Stavanger and Jaerobe, Norway. Westinghouse Company's radio station KDKA, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, broadcasts returns of the national elections, November 2. Development, design, and manufacture by GE of the early receiving and transmitting tubes made available to the public by RCA (UV-200,201,202). Radio telegraph stations and properties taken over by the government under war time powers are returned to their owners at midnight, February 29. The government calls for bids for the sale of large quantities of surplus radio and telegraph and telephone apparatus purchased for war needs and not used.

1921 -- RCA develops Vacuum tubes UV-200(detector) and UV-201(amplifier) -- both triodes with brass shells known as the UV base, and incorporating a filament that required 1 ampere at 5 volts for operation -- for storage battery operation; and at the same time also released to the public the WD-11 for dry cell operation, which employed an oxide-coated tungsten filament. RCA station at Rocky Point, Long Island, opens on November 5. WJZ station established by the Westinghouse Company in Newark, NJ. RCA broadcast station at Roselle Park, NJ (WDY) opens on December 15. It continues operation until February 15, 1922, when its operation is transferred to WJZ, Newark, previously owned by Westinghouse. RCA installs 200-kW alternator at Tuckerton, NJ.

1922 -- First use of tube transmitters by RCA for service from the United States to England and Germany. RCA begins substitution of tube transmitters on ships to replace spark sets. RCA begins replacement of crystal receivers by tube receivers on ships.

1923 -- Broadcast stations WJZ and WJY opened in New York in May by RCA. WRC opens in Washington on August 1. The UV-201A, receiving tubes developed by GE and consuming only 1/4 of an ampere are introduced by RCA. Tungsten filaments coated and impregnated with thorium were employed.

1924 -- Edwin H. Armstrong, demonstrates the superheterodyne receiver on March 6th. In November RCA experiments with radio photographs across the Atlantic. RCA markets the superheterodyne receivers for broadcast reception.

1925-26 -- Dynamic loudspeakers introduced. Magnetic pick-up phonograph recording and reproduction developed. RCA opens radio circuit to Dutch East Indies. Direction-finders introduced on ships.

1927 -- Fully self-contained AC radio receivers introduced.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Smithsonian in 1959.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection remains unprocessed and is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Electric engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Radio -- History  Search this
Electricity -- 1880-1950  Search this
Communication -- 1880-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical manuals -- Electrical equipment
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Sale catalogs -- Electrical equipment -- 1880-1950
Technical drawings
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0055
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep833dbe2b0-891b-4411-a413-3b4b1e3306ad
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0055
Online Media:

Grace Nicholson: Inventories and Clippings

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Director:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Container:
Box 262A, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1928 - 1968
Restrictions:
Image number 011 "Holiday Handcraft" has been removed from the slideshow due to culutral sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a322f6cb-5196-43ba-a2f9-d7bc7ada72a1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref14859
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Annual Reports

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Director:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Container:
Box 404, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1917 - 1920
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 12: Publications / 12.1: Annual Reports
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv47d653f6c-cdf9-45cd-9231-bc116ffdeaea
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref15240
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  • View Annual Reports digital asset number 1
  • View Annual Reports digital asset number 2

Annual Reports

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Director:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Container:
Box 404, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1921 - 1924
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 12: Publications / 12.1: Annual Reports
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4fa3c7756-911e-471c-9d6d-53a7a94bf6be
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref15241
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  • View Annual Reports digital asset number 1

Theodore DeBooy

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Director:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Biographical / Historical:
Theodore de Booy (1882-1919) was one of the original members of George Gustav Heye's scientific staff who fanned out across the Western Hemisphere to collect American Indian specimens. De Booy was born in Hellevoetsluis, Netherlands. He came to the United States in 1906 when he was 24 years old. His interest in antiquities was piqued on a trip to the Bahama Islands in 1911. While there he explored several caves and mounds and, on his return to the United States, published an article in the American Anthropologist entitled, "Lucayan Remains on the Caicos Islands." De Booy joined the staff of the Heye Museum as a field explorer working in the West Indies, in 1912. Over the next six years, until 1918, De Booy undertook a number of archaeological expeditions for Heye. He conducted excavations in the Bahamas, Jamaica, Santo Domingo, on the island of Saona, Cuba, the island of Margarita in Venezuela, and in Trinidad. After leaving Heye's employ, de Booy worked for a short time at the University of Pennsylvania Museum and then joined the State Department Inquiry, as a specialist for South America. De Booy died in Yonkers, New York at the age of 37. He was a victim of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv43b736ab5-f965-4884-b175-6825e28ad7e0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref15731

Division of Archaeology Miscellaneous Photographs

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Department of Anthropology Division of Archeology  Search this
Jochelson, Waldemar I.  Search this
Bernheimer, Charles L.  Search this
Colburn, Burnham S.  Search this
Featherstonehaugh, Thomas  Search this
Geist, Otto William  Search this
Hill, A. T.  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Langford, George Langford  Search this
Montgomery, Henry  Search this
Moore, Clarence B. (Clarence Bloomfield), 1852-1936  Search this
Pittier, Henri F.  Search this
Stebbins, F. B.  Search this
Artex, Charles Artes (archeological collector)  Search this
Beckwith, C. W.  Search this
Branch, C. W.  Search this
Hempstead, F. S.  Search this
Pillars, James  Search this
Price, Governor  Search this
Squier, Ephraim George  Search this
Davis, Edwin Hamilton  Search this
Riaboushinsky Expedition. Ethnological Section  Search this
Collector:
Colburn, Burnham S.  Search this
Photographer:
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Matteson, Sumner W.  Search this
Mearns, Edgar S.  Search this
Mindeleff, Victor, 1860-1948  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Names:
Wetherill, Richard -- Mancos Canyon, Colorado  Search this
Extent:
1,600 Items
Culture:
Tlingit -- burials  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Unangan (Aleut)  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives
Photomechanical prints
Tintypes
Drawings
Clippings
Notes
Letters
Place:
Massachusetts -- Dighton Rock
Alabama -- 1931 -- Moundville
Alabama -- Archeology
Alaska -- Archeology
Arizona -- Archeology
Arkansas -- Archeology
California -- Archeology
Colorado -- Archeology
Connecticut -- Archeology
Delaware -- Archeology
Florida -- Archeology
Georgia -- Archeology
Illinois -- Archeology
Indiana -- Archeology
Iowa -- Archeology
Kansas -- Archeology
Kentucky -- Archeology
Maryland -- Archeology
Maine -- Archeology
Massachusetts -- Archeology
Michigan -- Archeology
Minnesota -- Archeology
Mississippi -- Archeology
Missouri -- Archeology
Nebraska -- Archeology
Nevada -- Archeology
New Jersey -- Archeology
New Mexico -- Archeology
New York (State) -- Archeology
North Carolina -- Archeology
North Dakota -- Archeology
Ohio -- Archeology
Oklahoma -- Archeology
Oregon -- Archeology
Pennsylvania -- Archeology
South Carolina -- Archeology
Tennessee -- Archeology
Texas -- Archeology
Utah -- Archeology
Virginia -- Archeology
Washington -- Archeology
Costa Rica -- Archeology
British Columbia -- Antiquities
Canada -- Archeology
New Zealand -- Archeology
Nova Scotia -- Archeology
Pacific Islanders -- Archeology
West Indies -- Archeology
Date:
1870s-1930s
Scope and Contents:
The material consists mostly of photographic prints. A few negatives, photomechanical prints, tintypes, drawings, newspaper clippings, notes, and letters are also included. Much of the material is annotated. In part, the file was assembled for or relates to many accessions and cataloging units of the division.

The material was received from professionals and amateurs, mostly working in North America. The images are of artifactual and skeletal specimens, fradulent specimens, collections of specimens, sites, excavations, site features, ruins, petroglyphs, and field parties. A few are reproductions of maps and portraits of native people. Some of the specimens are in the Smithsonianʹs collections, but many are not.

Included among the many subjects are photographs of Dighton Rock in Massachusetts; many ruins of the 1931 Moundville, Alabama, excavation; Tlingit burial boxes; excavations, specimens, and Aleut portraits taken by Waldemar I. Jochelsonʹs Ethnological Section of the Riaboushinsky Expedition, 1909-1912; Richard Wetherillʹs party in Mancos Canyon, Colorado, and F. S. Hempsteadʹs Archaeological and Topographic Map of Portsmouth," [Ohio].

Some of the material relates to the work of Charles L. Bernheimer in Utah, Burnham S. Colburn in Georgia and North Carolina, Thomas Featherstonehaugh in Florida, Otto William Geist in Alaska, A. T. Hill in Nebraska, Walter Hough in Arizona (for the Gates-United States National Museum Expedition, 1901), George Langford in Illinois, Henry Montgomery in North Dakota, Clarence B. Moore in Florida, Henri F. Pittier in Costa Rica, and F. B. Stebbins in Tennessee. Collections are those of Charles Artes (filed Indiana), Thomas Beckwith (filed Missouri), C. W. Branch (filed West Indies), Burham S. Colburn Cherokee relics (filed North Carolina), James Pillars (filed Ohio), Governor Price (frauds from New Mexico), Ephraim George Squier and Edwin Hamilton Davis (filed Ohio).

The material is from Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas Utah, Virginia, Washington, Costa Rica, British Columbia, Canada, New Zealand, Nova Scotia, South Pacific, and West Indies.

The works of many photographers are included. Among them are John K. Hillers, William Henry Jackson, Sumner W. Matteson, Edgar A. Mearns, Victor Mindeleff, and Timothy H. OʹSullivan.
Arrangement:
(1) Frauds; (2) petroglyphs (3) general
Topic:
Archeology -- artifacts -- skeletal specimens -- frauds -- collection -- sites -- Excavations -- Petroglyphs  Search this
Archeology -- frauds -- New Mexico  Search this
Archeology -- Alabama  Search this
Archeology -- Arizona  Search this
Archeology -- Alaska  Search this
Archeology -- Arkansas  Search this
Archeology -- California  Search this
Archeology -- Colorado  Search this
Archeology -- Connecticut  Search this
Archeology -- Delaware  Search this
Archeology -- Florida  Search this
Archeology -- Georgia  Search this
Archeology -- Illinois  Search this
Archeology -- Indiana  Search this
Archeology -- Iowa  Search this
Archeology -- Kansas  Search this
Archeology -- Kentucky  Search this
Archeology -- Maryland  Search this
Archeology -- Maine  Search this
Archeology -- Massachusetts  Search this
Archeology -- Michigan  Search this
Archeology -- Minnesota  Search this
Archeology -- Mississippi  Search this
Archeology -- Missouri  Search this
Archeology -- Nebraska  Search this
Archeology -- Nevada  Search this
Archeology -- New Jersey  Search this
Archeology -- New Mexico  Search this
Archeology -- Archeology  Search this
Archeology -- North Carolina  Search this
Archeology -- North Dakota  Search this
Archeology -- Ohio  Search this
Archeology -- Oklahoma  Search this
Archeology -- Oregon  Search this
Archeology -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Archeology -- South Carolina  Search this
Archeology -- Texas  Search this
Archeology -- Utah  Search this
Archeology -- Virginia  Search this
Archeology -- Washington  Search this
Archeology -- Costa Rica  Search this
Archeology -- British Columbia  Search this
Archeology -- Canada  Search this
Archeology -- New Zealand  Search this
Archeology -- Nova Scotia  Search this
Archeology -- Oceania  Search this
Archeology -- West Indies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Negatives
Photomechanical prints
Tintypes
Drawings
Clippings
Notes
Letters
Citation:
Photo lot 40, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.40
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3413cc2cb-bf9c-41d2-bd29-5e2c850d63d9
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-40

Farman Sport

Manufacturer:
Henri Farman  Search this
Maurice Farman  Search this
Materials:
Wood and fabric monoplane
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 7 m (23 ft 3 in)
Length: 6 m (20 ft)
Height: 2.3 m (7 ft 6 in)
Weight, empty: 294 kg (649 lb)
Weight, gross: 462 kg (1,202 lb)
Top Speed: 140 km/h (87 mph)
Engine: Anzani 50 hp
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
France
Date:
1924
Credit Line:
Gift of Ken Hyde
Inventory Number:
A19820416000
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Exhibit Station:
Pre-1920 Aviation
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9afed4fff-b38a-4c89-b996-f3eb9a397881
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19820416000
Online Media:

Photograph collection relating to archeology, burial mounds, and the Southwest

Photographer:
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Milner, James W.  Search this
Mindeleff, Cosmos, 1863-  Search this
Mindeleff, Victor, 1860-1948  Search this
Rennick, L. C. (Leverett C.), 1887-1953  Search this
Artist:
Rogers, W. A. (William Allen), 1854-1931  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving
1 Print (platinum)
18 Prints (silver gelatin)
38 Prints (albumen)
Culture:
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Engravings
Prints
Place:
Pennsylvania -- Antiquities
West Virginia -- Antiquities
Louisiana -- Antiquities
Alabama -- Antiquities
Chelly, Canyon de (Ariz.)
Zuni Indian Reservation (N.M.)
Wyoming -- Antiquities
Date:
circa 1880s-1920s
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs relating to archeology, most of which were made by Bureau of American Ethnology photographers and ethnologists. Much of the collection consists of photographs by Cosmos and Victor Mindeleff of Southwest pueblos. Images depict mounds and excavations (including Grant Mound in Pennsylvania and additional mounds in West Virginia, Alabama, Louisiana, and elsewhere); Hopi Sipaulovi village; petroglyphs in Wind River, Wyoming; ancient artifacts; Standing Rock; Tohono O'odham Indians; Canyon de Chelly; and Clear Creek. Photographers represented include John K. Hillers; C. H. Bryan of Mt. Sterling, Kentucky; the Mindeleff brothers; Henry Bascom Collins; L. C. Rennick; J. W. Milner; Hattons Studio in Lansing, Michigan; and a drawing by W. A. Rogers.

Collection may contain images of human remains.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 28
Location of Other Archival Materials:
William Dinwiddie photographs documenting Papago Indians, previously filed in Photo Lot 28, have been relocated to National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 89.
Additional Mindeleff photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 4362, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 78, and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Hillers photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 143, Photo Lot 83-18, Photo Lot 87-2N, Photo Lot 90-1, Photo Lot 92-46, and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Collins photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 82-23, Photo Lot 86-42, Photo Lot 86-43, and Photo Lot 86-59.
See others in:
Photograph collection relating to archeology, burial mounds, and the Southwest, 1880s-1920s
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Mounds  Search this
Pueblos  Search this
Petroglyphs  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 28, Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to archeology and burial mounds, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.28
See more items in:
Photograph collection relating to archeology, burial mounds, and the Southwest
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw38f9b918d-c94d-405c-9868-c1d09a537eba
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-28

John Lawrence Angel papers

Correspondent:
Fenton, William N. (William Nelson), 1908-2005  Search this
Blegan, Carl W.  Search this
Blumberg, Baruch  Search this
Boaz, Noel T.  Search this
Bonin, Gerhardt von  Search this
Borst, Lyle B.  Search this
Bostanci, Enver  Search this
Boulter, Cedric  Search this
Bouton, Katherine  Search this
Auel, Jean M.  Search this
Aufderheide, Arthur C.  Search this
Bird, Junius  Search this
Birdsell, Joseph B.  Search this
Bisel, Sara C.  Search this
Bishop, Philip W.  Search this
Blackburn, Tucker  Search this
Blakely, Robert L.  Search this
Brooks, Sheilagh T.  Search this
Broneer, Oscar  Search this
Brown, Thorton  Search this
Brothwell, Donald R.  Search this
Brozek, Josef  Search this
Brownstein, Elizabeth S.  Search this
Bruch, Hilde  Search this
Bruce-Chwatt, L.J.  Search this
Brace, C. Loring  Search this
Boyd, William C.  Search this
Brett-Smith, Sarah  Search this
Breitinger, Emil  Search this
Brieger, Heinrich  Search this
Brew, J. O. (John Otis), 1906-1988  Search this
Brodkin, Henry A.  Search this
Briggs, Lloyd Cabot  Search this
Cappieri, Mario  Search this
Carpenter, Rhys  Search this
Campbell, T.N.  Search this
Canby, Courtlandt  Search this
Caskey, John L.  Search this
Cavalli-Saforz, L.L.  Search this
Carter, George F.  Search this
Carter, L. Clyde  Search this
Buettner-Janusch, John, 1924-1992  Search this
Buikstra, Jane E.  Search this
Brues, Alice M.  Search this
Buck, Rodger L.  Search this
Caldwell, Margaret Catherine  Search this
Campbell, John M.  Search this
Burdo, Christopher  Search this
Burns, Peter E.  Search this
Chardin, P. Teilhard de  Search this
Chapman, Florence E.  Search this
Clark, George Arthur  Search this
Chiarelli, B.  Search this
Chattopadhyay, Prasanta Kumar  Search this
Chase, George H.  Search this
Cobb, W. Montague  Search this
Cobb, Stanley  Search this
Clement, Paul A.  Search this
Clark, Grahame  Search this
Coleman, John E.  Search this
Cockburn, Thomas Aidan, 1912-1981  Search this
Cockburn, Eve  Search this
Conant, James B.  Search this
Conant, Francis P.  Search this
Comas, Juan, 1900-1979  Search this
Colt, H. Dunscombe  Search this
Beardsley, Richard K. (Richard King), 1918-1978  Search this
Becker, Howard  Search this
Bear, John C.  Search this
Beardsley, Grace  Search this
Beilicki, Tadeusz  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Becker, Marshall Joseph  Search this
Becker, R. Frederick  Search this
Bennett, Linda A.  Search this
Benoist, Jean  Search this
Bennett, George A.  Search this
Bennett, Kenneth A.  Search this
Betsch, William F.  Search this
Charles, Robert P.  Search this
Benson, John L.  Search this
Berger, Susanne  Search this
Adelmann, Howard B.  Search this
Ackerknecht, Erwin H.  Search this
Allison, Marvin J.  Search this
Ahlborn, Richard E., 1933-2015  Search this
Anderson, James E.  Search this
Anderson, Harriet  Search this
Ayers, Hester Merwin, 1902-1975  Search this
Angel, Elizabeth  Search this
Bach, Julian S.  Search this
Baby, Raymond S.  Search this
Baker, Paul T.  Search this
Bakalakis, George  Search this
Barnicot, N.A.  Search this
Ballard, Mary W.  Search this
Bastian, Tyler  Search this
Bass, William Martston  Search this
Armstrong, P. Livingstone  Search this
Armelagos, George J.  Search this
Arensburg, Baruch  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Angel, Steven  Search this
Angel, Margaret  Search this
Angel, J. Lawrence (John Lawrence)  Search this
Angel, Henry  Search this
Aberle, Donald F.  Search this
Acheson, Roy  Search this
Eisenhart, Luther P.  Search this
Elderkin, Roland D.  Search this
El-Najjar, Mahmoud Y.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Eiben, O.G.  Search this
Ehrich, Robert W.  Search this
Dupree, Louis Benjamin  Search this
Dupertuis, C. Wesley  Search this
Edwards, Roger  Search this
Eberhart, Sylvia  Search this
Dow, Sterling  Search this
Domurad, Melodie R.  Search this
Duong, Chho L.  Search this
Dunn, L.C.  Search this
Ferembach, Denise  Search this
Ferguson, C.L.  Search this
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Fawcett, Don W.  Search this
Fedele, Francesco G.  Search this
Fejos, Paul, 1897-1963  Search this
Felts, William J.L.  Search this
Fairservis, Walter Ashlin, 1921-1994  Search this
Farfan, Harry F.  Search this
Farrell, Corinne  Search this
Fitzhugh, William W., 1943-  Search this
Farris, Edmond J.  Search this
Ely, John  Search this
Endicott, Kenneth M.  Search this
Eyman, Charles E.  Search this
Danson, Edward B.  Search this
Danby, Patricia M.  Search this
Damon, Albert  Search this
Dahlgerg, Albert A.  Search this
Cutter, Margot  Search this
Cummins, Harold, 1893-1976  Search this
Crawford, Michael H.  Search this
Cowan, Richard S., 1921-1997  Search this
Courbain, Paul  Search this
Count, Earl W.  Search this
Corwin, Arthur H.  Search this
Corruccini, Robert S.  Search this
Cook, Della Collins  Search this
Constantoulis, Nestor C.  Search this
Constable, Giles  Search this
Dinsmoor, William B.  Search this
Dobzhansky, Theodosius  Search this
Dietz, Soren  Search this
Dikaios, Porphyrios  Search this
Desmond, Waldo Fairfield  Search this
Dibennardo, Robert  Search this
DePalma, Anthony F.  Search this
Derousseau, C. Jean  Search this
Deflakis, Evangelia Protonotariou  Search this
Demerec, M.  Search this
De Villiers, Hertha  Search this
De Vries, Keith  Search this
De Lumley, Henry  Search this
De Vasto, Michael A.  Search this
Daux, Georges  Search this
Davis, Jefferson D.  Search this
Coon, Carleton S. (Carleton Stevens), 1904-1981  Search this
Fox, Dorothy  Search this
Foster, Giraud V.  Search this
Forziati, Florence H.  Search this
Fiske, Barbara  Search this
Finkel, David J.  Search this
Fierro, Marcella F.  Search this
Forde, Cyril Daryll, 1902-  Search this
Flick, John B.  Search this
Flander, Louise  Search this
Field, Henry  Search this
Evans, Clifford, Jr.  Search this
Ford, James Alfred, 1911-1968  Search this
Creator:
United States. Department of the Interior  Search this
Ashley-Montagu, Montague Francis  Search this
Angel, J. Lawrence (John Lawrence)  Search this
Eiseley, Loren C., 1907-1977  Search this
Edynak, Gloria Jean  Search this
United States. Department of the Navy  Search this
United States. Dept. of State  Search this
United States. Department of Commerce  Search this
United States. War Department  Search this
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Names:
American Academy of Forensic Sciences  Search this
American Anthropological Association  Search this
American Association for the Advancement of Science  Search this
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Extent:
70 Linear feet (Approximately 70 linear feet of textual materials and over 30,000 photographic items.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1930s-1980s
Summary:
The papers of John Lawrence Angel present a complete portrait of the professional life of one of the most important and influential physical anthropologists in the United States. Angel was best known for his work with cultures in the eastern Mediterranean and for his work in forensic anthropology; but his contributions were widespread. His influence was felt in studies of human microevolution, the relationship between environment and disease, human evolution, and paleopathology. His research was said to be ten years ahead of its time.

The papers include correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the time; honors and awards bestowed on Angel; materials on Angel's educational career, both as an undergraduate and as a teacher; extensive photographs; a virtually complete collection of his writings; materials concerning his research and his work in forensic anthropology; and his activities in professional organizations. The bulk of the papers reflect Angel's life-long interest in examining the relationship between culture and biology in human groups through time. There are a few records on Angel's administrative involvement in the Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum/National Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
Angel began his undergraduate studies at Harvard University in the classics, following in the footsteps of his American mother (who trained as a classicist and was the daughter of a Yale University professor of Greek) and his British father, who was a sculptor. While still an undergraduate, Angel came under the influence of Clyde Kluckhohn, Carleton S. Coon, and Earnest A. Hooton, and his interest turned to anthropology. The combination of anatomy and classicist training developed into a life-long interest and work in the social biology of the peoples of Greece and the Near East.

In addition to his work in Greece and the Near East, the papers include Angel's studies of American populations of colonial peoples and slaves; his forensic anthropology analyses of skeletal remains for law enforcement groups and the United States military; his studies of obesity and other diseases and the possible genetic link behind them; Angel's analysis of the skeletal remains of James Smithson; his involvement in early reburial issues concerning American Indians, particularly the return of the remains of Captain Jack and other Modocs; and Angel's concern and involvement in civil liberty matters and in community affairs.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
(1) Miscellaneous personal papers, 1933-1986; (2) correspondence, 1936-1986; (3) research in the eastern Mediterranean, 1936-1986; (4) anthropology of chronic disease, 1943-1965; (5) Harvard University-Johns Hopkins University Hospital anthropology study, 1959-1964; (6) five generation study, 1962-1985; (7) skull thickness project, 1968-1976; (8) biological and cultureal microdifferential among rural populations of Yugoslavia, 1981-1986; (9) First African Baptist Church, Philadelphia, 1983-1987; (10) other research projects (bone density change, Catoctin Furnace site, Virginia colonial sites), 1945-1986; (11) education, 1940-1986; (12) legal matters, 1962-1986; (13) reference materials, 1930-1986; (14) writing of J. Lawrence Angel, 1932-1988; (15) Smithsonian Department of Anthropology, Division of Physical Anthropology, 1961-1968; (16) professional organizations and meetings, 1942-1987; (17) writings by other authors, 1950-1985; (18) grants, 1951-1962; (19) miscellany, 1937-1985; (20) photographs, 1936-1986
Biographical Note:
J. Lawrence Angel was educated in the classics in his native England and at The Choate School in Connecticut. He studied anthropology at Harvard University (A.B., 1936; Ph.D., 1942). He was an instructor at the University of California at Berkeley in 1941-1942 and at the University of Minnesota in 1942-1943. In 1943-1962, he was on the staff of the Daniel Baugh Institute of Anatomy at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, starting as an assistant and rsising to a professor. In 1962, he became the curator for physical anthropology in the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Anthropology and continued in that position until he died. Angel was also a research associate with the University Museum of the University of of Pennsylvania, 1946-1962; civil consultant in surgical anatomy of the United States Naval Hospital in Philadelphia, 1957-1962; visiting professor of anatomy, Howard University, 1962-1986; and professorial lecturer at the George Washington University, 1962-1986. He was also a lecturer in forensic pathology at the department of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, and visiting professor at the University of California at Berkeley in 1962.

Angel summarized his research interests as (1) human social biology, involving the "interrrelations of health, disease, body build, longevity, genetic mixture and variability with each other, with climate and ecology, and with level of culture, nutrition and achievement as seen in history, in evolution, or clinically"; (2) palaeodemography as related to the rise and decline of disease (falciparum malaria)"; and (3) "relation of structure to function and to genetic determinants as seen in form of joints and in density, mineral historology and muscularity of bones, or in process of 'arthritic' change in relation to aging."

The single most enduring interest in Angel's career was the pre- and proto-history of the population of Greece and nearby areas of the eastern Mediterranean. Beginning in 1937, Angel made repeated trips to the region, only highlights of which are provided here. In 1938, he studied skeletal material from Troy which W.T. Semple, of the University of Cincinnati had deposited in the Archaeological Museum at Istanbul. In 1938, he studied skeletal material mostly excavated in the area of Corinth. He worked at the Cyprus Museum in 1949, studying skulls from Vasa and skeletal material from Bamboula. During that year, he also studied living people at a Cypriote village. In 1952, he worked with Carleton S. Coon on skeletal material from Hotu Cave. In 1954, he studied materials from the Agora excavations and from Eleusis. During the same year, he also visited the British Museum and many sites in Greece studying Myceanean skeletons excavated by George E. Mylonas, John Papadimitrious, and A.J.B. Wace. In 1954, he again studied skeletal material excavated at Bamboula and, in 1957, skeletons from Eleusis. In 1965, he studied human bones from twenty-two sites in Greece and Turkey that dated from the paleolithic to moderntimes, including material from a Bryan Mawr College excavation at Elmali, an excavation at Karatas-Semeyuk in Lycia, and collections in the Archaeological Museum of Ankara and in the museum at Verroia in Macedonia. In 1969, he worked on material from Kephala, and in 1972, skeletons from Asine in Greece. In 1984, he studied upper paleolithic skeletons from Wadi Kubbaniya.

Angel also carried out work on American populations--prehistoric, historic, and contemporary. In 1944, he worked on skeletal remains from excavations at Tranquillity, California, that were deposited in the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania and in the Museum of Anthropology at the University of California at Berkeley. In the same year, he was one of several researchers involved in an endocrinological, anthropological, and psychological study ofobesity initiatec by the Jefferson School of Medicine.

The first hase of the study lasted until 1948 and was followed by restudy of the subjects in 1954-1957. Around 1959-1961, with Carl Seltzer, he was involved in a study of the relation between constitution and health of students at Harvard University and Johns Hopkins Unviersity, Angel primarily taking care of the work in Baltimore at Johns Hopkins. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, he studied skeletal material from Matin's Hundred and other sites of colonia Virginia which resulted, in part, in comparisons with the modern American population. In the 1980s, with Jennifer O. Kelly, he worked on skeletons of African American slaves from Catoctin Furnace, Maryland, and on remains of free African American from the First African Baptist Church in Philadelphia.

Angle was highly regarded for his keen seight and other senses which he used with great effect in examining human remains. Consequently, he was frequently sought as a consultant and regularly carried out forensic work for the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement authorities. In addition, military authorities, archeologists involved in both the study of history and prehistory, and museum people sent him specimens for examination. At the Smithsonian, he not only used and improved the excellent skeletal collection, he had the opportunity to exmaine the bones of Smithsonian benefactor James Smithson and was involved ine arly studies connected with the return of American Indian skeltal materials to appropriate receipents.

Active with several professional organizations, Angel was president of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society in 1956-1958 and associate editor of the American Anthropologist. In 1952-1956, he was the secretary-treasurer of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and, in 1959-1960, vice president of that organization. In 1952-1956, he was an association editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology. He was president of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1980-1985. For his active professional life, he received the Pomerance Medal of the Archaeological Institute of American in 1983 and the distinguished service medal of the American Anthropological Association in 1986.

1915 -- Born March 21 in London, England to John Angel and Elizabeth Day Seymour.

1928 -- Emigrated to the United States from England.

1934 -- Summer field school, University of New Mexico.

1935 -- Summer field work, Museum of Northern Arizona.

1936 -- A.B., Anthropology, Harvard College; summer field work at the Sante Fe Laboratory of Anthropology (Macon, Georgia expedition).

1937 -- Became a naturalized American citizen, 15 June; married Margaret (Peggy) Seymour Richardson, 1 July.

1937-1939 -- Field work in Greece: worked in Greece from early November 1937 until the end of January 1939 when illness forced his return in April; in the winter of 1937-1938, Angel worked in the American excavations in the Agora at Athens, in the American excavations at Old Corinth, and in the Greek National Museum in Athens; in the spring of 1938, Angel worked in the Greek Anthropological Museum in the Athens University Medical School in Goudi, and at the Agora excavations; from May to June, Angel measured villagers and excavated over 100 burials from the Riverside cemetery under David M. Robinson at the American excavations at Olynthus, Macedonia; Angel then worked in Athens and Corinth for a short time; from July to August Angel worked on skeletons from Troy (which W.T. Semple of the University of Cincinnati had deposited) and Babokoy, Anatolia, as well as on skulls from Nippur and Sidon in the Archeological Museum at Istanbul, Turkey; from mid-August to early September Angel studied skeletal material from southwestern Cephallenia in the museum at Argostoli; Angel then measured skulls in the museum at Thebes and at Schematari (Tanagra) in Boeotia; from October to November Angel studied skulls from Corinth; Angel then returned to Athens to study skeletons from the German excavations at the Kerameikos and the material in the Athens Anthropological Museum and National Museum; in 1939 Angel measured people at the Agora excavations north of the Acropolis and studied skulls excavated by T.L. Shear in Athens and Corinth. During these years, Angel made one day trips to many places, including Nauplia, Tolon, Mycenae, Nemea, Aigosthina, Parnos, Aigina, Marathon, Therikos, and Sounion; support was from traveling fellowships from the departments of Anthropology and Classics of Harvard University, half of a Sheldon fellowship, the Albert and Anna Howard fellowship (Harvard), the Guggenheim Foundation, the Viking Fund, the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, the Jefferson Medical College, and the American Philosophical Society.

1939-1941 -- Assistant in Anthropology, Harvard University.

1940 -- Elected to membership in the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

1941-1942 -- Instructor in Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.

1942 -- Doctor of Philosophy Degree, Anthropology, Harvard University.

1942-1943 -- Instructor in Anthropology, University of Minnesota.

1943-1950 -- Associate, Daniel Baugh Institute of Anatomy of the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia.

1944 -- Studied skeletal remains from excavations at Tranquillity, California, at the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania and in the [Hearst] Museum of Anthropology at the University of California at Berkeley.

1944-1948 -- Research for the anthropological study of chronic disease at the Jefferson Medical College.

1946-1948 -- President, Philadelphia Anthropological Society; Associate Editor, American Anthropologist.

1946-1962 -- Research Associate, University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania-Philadelphia.

1947 -- Organized the Viking Fund summer seminar on growth and evolution.

1949 -- Field work in the Near East: In the spring, studied skulls from Kampi near Vasa in Central Cyprus at the Department of Antiquities museum in Nicosia on a visit to Cyprus and Greece; studied skeletons and living Cypriote villagers at the University of Pennsylvania's Museum headquarters in Episkopi, and skeletal material from Bamboula at the Cyprus Museum; support was from Harvard University, the Guggenheim Foundation (Guggenheim Fellowship), Wenner-Gren Foundation, Viking Fund, American School of Classical Studies, and Jefferson Medical School.

1949-1950 -- President, Philadelphia Society of the Archeological Institute of America.

1950-1951 -- Assistant Professor, Daniel Baugh Institute of Anatomy of the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. 1950-1952

1950-1952 -- Executive Committee member, American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

1951 -- Troy: The Human Remains. Supplemental monograph to Troy excavations conducted by the University of Cincinnati 1932-1938.

1951-1954 -- Associate editor, American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

1951-1962 -- Associate Professor, Daniel Baugh Institute of Anatomy of the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia.

1952 -- Worked with Carleton Coon on skeletal material from Hotu Cave, Iran.

1952-1956 -- Secretary-treasurer, American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

1953-1966 -- Trustee for the Council for Old World Archaeology.

1954 -- Field work in the Near East: visited the British Museum (Natural History); studied skeletal material from Eleusis (Greece), at the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of the University of Athens, and at the Agora Excavations Headquarters; studied Myceanean skeletons (excavated by George E. Mylonas, John Papadimitriou, and A.J.B. Wace), Corinthian skeletons, Bronze Age Lernaean skeletons, and Bronze Age Pylian skeletons; again studied skeletal material excavated at Bamboula; supported by grants from the Harvard graduate school, the American Philosophical Society [Grant No. 1714], and the National Institutes of Health Grant No. A-224, the Jefferson Medical College, the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, and the Agora excavations; helped by Anastasios Pantazopoulous and Nikos Thiraios.

1954-1957 -- Restudy of subjects for the anthropological study of chronic disease originally performed at the Jefferson Medical College from 1944-1948.

1954-1970 -- Associate editor, Clinical Orthopaedics.

1956-1958 -- Council member of the American Society of Human Genetics.

1957 -- Field work in the Near East: visited the Laboratory of Anthropology in the Department of Anatomy at Oxford University; again studied skeletons from Eleusis in Greece; studied skeletons from Lerna, from the French excavations at Argos, from Pylos, from Corinthian sites near the Diolkos at the Isthmus and at Klenia, and from the Athenian Agora; supported by Grant No. 2150 from the American Philosophical Society and the National Institutes of Health; sponsored by Jefferson Medical College and the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania; helped by Argyris Marinis and Panayotis Yannoulatos.

1957-1962 -- Civilian consultant in surgical anatomy to the United States Naval Hospital, Philadelphia.

1959-1960 -- Vice-President, American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

1960-1962 -- Member of the advisory panel on Anthropology and the History and Philosophy of Science for the National Science Foundation; consultant for the Harvard University-Johns Hopkins Hospital project on constitution and disease.

1960-1963 -- Associate editor, American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

1962 -- Professor, Daniel Baugh Institute of Anatomy of the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia; Chairman of Schools Committee of West Mt. Airy Neighbors; organized the thirty-first annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

1962-1986 -- Curator, Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum (later the National Museum of Natural History), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

1962-1965 -- Advisory panel for evaluating NSF Graduate Fellowships, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council.

1962-1986 -- Professorial Lecturer in Anthropology at George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

1963-1986 -- Lecturer in forensic pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health.

1965 -- Field work in the Near East: studied human bones from 22 sites in Greece and Turkey, including Petralona in eastern Macedonia (Palaeanthropic skull), the Peneios River open sites (Theocharis and Miloicic), Tsouka cave on Mt. Pelion in Thessaly, Nea Nikomedeia near the Haliakmon River in Macedonia, Kephala on the coast of the Aegean island of Kea (Caskey), Hagios Stephanos in Laconia (Taylour), Kocumbeli near Ankara (Turkey), the Bryn Mawr College excavation at Elmali (working with Machteld Mellink), Karatas-Semeyuk in Lycia, Catal Huyuk (in the Korya Plain in Turkey) in the Archaeological Museum of Ankara, Argos, Agora Excavation, Attica, Mycanae, Corinth, Sparta, Alepotrypa (Foxes' Hole) in Mani, and in the museum at Verroia in Macedonia; supported through the SI Hrdlička Fund, the American Philosophical Society, and the Wenner-Gren Foundation.

1965-1970 -- Visiting Professor of Anatomy, Howard University Medical School, Washington, D.C.

1966 -- Summer Visiting Professor, University of California, Berkeley; Early skeletons from Tranquillity, California.

1967 -- Field work in the Near East: Turkey, studied skeletal remains from Catal Huyuk at the University of Ankara, and skeletons from Antalya, Elmali, and Karatas; Greece, studied skeletal remains from Franchthi cave, Athens, Kea, Nauplion, Corinth, and Asine; supported by the Hrdlička Fund. Organized a symposium on paleodemography, diseases and human evolution at the 66th meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Washington, D.C.

1969 -- Field work in the Near East: studied material from Kephala, Karatas, and Franchthi cave; supported by the Hrdlička Fund and the Wenner-Gren Foundation.

1970 -- Visiting Professor, Harvard University (Spring). Organized the 39th meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists held in Washington, D.C.

1971 -- The People of Lerna: Analysis of a Prehistoric Aegean Population.

1972 -- Field work in the Near East: studied skeletons from Asine and Agora in Greece; supported by the Hrdlička Fund. 1974

1974 -- Organized a symposium in honor of Albert Damon, a medical anthropologist, at the 43rd meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists held in Amherst, Massachusetts.

1974-1975 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington.

1975 -- Field work in the Near East: studied skeletons at Asine and Agora in Greece and at Elmali, helped by David C. Fredenburg, and supported by the Hrdlička Fund; joined the American Academy of Forensic Sciences as a Provisional Member; published Human skeletons from Eleusis, in The south cemetery of Eleusis; worked on the organizing committees for meetings in Washington, D.C. for the Archaeological Institute of America.

1976 -- Studied skeletons at Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, with the help of David Fredenburg (3 trips); organized a symposium in honor of T. Dale Stewart at the 45th meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists held in St. Louis, Missouri.

1977 -- Field work in the Near East: worked in Thessaloniki, Istanbul, Ankara, Elmali, and Athens; field visit to Colonial Williamsburg.

1978 -- Field work in the Near East: studied skeletons from Byzantium and Turkey; skeletons were in Ankara and from Kalinkaya in the Hittite Territory of Central Anatolia; Byzantium specimens came from Kalenderhane Camii in Istanbul; field visit to Colonial Williamsburg.

1979 -- Published symposium in Angel's honor by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists; three days of field work at the British Museum (Natural History) during which he studied Egyptian and Greek skulls.

1979 -- Studied skeletons of African American slaves from Catoctin Furnace, Maryland.

1980 -- Field visit to Colonial Williamsburg.

1980-1985 -- President, American Board of Forensic Anthropology. 1982

1982 -- Field visit to Colonial Williamsburg.

1983 -- Awarded the Pomerance Medal for Scientific Contributions to Archaelogy by the Archaeological Institute of America.

1984 -- Studied upper paleolithic skeletons from Wade Kubbaniya; award from the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

1986 -- Died November 3; award from the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences; was chosen to receive the Distinguished Service Award of the American Anthropological Association at their annual meeting in December.

1987 -- Memorial session in Angel's honor held at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association.
Related Materials:
Additional materials in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Angel are in the papers of Marcus Solomon Goldstein, Raoul Weston LaBarre, and Waldo Rudolph and Mildred Mott Wedel; the records of the American Anthropological Association, the Central States Anthropological Society, the River Basin Surveys, and the Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum/National Museum of Natural History; Photographic Lots 7D (photograph taken at the meeting of the American Anthropological Association at Denver in 1965) and 77-45 (group portrait of Smithsonian physical anthropologists); and MS 4822 (photographs of anthropologists in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum/National Museum of Natural History). There are also materials on Angel in the non-archival reference file maintained by the NAA. The names used for ethnic groups were selected to maintain consistency among the archival holdings and are used without regard to modern preferences.
Provenance:
Angel contracted hepatitis following coronary by-pass surgery in 1982 and died of the effects four years later. His papers were obtained by the National Anthropological Archives shortly thereafter. Some papers were obtained as the result of a bequest by Angel's wife, Margaret. The papers date from 1930 to 1987.
Restrictions:
The John Lawrence Angel papers are open for research. Access to some materials is restricted to maintain privacy or confidentiality.

Access to the John Lawrence Angel papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Biological anthropology  Search this
Citation:
John Lawrence Angel papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0033
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw34a20e740-6dd9-4558-885b-4199b64008dc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0033

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